Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] Bent, Margaret. "Fauvel and Marigny: Which Came First?" In Fauvel Studies: Allegory, Chronicle, Music, and Image in Paris, Bibliothéque Nationale de France, MS francais 146, ed. Margaret Bent and Andrew Wathey, 35-52. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Determining the purpose and chronology of the three Marigny motets in relation to the Roman de Fauvel is difficult at best. Examination of the historical role in connection with these motets can make both the chronology and music clearer. Most important historically is their connection with and references to the downfall of Enguerran de Marigny. The evidence suggests that these motets existed before the Roman de Fauvel and were modernized with Fauvel material in order to create specifically tailored political messages.

Works: Vitry: Garrit gallus/In nova/Neuma (35-37), Aman novi/Heu Fortuna/Heu me (36, 38), Tribum que non abborruit/Quoniam secta latronum/Merito (36).

Sources: Floret/Florens (39); Heu Fortuna from Roman de Fauvel (43).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Rebecca Dowsley

[+] Bukofzer, Manfred F. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1950.

Understanding a wide breadth of material is essential in comprehending the music and musical practices of both the medieval and renaissance periods. Practices of musical borrowing underwent many changes throughout the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. In chapter one, a comparison of two fourteenth-century motets, Deus militum/De Flore martyrum/Ave Rex gentis and Ave miles/Ave rex patrone/Ave Rex shows how two different pieces borrowed from the same plainchant melody. Both tenors begin the same way, then diverge by adopting two contrasting rhythmic patterns. The Fountains Fragment, as is described in detail in chapter three, preserves various polyphonic pieces which illustrate the manner in which plainchant was transformed into these newer pieces, producing a much different affect primarily through rhythmic means. Chapter seven focuses on the basse dance as people in the fourteenth century used it: not for dancing, but for liturgical pieces. Overall, many transformations occurred in music over the span of these four centuries, and much of this centered on some form of borrowing practices.

Works: Motet: Deus tuorum militum/De Flore martyrum/Ave Rex gentis (17-33), Ave miles/Ave rex patrore/Ave Rex (17-29); Anonymous Mass in British Museum, Add. 40011 B and Old Hall (102-11); Leonel Power: Missa Alma redemptoris (223-24).

Sources: Antiphon: Antiphonale Sarisburiense (18-29), Ave regina caelorum, mater regis (18-29); Plainchant: British Museum, Add. 40011 B Sanctus No. 7 (102-11), British Museum, Add. 40011 B Agnus No. 11 (102-11); Basse dance: La Spagna (191-212).

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300, 1300s

Contributed by: Rebecca Dowsley

[+] Butterfield, Ardis. "The Refrain and the Transformation of Genre in the Roman de Fauvel." In Fauvel Studies: Allegory, Chronicle, Music, and Image in Paris, Bibliothéque Nationale de France, MS francais 146, ed. Margaret Bent and Andrew Wathey, 105-60. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Borrowed refrains play a central role in the Roman de Fauvel. As pieces borrow from one another, old pieces are transformed from one genre to another and are given new verbal and musical coloring. Amour don't tele est la puissance is essentially a dit á refrains on the model of Jacquemart Giélée's Renart le Nouvel, and in fact borrows three entire refrains from this source. Han Diex ou pourrai je trouvei is made up of the fourteen-line motetus split into fragments from Nevelon d'Amieus's Dit d'Amour. A surprising amount of both refrain music and text contributed significantly to this manuscript, as is illustrated by a complete catalogue.

Works: Ballade: Douce dame debonaire (106), Ay amours tant me dure (106), Amour don't tele est la puissance (110), Han Diex ou pourrai je trouvei (111-12), La Complainte Douteuse (125-26).

Sources: Roman de Fauvel (110-31); Jacquemart Giélée: Renart le Nouvel (110-11); Nevelon d'Amiens: Dit d'Amour (111-12).

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300, 1300s

Contributed by: Rebecca Dowsley

[+] Cattin, Gulio. "Contrafacta internazionali: Musiche europee per laude italiane." In Musik und Text in der Mehrstimmigkeit des 14 und 15 Jahrhunderts, ed. Ursula Günther and Ludwig Finscher, 411-42. Göttinger Musikwissenschaftliche Arbeiten 10. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1984.

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

[+] Clark, Alice V. “Vernacular Dedicatory Motets in Fourteenth-century France.” Journal of Musicological Research 20 (2000): 41-69.

Similar to some occasional motets of the fourteenth century that celebrate specific historical figures, three motets from the same period draw on the liturgical context of their borrowed tenors to refer to identifiable women. The borrowed tenors of these motets are drawn from the chants for virgin martyrs, specifically Saint Agnes and Saint Lucy. This use of non-Marian Sanctorale material in motet tenors is common for works that honor a living individual, often the namesake of the chant’s textual subject and named in the text of the upper voices. Unlike other motets of this tradition where the upper voices are Latin-texted, these three motets combine French amatory texts with their tenors, creating a hybrid genre between Latin motet and French ballade. These texts (in the voice of a male) interact with the chant text (in the voice of a female) in a way that suggests that they were originally composed as occasional pieces intended to honor a living individual rather than a martyred saint. The geographical and historical