Musical BorrowingAn Annotated Bibliography

General Editor: J. Peter Burkholder
Co-Editors: Andreas Giger, Felix O. Cox, and David C. Birchler

C-D

Cadenbach, Rainer. "'Das Werk will nur Musik sein': Zitate in Max Regers Kompositionen." Reger-Studien 2 (1986): 73-104.

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Cahn, Peter. "Zitate aus Pfitzners op. 36 in einem zeitgenössischen Kammermusikwerk. Zu Peter Ruzicka: Introspezione. Dokumentation für Streichquartett (1970). Hamburg: Skorski, 1977." Mitteilungen der Hans Pfitzner-Gesellschaft 41 (April 1980): 55-56.

Index classifications: 1900s

Caldwell, John. "Keyboard and Plainsong Settings in England, 1500-1660." Musica Disciplina 19 (1965): 129-53.

Before the Elizabethan Act of Uniformity of 1559, there was an active school of liturgical organ polyphony in England. These compositions were intended to replace the singing of a choir or soloist for the portion of the chant that was set. After the Reformation, composers continued to employ plainsong from the Sarum rite, but not with any liturgical intent. The practice of setting plainsong in this way is uniquely English. The many settings of In nomine and Gloria tibi Trinitas are examples of this practice. Two tables list all known keyboard plainsong settings, both before and after 1559 (i.e., both for liturgical and non-liturgical use).

Works: Anonymous: Kyrie (137-38); William Byrd: Three polyphonic keyboard settings of Clarifica me Pater (142-44), Polyphonic keyboard setting of Miserere mihi, Domine (148-49).

Sources: Guillaume Dufay [attrib.]: Portugaler (137-38); Basse danse: La portingaloise (138); Chant: Clarifica me Pater (142-44), Miserere mihi, Domine (148-49). (FC)

Index classifications: 1500s, 1600s

Caldwell, John. "Keyboard and Plainsong Settings in England, 1500-1660: Addenda et Corrigenda." Musica Disciplina 34 (1980): 215-19.

Provides new sources, entries, and annotations.

Works: Thomas Tallis: Fantasy (216); Guillaume Dufay [attrib.]: Portugaler (216-17). (FC)

Index classifications: 1500s, 1600s

Cammarota, Robert M. "The Sources of the Christmas Interpolations in J. S. Bach's Magnificat in E-flat." Current Musicology, no. 36 (1983): 79-99.

The practice in Leipzig of interpolating Laudes into the Magnificat at Christmas extends from the early 17th through the first quarter of the 18th century. The so-called "Cantate zum Weihnachtsfest" of early 18th-century Leipzig provenance actually consists of four Laudes , whose surviving parts indicate they were available for interpolation into Magnificat settings in two keys. Because an anonymous early 18th-century Leipzig Magnificat and Bach's Magnificat in E-flat call for interpolation of four Laudes to the same text as those in the "Cantate zum Weihnachtsfest," it was perhaps customary in Leipzig at this time to interpolate Laudes to these texts into the Magnificat at Christmas.

Works: Johann Andreas Kuhnau: Cantate zum Weihnachtsfest (82-87, 92, 93); Anonymous: Magnificat à 4 in D major (87-89); Johann Sebastian Bach: Magnificat à 5 in E-flat major (89-93).

Sources: Martin Luther: Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her; Anonymous: Freut euch und jubiliert, Gloria in excelsis Deo; Paul Eber [attrib.]: Virga Jesse floruit. (RLS)

Index classifications: 1700s

Cannon, Clawson Y. "The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Organ Mass: A Study in Musical Style." Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1968.

Index classifications: 1500s, 1600s

Cantrell, Byron. "Three B's--Three Chaconnes." Current Musicology, no. 12 (1971): 63-74.

The chaconnes in Bach's unaccompanied Violin Partita in D minor, Beethoven's Thirty-Two Variations in C minor for piano, and the finale of Brahms's Symphony No. 4 in E minor are similar in many respects. Bach's Partita was not published until twenty years after Beethoven's death, thus it was impossible for Beethoven to have known Bach's work. Brahms, on the other hand, having transcribed the Bach chaconne for piano left hand and practiced Beethoven's Thirty-two Variations, borrowed the themes from both Bach and Beethoven and incorporated them in the finale of his Symphony No. 4. A comparison of the treatment of meter, accents, harmonic structure, rhythmic movements, paired variations, ostinato, tetrachord, rondo form, contrapuntal devices, and sequences well illustrates the differences and similarities among the three composers in applying the old Baroque chaconne form, and the various degree of departure they made from the tradition.

Works: Brahms: Symphony No. 4 in E Minor, Op. 98 (69-72).

Sources: J. S. Bach: Violin Partita No. 2 in D Minor, BWV 1004 (64-66); Beethoven: Thirty-Two Variations on an Original Theme in C Minor for Piano, WoO 80 (67-69). (TC)

Index classifications: 1800s

Caraci Vela, Maria. "Un capitolo di arte allusiva nella prima tradizione de Messe L'homme armé." Studi musicali 22 (1993): 3-21.

Index classifications: 1400s

Caraci, Maria. "Fortuna del tenor 'L'homme armé' nel primo Rinascimento." Nuova rivista musicale italiana 9 (1975): 171-204.

Index classifications: 1400s

Carner, Mosco. "The Exotic Element in Puccini." The Musical Quarterly 22 (January 1936): 45-67.

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Carr, Cassandra I. "Charles Ives's Humor as Reflected in His Songs." American Music 7 (Summer 1989): 123-39.

Although Ives's writings discuss concepts of sardonic wit in composition, his songs reveal a wide range of expression of humor, which became more complex over the course of his career. His humorous compositions can be categorized into at least four categories: parody, whimsical reminiscence, philosophical humor, and exaggerated insignificance. Ives's techniques of humor often do not rely on musical borrowing, but rather from outlandish performance directions, general stylistic allusions, or incongruous juxtapositions of styles. Nonetheless, musical borrowing can contribute to the humor.

Works: Ives: The Side Show (125, 129-31). (VEW)

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Carrell, Norman. Bach the Borrower. London: Allen and Unwin, 1967.

Borrowing and adapting were cornerstones of Bach's compositional process. He not only borrowed music and ideas from other composers but also revisited his own works, using them in different contexts. Borrowings from different media and simple revisions or re-workings, especially in the keyboard works, are two distinct practices. An intentional re-use of an existing phrase, theme, section, movement, or work constitutes a borrowing; unintentional quotations or accidental allusions should be considered mere resemblances. Extensive tables with commentary consider borrowings arranged by media: keyboard to keyboard, keyboard to cantata, chamber music to cantata, and the like. Part I of the book covers self-borrowings, while Part II consists of borrowings from others. The datings used are those of Schmieder and Besseler. Dürr and Dadelsen's work on chronology is noted when it is significantly different from Schmieder, thus affecting the source-borrowing relationship. (FC)

Index classifications: 1700s

Carroll, Charles Michael. "Musical Borrowing--Grand Larceny or Great Art?" College Music Symposium 18 (Spring 1978): 11-18.

The exclusive right of the artist to the benefits that accrue from his or her intellectual property is a characteristic of modern culture. Borrowing is a common phenomenon, and exists in three types: (1) self-borrowing, or use of themes from one piece in another; (2) borrowing which is done as an obvious tribute or burlesque of the original, and (3) unacknowledged borrowing. Modern sensitivities consider this latter type of borrowing to be outright theft. The eighteenth century acknowledged but did not condemn this type of borrowing. (FC)

Index classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Carter, Tim. "Intriguing Laments: Sigismondo d'India, Claudio Monteverdi, and Dido alla parmigiana (1628)." Journal of the American Musicological Society 49 (Spring 1996): 32-69.

The 1628 wedding festivities in Parma of Duke Odoardo Farnese and Margherita de' Medici of Florence set the stage for a rich environment of competition and debate between Sigismondo d'India and Claudio Monteverdi. In trying to win favor for this celebratory event, d'India presented two laments, the Lamento d'Armida and the Lamento di Didone, to the impresario for the Parma festivities, Marquis Enzo Bentivoglio, which bear a marked resemblance to Monteverdi?s Lamento d'Arianna. The extant Lamento di Didone is characterized by a number of the same rhetorical, topological, and musical tropes as Monteverdi's famous lament. D'India failed to secure the commission, which was offered to Monteverdi instead, most likely because of his daring musical language. D'India's musical conservatism and adherence to an older courtly convention based on Monteverdi in his laments demonstrate a failure to recognize current tastes, whereas Monteverdi had clearly progressed beyond his earlier works, demonstrating a more innovative treatment of the lament and winning favor in Parma at the 1628 festivities.

Works: Sigismondo d?India: Il lamento di Didone (36-44).

Sources: Monteverdi: Il lamento d?Arianna (40-43). (EE)

Index classifications: 1600s

Carver, Philip. "The Metamorphosis of a Jazz Standard." Jazz Research Papers (1996): 18-31.

As a well-constructed song, Cole Porter's What Is This Thing Called Love? became a popular source tune for jazz musicians. James P. Johnson's 1930 recording displays stride and boogie-woogie patterns, and only slightly modifies the chord progression. More drastic alterations are exhibited by Clifford Brown and Sonny Rollins in their 1956 recording with the Max Roach Quartet. In this case, the tune was highly ornamented and expanded, non chord-tones were emphasized during solos, and the tempo was twice as fast as prior versions. Brief analyses of treatments by Sidney Bechet, James "Bubber" Miley, Ella Fitzgerald, John Hardee, Bill Evans, Marian MacPartland, and Thad Jones attest to the variety of ways in which jazz musicians developed different perspectives on What Is This Thing Called Love?

Works: Porter: What Is This Thing Called Love? (EU)

Index classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Caspari, Rolf. "Liedtradition im Stilwandel um 1600. Das Nachleben des deutschen Tenorlieder in den gedruckten Liedersammlungen von Le Maistre (1566) bis Schein (1626)." Ph.D. diss., University of Kiel, 1970.

Index classifications: 1500s, 1600s

Cattin, Gulio. "Contrafacta internazionali: Musiche europee per laude italiane." In Musik und Text in der Mehrstimmigkeit des 14 und 15 Jahrhunderts, ed. Ursula Günther and Ludwig Finscher, 411-42. Göttinger Musikwissenschaftliche Arbeiten 10. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1984.

Index classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Cavallini, Ivano. "Gustav Mahler fra epigonismo romantico e musica nuova." M.A. thesis, University of Padova, 1976.

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Cavendish, Thomas H. "Folk Music in Selected Twentieth Century American Operas." Ph.D. diss., Florida State University, 1966.

Index classifications: 1900s

Cerone, Pietro. El melopeo y maestro. Naples: Gargano and Nucci, 1613. Facsimile ed. Bibliotheca musica bononiensis, section 2, no. 25. Bologna: Forni Editore, 1969.

Index classifications: 1600s

Chafe, Eric. Monteverdi's Tonal Language. New York: Schirmer, 1992.

Within a discussion of Monteverdi's understanding and use of tonality, the two versions of Lamento d'Arianna are singled out as a paradigm case. Monteverdi's Lamento d'Arianna is the only surviving portion of the opera Arianna, written for performance in Mantua in 1608. Sometime in the ensuing years (probably around 1610), Monteverdi arranged the lament for five vocal parts, and this version appears at the opening of his sixth book of madrigals, published in Venice in 1614. A bar-by-bar comparison of the two settings reveals that the five-part version was much more than a mere transcription of the original. Although the monody can be divided quite easily into four sections as marked by the fermatas, Monteverdi expands the music considerably (and modifies the text accordingly) when reworking the lament into a four-madrigal cycle. An analysis of the reworkings notes that the madrigal more fully realizes the tonal implications inherent in the original monody.

Works: Monteverdi: Lamento d'Arianna (165-85).

Sources: Monteverdi: Arianna (165-85). (MSS)

Index classifications: 1600s

Chanan, Michael. "Dialectics in Peter Maxwell Davies." Tempo, no. 90 (Autumn 1969): 12-22.

Peter Maxwell Davies consistently demonstrates an interest in the medieval and Renaissance periods in his compositional output. He begins with material borrowed from works in these periods and through his treatment of that material creates symbolic effects of powerful meaning. In addition to borrowing, Davies also utilizes parody as a compositional device, creating a commentary on the past and the present. In compositions such as Alma Redemptoris Mater and Fantasia on an In Nomine of John Taverner Nos. 1 and 2, the borrowed material is built into the structural framework of the work and therefore is less audible. Shakespeare Music uses the same technique, but fragmentary allusions to the models are occasionally allowed to come through the texture. Parody is employed in the Purcell realizations Fantasia and Two Grounds and Two Pavans, Taverner, and Antechrist. In these compositions borrowed material is used more extensively and can be heard in surface details.

Works: Davies: Fantasia and Two Grounds (12), Two Pavans (12), Taverner (12), Ecce manus tradentis (13), Antechrist (13), Shakespeare Music (13), L'homme armé (14), Revelation and Fall (14), Songs for a Mad King (14), Worldes Blis (14), St. Thomas Wake (15).

Sources: Davies: O Magnum Mysterium (12); Anonymous: Deo confitemini Domini (13); Bull: Pavan (15). (CMH)

Index classifications: 1900s

Chantavoine, Jean. Mozart dans Mozart. Paris: Desclée, de Brouwer, 1948.

Index classifications: 1700s

Charles, Sydney Robinson. "The Use of Borrowed Materials in Ives's Second Symphony." The Music Review 28 (May 1967): 102-11.

Understanding Ives's use of borrowed materials demands that one first verify that seemingly quoted materials are in fact there, and from what source they derive. Judgments are difficult to make in many cases because it is impossible to be familiar with all of the music Ives knew. Then the material should be classified according to its structural importance. Some of Ives's quotations are brief and structurally insignificant, others are structurally important within a single movement, and still others serve as unifying factors among movements. Given that many of the tunes Ives used have more than one text, the approach seeking extra-musical "reasons" that Ives quoted one tune or another is less serviceable than the preceding. (RCL)

Index classifications: 1900s

Chell, Samuel L. "Music and Emotion in the Classic Hollywood Film: The Case of The Best Years of Our Lives." Film Criticism 8, no. 2 (Summer 1984): 27-38.

The "suture effect," adapted from psychoanalytic theory by Jean-Pierre Oudart, identifies the relationship of the spectator to the chain of signifying images, while also accounting for the subject's connection with the film score. Once becoming aware of the absence of vital information presented visually, the spectator unconsciously closes the gap between the seen and unseen, simultaneously sealing the spectator within the film. Music serves as an off-screen signifier, replacing the absence of corresponding affect, and the spectator is freed to claim the imaged emotion as his own. The film score permits the spectator to impart human depth to the flatness of photographed images by using programmatic music or music which carries off-screen meaning. Hugo Friedhofer's 1946 score for The Best Years of Our Lives draws stylistically from neo-classicism in its employment of numerous leitmotifs; the opening notes of the theme suggest somber memories of war, corresponding directly to the opening intervals of "Taps." Hoagy Carmichael's "Among My Souvenirs" is borrowed as a sentimental relic from the popular songs of the 1930s, as well as "Up a Lazy River" and "Chopsticks."

Works: Hugo Friedhofer: score to The Best Years of Our Lives (27-28, 31-38).

Sources: Taps (32); Traditional: It's Raining, It's Pouring (33); Hoagy Carmichael: Among My Souvenirs (33), Up a Lazy River (35); Antonin Dvorak: New World Symphony (33). (KEW)

Index classifications: 1900s, Film

Chew, Geoffrey. "The Early Cyclic Mass as an Expression of Royal and Papal Supremacy." Music and Letters 53 (July 1972): 254-69.

In considering the origins of the cyclic mass, scholars have suggested both liturgical and aesthetic considerations, although evidence suggests that the mass was liturgically unified before any attempts at musical unification took place. The growth in the popularity of the cantus firmus mass occurred as the popularity of tropes was decreasing, and it possible that the early cantus firmus served as a substitute for a trope, carrying with it a certain degree of meaning or symbolism similar to that of an added trope. Given the choice of cantus firmus in many early English cyclic masses, it appears that many were intended to be associated with the king and certain royal rituals. Following decades of problems plaguing the Papacy, a number of cantus firmus masses written in the mid-fifteenth century, including those with references to military symbolism, were likely written in support of recovering Papal power. With these allusions to current political and religious concerns, it is unlikely that these cyclic masses served purely liturgical purposes.

Works: Dunstable: Missa Rex saeculorum (256); Frye: Missa Flos regalis (256); Driffelde: Missa Eructavit cor meum (256); Anonymous: Missa Veterem hominem (256); Anonymous: Missa caput (256); Dufay: Gloria ad modum tubae (259), Missa Caput (259); Anonymous: Patrem tubula (261, 263, 264); Regis: Missa L'homme armé (262); Tapissier: Eia dulcis/Vale placens (264-5); Dufay: Missa L'homme armé (265), Missa Se la face ay pale (265). (SW)

Index classifications: 1400s

Chew, Geoffrey Alexander. "The Night-Watchman's Song quoted by Haydn and its Implications." Haydn-Studien 3 (April 1974): 106-24.

Haydn quotes a particular melody on numerous occasions. The melody is found in many sources from central and eastern Europe and is often called "Der Nachtwächter" or "Hajnal." The melody is often quoted by eighteenth-century composers and often appears in Christmas pastorellas as well. Haydn quotes it in Symphony No. 60; Divertimento a nove (Hoboken II/17); Sextet for Horns and Strings in Eb (original versions of H.II/21); the canonic setting of Hagedorn's Wunsch (H.XVIIb/13), Baryton Trio No. 35 (H.XI/35), Piano Sonata in C# minor (H.XVI/36), and Baryton Duo No. 19 (H.XII/19). Other passages in which the melody is quoted by Haydn may well exist. Haydn's characteristic use of folk material is well demonstrated in these works. Eleven versions of the melody as it appears in the sources are given in examples and all the known sources are listed in the appendix. (DCB)

Index classifications: 1700s

Chmaj, Betty E. M. "Sonata for American Studies: Perspectives on Charles Ives." Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies 4 (Winter 1978): 1-58.

Index classifications: 1900s

Cholij, Irena. "Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Settings of 'Allez regretz.'" M.M. dissertation, King's College, London, 1984.

Index classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Cholji, Irena. "Borrowed Music: Allez regrets and the Use of Pre-existent Material." In Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music, ed. Tess Knighton and David Fallows, 165-76. New York: Schirmer Books, 1992.

By the end of the fifteenth century, composers using pre-existing material frequently treated that material as a point of departure rather than as a source on which to base an entire piece. This trend is evident in the group of compositions based on the chanson Allez regrets by Hayne van Ghizeghem. The three known intabulations based on this chanson all carefully follow the model with little structural deviation, although there is a great deal of elaboration in the borrowed melodic material. In the five chansons based on Allez regrets, each begins with a literal quotation from the superius and tenor of the model. Throughout the remainder of the new pieces, one voice is borrowed from the original and the others are freely composed, resulting in a greater amount of experimentation with the existing material than was found in the intabulations. Five known masses are based on Allez regrets, and employ a variety of techniques in using the borrowed material, including quotation, paraphrase, cantus firmus, and use of melodic material as points of imitation. These varying usages result in a wide range of resemblance to the model, and point to the potential of Allez regrets for use in many compositional contexts.

Works: Capirola: A les regres (165-68); Gerle: Ales regres (165-68); Kleber: Ales regres (165-68); Agricola: Allez regrets (169); Anonymous: Allez regrets (169); Organi: Allez regrets (170); Senfl: Allez regrets (170); Compère: Venes regretz (170-71), Missa Allez regrets (172-73); Bruhier: Missa Carminum (172); Anonymous: Missa Allez regrets (172); Prioris: Missa Allez regrets (172); Josquin: Missa Allez regrets (173-74); Scompianus: Missa Allez regrets (175).

Sources: Ghizeghem: Allez regrets. (SW)

Index classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Chou, Chien. "Variation Procedure in Rachmaninoff's Piano Works." D.M. document, Boston University, 1994.

The musical continuity in Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini represents the culmination of his approach to writing a set of variations explored in his earlier pieces as well as in those of his predecessors. Through such continuity he resolves the stop-and-start method that composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, and Brahms employed in variation writing: the breaks that occur when one variation ends on a cadence and the next one begins at once. Musical continuity in the variation process was not new but was revitalized by Rachmaninoff, who focuses more on the variations as a whole rather than on their individuality. Within such continuity, his variation sets are connected to his models. For example, in the Corelli Variations, the majority of the variations retain the regular phrase structure, similar length, and simplicity of the Folia melody. In the Paganini Rhapsody, Rachmaninoff's use of chromaticism, particularly in the introduction, is a direct reference to the chromatic contrary motion that resolves the augmented-sixth harmony in the penultimate measure of the original Paganini theme.

Works: Rachmaninoff: Variations on a Theme of Chopin, Op. 22 (19-26), Variations on a Theme of Corelli, Op. 42 (26-33), Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43 (34-205).

Sources: Chopin: Prelude, Op. 28, No. 20 (23-24); Corelli: Violin Sonata, Op 5, No. 12 (30); La Folia melody (30); Paganini: Caprice in A Minor, Op.1, No. 24 (42-44). (HJK)

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Christensen, Cheryl. "Melodic Motive and the Narrative Path in Edvard Grieg's Haugtussa, Op. 67." Indiana Theory Review 23 (Spring-Fall 2002): 1-21.

Index classifications: 1800s

Christensen, Thomas. "Four-Hand Piano Transcription and Geographies of Nineteenth-Century Musical Reception." Journal of the American Musicological Society 52 (Summer 1999): 255-98.

Index classifications: 1800s

Christoffersen, Peter Woetmann. "Or sus vous Dormez trop: The Singing of the Lark in French Chanson of the Early Sixteenth Century." In Festskrift Henrik Glahn. Ed. Mette Müller. Copenhagen: D. Fog Musikforlag, 1979.

Two works titled L'alouette: Or sus vous dormez trop, an anonymous three-part chanson printed by Antico in 1520 and a four-part chanson by Janequin printed by Attaingnant in 1528, share the same text and much musical material. The three-part piece, circulated widely in the early sixteenth century, must have been known to Janequin. Janequin's four-part version has voice crossing problems between the contratenor and superius. It itself may have existed previously as a three-part work, later to be rewritten in haste for Attaingnant's publication. Included in the contratenor of Janequin's four-part work is a quotation of his own Le chant des oyseaux. Through their use of bird-song these pieces bring elements of the popular chanson rustique into the courtly program chanson. (JFA)

Index classifications: 1500s

Churgin, Bathia. "Beethoven and Mozart's Requiem: A New Connection." Journal of Musicology 5 (Fall 1987): 457-77.

The discovery of Beethoven's précis and analysis of the Kyrie fugue from Mozart's Requiem on a sketchleaf containing a draft for the Credo fugue Et vitam venturi of the Missa Solemnis on the reverse side raises the question, whether Beethoven used this piece as a model for his fugue. The following findings reinforce the assumption of a close connection: (1) Beethoven most probably made the Mozart copy during his work on the Credo and Gloria portions of the Mass. (2) The Gloria subject features similarities of gesture (with Mozart's countersubject) and presentation (with Mozart's subject, first in the bass). (3) Like the Mozart example, the Credo fugue is a double fugue. (4) The pairing of subject and countersubject in the Credo exposition involves the same voices. (5) Like Mozart, Beethoven makes extensive use of the compound 4/4 meter in his Gloria. (AG)

Index classifications: 1800s

Clague, Mark. "Playing in 'Toon: Walt Disney's Fantasia (1940) and the Imagineering of Classical Music." American Music 22 (Spring 2004): 91-109.

Fantasia uses pre-existing classical music as the subject of animation that demonstrates three types of music: program music, music that does not have a plot but paints pictures, and absolute music. The film is an example of Disney's imagineering (engineering and imagination), in which images and stories add meaning to the abstract music. Images in the film create a familiar narrative to describe unfamiliar music to middle-class audiences. The structure of The Rite of Spring was modified to fit the narrative of the animators, and the narrative itself is not one intended by Stravinsky. Fantasia can be understood as an effort to construct ideologies of current social positions and behaviors through imagineering of the music, as seen in the animation for Beethoven's Symphony No. 6.

Works: Walt Disney (producer): Sound track to Fantasia.

Sources: J. S. Bach (arranged by Leopold Stokowski): Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (92-96); Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (97-98); Beethoven: Symphony No. 6 in F Major (Pastorale) (99-105). (KRA)

Index classifications: 1900s, Film

Clapp, Philip Greeley. "All in the Family." Chord and Discord 2 (1950): 33-41.

In 1904 or 1905, Frederick Delius composed his Mass of Life (with a text from Nietzsche's Also sprach Zarathustra), that is compared with several other works of that time, especially Mahler's Veni Creator and Bruckner's Te Deum. The article is the result of the author's "reminiscence hunting" and presents the findings as a series of personal reactions to Delius's work rather than in a systematic order. They concern "family resemblances" of content and style, including correspondeces of the dramatic layout.

Works: Delius: Mass of Life; Strauss: Also Sprach Zarathustra, Elektra; Bruckner: Te Deum; Mahler: Veni Creator, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 8, Das Lied von der Erde; Wagner: Tristan. (AG)

Index classifications: 1900s

Clark, Alice V. "Vernacular Dedicatory Motets in Fourteenth-century France." Journal of Musicological Research 20 (2000): 41-69.

Index classifications: 1300s

Clark, Caryl. "Intertextual Play and Haydn's La fedeltà premiata." Current Musicology, no. 51 (1993): 59-81.

All twelve surviving opera texts that Haydn set to music for Esterházy existed in previous versions by other composers, but La fedeltà premiata (1780) is the only one whose earlier setting, with the title L'infideltà fedele (1779) by Domenico Cimarosa, Haydn apparently knew before attempting to write his own work. Haydn's debt to Cimarosa is not great, apart from sharing the almost identical libretto. An intertextual approach reveals the incorporation of elements of the pastoral genre of the later sixteenth-century, while an unsuspected connection between the "coro di furie" from Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) and the second-act finale of La fedeltà premiata proves to be much more significant. Haydn uses the tonality, the chromaticism, and the sarabande rhythm articulated by Gluck's furies, while also evoking the austerity of the scene. This parody of Gluck's Orfeo is contrasted with an interpolated section employing Gypsy music or the "style hongrois," which provides a clash between the buffa and seria opera styles. This clash is further reflected in the second-act finale's almost tragic character within the pastoral and opera buffa world of La fedeltà premiata. By quoting from Gluck's famous opera, which would certainly be recognized by his knowledgeable audience at Esterházy, Haydn provides a commentary between texts, and through the juxtaposition of different styles he reveals the comic character behind this apparently serious finale. (LFL)

Index classifications: 1700s

Clark, Maribeth. "The Quadrille as Embodied Musical Experience in 19th-Century Paris." The Journal of Musicology 19 (Summer 2002): 503-26.

Although the French quadrille of the 1830s and 1840s has often received censure for its limited expressive qualities and aesthetically detrimental arrangements, the dance was a critical nexus in Parisian musical life, connecting the worlds of "high" and "low" culture and often serving as the public's first point of contact with operas. With the standardization of the form of the quadrille around 1820, it began to receive criticism for the mechanical quality of the dancing it supported. Although some attacked the genre's poor arrangements, the quadrille both directly and indirectly could benefit the operas from which it drew tunes. Quadrilles did not always destroy the music they borrowed; French composers typically did not use irregular phrases or rhythms, and melodies such as Auber's often are readily suited to dance arrangement. Furthermore, although quadrilles could break up the narrative of the opera from which melodies were drawn, often the sheet music covers or performances might allude to or seek to recreate the narrative of the original.

Works: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Tolbecque: Pantalon from Guillaume Tell (520), La Muette de Portici (520-22); Louis Antoinie Jullien: La Muette de portici (522-23), Les Huguenots (523).

Sources: Auber: La Muette de Portici (520, 523). (VEW)

Index classifications: 1800s

Clark, Maribeth. "Understanding French Grand Opera through Dance." Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1998.

Index classifications: 1800s

Clark, Sondra Rae. "The Transcendental Philosophy of Charles E. Ives as Expressed in The Second Sonata for Pianoforte, 'Concord, Mass., 1840-1860'." M.A. thesis, San Jose State College, 1966.

Index classifications: 1900s

Clark, Susannah E. "The Concept of Refrain Citation in the 13th Century: A Study of Motets from Fascicle V of the Montpellier Codex." M.Mus., University of London, King's College, 1992.

Index classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Clark, Walter Aaron. "Luys de Narváez and the Intabulation Tradition of Josquin's Mille regretz." Journal of the Lute Society of America 26-27 (1993-94): 17-52.

A comparison of several intabulations of Josquin's Mille regretz explains why Narváez's version is still the best known. Josquin's chanson is particularly apt for instrumental performance because of its points of imitation, use of themes and sequences, and rich contrast of textures. Several intabulations for lute show the wide range of styles from bland to highly ornamented versions. The frequent use of running sixteenth or thirty-second notes in the intabulations by Gerle and Neusidler, for example, show their intent to stimulate rather than satisfy the listener. Other intabulations were written for a more practical or theoretical purpose. For example, the intabulations found in MS 266 and MS 272 from the Bavarian State Library in Munich follow the vocal model more closely and show a greater sensitivity to the original texture. Narváez's intabulation of the chanson remains the finest because of several strong characteristics: a greater harmonic interest, rhythmically independent lines, and a textural complexity. His intabulation also uses motives that are repeated until they become an integral part of the original music. Narváez's creative exploration of harmony, rhythm, texture and motives shows his superior skills as an intabulator.

Works: Intabulations of Mille regretz by Gerle, Neusidler, Narváez, Phalèse, Intabulations of Mille regretz from MS 266 and MS 277, Bavarian State Library, Munich (32-52).

Sources: Josquin: Mille regretz (20-22). (JSB)

Index classifications: 1500s

Clarkson, Austin. "The Rationale and Technique of Borrowing in Franco-Flemish Parody-Compositions of the High Renaissance." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1963.

Index classifications: 1500s

Clendenin, William Ritchie. "The Use of the French Chanson in Some Polyphonic Masses by French and Netherlands Composers, 1450-1550." Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State University, 1952.

Index classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Clercx-Lejeune, Suzanne. "Les débuts de la Messe unitaire et de la Missa parodia au XIVe siècle et principalement dans l'oeuvre de J. Ciconia." In L'Ars nova italiana del trecento I: Primo convengno internazionale, Cetraldo 1959, ed. Bianca Becherini, 97-104. Certaldo: Centro di studi sull'Ars nova del Trecento, 1962.

Index classifications: 1300s

Coeurdevey, Annie. "La Missa sans cadence de Mouton et son modèle: Quelques réflexions sur le 'mode de La.'" Acta Musicologica 78 (2006): 33-54.

Index classifications: 1500s

Cohen, Judah M. "Hip-Hop Judaica: The Politics of Representin' Heebster Heritage." Popular Music 28 (Winter 2009): 1-18.

Musical artists within the Jewish American "hipster" scene (ca. 1986-2006) drew on conventions from rap and hip-hop as a means of negotiating a new Jewish identity. Of the many strategies to draw on the conventions of rap, one common tactic was parody. For instance, parody artist Shlock Rock parodied Aerosmith and Run DMC's Walk This Way (1986) and created Wash This Way, now a song about the Jewish hand-washing ritual. Despite the different lyrics, Shlock Rock's parody borrows vocal inflection, instrumentation, and even attitude. Although humor and parody were common reasons to incorporate rap and hip-hop into Jewish music, the Yeshiva-educated duo Black Hattitude used rap to promote a political and controversial program. Drawing on the stylings of rap, the duo included spoken tracks, took polemical points of view, and sampled artists such as Led Zeppelin. Such music provided a site in which young Jews could simultaneously negotiate a new Jewish identity and preserve and transmit their culture through such change.

Works: Lenny Solomon and Etan Goldman (songwriters), Shlock Rock (performers): Bless On It/Boogie in the Shul [Synagogue] (5), Wash This Way (5); Black Hattitude, R.E.L.I.G.I.O.N (7); Etan G (Etan Goldman): South Side of the Synagogue (8).

Sources: Newcleus: Jam On It/Boogie in the Club (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Aerosmith (performers): Walk This Way (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Run DMC (performers): Walk This Way (5); Led Zeppelin (Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Bonham, and John Paul Jones) and Willie Dixon: Whole Lotta Love (7, endnote 11); Peter Gabriel: Sledgehammer (7, endnote 11); Lenny Solomon (songwriter), Shlock Rock (performers): Yo Yo Yo Yarmulke (8), Recognize the Miracles (8). (KO)

Index classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Cohen, Judith. "Munus ab ignoto." Studia musicologica 22 (1980): 187-204.

Index classifications:

Cohen, Judith. The Six Anonymous L'homme Armé Masses in Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale MS VI 40. Rome, 1968.

Index classifications: 1400s

Cohen, Judith. "Thomas Weelkes's Borrowings from Salamone Rossi." Music and Letters 66 (April 1985): 110-17.

In Thomas Weelkes's first madrigal book, Madrigals to 3. 4. 5. & 6 Voyces (London, 1597), the five- and six-voice works borrow both text and music from Salamone Rossi's Primo libro delle canzonette a tre voci of 1589. Numbers 13 through 18 of Weelkes's madrigal book clearly borrow from numbers 7, 6, 2, 11, 15, and 19 of Rossi's book respectively. From Rossi, Weelkes primarily borrows thematic points, melodic contours, rhythms, and textures for use in his own compositions. For example, in Weelkes's No. 16, Lady, our spotless feature, the homophonic texture and chanson-like rhythm of Rossi's No. 11, Donna, il vostro bel viso, are clearly present in the work's opening. These borrowings show a progression of maturity on the part of the English composer. Numbers 16 and 13 demonstrate a dependence on the model and unimaginative solutions, while numbers 15 and 17 reset the derived ideas more convincingly, and numbers 14 and 18 clearly show that Weelkes has not only fully mastered the borrowed material but also surpassed his model. Moreover, his later Italian version of Donna, il vostro bel viso in his Ayeres or Phantasticke Spirites for Three Voices of 1608 shows a dependency on his own English version of the text from 1597 rather than a direct relationship with Rossi's original. Weelkes's reuse of Rossi's canzonette demonstrates a progressive compositional maturity in his manipulation of borrowed material, culminating in a reworking of his earlier attempts at modeling.

Works: Thomas Weelkes: Madrigals to 3. 4. 5. & 6. Voyces (110-17), Lady, your spotless feature (111), Your beauty it allureth (111), Those sweet delightful lilies (112), If thy deceitful looks (113), What haste, fair lady (113), Ayeres or Phantasticke Spirites for Three Voices (115-17), Donna, il vostro bel viso (115), I bei ligustri e rose (115).

Sources: Salamone Rossi: Primo libro delle canzonette a tre voci (110-17), Donna, il vostro bel viso (111); Thomas Weelkes: Madrigals to 3. 4. 5. & 6. Voyces (115-17)), Lady, your spotless feature (115). (RVT/EE)

Index classifications: 1500s, 1600s

Combe, Charles-Henry. "Les Citations d'hymnes nationaux chez Debussy." Revue Musicale de Suisse romande 39 (March 1986): 19-27.

Humor and programmatic effect are the two primary reasons for Debussy's musical borrowings. Debussy draws his borrowed material from classical music, popular songs, and national anthems. These points are illustrated through detailed analyses of pieces in which Debussy incorporates national anthems.

Works: Chabrier: Souvenirs de Munich (20); Debussy: "Golliwog's Cake-walk" from Children's Corner (20), "La Boite à joujoux," from Images oubliées (20), "Jardins sous la pluie" from Estampes (20), "Rondes de printemps" from Images (20), 9th Prelude (Book II) (20), Berceuse heroique (20, 22-23), En blanc et noir (second piece) (20, 23-26), "Feux d'artifice" from Préludes, Book II (21); Fauré: Fantasie en forme de quadrille sur des motifs du Ring (20); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (20); Clementi: Symphony No. 3 in G Major, "Great National Symphony" (21).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (20); Mendelssohn: "Wedding March" from Midsummer Night's Dream (20); Arne: God Save the King (20-22); Campenhout, François van: "Brabançonne" (20, 22-23); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (21-22, 24, 26); Luther: Ein feste Burg (24-25); Haydn: Symphony in G Major, Hob. I:100, "Military" (24) (PRZ)

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Conati, Marcello. "Verdi et la culture parisienne des années 1830." In La vie musicale en France au XIXe siècle, vol. 4, La musique à Paris dan les années mil huit cent trente, ed. Peter Bloom, 209-25. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 1987.

[from AG's dissertation: "According to Conati, Verdi saw both Milan productions of Robert le diable, modeling portions of Macbeth (1847) and possibly Giovanna d' Arco (1845) on Meyerbeer's work, whether in certain touches of instrumentation, the role of the grotesque, or abandoning of formal conventions in some places."]

Index classifications: 1800s

Cone, Edward T. The Composer's Voice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

In examining the composition and performance of musical works, the question of persona is raised: whose persona does the music represent--that of the composer, the performer, or (in the case of vocal music) the character portrayed by the performer? With respect to musical borrowing, the relevant question is: whose voice or persona is speaking in the borrowed material, the original composer's or the borrower's? In the case of self-borrowing by a vocal composer, it is the composer's own voice, rather than that of the poet whose text he or she originally set, that speaks through the borrowed material (p. 41). In an instrumental transcription of a vocal work, the vocal melody retains its original textual associations, thereby preserving the original composer's voice despite the removal of the text (pp. 76-78). When the situation is reversed, as in a popular vocal arrangement of an instrumental classic, the original composer's persona is still felt, as is the case with arrangements of Chopin and Tchaikovsky melodies (p. 45). Concerning the transcription of an existing instrumental work for a new instrumental combination, the integrity of the transcription (its preservation of the original composer's voice) rests on its use of a restricted choice of instrumentation (p. 108). Lastly, folk-tune or anthem borrowings can seem ridiculous if they are too obvious, where the original composer's voice completely overpowers the borrower's persona, disrupting the new piece. Puccini's use of The Star-Spangled Banner in Madama Butterfly is a prime example of this (p. 162).

Works: Brahms: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano left hand); Busoni: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano); Liszt: Liebestraum No. 3, Sonnets of Petrarch; Puccini: Madama Butterfly ; Webern: Ricercar a 6 voci by J. S. Bach (arr. for orchestra). (EDL)

Index classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Cone, Edward T. "Schubert's Beethoven." The Musical Quarterly 56 (October 1970): 779-93. Reprinted in The Creative World of Beethoven, ed. Paul Henry Lang, 277-91. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

Schubert's last three piano sonatas, composed during the summer of 1828, borrow from or are modeled on works by Beethoven. Schubert may have been insecure about this particular musical form and subsequently turned to Beethoven's works for help. Detailed examples of Schubert rondos that may have been modeled on Beethoven rondos support this hypothesis.

Works: Schubert: Sonata in C Minor (780), Sonata in B Flat Major (780), Sonata in A Major (782-86), Rondo in A Major for Piano Duet, Op. 107 (788-93).

Sources: Beethoven: Thirty-two Variations on an Original Theme in C minor, WoO 80 (780), String Quartet in B-flat major, Op. 130 (780-82), Piano Sonata No. 16 in G major, Op. 31, No. 1 (782-86), Piano Sonata No. 27 in E minor, Op. 90 (788-93). (LAR)

Index classifications: 1800s

Cone, Edward T. "The Uses of Convention: Stravinsky and His Models." The Musical Quarterly 48 (July 1962): 287-99.

Stravinsky's use of conventions involves the defeat of the expectations set up by those conventions. The reference to earlier conventions may or may not involve thematic allusions. Pulcinella is based upon borrowed materials while the Symphony in C is not. In the case of the symphony, however, the presentation of the first theme (in its I-II-V sequence) does recall the presentation of the first theme in Beethoven's First Symphony. (DCB)

Index classifications: 1900s

Connor, Sister M. John Bosco. "Gregorian Chant and Medieval Hymn Tunes in the Works of J. S. Bach." Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1957.

Index classifications: 1700s

Cooke, Nym. "American Psalmodists in Contact and Collaboration, 1770-1820. Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1990.

Index classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Cooper, Barry. Beethoven and the Creative Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Within a wider survey of Beethoven's compositional methods, the author discusses the composer's reworkings of his own previous material (chapter 5, 59-74). Beethoven's distinctive style can be said to derive to a large extent from a stock of musical ideas that recur throughout his work; these may be rhythmic motives and harmonic progressions, or larger-scale tonal patterns and formal devices. Consideration of sketch material is particularly helpful in understanding this, as it shows how many ideas that were initially rejected in one piece would be "salvaged" for the purposes of another. Beethoven tended to borrow in a more detailed fashion from unpublished material, whereas reference to previously published works was usually considerably more general.

Works: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 109 (62), String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132 (62), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (64), Piano Sonata in C Major, Op. 53 ("Waldstein") (65), Bagatelle in A-flat Major, Op. 33, No. 7 (66), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (66). (JSL)

Index classifications: 1800s

Cooper, Barry. Beethoven's Folksong Settings. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

Index classifications: 1800s

Cooper, Martin. "The Fickle Philistine." Opera News (April 1960): 8-12.

Arthur Sullivan, had he been free of the repressive Victorian mood, would have been one of Europe's greatest composers. However, the philistine repugnance of the English towards expressed emotion forced him to treat his serious opera aspirations in a farcical manner. Instead of developing his own operatic talents, he relied upon burlesquing or copying other masters including Schubert, Donizetti, and Bellini. This imitation was extended to his serious works, including melodic derivations from Mendelssohn.

Works: Sullivan: The Light of the World (11), Princess Ida (11), The Yeoman of the Guard (11), Ivanhoe (12). (EH)

Index classifications: 1800s

Cooper, Martin. "The Symphonies." In The Music of Tchaikovsky, ed. Gerald Abraham, 24-46. 2d ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1974.

This very general article on Tchaikovsky's symphonies makes note of several instances of borrowing or modeling, especially in terms of quoted folk songs (first and last movement of the Second Symphony) and operatic influences. The latter concern mainly the last three symphonies, including distinctively operatic phrases, repeated climaxes mounting almost to hysteria, sudden brutal interruptions, and others. The finale of the Sixth Symphony may possibly be modeled on the last act of Verdi's Otello, emulating the atmosphere and orchestration of Otello's appearance.

Works: Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 4 (27, 42), Symphony No. 3 (32-33, 255), Symphony No. 2 (33, 35f.), Symphony No. 6 (40), Symphony No. 1 (40, 255).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 (27); Folk song: Down by Mother Volga (32); Tchaikovsky: Undine (33, 39), Piano Sonata in C sharp Minor, Op. 80 (40). (AG)

Index classifications: 1800s

Copland, Aaron, and Vivian Perlis. Copland: 1900 Through 1942. New York: St. Martin's/Marek, 1984.

Within the context of a comprehensive autobiography, numerous musical borrowings are considered. The majority of pieces quote or paraphrase American folksongs; these are named when known. Other types of borrowing include arrangement, variations, settings, and self-borrowing. Copland also mentions instances of borrowing in the music of his colleagues.

Works: Aaron Copland: Dance Symphony (86, 163), Vitebsk (160-63), Statements for Orchestra (236), El Salón México (245ff), Second Hurricane (261), Billy the Kid (279-80), Billy the Kid (suite) (284-85), John Henry (291), Lincoln Portrait (342ff), Las Agachadas (355), Rodeo (357), Four Dance Episodes from Rodeo (363); Virgil Thomson: The Plow That Broke the Plains (357, 388n19).

Sources: Aaron Copland: Grohg (86, 163); James W. Blake and Charles B. Lawlor: The Sidewalks of New York (236); El Mosca (246); El Palo Verde (246); La Jesusita (246); La Malacate (246); The Capture of Burgoyne (261); Great Grand-Dad (280, 284-85); The Chisholm Trail (280, 284); Git Along Little Dogies (280, 284); Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie (284, 354); John Henry (291); Stephen Foster: Camptown Races (342-43); Springfield Mountain (The Pesky Sarpent) (342-43); Ground Hog (357); Old Paint (363, 388n19); If He Be a Buckaroo by Trade (363); Sis Joe (363, 354); Bonyparte (363); McLeod's Reel (363); The Man on the Flying Trapeze (367). (EB/FC)

Index classifications: 1900s

Copland, Aaron, and Vivian Perlis. Copland Since 1943. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

This is the companion volume to Copland: 1900 Through 1942. References to musical borrowings occur throughout the text. Much of the borrowing now focuses on associative connections for film scores. Apart from outright arrangements or music intended for student performers, there are few pieces that incorporate American folksongs past The Tender Land (1954). Much of Copland's borrowing in this period is of stylistic traits rather than direct quotation. Self-borrowing is most common in the later works.

Works: Aaron Copland: The North Star (film score) (15-16), Appalachian Spring (32-33), Variations on a Theme by Goosens (61), The Cummington Story (film score) (62-63), Third Symphony (68-69), Tragic Ground (unfinished) (76, 166-67), The Red Pony (film score) (88-91), The Heiress (film score) (98-107), Old American Songs (166-67), The Tender Land (220-21), Three Latin-American Sketches (273), Dance Panels (275-76), Music for a Great City (333-34), Emblems (343-44), Happy Anniversary (261)

Sources: Song of the Fatherland (16); Internationale (16); Simple Gifts (32-33, 166); Aaron Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (68), Tragic Ground (88) Something Wild (film score) (333-34); I Got Me a Cat (76); So Long, Old Paint (90); Giovanni Martini: Plaisirs d'Amour (100, 106); Daniel Decatur Emmett: The Boatmans's Dance (166); The Dodger (166); Long Time Ago (166); The Little Horses (167); John G. McCurry (attrib.): Zion's Walls (167, 220-21); The Golden Willow Tree (167); Robert Lowry: At the River (167); Ching-a-Ring Chaw (167, 220); Amazing Grace (343); Happy Birthday (361, 375). (EB/FC)

Index classifications: 1900s

Cormack, Mike. "The Pleasures of Ambiguity: Using Classical Music in Film." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 19-30. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

The recontextualization of pre-existing classical music within film brings complexity and ambiguity to film. Four reasons for this ambiguity are as follows: the music's original meaning may be indeterminate; the process of extracting and recontextualizing music increases ambiguity; audiences understand music in different ways; and awareness that the music was not originally written for the film creates distance between the music and straightforward interpretation. Since Rachmaninov's Second Piano Concerto is pre-existing but does not have an agreed upon meaning, it can be understood in film through several different codes and interpretations (including conventional cinematic musical codes), making it more complex than newly composed scores. In Détective, the disjunction between the visual film and the short well-known classical music excerpts does not allow the use of cinematic musical codes, but it does produce complexity.

Works: Martin Scorsese (director): Sound track to Raging Bull (21-23, 28); David Lean (director) and Noel Coward (writer/producer): Sound track to Brief Encounter (23-26, 28-29); Jean-Luc Godard (director): Sound track to Détective (26-29).

Sources: Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (21-23); Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No. 2 in C-sharp Minor (24-26); Schubert: Symphony No. 8 in B minor (Unfinished) (27); Wagner: Rienzi (27). (KRA)

Index classifications: 1900s, Film

Cornett-Murtada, Vanessa. "Quotation, Revolution, and American Culture: The Use of Folk Tunes and the Influence of Charles Ives in Frederic Rzewski's North American Ballads for Solo Piano." DMA diss., University of North Carolina, Greensboro, 2004.

Index classifications: 1900s

Court, Suzanne Elizabeth. "Structure, Imitation, and Paraphrase in the Ornamentation of Giovanni Antonio Terzi's Lute Intabulations." In Liber amicorum John Steele: A Musicological Tribute, ed. Warren Drake, 171-96. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon, 1997.

The intabulations of Giovanni Antonio Terzi show how ornate intabulations do not necessarily aim to obscure structural elements of their models. Even when instrumental music was gaining automony in the early to mid-sixteenth century, lutenists continued to pay homage to vocal models by reflecting vocal practice in their intabulations. There is a significant correlation between specific words and phrases of the model and the ornamentation used in Terzi's intabulation. Terzi pays homage to the model by ornamenting structurally, that is, by placing ornaments consistently upon a recurring feature of the model or using the same embellishment at points of imitation. In his intabulations, Terzi does not only borrow motivic elements from the model for the ornamentation, he also develops new figuration independent of the model. While the development of figuration, the introduction of new motives and the paraphrasing of melodies obscures some elements of the model, Terzi highlights the structural elements of the model by leaving heads of phrases unembellished, by using consistent figuration at points of imitation, and by drawing attention to the textual rhyme through his placement of ornaments. Hence, Terzi shows respect to the model both through the elaboration and the preservation of structural elements of the model.

Works: Terzi: Intabulations of Non mi toglia il ben mio (179), O bella ninfa mia (184), Quando fra bianche perle (184), Caro dolce ben mio (185), Leggiadre ninfe (186), Quando i vostri begli occhi (189), S'ogni mio ben 'havete (191), La Diodatina (192-93), Liquide perle (195).

Sources: Rore: Non mi toglia il ben mio (179); Palestrina: O bella ninfa mia (184); Nanino: Quando fra bianche perle (184); Gabrieli: Caro dolce ben mio (184); Marenzio: Leggiadre ninfe (186), Quando i vostri begli occhi (189), Liquide perle (195); Striggio: S'ogni mio ben 'havete (191); Guami: La Diodatina (192). (JSB)

Index classifications: 1500s

Covach, John R. "The Rutles and the Use of Specific Models in Musical Satire." Indiana Theory Review 11 (1990): 119-44.

The 1978 NBC "docudrama," The Rutles: All You Need Is Cash, is a humorous satire of the music and history of the Beatles. According to Schopenhauer, an amused reaction arises as a response to the "recognition of incongruity between a representation and a concept." Thus, for a listener to experience an amused response to musical satire, he or she must possess "stylistic competencies" that allow for the recognition of the congruity-incongruity dialectic in the music. The fictitious Rutles's Hold My Hand is modeled on three Beatles songs, and it incorporates elements of lyrics, pitch, rhythm, harmony and instrumentation from the sources. Evidence of modeling in Ouch!, a parody of the Beatles' song, Help!, is found in instrumentation and in formal and harmonic similarities to the source. The harmonic parallelism is such that a dialogue between Ouch! and Help! emerges, which is facilitated by diminution of the model's harmonic rhythm and partial reordering of the harmonic progression. Leonard Meyer's theory of style, in combination with the semiotic theory of intertextuality, can become a powerful analytic device in explaining musical satire. The humor arises from the listener's recognition of the model and the clever alterations and juxtapositions of the original material. This recognition must take place on three different levels of specificity: dialectic or general style (e.g., British invasion), individual idiom (e.g., early Beatles style), and intraopus style or the style within a single work (e.g., the style of Help!).

Works: Neil Innes: Hold My Hand (124-32), Ouch! (133-37).

Sources: John Lennon and Paul McCartney: I Want to Hold Your Hand (124-32), She Loves You (124-32), All My Loving (124-32), Help! (133-37). (VLM/SLF)

Index classifications: 1900s, Popular, Film

Cowell, Henry, and Sidney Cowell. Charles Ives and His Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1955; 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Cowell, Henry, ed. American Composers on American Music. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1933; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1962.

Index classifications: 1900s

Coyle, Michael. "Hijacked Hits and Antic Authenticity: Cover Songs, Race, and Postwar Marketing." In Rock Over the Edge: Transformations in Popular Music Culture, ed. Roger Beebe, Denise Fulbrook, and Ben Saunders, 133-157. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.

The term "cover" does not accurately describe the history behind or motivations for an artist recording a previously recorded song. In the 1950s, listeners did not make the same associations between song and singer that they make today; therefore re-recording a song was not understood as a reference in any way to the earlier artist. "The music itself" existed independently of its realization; therefore multiple versions of a song could circulate and not be considered to be referential. Re-recording a song that was circulating at the time was known as "hijacking a hit." It was not until Elvis re-recorded older R&B records that were no longer circulating that the cover song in the modern sense of the word came into existence.

Works: Chuck Willis (songwriter), Derek and the Dominos (performers): It's Too Late (151-52); Otis Redding (performer): It's Too Late (151-52).

Sources: Chuck Willis (songwriter and performer): It's Too Late (150-52); Otis Redding (performer): It's Too Late (151-52). (PEK)

Index classifications: 1900s, Popular

Crawford, David E. "Secular Songs in Mid-Fifteenth Century Continental Masses." In The Epic in Medieval Society, ed. Harold Scholler, 113-125. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1977.

Index classifications: 1400s

Crawford, Richard. "George Gershwin's I Got Rhythm (1930)." In The American Musical Landscape, 213-344. Berkley: University of California Press, 1993.

Since its premiere in Gershwin's 1930 musical Girl Crazy, the song I Got Rhythm has been performed, arranged, and recorded countless times. In these subsequent realizations of Gershwin's song three approaches can be identified in which the original material is treated as (1) a song played and sung by popular performers, (2) a jazz standard, a piece known and frequently played by musicians in the jazz tradition, and (3) a musical structure, a harmonic framework upon which jazz instrumentalists have built new compositions. These new compositions, called contrafacts, include examples such as Duke Ellington's 1940 Cotton Tail, Charlie Parker's 1940 Steeplechase, Parker and "Dizzy" Gillespie's 1945 Shaw 'Nuff, and many others. Tables listing titles of Parker I Got Rhythm contrafacts and recordings of I Got Rhythm contrafacts (up to 1942) are included.

Works: Ellington: Cotton Tail (229-30), Parker: Steeplechase (232), Red Cross (232), Moose the Mooche (233), An Oscar For Treadwell (233); Parker and Gillespie: Shaw 'Nuff (239).

Sources: Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (213-44). (STG)

Index classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Creshevsky, Noah. "On Borrowed Time." Contemporary Music Review 20, no. 4 (2001): 91-98.

Composers can expand their musical possibilities by borrowing samples of pre-existent music. For instance, Noah Creshevsky's Borrowed Time samples music from the twelfth to twentieth centuries. By incorporating a variety of disparate samples, one can represent the multicultural society in which we currently live. The revolution of technological media has made sampling equipment readily available. Creshevky's compositional processes have changed in reaction to this technological shift, in that the samples used are often so short in duration as to obscure their origins. Sampling an entire stanza from an aria would be a quotation, belonging to composer and librettist, but sampling just a syllable is an unidentifiable form of sampling and musical borrowing. Whether in times of bounty or scarcity, composers should borrow music, for there is plenty to go around.

Works: Noah Creshevsky: Borrowed Time (91, 96). (KO)

Index classifications: 1900s

Crisp, Deborah. "Liszt's Monument to Bach: The Variations on Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen for Solo Piano." Musicology Australia 21 (1998): 37-49.

Franz Liszt's 1859 variations on the theme from J. S. Bach's cantata Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12 effectively transforms Bach's structurally and tonally restrictive passacaglia theme into a large-scale, goal-oriented work. The theme is short and harmonically closed and thus has the potential to be repetitive and static. To create forward momentum, Liszt incorporates the suspensions of the theme into many of the variations and dovetails many phrases, a technique used by Bach, to drive the piece forward and conceal the regularity of the repeating passacaglia theme. Additionally, he creates large-scale form and goal direction by ending the set of variations with a statement of the chorale from Bach's cantata, providing a focal point for the developmental process. Liszt turns the genre of the Baroque passacaglia into a more Romantic theme and variations genre by incorporating a more pianistic texture, chromatic harmony, and freer use of the theme as the variations progress. While this work is four times longer than Bach's set of variations in the cantata, the overall structure of the new work reflects the narrative of the original, which can be construed as Lizst's method of paying homage to Bach.

Works: Franz Liszt: Variations on a Theme from "Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen," S. 180 (37-49).

Sources: J. S. Bach: Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12 (37-49). (MC)

Index classifications: 1800s

Crist, Stephen A. "The Question of Parody in Bach's Cantata Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen, BWV 215." In Bach Perspectives 1 (1995): 135-62.

Although there are many documents attesting to the first performance of Bach's Cantata No. 21, BWV 215, there is conflicting evidence about how it was composed. Bach had three days notice of the visit of the elector of Saxony to compose this work. Because of this short time frame for composition, many scholars have argued for Bach's need to borrow from his previous works. However, the majority of earlier scholars have disagreed as to which parts are borrowed and from which compositions. Several types of evidence demonstrate that there is in fact very little borrowing in this cantata. In other pieces with proven cases of borrowing, Bach's handwriting is neat in passages of parody because melodies are simply copied. In certain passages of BWV 215, Bach's handwriting is of the same character as other known first drafts of works, and there are continuation sketches, which do not appear in borrowed movements. Changes from the autograph score to the final version of BWV 215 reveal that the autograph written for the Elector's visit was an initial stage in the composition process. The formative changes made between these two versions are found in both instrumental and vocal lines. In most cases of Bach's parodies, the majority of corrections are in the vocal lines because they are being reworked to fit new words. Considering how quickly other cantatas had to be composed early in Bach's first few years in Leipzig, one should not be surprised at how quickly he was able to compose the new material in BWV 215.

Works: J. S. Bach: Cantata No. 21, Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen, BWV 215 (137-38, 152, 159-60), Mass in B Minor, BWV 232 (138), Christmas Oratorio, BWV 248 (139-51).

Sources: J. S. Bach: Cantata No. 16, Es lebe der König, der Vater im Lande, BWV Anh. 11 (138), Cantata No. 21, Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen, BWV 215 (139). (DRN)

Index classifications: 1700s

Crocker, Richard L. The Early Medieval Sequence. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Index classifications: Monophony to 1300

Crocker, Richard L. "The Troping Hypothesis." The Musical Quarterly 52 (April 1966): 183-203.

Modern ideas of the trope are an ill-informed effort to provide a single definition to the variety of musical forms introduced in the ninth and tenth centuries. What are today called "tropes" actually served different functions and may be grouped into different types. Fourteen early troper manuscripts are listed. Introit tropes (as well as those for Offertory and Communion) are new compositions, both in text and melody, added to the official chant. Often these are of considerably greater size and complexity than the original chant. Gloria and Sanctus tropes involve new compositions, but the official melodies may be roughly the same age as the tropes. The Agnus Dei is such a new liturgical form that it is difficult to separate the "official" text, much less the melody. So-called Kyrie tropes may well be integral parts of the composition of the Kyrie itself. Texting of pre-existing melismas did occur, especially in the Alleluia, but these instances are infrequent and usually of later origin. It is particularly erroneous to describe the sequence as a trope of its Alleluia. (FC)

Index classifications: Monophony to 1300

Crook, David. Orlando di Lasso's Imitation Magnificats for Counter-Reformation Munich. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Index classifications: 1500s

Crook, David. "Orlando di Lasso's Magnificats ad imitationem." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1991.

Index classifications: 1500s

Cross, Eric. "Vivaldi and the Pasticcio: Text and Music in Tamerlano." In Con che soavità: Studies in Italian Opera, Song, and Dance, 1580-1740, ed. Iain Fenlon and Tim Carter, 275-311. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Borrowing in eighteenth-century opera is so common that these works can be defined by individual performances, not a written score. However, by analyzing these works in written form as they compare to their sources of music and libretti, much can be learned about the compositional process of adapting materials. Vivaldi's Tamerlano is an excellent example of this. There are many related libretti on this story from the early eighteenth century. Certain adaptations of these libretti share large structural features. Handel's Tamerlano preserves the distribution of arias between characters found in Gasparini's Il Bajazet. Shared performers between works sometimes cause the choices of borrowed and retexted sections in arias. Vivaldi's Tamerlano has additional text because of his self-borrowing of a chorus from Farnace. He also adds different text to the music of arias from his earlier operas. By changing rhyme schemes and only keeping key words, he adapts the aria to a completely different scene and affect. This process also changes where important melismas are placed and therefore which parts of the music are emphasized. Vivaldi also repeats this process with arias by other composers, but in these cases misses the subtle harmonic relationships with the text used by the original composer.

Works: Vivaldi: Tamerlano (276-79, 283-311); Handel: Tamerlano (277, 281-82), Cantone (291, 294); Francesco Gasparini: Il Bajazet (277, 281).

Sources: Francesco Gasparini: Tamerlano (277-79), Il Bajazet (277); Vivaldi: Farnace (284, 288-89, 294, 305), L'Olimpiade (286-88), Giustino (288-94), Orlando finto pazzo (309); Hasse: Siroe re di Persia (297-301); Geminiano Giacomelli: Merope (301-5). (DRN)

Index classifications: 1700s

Cross, Eric. "Vivaldi's Operatic Borrowings." Music and Letters 59 (October 1978): 429-39.

Vivaldi lived in an age in which plagiarism was openly condoned, so it is not surprising that borrowing of material should represent an important aspect of his output. This practice was largely provoked by the incessant demand for novelty in the opera house and also accounts, at least partly, for the legendary speed at which he composed. Vivaldi compiled several operas from arias by composers such as Hasse, Giacomelli, Leo, Handel, Pergolesi, and Vinci, linking them with newly composed sections of recitative. Occasionally, as in Rosamira of 1738, he claimed the composition as his own. Vivaldi's constant re-use in his operas of material from his own compositions is perhaps most obvious in his introductory sinfonias and concertos. Instrumental and vocal works frequently share the same ritornello material, although it is often impossible to tell which was written first. The most common type of borrowing is the revival of earlier operatic material. Usually it is restricted to individual arias and excludes the preceding recitative. Although in many cases arias are re-used without alteration, except perhaps for new words, in other instances the musical text itself is changed. Sometimes a borrowed aria appears in a similar dramatic context, but in many cases the contexts are different, and often it seems to be one particular idea in the text that suggests the borrowing. Occasionally, ensembles are also adapted for re-use.

Index classifications: 1700s

Cudworth, Charles. "Ye Olde Spuriosity Shoppe." Notes 12 ([Month] 1954): (I) 25-40, (II) 533-53.

Index classifications: General, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Culter, Chris. "Plunderphonia." Musicworks 60 (Summer 1994): 6-19.

Index classifications: 1900s, Popular

Cumming, Julie E. "The Goddess Fortuna Revisited." Current Musicology, no. 30 (1980): 7-23.

Fortuna desperata, one of the most popular chansons of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, survives in more than thirty sources and in thirty-one distinct settings. Although it has been attributed to Busnois, its strophic form and Italian text separate it from most of Busnois's other chansons, making this attribution doubtful. Of the twenty-four surviving cantus firmus settings of the chanson, two rather unusual practices occur with some frequency. The tenor is transposed from its original Lydian mode to Phrygian in five pieces, and the borrowed material from the chanson is combined with another pre-existent melody and/or text in thirteen pieces. Both of these practices may be explained by the application of symbolism related to the goddess Fortuna. Although Lydian is the mode most frequently associated with Fortuna, the transposition of the mode may reflect the image of Fortuna turning her wheel. In the pieces in which the Fortuna cantus firmus is combined with pre-existing material, there are strong correlations between the myth of Fortuna and the added (or implied) texts, and these added texts give further meaning to the new work. These new meanings, as well as the overall popularity of Fortuna desperata, provide examples of trends in late fifteenth-century humanist thought.

Works: Josquin: Fortuna d'un gran tempo (8); Martini: Fortuna desperata (9); Greiter: Passibus ambiguis (9, 13, 14, 17); Senfl: Fortuna ad voices musicales (9, 13, 17-18); Anonymous: Consideres mes incessantes (13, 15); Breitengraser: Fortuna desperata (13); Senfl: Nasci, pati, mori (15), Ich steund an einem morgen (15), Es taget vor dem Walde (15); Isaac: Bruder Conrat (15); Jachet: Ave mater (16); Senfl: Virgo prudentissima (16), Herr durch dein Blut (17); Isaac: Sancte Petre ora pro nobis (17); Anonymous: Zilbadone (17).

Sources: Busnois(?):Fortuna desperata (7-8). (SW)

Index classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Cummings, Anthony Michael. "Bemerkungen zu Isaacs Motette Ave ancilla trinitatis und Senfls Lied Wohlauf, wohlauf." Die Musikforschung 34 (April/June 1981): 180-82.

Index classifications: 1500s

Cummings, Craig C. "Large-Scale Coherence in Selected Nineteenth-Century Piano Variations." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1991.

Index classifications: 1800s

Curtis, Alan. "Josquin and 'La belle Tricotée.'" In Essays in Musicology, in Honor of Dragan Plamenac on His 70th Birthday, ed. Gustave Reese and Robert J. Snow, 1-8. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1969.

Josquin's Je me complains should be interpreted as a mock lament because the last line of text and music is a quotation from a bawdy ditty La belle Tricotée, a tune famous since medieval times. The tune Josquin borrows is also used in three other works, all of which are written to different words but in most cases hold the text "la tricotée fut par matin levée" in common. These pieces include the tenor part of a three-voice chanson from the mid-fifteenth century in Bologna Q. 15, a contratenor part from a three-voice quodlibet in Escorial IV.a.24, and an upper voice of La tricotea Samártin la vea, a Spanish reworking of the tune. The term "tricotée" has often been translated as "knitting," but it is actually a term applied to a lively dance from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries.

Works: Josquin: Je me complains (1-8); Anonymous: Belle tenes moy la promesse/La triquotée est par matin levée (3), Rolet ara la tricoton/Maistre Piere/La tricotée (3), La tricotea Samártin la vea (3-4).

Sources: Anonymous: La belle Tricotée (1-8). (MER)

Index classifications: 1400s

Curtis, Alan. "La Poppea Impasticciata or, Who Wrote the Music to L'Incoronazione (1643)?" Journal of the American Musicological Society 42 (Spring 1989): 23-54.

The fact that no contemporary accounts credit Monteverdi with the musical setting of Francesco Busenello's L'incoronazione di Poppea creates a number of problems in analyzing the work's stylistic unity. An important consideration, however, is that Monteverdi may have been one of a number of composers collaborating in the composition of Poppea, rather than its sole musical contributor. Many of the work's musical qualities demonstrate characteristics of a younger post-Monteverdian generation. Of a number of possible collaborators, Benedetto Ferrari and Francesco Sacrati seem to be the most likely candidates. Indeed, two sinfonie in Poppea can be located in an altered (or borrowed) form in Sacrati's La finta pazza, while "Pur ti miro" from the opera's last scene can be textually (and possibly musically) connected to Ferrari. Thus, Sacrati and Ferrari figure as the potential composers of the many anomalous sections of Monteverdi's last Venetian opera and, most significantly, its last scene.

Works: Monteverdi (and others?): L?incoronazione di Poppea (23-54); Francesco Sacrati: La finta pazza (43-51).

Sources: Francesco Sacrati: La finta pazza (32, 43-51); Benedetto Ferrari (?):"Pur ti miro" (41-43, 51-52); Monteverdi (and others?): L?incoronazione di Poppea (45-46). (EE)

Index classifications: 1600s

Curtis, Alan. Sweelinck's Keyboard Music: Study of English Elements in Seventeenth-century Dutch Composition. Leiden and London: Oxford University Press, 1969. 2d ed., London: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Index classifications: 1600s

Curtis, Gareth R. K. "Jean Pullois and the Cyclic Mass--or a Case of Mistaken Identity?" Music and Letters 62 (January 1981): 41-59.

One Missa sine nomine, found in five manuscripts, has been attributed wrongly to the Continental composer Jean Pullois. This Mass has been noted as the earliest example of a Continental Mass cycle that uses cantus firmus technique to unify the movements. Indeed, the tenor parts of the five Mass movements feature striking, similar melodic lines, and thus the Missa sine nomine can be considered a cyclic cantus firmus Mass. However, it uses paraphrase technique, and this puts into question the attribution of the Mass to Pullois and the characterization of the Mass as Continental, as it has no Continental precedents. It is highly unusual that the Mass's malleable assimilation of the plainsong source would pre-date comparable Dufay cyclic Masses. Yet, attributing the Mass to Pullois would do just that. Because of this and other circumstantial manuscript source-related evidence, the Missa Sine nomine should be removed from Pullois's known repertory.

Works: Jean Pullois?: Missa sine nomine (41-59). (VLM)

Index classifications: 1400s

Curtis, Stephen Milne. "La technique de la parodie dans les chansons à cinq et six voix de Nicolas de La Grotte." Revue de musicologie 70 (1984): 173-97.

Nicolas de la Grotte, a relatively unknown 16th-century court composer who was nonetheless held in high esteem by the society of his day, employed the technique of parody in his songs for five and six voices. Of his 21 songs included in Le mélange de chansons (1572), 17 are completely based on borrowed material. The majority of the parodies consist of a complete borrowed superius, with the lower parts rewritten, thus classifiable as employing cantus firmus technique. Distinctive alterations that La Grotte utilizes include (1) addition of a coda; (2) augmented note-values (used for expressive, text-painting purposes); and (3) textural enrichment (via syncopations).

Works: Nicolas de la Grotte: Avecques vous (176, 178-82), A ce matin (176, 180-83), Las voulez vous (176, 178-83), Sur tous regretz (176, 180-82, 186), Force d'amour (176, 183-86), Le coeur de vous (176, 183-84), Grace et vertu (176, 186), N'auray je jamais mieulx (176, 186-87), J'ay contenté (176, 187-88), Susane un jour (176, 188-89), Vivés en paix (176, 198-90), Dieu te gard (176, 190-92), Tout est vert (176, 190-92), Puisque j'ay belle amye (176, 190-92), Tout ce qu'on peut (176, 192-94), Je m'en vois (176, 192-96).

Sources: Lassus: Avecques vous (176, 178-82), A ce matin (176, 180-83), Las voulez vous (176, 178-83); Richafort: Sur tous regretz (176, 180-82, 186); Villiers: Force d'amour (176, 183-86); Sermisy: Le coeur de vous (176, 183-84), N'auray je jamais mieulx (176, 186-87), J'ay contenté (176, 187-88); Roquelay: Grace et vertu (176, 186); Didier Lupi Second: Susane un jour (176, 188-89; Anonymous: Vivés en paix (176, 198-90), Tout est vert (176, 190-92), Puisque j'ay belle amye (176, 190-92), Je m'en vois (176, 192-96); Doussera: Dieu te gard (176, 190-92); Rore: Tout ce qu'on peut (176, 192-94). (EDL)

Index classifications: 1500s

Cushman, David Stephen. "Joseph Haydn's Melodic Material: An Exploratory Introduction to the Primary and Secondary Sources Together with an Analytical Catalogue and Tables of Proposed Melodic Correspondence and/or Variance." Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 1972.

Index classifications: 1700s

Cusic, Don. "From Zap to Rap: Digital Sampling, Rap Music, and the Folk Tradition." The Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 54, no. 4 (1991): 139-43.

According to Charles Seeger, folk music represents the epitome of plagiarism. Since rap music relies so heavily on digital sampling, rap and folk music are therefore linked through similar processes of musical borrowing. The explanation for such borrowing is not plagiarism but a new definition of creativity: creativity as synthesis of existing materials. Rap and folk music are also extensions of oral traditions, which value synthesis over novelty. (FMM)

Index classifications: 1900s, Popular

Cusic, Don. "In Defense of Cover Songs." Popular Music and Society 28 (May 2005): 171-77.

Recording labels in Nashville demand that recording artists be singer-songwriters: that is, that musicians write and perform their own songs. Critics and fans believe that writing and performing one's own songs is the best measure of the legitimacy of a musician's abilities. This expectation ignores the potential value of cover songs and the interpretive skill of covering artists. Not only can a cover song provide a new interpretation of a song, but it may introduce music to new listeners who are unfamiliar with the original because of separation by time or genre. For covering artists, cover songs are important for three reasons: (1) the song has a proven track record of commercial success, (2) the song can act as a nod or tribute to an important influence on the artist, and (3) it can provide audiences with familiar music as they hear a new artist. (PEK)

Index classifications: 1900s, Popular

Cusick, Suzanne G. "Re-Voicing Arianna (and Laments): Two Women Respond." Early Music 27 (1999): 437-49.

Francesca Caccini's "aria sopra la romanesca" Dove io credea le mie speranze vere is an invocation of Arianna's voice that seeks to contrast and challenge the more submissive and subdued lament of Monteverdi's Arianna. Placed at the center of her 1618 Primo libro delle musiche, Caccini's song is purposefully not a lament but in the style of an aria romanesca. Its ample borrowings from Rinuccini's text are organized in a way that portrays an unapologetic, self-confident statement of Teseo's blame as well as a warning to other women about the excesses and dangers of love. In contrasting Monteverdi's recitative-like compositional style with a subtly nuanced romanesca form, Caccini both conforms to the aesthetic norms of the Florentine Camerata and evokes an aura of widow-like constancy in the social context of Christine of Lorraine's court. These musical allusions to female circles, in an aria that presents a non-lamenting Arianna, form a polemical discourse with Monteverdi?s famous soliloquy of a decidedly un-empowered woman.

Works: Works: Francesca Caccini: Dove io credea le mie speranze vere (442-47).

Sources: Claudio Monteverdi: Lamento di Arianna (437-47). (EE)

Index classifications: 1600s

Cyr, Gordon. "Intervallic Structural Elements in Ives's Fourth Symphony." Perspectives of New Music 9 and 10 (Spring/Summer-Fall/Winter 1971): 291-303.

Index classifications: 1900s

Cyrus, Cynthia J. "Polyphonic Borrowings and the Florentine Chanson Reworking, 1475-1515." Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990.

Index classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Dadaszad, Zümrüd. "My eto ved toze cast mira." Muzykal'naja akademija 1 (2002): 158-72.

Index classifications: 1900s

Dadelsen, Georg von. "Anmerkungen zu Bachs Parodieverfahren." In Bachiana et alia musicologica: Festschrift Alfred Dürr zum 65. Geburtstag am 3. März 1983, ed. Wolfgang Rehm, 52-57. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1983.

The "problematic" nature of Bach's parody technique has been extensively commented upon in the last century. Recent discussions have focused on the role of musical figures and word-to-tone relationships in assessing the effectiveness of parody compositions, although the work of Werner Neumann, Werner Braun, and others have begun to alter this picture. Bach's four Lutheran Masses, which consist of twelve arias and choruses borrowed from four different cantatas, exhibit the means by which the borrowed musical substance may be applied to texts of highly divergent meaning. Although there are indeed incongruities between the music and text on the level of the individual word, the general affect of the new setting is effective enough that these problems are of little consequence. Musical figures carry denotative significance only with respect to an underlaid word; a re-texting of a piece, then, involves a wholesale transformation of the composition's meaning. A proper performance, therefore, should strive to adapt the inherently versatile music to the ideas of the new text.

Works: Bach: Mass in A Major, BWV 234 (54-55), Mass in G Major, BWV 236 (55-57). (AJF)

Index classifications: 1700s

Dadelsen, Georg von. "Eine unbekannte Messenbearbeitung Bachs." In Festschrift Karl Gustav Fellerer, ed. Heinrich Hüschen, 88-94. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1962.

Work on the Neue Bach Ausgabe stimulated research into J. S. Bach's copies and arrangements of other composers' works. The Acroma missale by Giovanni Battista Bassani, published 1709, is a collection of six four-voice settings of the Ordinary with instrumental accompaniment, contained in sixteen part-books. Bach's arrangement differs from the original in two important points: (1) it is written as an eight-part score and (2) only the first four sections of the Ordinary (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, and Sanctus with Osanna I) are present. Bach includes in his settings the intonation words of the Credo (which were omitted by Bassani, except in Mass No. 3), and in the case of Mass No. 5 this is a lengthy setting that could be regarded as a separate little (thus far unknown) composition. Analysis of watermarks and handwriting establishes Bach's son Gottfried Heinrich as the copyist and dates the different pieces to the period between 1735 and 1747. However, questions about the reason and purpose of Bach's copying of this unoriginal work remain largely unanswered.

Works: J. S. Bach: Sechs Messen von Bassani (Mus. ms. 1160). (MP)

Index classifications: 1700s

Dahlhaus, Carl. "Studien zu den Messen Josquin des Pres." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Göttingen, 1952.

Index classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Dahms, Sibylle. "Entlehnungspraktiken in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts und zur Ballettmusik aus Mozarts Ascanio in Alba." Mozart-Jahrbuch (1993): 133-43.

Index classifications: 1700s

Dale, Catherine. "The Mirror of Romanticism: Images of Music, Religion, and Art Criticism in George Sand's Eleventh Lettre d'un voyageur to Giacomo Meyerbeer." Romanic Review 87, no. 1 (1996): 83-112.

In letters written between 1834 and 1836, Georges Sand traced the developments of Romanticism and provided a narrative for its artistic, religious, and social aspects. Giacomo Meyerbeer's borrowing of Martin Luther's Ein feste Burg in Les Huguenots is one such example of an emerging Romantic aesthetic. Even though Meyerbeer turned to an older German chorale form in his opera, he updated it to become Romantic by using the tune as "local color" for crowd scenes on the stage and in particular for Huguenots. Meyerbeer effectively truncated the tune in a culminating scene in Act V, in which Catholic assassins enter, and the Huguenots stop singing it. Throughout the opera, Ein feste Burg signifies perseverance in the face of religious persecution.

Works: Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (92-93).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (92). (KJL)

Index classifications: 1800s

Dale, S. S. "Musical Quotations." The Musical Opinion 96 (September 1973): 623-27.

Dale lists works (from Beethoven till present) that include quotations. They can be grouped into pieces (1) quoting Dies Irae, (2) quoting Beethoven, (3) by Wagner quoting other works, (4) by Borodin, Elgar, and Ives quoting other works, (5) in which Schumann was quoting, and (6) by other composers. The principle of quoting is clearly separate from parody, the stylistic imitation of an other composer, which is not included in this essay.

Works: Borodin: The Valiant Knights (626); Elgar: The Music Makers (626); Ives: An Elegy for Stephen Foster (626). (AG)

Index classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Daley, Mike. "Patti Smith's 'Gloria': Intertextual Play in a Rock Vocal Performance." Popular Music 16, no. 3 (October 1997): 235-53.

Patti Smith's version of Van Morrison's Gloria transforms the meaning of the original through the use of textual tropes and altered vocal performance that ultimately decenters the "dominant male rock singer" to clear out creative space for herself. In her version, Gloria in excelsis deo, Smith adds a great deal of text to the original lyrics but retains some of Morrison's text without changing the male perspective, deliberately playing up the male sexual undertones. Smith also utilizes a number of subtle vocal inflections to emphasize specific words and phrases and bring out meaning in the text. These vocal performance techniques include qualities such as "raspy," "hard/nasal," "breathy," or "creaky," as well as exaggerated or closed vowel sounds and pitch inflections. An appendix contains the text to Morrison's Gloria and a transcription of Smith's version featuring both traditional staff notation and the author's notation for indicating vocal performance techniques.

Works: Van Morrison and Patti Smith: Gloria in excelsis deo.

Sources: Van Morrison: Gloria. (SLF)

Index classifications: 1900s, Popular

Dalglish, William E. "The Use of Variation in Early Polyphony." Musica disciplina 26 (1972): 37-51.

Index classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Daniel, Ralph T. "Contrafacta and Polyglot Texts in the Early English Anthem." In Essays in Musicology: A Birthday Offering for Willi Apel, ed. Hans Tischler, 101-6. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968.

Although one might expect contrafacta to be a prevalent type in the early liturgy of the Anglican church, there are surprisingly few anthems that can be identified as adaptations of motets, secular pieces, or instrumental works. Of the known contrafacta, most can be dated to the seventeenth century. In light of this lack of contrafacta during the formative years of the Anglican church, one can conclude that the earliest examples have not survived, that there was not a great demand for choral music, or that some anthems are in fact contrafacta for which their earlier forms have not been identified. It appears that the majority of adaptations were made in the seventeenth century, most of which were contrafacta of compositions by recognized masters. This further suggests that the intrinsic merit of the music was the greater motivation for substituting English for Latin, rather than fulfilling a utilitarian purpose during the formation of the Anglican liturgy.

Works: Thomas Causton: In trouble and adversity (101), O give thanks unto the Lord (101); Anonymous: Wipe away my sins (102), Blessed be thy name (102), I call and cry (102), Discumfit them (102), Bow down thine ear (103), O sacred and holy blanket (103), Arise, O lord (103), Behold now, praise the Lord (103), Let not our prayers (103), Let us arise from sin (103), O Lord deliver me (103), Praise the Lord O my soul (104), Behold I bring you glad tidings (104), And there was with the angel (104), Lift up your heads (104), O Lord, give ear to the prayer (104), Let not thy wrath (104), Out of the deep (104), Arise, O lord (104), Forgive me Lord (104); Robert Johnson: Benedicam Domino . . . O Lord with all my heart (102).

Sources: Taverner: "In nomine" from Missa Gloria Tibi Trinitas (101); Tallis: Absterge Domine (Wipe away my sins) (102, 104), Fond youth is a bubble (103), Salvator mundi (103-4), O sacrum convivium (103); Morley: Nolo mortem peccatoris . . . Father, I am thine only Son (102), De profundis (104); Weelkes: Gloria in excelsis . . . Sing my soul (102); Thomas Ford: Miserere, my maker (102); Peter Philips: Cantai mentre (103); Byrd: Exsurge, Domine (103), Now enim pro peccatis (103), Attolite portas (103-4), Memento, homo (104), Ne irascaris (104); Robert White: Manus tuae (103), Domine non est exaltatum (103). (MER)

Index classifications: 1500s, 1600s

Daniskas, John. "Een bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der parodietechniek." Tijdschrift der Vereeniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 17 (1948-55): 21-43.

Index classifications: 1400s

Danuser, Hermann. "Aspekte einer Hommage-Komposition: Zu Brahms' Schumann-Variationen op. 9." In Brahms-Analysen. Referate der Kieler Tagung 1983, ed. Friedhelm Krummacher and Wolfram Steinbeck, 91-106. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1984.

Index classifications: 1800s

Danuser, Hermann. "Musikalische Zitat- und Collageverfahren im Lichte der (Post)Moderne-Diskussion." Bayerische Akademie der Schönen Kunste: Jahrbuch 4 (1990): 395-409.

Index classifications: 1900s

Danuser, Hermann. "Tradition und Avantgarde nach 1950." In Die neue Musik und die Tradition: Sieben Kongressbeiträge und eine analytische Studie, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann, 22-54. New York: Schott, 1978.

Index classifications: 1900s

Danz, Louis. "Gershwin and Schoenberg." In George Gershwin, ed. Merle Armitage, 99-101. New York: Longmans, Green, 1938.

Index classifications: 1900s

Danzinger, Gustav. "Die 2. Symphonie von Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1976.

Index classifications: 1800s

Daverio, John. "Brahms, Mozart and the Anxiety of Influence." Paper read at the AMS New England chapter meeting, New England Conservatory, 6 February 1988.

Index classifications: 1800s

Daverio, John. "Schumann's 'Im Legendenton' and Friedrich Schlegel's Arabeske." 19th-Century Music 11 (Fall 1987): 150-63.

Schumann's Piano Fantasy in C Major, Op. 17, contains both a direct quotation of and several allusions to "Nimm sie hin denn diese Lieder" from Beethoven's song cycle An die ferne Geliebte. The quotation fulfills several functions. First, it provides one of the thematic connections between the slow inserted section called "Im Legendenton" and the surrounding movement in sonata form. Second, the literal quotation in the coda can be seen as the climax toward which the whole movement develops. This view is supported not only by the increasing clarity of the quotation (from allusion in the exposition to clearer allusion in the section called "Im Legendenton" to literal quotation in the coda) but also by the fact that the Fantasy opens quasi in medias res on a dominant ninth chord. Rather than analyzing the Fantasy as developing from a theme, there is the option to analyze it as developing toward a theme. Other quotations in the Fantasy are mentioned only briefly.

Works: Schumann: Piano Fantasy in C Major, Op. 17 (151-53, 156-58).

Sources: Schubert: Die Gebüsche, D. 646 (151), Der Fluss, D. 693 (151); Beethoven: , Op. 98, no. 2 (151, 156-58). (AG)

Index classifications: 1800s

David, Hans T. "A Lesser Secret of J. S. Bach Uncovered." Journal of the American Musicological Society 14 (Summer 1961): 199-223. Translated as "Johann Sebastian Bach und Johann Caspar Kerll. Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Sanctus BWV 241." In Johann Sebastian Bach, ed. Walter Blankenburg, 425-65. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1970.

Bach's Sanctus BWV 241 is a reworking of the Sanctus from Johann Caspar Kerll's Missa Superba. Kerll designed the mass for ten concerted parts, with some doubling instruments: 2 sopranos, 2 altos, 2 basses, 2 violins, 4 trombones, organ, and violone. Bach added two oboes d'amore to double the soprano parts, replaced the trombones with violas, omitted the violone and organ, and added a new continuo line with cello, violone grosso, cembalo, and organ. Kerll's Sanctus is built in three separate sections: Bach kept the first two sections essentially intact, only quickening the rhythm in spots. The faster rhythm led Bach to abandon his model entirely in the third section, introducing a lively new motive in steady sixteenth-note motion. (BP)

Index classifications: 1700s

Davies, Ann. "High and Low Culture: Bizet's Carmen and the Cinema." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 46-56. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Cinema attempts to claim a status as an art form and offer the elitism of opera to new audiences in opera film. The opera film creates a hybrid cultural artifact that blurs boundaries between high and low culture, which can be seen in Cecil B. DeMille's Carmen, Otto Preminger's Carmen Jones, and Francesco Rosi's Carmen. Bizet's Carmen as an opera is a hybrid of high and low culture in and of itself, a characterization maintained in film opera versions of it. Otto Preminger's Carmen Jones uses Bizet's music but with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein and an entirely black cast, playing into the tradition of the musical. The consideration of filmed opera as a cultural hybrid, implying distance, allows tension between high and low culture to be preserved and invites the audience to appreciate the elite high culture.

Works: Works: Cecil B. DeMille (director): Sound track to Carmen (48-49, 55); Otto Preminger (director): Sound track to Carmen Jones (49-51, 55); Francesco Rosi (director): Sound track to Carmen (51-55).

Sources: Bizet: Carmen (48-55). (KRA)

Index classifications: 1900s, Film

Davies, Hugh. "A History of Sampling." Organised Sound: An International Journal of Music Technology 1, no.1 (April 1996): 3-11.

The commercially available samplers invented in the 1980s have a long history that can be seen to include the early digital (but not binary) technology of the telegraph up until the invention of modern digital technology. After World War I inventors constructed and patented musical instruments based on available sound recording technologies as well as early versions of magnetic tape recorder dictating machines. This is generally considered the first "sampler." By 1948, Pierre Schaeffer initiated musique concrète and developed a technique similar to the later tape loop, the sillon fermé. Influenced by the invention of magnetic tape, Schaeffer transferred all of his disc recording techniques to the medium of magnetic tape and patented his Phonogène in the 1950s. In 1964, the first successful instrument based on magnetic tape technology, the Mellotron, was marketed. The first digital sampling instruments appeared in the early 1970s, and by the second half of the 1980s digital sampling technology had become a standard part of every electronic piano, organ, or synthesizer. Musicians have explored extensively the possibilities of the manipulation of recorded sound. The phonograph has been used for works like John Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 5 as well as "scratching" by DJs in the popular music tradition. Other works have used this technology to manipulate pre-existing recorded works by other artists, generating conflict with copyright law. Among these works are James Tenney's Collage No. 1 ('Blue Suede') and John Oswald's Plunderphonics. Live manipulations of prerecorded magnetic tape material, such as Laurie Anderson's Tape Bow Violin, have also been explored. Commercial digital samplers are now used in a variety of contemporary composers' works, such as Michel Waisvisz 's The Archaic Symphony or Nicolas Collins's Devil's Music. (SLF)

Index classifications: 1900s, Popular

Davis, Merilyn Mather. "A Comparative Analysis of Musical Texture as Found in Selected Symphonies of Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1970.

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Davis, Richard Carroll. "Self Parody Among The Cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach (Parts I and II)." Ph.D. diss., Boston University Graduate School, 1962.

Index classifications: 1700s

Davis, Shelley. "The Solus Tenor: An Addendum." Acta Musicologica 40 (January/March 1968): 176-78.

Certain revisions concerning borrowing needed to be made to the author's original article, "The Solus Tenor in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries," which appeared in Acta Musicologica 39. A solus tenor is a line that can assume a strongly harmonic character, as demonstrated in Royllart's isorhythmic motet Rex Karole, Johannes genite/Leticie, pacis, concordie. The definitive characteristic of a motet with this kind of tenor is that it can be performed in either a three-part or a four-part setting. As in the anonymous Januam quam clauserat/Jacinctus in saltibus/Quartus cantus/Jacet granum, these pieces work equally well with either number of parts. Another interesting aspect of these works is illustrated by the motet Inter densas deserti/Imbribus irriguis/Admirabile est nomen tuum, whose tenor scholars recently determined was actually added by a later scribe. So, the piece was actually based on a different borrowed tenor than the one that currently accompanies it. In all of these pieces, the common thread is a tenor with a strong harmonic character that belongs to a motet that can function with either three or four voice parts.

Works: Royllart: Rex Karole, Johannes genite/Leticie, pacis, concordie (176-77); Motet: Inter densas deserti/Imbribus irriguis/Admirabile est nomen tuum (176); Matteo da Perugia: Gloria in Mod (177); Johannes Brassart: Magne decus potencie/Genus regule esperie (177); Motet: Januam quam clauserat/Jacinctus in saltibus/Quartus cantus/Jacet granum (178). (RCD)

Index classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Davis, Shelly. "The Solus Tenor in the l4th and l5th Centuries." Acta Musicologica 39 (January/June 1967): 44-64.

Index classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Davison, Nigel. "Continental Cousins of the In Nomine Family." The Music Review 52 (February 1991): 1-11.

Questions relating to the attribution of two textless polyphonic works, found in several early sixteenth-century manuscripts, may be solved by studying the musical and textual borrowings in the compositions. These works, titled Si dormiero and Sancta Maria Virgo and commonly attributed to Pierre de la Rue, are often found with other instrumental intabulations whose titles begin with the word Si. The musical borrowings among this group of pieces include the Compline Respond verse Si dedero, opening melodic motives, and similar points of imitation. Whereas Josquin's In pace uses the first two phrases of the Si dedero chant, Obrecht's Si sumpsero starts the chant where Josquin leaves off, suggesting that these two motets were composed in response to one another. Si dormiero borrows motives from Josquin's In pace and Agricola's Si dedero. The works are also linked through sacred and secular textual relations.

Works: Alexander Agricola: Si dedero (2-8); Josquin des Prez: In pace (2-8); Pierre de la Rue: Si dormiero (2-8), Sancta Maria Virgo (2, 6-8); Jacob Obrecht: Si sumpsero (5-8).

Sources: Alexander Agricola: Si dedero (2-8); Josquin des Prez: In pace (2-8); Compline Respond verse: Si dedero (3-6). (REG)

Index classifications: 1500s

Day, Thomas. "Echoes of Palestrina's Missa ad Fugam in the 18th Century." Journal of the American Musicological Society 24 (Fall 1971): 462-69.

While Johann Joseph Fux's treatise Gradus ad Parnassum recommends Palestrina as a model of the contrapuntal style, it does not include any music by Palestrina. Fux's own Missa di San Carlo (also known as the Missa Canonica) was long considered a masterpiece of the old style. Palestrina's Missa ad Fugam, which was known to Fux, most likely served as a model for this work. Scarlatti and Albrechtsberger also wrote canonic masses. These eighteenth-century compositions reflect the composers' knowledge of the Palestrina style as observed from his Missa ad Fugam.

Works: Johann Joseph Fux: Missa di San Carlo (463-65); Alessandro Scarlatti: Messe e Credo a 4 ad Canones (465, 467); Johann Georg Albrechtsberger: Missa Canonica (465, 468-69).

Sources: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina: Missa ad Fugam (passim). (FC)

Index classifications: 1700s

De Leeuw, Reinbert. "Charles Ives, Zijn Muziek: Inleidung, Ives' Gebruik van Muzikall Materiaal." In Charles Ives, by J. Bernlef and Reinbert de Leeuw, 133-209. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1969. Translated by Bertus Polman, in Student Musicologists at Minnesota 6 (1975-76): 128-91.

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

De Pillecyn, Jürgen. "Schumanniaanse technieken en modellen bij Brahms." Revue belge de musicologie 44 (1990): 133-52.

Index classifications: 1800s

Dean, Winton. "Bizet's Self-Borrowings." Music and Letters 41 (July 1960): 238-44.

Self-borrowing occurs for many reasons, such as creative impotence, haste, or desire to reuse an especially felicitous phrase. For Bizet, it was an effort to make use of cast-aside or unfinished materials that otherwise might not have been completed. His self-borrowings were always from unpublished works and those which had never been performed; thus, his borrowing could go undetected during his lifetime. Reworkings include reuse of an entire movement or aria, or adaptation of an older theme to a new context.

Works: Bizet: Symphony in C Major (240, 241), Vasco de gama (240), Le golfe de Bahia (240), Ivan IV (240), Te Deum (240), Don Procopio (240), Clovis et Clotilde (241), Marche funèbre (241), "Le doute" (241), "La coupe de Roi de Thulé" (242, 243), Grisélidis (243), "La jolie fille de Perth" (243), Don Rodrigue (244), L'Arlesienne (244). (EH)

Index classifications: 1800s

Dean, Winton. "Handel and Keiser: Further Borrowings." Current Musicology, no. 9 (1969): 73-80.

Reinhard Keiser's opera Die römische Unruhe, oder Die edelmüthige Octavia (1705) has long been recognized as a source of material for Handel in the first decade of the eighteenth century. However, further study reveals that music from Keiser's opera was used by Handel in various compositions for some fifty years, from Aminta e Fillide (1708) to The Triumph of Time and Truth (1758). These examples reflect Handel's typical borrowing procedure: a characteristic motive or phrase is appropriated and subjected to elaboration and development, sometimes in a vastly different context, which far surpasses the original parameters of the model. As such Handel repaid his debt to Keiser throughout his life.

Works: Handel: Ariodante (74-75), Orlando (75-76), Aminta e Fillide (76-77), Agrippina (76-78), Rodelinda (78), Berenice (79), Solomon (79), The Triumph of Time and Truth (79-80). (AJF)

Index classifications: 1700s

Dean, Winton. "Handel's 'Sosarme,' a Puzzle Opera." In Essays on Opera and English Music in Honour of Sir Jack Westrup, ed. Frederick William Sternfeld, Nigel Fortune, and Edward Olleson, 115-47. Oxford: Blackwell, 1975.

The performance history of Handel's opera Sosarme, completed in 1732, is complicated because of the changes made before the first performances and for the 1734 revival. The setting and character names had to be changed during the initial composition process for political reasons. Cuts to the music and libretto also made at this time caused the plot's coherence to suffer greatly. This led to negative reactions to the drama, but the music was still well received. Many arias in the 1732 version resemble many of Handel's earlier works in general stylistic traits, but several are specific reworkings of previous material. Handel had to make many additional changes for his 1734 revival in order to accommodate the differences in voice ranges and talent of the two completely different casts. In addition to transposing much of the opera into alternate keys and cutting arias, Handel made changes to showcase the great skill of Carlo Scalzi in the role of Argone. He inserted the arias "Corro per ubbidirvi" and "Quell'orror delle procelle" from Riccardo Primo specifically for Scalzi's voice, reworking them slightly to fit the plot.

Works: Handel: Sosarme (125, 132-33, 144-45).

Sources: Handel: Riccardo Primo (125), Admeto (132-3), Giulio Cesare (133), La Bianca Rosa (133), Aci, Galatea e Polifemo (144-45). (DRN)

Index classifications: 1700s

Decsey, Ernst. Anton Bruckner: Versuch eines Lebens. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1920.

This book is divided into three sections: a biography, a psychological profile, and a discussion of his music. The discussion of stylistic borrowings is located in the second section along with discussions of how he relates to church music, how he relates to other people and their opinions and music, and how he relates to his own music. Specific borrowings are considered in the last section, where Decsey discusses each of Bruckner's major works with an eye to the sociological implications associated with each. Biographical reasons for compositional style are proposed and substantiated with sketches, writings, or conjecture. Decsey attempts to lay to rest critics of Bruckner, especially those who decry "formlessness," and "massiveness" in his music. (BJT)

Index classifications: 1800s

Deford, Ruth I. "Musical Relationships between the Italian Madrigal and Light Genres in the Sixteenth Century." Musica disciplina 39 (1985): 107-68.

Index classifications: 1500s

Del Mar, Norman. "The Chamber Operas. III. The Beggar's Opera." In Benjamin Britten: A Commentary on His Works from a Group of Specialists, ed. Donald Mitchell and Hans Keller, 163-85. London: Rockliff, 1952; reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972.

In 1948, Britten composed his realization of the The Beggar's Opera. Of the realizations made of this opera, Britten's was the first to use so many of the original songs, sixty-six of the sixty-nine airs. His realizations range from supplying original accompaniments to the development of operatic forms such as melodramas, scenas, and finales based on one or more tunes. The airs as treated by Britten may be classified ino six categories: (1) "Straight setting" (similar to his folksong settings); (2) "Straight settings, but with the phrases of the air spaced apart"; (3) "Straight settings, but with the melody itself treated freely"; (4) "Settings in which the air is worked into an elaborate, but formally concise, musical scheme" (subdivided into numbers with and without chorus); (5) "Settings embodied in larger musical designs" (numbers with introductions and codas based on original material derived from the airs); and (6) "Settings in which two or more airs are used in combination." As part of his settings, Britten was able to retain the original keys of a large number of the airs. He also restored Macheath's role from a baritone, as it had been sung for several years, to the original tenor.

Works: Benjamin Britten: The Beggar's Opera. (NS)

Index classifications: 1900s

Del Mar, Norman. Richard Strauss: A Critical Commentary on His Life and Works. 3 vols. London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1962, 1969, and 1972.

Throughout this thorough examination of Strauss's life and works, musical borrowings are cited in music of every genre in which Strauss composed. There is a separate list of self quotations for Ein Heldenleben in vol. 1, p. 177. (FT)

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Delage, Roger, and F. Durif. "Emmanuel Chabrier en Espagne." Revue de musicologie 56, no.2 (1970): 175-207.

Chabrier's excursion to Spain proved to be highly influential on his style. In letters sent to his friends and family, he recounts experiences and notates music later utilized inEspaña , including melodic ideas and distinctive regional dance rhythms. (EH)

Index classifications: 1800s

Delage, Roger. "Ravel and Chabrier." The Musical Quarterly 61 (October 1975): 546-52.

Ravel himself acknowledged his great debt to the music of Chabrier. There are few works by Ravel which do not to some extent echo one or another work by Chabrier. Some specific allusions are noted. Ravel's harmonic procedures are also influenced by Chabrier.

Works: Ravel: Pavane pour une infante défunte (547), Jeux d'eau (550), "Ondine" and "Scarbo" from Gaspard de la Nuit (550), Alborada del graciozo (550), Rapsodie espagnole (550), Vocalise en forme de habanera (550), La Valse (550), Histories naturelles (551). (DCB)

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Deleméa, Frédéric. "La Silva, RV 734: Ombres et lumières sur l'opéra milanais de Vivaldi." Studi vivaldiani 1 (2001): 27-117.

Index classifications: 1700s

Demers, Joanna. "Sampling the 1970s in Hip-Hop." Popular Music 22 (January 2003): 41-56.

Index classifications: 1900s, Popular

Denker, Fred H. "A Study of the Transition from the Cantus Firmus Mass to the Parody Mass." Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 1951.

Index classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Dennison, Peter. "Elgar and Wagner." Music and Letters 66 (April 1985): 93-109.

The music of Wagner exerted a strong influence on Elgar. This influence is evident in the thematic cohesion and chromatic harmony of Elgar's music. It is also evident in the many allusions and reminiscences of particular passages in Wagner, listed here in pairs (Elgar/Wagner): (1) Froissart, Op. 19/love duet from Die Walküre and "Prize Song" from Die Meistersinger; (2) The Black Knight, Op. 25/Prelude to Siegfried and "magic sleep" from the Ring; (3) The Light of Life, Op. 29/Act 2/2 and Act 3/2 from Parsifal; (4) Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf, Op. 3O/Die Meistersinger; (5) Te Deum/"trial song" from Die Meistersinger; (6) Caractacus/the "ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre, Act 2 from Die Meistersinger, Act 2 from Siegfried, and Tannhäuser; (7) The Dream of Gerontius, Op. 38/start of Parsifal and the "ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre; (8) Second Symphony, Tristan (final cadential progression). Most of these allusions are probably subconscious, although Elgar was consciously aware of the significance of Wagner to his creative workings. Wagner had a profound influence on Elgar, especially in his first two periods of composition. Elgar had the opportunity to both hear and perform many of Wagner's works, and Dennison discusses these and Elgar's comments on Wagner in great detail. Many of Elgar's quotations from Wagner only bear superficial resemblance. Very often, however, Elgar uses a Wagnerian leitmotif in passages with similar programmatic or dramatic implications. Elgar is also heavily indebted to Wagner for many compositional techniques. In his later compositions Elgar does not rely on Wagner as often, but sometimes draws specific parallels for dramatic or psychological effect. Dennison includes an appendix of works by Wagner heard or performed by Elgar.

Works: Elgar: The Black Knight, Op. 25; The Light of Life, Op. 29; Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf, Op. 30; Te Deum and Benedictus, Op. 34; Caractacus, Op. 35; The Dream of Gerontius, Op. 38; Second Symphony, Op 63. (DCB/WPS)

Index classifications: 1900s

Dennison, Peter. "Reminiscence and Recomposition in Tippett." The Musical Times 126 (January 1985): 13-18.

Michael Tippett used musical borrowing in his compositions to create extramusical meanings through the quotation of pre-existent music. Many of his works borrow from external and internal sources. His procedures varied from simple quotation within the context of an original work to complex recomposition of another composer's work. He began through the application of variation technique and quotation, as in the Piano Sonata No. 1 and A Child of Our Time, in which he used spirituals, respectively. Beginning in the Divertimento on Sellinger's Round, Tippett placed the pre-existent material in each of the five movements either complete or transformed. Recomposition was applied to two Corelli works in the Fantasia Concertante on a Theme of Corelli. Tippett abandoned such borrowing practices for a substantial period of time, but later returned to them, though tempered by a severe, economic sense, as in The Knot Garden. Tippett then moved into a borrowing practice based on unification in which a web of compositions is thematically connected through self-quotation, beginning with his Symphony No. 4 and continuing into The Mask of Time. Tippett's borrowing techniques consisted of a vast range of dramatic and poetic techniques to create powerful meanings within his compositions.

Works: Tippett: Piano Sonata No. 1 (13), Fantasia on a Theme of Handel (13), A Child of Our Time (13), Suite for the Birthday of Prince Charles (13), The Midsummer Marriage (13), Divertimento on Sellinger's Round (15), The Mask of Time (15, 17-18), Fantasia Concertante on a Theme of Corelli (15), The Knot Garden (16), Songs for Dov (16), Symphony No. 3 (16-17), Triple Concerto (17).

Sources: Tippett: Suite for the Birthday of Prince Charles (13); Byrd: Sellinger's Round (15); Gibbons: Fantasia (15); Veni creator spiritus (15); Corelli: Concerto Grosso Op. 6, No. 2 (15), Trio Sonata Op. 3, No. 4 (15); Schubert: Die liebe Farbe (16); Beethoven: Kennst du das Land? Op. 75, No. 1 (16), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (16); Wagner: Der fliegende Holländer (16); Mussorgsky: Boris Godunov (16); Tippett: Come Unto the Yellow Sands (16), King Priam (16), String Quartet No. 4 (17), Symphony No. 4 (17-18), Triple Concerto (18); Dowland: I Saw My Lady Weep (18); Monteverdi: Ecco mororar l'onde (18). (CMH)

Index classifications: 1900s

Dent, Edward J. "The Laudi Spirituali in the 16th and 17th Centuries." Proceedings of the Musical Association 43 (1916-17): 63-92.

Index classifications: 1500s, 1600s

Deppert, Heinrich, and Rainer Zillhardt. "Ein weiteres Quodlibet im Glogauer Liederbuch." Die Musikforschung 22 (1969): 316-18.

Three one-voice German songs from the Glogauer Liederbuch--In feuers hitz (No. 39), Bruder Konrad (No. 46), and Ich sachs eins mals (No. 46)--may be combined to create a quodlibet. (FC)

Index classifications: 1400s

Derr, Ellwood. "Beethoven's Long-Term Memory of C.P.E. Bach's Rondo in E flat, W. 61/1 (1787), Manifest in the Variations in E flat for Piano, Opus 35 (1802)." The Musical Quarterly 70 (Winter 1984): 45-76.

Beethoven considered his Op. 35 to be entirely original, but in fact the theme and many significant details of the work are based upon C. P. E. Bach's Rondo in E flat. Beethoven came in contact with Bach's keyboard works in his years at Bonn. The theme of Op. 35, derived from the Bach, is also used in the Contredanse in E-flat WoO 14/7, the finale of the music for The Creatures of Prometheus, Op. 43, and the finale of the Third Symphony (Eroica). In the dynamics of long-term memory, several specific items are remembered in the context of a more general memory and reproduction of the memory involves elaboration and revision. Both of these aspects in the workings of long-term memory are evident in Beethoven's unconscious recollection of the work by Bach.

Works: Beethoven: Variations in E-flat, Op. 35 (passim), Contredanse in E-flat, WoO 14/7 (48, 53), Prometheus, Op. 43 (48).

Sources: C. P. E. Bach: Rondo in E-flat, W. 61/1 (passim). (DCB)

Index classifications: 1800s

Derr, Ellwood. "A Foretaste of the Borrowings from Haydn in Beethoven's Op. 2." In Joseph Haydn: Bericht über den Internationalen Joseph Haydn Kongress, Wien, Hofburg, 5.-12. September 1982, ed. Eva Badura-Skoda, 159-70. Munich: G. Henle, 1986.

A number of compositional procedures in the three Op. 2 piano sonatas by Beethoven appear to be derived from two 18th-century theoretical treatises, which were known to both Haydn and Beethoven. The demonstrations in Mattheson's Der vollkommene Capellmeister of creating a new melody from pre-existing isolated fragments in different keys and meters apply to Beethoven's integration and transformation of material from Haydn, to whom the sonatas are dedicated. Two songs by Haydn provide motives for the first movement of Op. 2, No. 1. Examples show that Beethoven's sonata is closely allied with material from Haydn, not only in the Matthesonian recombination of fragments but on larger-scale harmonic and melodic levels as well. [Table of musical data from Haydn found in Beethoven's Op. 2. in Appendix 1]

Works: Beethoven: Piano Sonata, Op. 2, No. 1 (164), Piano Quartet in C major WoO (164).

Sources: Haydn: "The Spirit's Song," Hob. XXVI a:30 (160-62), "Fidelity," Hob. XXVI a:40 (160-62), "The Wanderer" Hob. XXVI a:32 (164), Piano Trio in E major, Hob. XV:28 (164). (DBO)

Index classifications: 1700s

Derr, Ellwood. "Handel's Procedures for Composing with Materials from Telemann's Harmonischer Gottes-Dienst in Solomon." In Göttinger Händel-Beiträge 1, edited by Hans Joachim Marx, 116-47. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1984.

Handel's borrowings result from rhythmic and motivic similarities between the borrowed piece and the new composition. Handel was able to draw upon a large number of musical materials chosen on a musical rather than a textual basis. The transformation of these materials was a conscious application of musical craft. This method of recall is termed the "theory of resonances." In addition to borrowing similar melodic and rhythmic motives, Handel also takes portions of Telemann's work and restructures them in a craftsmanlike manner, joining blocks of musical material to produce a more integrated whole. Handel's use of Telemann's work is, therefore, not the result of "licentious whimsy," but the direct result of musical materials that Handel found attractive and amenible to further development.

Works: Handel: Solomon (117-44), Siroe (118), La Resurrezione (120-24), Belshazzar (133-36), Lotario (139-40, 144), Ezio (141-42), Ariodante (144), 12 Concerti Grossi, Op. 6 (144), Messiah (144-45), Semele (145), Joseph and His Brethren (145-46), Hercules (146), Joshua (146), Theodora (146), Jeptha (146).

Sources: Telemann: Harmonischer Gottes-Dienst (118-44); Steffani: Qui diligit Mariam (120-24); Handel: Belshazzar (124), Parnasso in Festa (125-27). (SR/WS)

Index classifications: 1700s

Derr, Ellwood. "Mozart's Transfer of the Vocal 'fermata sospesa' to his Piano-Concerto First Movements." Mozart-Jahrbuch 1 (1991): 155-63.

In nine of his piano concertos, K. 271, 413 (387a), 415 (387b), 450, 466, 467, 482, 491, and 503, Mozart used the vocal device "fermata sospesa" for the piano entrance after the first ritornello. Mozart was acquainted with this device in 1768 through J. C. Bach's aria "Cara, la dolce fiamma" in the opera Adriano in Siria, as well as various treatises of Agricola, Tosi, and C. P. E. Bach. Evidences show that before 1777, Mozart had written different elaborations on the opening "fermata sospesa" of J. C. Bach's aria as exercises. Examining the details of the "fermata sospesa" in these nine concertos illuminates the process of evolution in the usage of this device and the deviations from its vocal practice. These deviations and this development involve matters of length, harmonic design, treatment of the orchestra, and the recurrence of thematic elements from the "fermata sospesa" at other places in the piece. Mozart's "fermata sospesa" in K. 413, 415, 450 and 466 involve borrowing of musical materials from C. P. E. Bach and J. C. Bach; K. 467, 482 and 503 involve self-borrowing from his other piano concertos.

Works: Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-flat Major, K. 271 (157-58, 160), Piano Concerto No. 11 in F Major, K. 413 (157-59, 160), Piano Concerto No. 13 in C Major, K. 415 (158-59, 160), Piano Concerto No. 15 in B-flat Major, K. 450 (157-58, 160), Piano Concerto No. 20 in D Minor, K. 466 (158-59, 160), Piano Concerto No. 21 in C Major, K. 467 (158, 161), Piano Concerto No. 22 in E flat Major, K. 482 (159, 161), Piano Concerto No. 24 in C Minor, K. 491 (158-59, 161), Piano Concerto No. 25 in C Major, K. 503 (159-61).

Sources: C. P. E. Bach: Trio in B-flat Major, H. 584/ii (160); J. C. Bach: Keyboard Concerto in C Major, Op. 1 No. 5/i (160), "Cara, la dolce fiamma" from Adriano in Siria (160), Keyboard Concerto in D Major, Op. 13 No. 2/iii (161); Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 22 in E-flat Major, K. 482/i (161), Piano Concerto No. 16 in D Major, K. 451/i (161). (TC)

Index classifications: 1700s

Deutsch, Walter. "'Volkstümliche' Wirkungen in der Musik Joseph Haydn." Musikerziehung 14 (1960): 88-92.

Index classifications: 1700s

DeVeaux, Scott. The Birth of Bebop: A Social and Musical History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

This book examines the development of bebop from artistic, social, and commercial perspectives, beginning in the Swing Era and progressing through the 1940s. The repertory at jam sessions in the early 1940s was based primarily on a few familiar chord progressions, notably the blues, Gershwin's I Got Rhythm, and a handful of other pop song "standards" of which How High the Moon and Whispering were among the most frequently used. The economics of the recording industry promoted the composition of new melodies over existing chord progressions; having a new, colorful title would attract buyers, and by calling it a new work the record company could avoid paying royalties to the copyright owners of the song from which the chord progression was taken. In addition to using existing chord progressions in new songs, bebop musicians often borrowed material from each other and incorporated it into new compositions and arrangements. Moreover, musical borrowing in the form of quotation within improvised solos was both a ubiquitous and a controversial presence in bebop. Charlie Parker frequently inserted clearly recognizable quotations from jazz or popular sources into solos in live performance, but some performers criticized Parker for diluting his music. In other instances, European art music directly influenced jazz: stride pianists used materials from opera or "light classics" in a new idiom. For some bebop musicians, borrowing (or at least recognizing borrowings) was less important. Struggles over the definition of "the work" pervade any discussion of quotation in jazz, and such discussion must recognize the multiple "composers" at work in a jazz performance: the nominal composer who notates a song, and the improviser who re-composes the score in live performance.

Works: Thelonious Monk: The Theme (224), Rhythm-a-Ning (224), 52nd Street Theme (292), Hackensack (403): Dizzy Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (292, 421), Things to Come (433): Coleman Hawkins: Mop Mop (292, 306-7), Rainbow Mist (309), Father Co-operates (326), Bean at the Met (326), On the Bean (330), Stumpy (330), Rifftide (390), Bean Stalking (394), Too Much of a Good Thing (401), Bean Soup (403-5), Hollywood Stampede (404-5); Charlie Parker: Red Cross (307, 374); Benny Harris: Ornithology (323, 382); Howard McGhee: New Orleans Jump (362), Sportsman?s Hop (391, 393); Billy Eckstine: Good Jelly Blues (341-3, 424); Jerome Kern: All the Things You Are (342-43, 424).

Sources: George Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (203, 224, 292, 305, 306-7, 326, 374, 421), Lady Be Good (390, 403); Nancy Hamilton and Morgan Lewis: How High the Moon (305, 323, 326, 382); John Schonberger, Malvin Schonberger, and Richard Coburn: Whispering (305, 330); Edward Heyman, Robert Sour, Frank Eyton, and Johnny Green: Body and Soul (309); Dizzy Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (326-28), Be-Bop (362, 404-5, 433), Groovin' High (403-5); Rachmaninoff: Prelude in C-Sharp Minor (342-43, 424); Igor Stravinsky: Petrouchka (360n); Benny Goodman, Edgar Sampson, Clarence Profit, and Walter Hirsch: Lullaby in Rhythm (391, 393); Jesse A. Stone: Idaho (394); Kay Swift and Paul James: Fine and Dandy (401); Ben Bernie, Ken Casey, and Maceo Pinkard: Sweet Georgia Brown (404-5); Benny Harris: Ornithology (404-5); Vincent Youmans and Irving Caesar: Tea for Two (405); Billy Eckstine: Good Jelly Blues (424). (PEK/Alisa White)

Index classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Dienst, Karl. "Die 'Marseiller Hymne der Reformazion.'" Zeitschrift der Luther-Gesellschaft 59, no. 1 (1988): 29-44.

Luther's chorale Ein feste Burg represents not only a religious message but also a symbol of the identity of all Protestants. Its many settings reflect both its religious and its cultural impact. Many composers identified with the revolutionary spirit the Reformation and saw the potential of the tune as a symbol of the time and its historical significance. Depending on the political context in which composers used the tune, the meaning of it changed. For example, Meyerbeer used it in Les Huguenots as a gesture to Protestantism, even though the tune was not necessarily a historical emblem for Huguenots. Mendelssohn's symphonic setting added a programmatic element to the tune. Debussy, on the other hand, used the tune in wartime by evoking it as a symbol of German aggression. He juxtaposed the tune with French anthem, La Marseillaise, which musically triumphs over Ein feste Burg in the end. The various settings of the tune also allow it to assume a multifarious spectrum in that it can be meaningful in an ecumenical sense. Essentially, it became a "banner Lied" for faithful believers and critics across centuries of use.

Works: Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (36); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (37-39); Debussy: En blanc et noir (39-40).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (29-34, 40-41). (KJL)

Index classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Diether, Jack. "The Expressive Content of Mahler's Ninth: An Interpretation." Chord and Discord 2, no. 10 (1963): 69-107.

In Mahler's later works, and in particular his Ninth Symphony, he often employed brief quotations from his songs. He used musical rather than verbal quotations, implying the emotional content of the original rather than directly stating an image. As this "thematic allusion" recurs, it gains greater significance, and its meaning differs at each occurence, a technique that Mahler initiated. An example of this technique is found in the web of "subtle but pregnant interconnections" within the Ninth Symphony, especially highlighting Mahler's reuse of a theme from the final line of Das Lied von der Erde.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 9, Symphony No. 5 (70).

Sources: Mahler: Kindertotenlieder (70), Urlicht (70), Das Lied von der Erde (72-77, 101), Symphony No. 3 (92), Symphony No. 8 (93, 101, 104-05); Bruckner: Symphony No. 9 (98). (SR)

Index classifications: 1900s

Dill, Heinz J. "Romantic Irony in the Works of Robert Schumann." The Musical Quarterly 73 ([Spring] 1989): 172-95.

Irony in Schumann is explained by comparing his compositional techniques with those found in Heinrich Heine and Jean Paul Richter. In Romantic literature, irony resulted from the principle that the author should hold a position above the work and himself; he should not unconsciously get lost in the creative process but control it by introducing a stage of consciousness, which is achieved by irony. Irony breaks up coherent units, as does quotation in a musical piece; it creates dialectical tension. For Schumann, quotation (irony) solved another problem: it imbued Classic rhetoric with new life, and at the same time freed him of the demand for "desperate independence" from his predecessors.

Works: Schumann: Carnaval (176, 186-87), Intermezzo, Op. 4, No. 2 (176), Symphony No. 2 (176, 179), Fantasy in C Major (176), Papillons (176), Faschingsschwank aus Wien (176), Die beiden Grenadiere (176), Davidsbündlertänze (176, 186-87), Piano Sonata in F-sharp Minor (178-79).

Sources: Schubert: Gretchen am Spinnrade (176); Schumann: Carnaval (176, 187), Papillons (176, 187); Beethoven: An die ferne Geliebte (176,179); (176-77); Rouget de Lisle: Marseillaise (176-77). (AG)

Index classifications: 1800s

Dobbins, Frank. "'Doulce Mémoire': A Study of the Parody Chanson." Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 96 (1969-70): 85-101.

The many versions of Pierre Sandrin's "Doulce mémoire" reveal the concept of competitive setting amongst Renaissance composers. First published ca. 1537-8, Sandrin's piece spawned many textual and musical parodies. The textual parodies include: a "response" by Certon which draws heavily on the text and rhyme scheme of the original; numerous contrafacta, especially for spiritual purposes; and references in the French theatre. There are at least ten musical parodies: two- and three-part versions, likely meant for pedagogical purposes, as well as four- and six-part settings. Its material is used in Mass and Magnificat settings by Clemens non Papa, Cipriano da Rore, and Orlando de Lassus. Lastly, "Doulce mémoire" was turned into many instrumental intabulations and divisions.

Works: Francesco de Layolle: Doulce mémoire (93-4); Pierre de Manchicourt: Doulce mémoire (94); Antoine Gardane: Doulce mémoire (95); Josquin Baston: Doulce mémoire (95); Anonymous: Doulce mémoire (95); Buus: Doulce mémoire (95-6); Clemens non Papa: Magnificat primi toni; Cipriano da Rore: Mass on Doulce mémoire; Lassus: Missa ad imitationem moduli Doulce mémoire. (JFA)

Index classifications: 1500s

Dobbins, Frank. "Lassus--Borrower or Lender: The Chansons." Revue belge de musicologie 39-40 (1985-86): 101-57.

Although Lassus was familiar with the chansons of his immediate predecessors, he was not much influenced by their musical settings. Lassus' earlier pieces made a large impact on certain composers of the younger generation, but his later works, while showing greater literary sensitivity, were not generally adopted as models. An annotated listing of all of Lassus' 147 surviving chanson settings is provided, with commentary on each. (FC)

Index classifications: 1500s

Döhring, Sieghart. "Reminiscences: Liszts Konzeption der Klavierparaphrase." In Festschrift Heinz Becker zum 60. Geburtstag am 26. Juni 1982, ed. Jürgen Schläder and Reinhold Quandt, 131-51. Bochum: Laaber-Verlag, 1982.

In evaluations of Liszt's works his keyboard transcriptions and paraphrases are often ignored or considered only for their advances in pianistic techique. The analyses of three paraphrases, all composed in 1841 and called Reminiscences, reveal Liszt's unique formal approach to each. His results superseded mere objective recounting of popular themes; instead, Liszt produced condensed, subjective interpretations of the original operatic works, expressed in pure keyboard style.

Works: Liszt: Reminiscences de Norma (132-36), Reminiscences de Don Juan (136-39), Reminiscences de Robert le Diable (140-47). (AW)

Index classifications: 1800s

Dömling, Wolfgang. "Collage und Kontinuum: Bemerkungen zu Gustav Mahler und Richard Strauss." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 133 (1972): 131-34.

Index classifications: 1900s

Dömling, Wolfgang. "'En songeant au temps . . . à l'espace': Über einige Aspekte der Musik Hector Berlioz." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 33 (1976): 241-60.

Several features of Berlioz's music create an effect of discontinuity, among which is quotation. Specific instances include the offstage use of the Dies Irae and the quotation of the "aeolian harp" section (originally in La Mort d'Orphée) in Lélio. (WPS)

Index classifications: 1800s

Dömling, Wolfgang. "Isorhythmie und Variation: Über Kompositionstechniken in der Messe Guillaume de Machauts." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 28, no. 1 (1971): 24-32.

Index classifications: 1400s

Doonan, Michael. "The Pilgrim's Progress: An Analytical Study and Case for the Performance of the Opera by Ralph Vaughan Williams." D.M.A. diss., Indiana University, 1975.

Chapters II ("Musical Symbolism: The Use of Leitmotivic Symbols and Motto Tunes") and V ("The RVW Style as Manifested in This Work") contain information about his use of borrowed materials. Among the materials Vaughan Williams incorporates into the opera are the hymn tunes York and Lasst uns erfreuen and Thomas Tallis's Third Mode Melody.

Works: Vaughan Williams: The Pilgrim's Progress. (RCL)

Index classifications: 1900s

Dos Santos, Silvio José. "Marriage as Prostitution in Berg's Lulu." The Journal of Musicology 25 (Spring 2008): 143-82.

Index classifications: 1900s

Downes, Olin. "Porgy Fantasy: R. R. Bennett Makes Symphonic Work from Gershwin Opera." New York Times, 15 November 1942, 7 (VIII).

Robert Russell Bennett's Porgy and Bess: A Symphonic Picture for Orchestra is similar to his "symphonic synopsis" of Jerome Kern's Show Boat. Bennett did not alter Gershwin's melodies or his orchestration. Bennett did compose new material for the work, in the form of "connective tissue" to link the various sections together. He did not present the excerpts in order, but began with the Second Act, moving to the Third, and finally back to the First and to the well-known songs.

Works: Robert Russell Bennett: Porgy and Bess: A Symphonic Picture for Orchestra (7).

Sources: Gershwin: Porgy and Bess (7). (MEG)

Index classifications: 1900s

Downes, Stephen. "Hans Werner Henze as Post-Mahlerian: Anachronism, Freedom, and the Erotics of Intertextuality." Twentieth-Century Music 1 (September 2004): 179-207.

Beginning in the early 1960s, Hans Werner Henze began to take a special interest in the music of Gustav Mahler, particularly Mahler's exploration of form, his use of earlier music, and his music's connection to personal experience. It was at this time that Henze began to transition away from the Darmstadt school and move towards a more expressive idiom. This can be seen in Henze's Being Beauteous (1963) and The Bassarids (1965), both of which borrow from Mahler's Fifth Symphony. Being Beauteous draws from the Adagietto of Mahler's Fifth Symphony, and The Bassarids draws from the fourth movement. These intertextual connections exemplify both a transition in Henze's music and also a portrait of how Henze conceived of the importance of Mahler's music.

Works: Hans Werner Henze: Being Beauteous (183-98, 203), The Bassarids (198-204).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (185-93, 199-201). (KO)

Index classifications: 1900s

Drabkin, William. "Beethoven, Liszt, and the 'Missa solemnis.'" In Liszt and the Birth of Modern Europe, ed. Michael Saffle and Rossana Dalmonte, 237-52. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2003.

Although Liszt's Missa solemnis (1853) is indebted to Beethoven's Missa solemnis (1823), Liszt did not "appropriate" Beethoven's techniques but differentiated his work. Liszt's admiration for Beethoven's music is well illustrated in the fact that he frequently performed, conducted, and taught Beethoven's works. Liszt would have used Beethoven's Missa solemnis as a model for his first large-scale choral piece, written for the consecration of a new basilica. There are several musical parallels, movement by movement, between Beethoven's and Liszt's masses. As an example of the structural parallels, the two composers distinguished the Credo from other movements tonally. In scoring, the similar opening in the two Kyries goes beyond mere coincidence, yet after that Liszt deploys a distant key while Beethoven uses a home key. In thematic relationships, Liszt distinguished himself from Beethoven?s thematic recall and transformation in contrast with Beethoven's use of different themes for each movement as well as his limited recall of thematic motives. Liszt's references to Beethoven?s monumental piece are a natural outcome of his seeking the model for a cyclic mass; in that genre, Beethoven?s serves as an essential model.

Works: Liszt: Missa solemnis (240-46, 248-52).

Sources: Beethoven: Missa solemnis (240, 247-52). (HJK)

Index classifications: 1800s

Drabkin, William. A Reader's Guide to Haydn's Early String Quartets. Reader's Guides to Musical Genres 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Index classifications: 1700s

Dratwicki, Alexandre, and Cécile Duflo. "Divertissements et quadrilles sous l'Empire et la Restauration." Revue de musicologie 90, no. 1 (2004): 5-54.

Index classifications: 1800s

Dreyfuss, Anny Kessous. "D'un Psaume de Benedetto Marcello à une Mélodie juive de Charles Valentin Alkan: Le parcours d'un Air." Acta Musicologica 78 (2006): 55-74.

Index classifications: 1800s

Dubitsky, Franz. "'Ein feste Burg' und 'B-A-C-H' in Werken der Tonkunst." Musikalisches Magazin 61 (1914): 3-22.

Luther's Ein feste Burg resembles the B-A-C-H motive in that it signifies something outside of its musical character. In addition, Ein feste Burg begins with four memorable notes, comparable not only to the four notes of B-A-C-H but also to the striking four-note opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. Insofar as Ein feste Burg has a broader function outside of its musical characteristics, it epitomizes the powerful and energetic voice of evangelical Christianity, in a tradition began by Luther. Bach felt deeply moved by the religious sentiments of the tune and set it in a cantata with eight movements. Meyerbeer altered the tune more than Bach did and subjected it to various musical treatments, including theme and variations as well as parody, in Les Huguenots. The Romantic generation in particular responded to the tune in various compositional manners, especially by means of reinstrumentation and paraphrase technique, including settings by Mendelssohn, Nicolai, and many others. Wagner set the tune in his Kaisermarsch in order to evoke the sense of driving away the enemy. All of these settings discussed seek to maintain the spirit of the tune. The prolific uses of the tune reinforce the religious connotations that Luther intended. Although the B-A-C-H motive is not specifically associated with a source, many composers, including Schumann, Rimsky-Korsakov, Liszt, and others incorporate it in various ways into their works.

Works: J. S. Bach: Ein feste Burg, BWV 720 (7); Beethoven: Gott ist eine feste Burg, WoO 188 (7); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (8); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (9-10); Nicolai: Kirchliche Fest-Ouvertüre über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Heinrich Karl Breidenstein: Grosse Variationen über "Ein feste Burg" für Orgel (10); Friedrich Lux: "Ein feste Burg" Konzertfantasie für Orgel (10); H. Schellenberg: Fantasie über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Karl Stern: Präludium und Fuge über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Karl August Fischer: Präludium und Fuge über "Ein feste Burg" für Orgel mit Blasinstrumenten (10); Wagner: Kaisermarsch (11); Raff: Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, Op. 127 (11-12); Reinecke: Zur Reformationsfeier (12); Heinrich Schulz-Beuthen: Reformationssinfonie (12); Richard Bartmuss: Liturgischen Feiern No. 5, Reformation (13); Heinrich Pfannschmidt: Reformationsfestspeil (13); Hans Fährmann: Fantasie und Doppelfuge für Orgel über "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott," Op. 28 (13); Reger: Chorale fantasia "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (14), Schumann: Sechs Fugen über den Namen Bach, Op. 60 (16-17); Rimsky-Korsakov: Sechs Stücker über BACH, Op. 10 (17-18); Liszt: Präludium und Fuge über Bach (18-19); Wilhelm Middelschultes: Kanonische Fantasie über BACH und Fugue über vier Themen von J. S. Bach (19); Hans Fährmann: Orgelsonata in B moll, Op. 17 (19-20), Vorspiel und Doppelfuge für Orgel (20); Georg Schumann: Passacaglia und Finale für Orgel, Op. 39 (20).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (7-8). (KJL)

Index classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Duffy, Kathryn Ann Pohlmann. "The Jena Choirbooks: Music and Liturgy at the Castle Church in Wittenberg under Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1995.

Index classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Dunning, Albert. "Josquini antiquos, Musae, memoremus amores: A Mantuan Motet from 1554 in Homage to Josquin." Acta Musicologica 41 (January/June 1969): 108-18.

The compositions of Josquin des Prez remained influential in the musical world long after his death. In Palestrina's time, Josquin's works were used as material for parody compositions, and his works were an integral part of the musical repertoire of Italian churches in the 16th century, as evidenced in the motet Dum vastos Adriae fluctus by Jachet di Mantova. This motet, which is primarily in the style of mid-16th-century Netherland or French composers, contains material from some of Josquin's best-known motets: Praeter seriem rerum, Stabat mater, Inviolata (et integra), Salve regina, and Miserere mei. There are no borrowings of full polyphonic sections, but merely allusions to characteristic features of the original motets, namely a motive or rhythmic pattern. Jachet then weaves these musical ideas into his motet in a free, imitative fashion.

Works: Jachet di Mantova: Dum vastos Adriae fluctus. (PRZ)

Index classifications: 1500s

Dürr, Alfred. "Gedanken zu J. S. Bachs Umarbeitungen eigener Werke." Bach-Jahrbuch 43 (1956): 93-104.

Index classifications: 1700s

Dürr, Alfred. "Neues über Bachs Pergolesi-Bearbeitung." Bach-Jahrbuch 54 (1968): 89-100.

Index classifications: 1700s


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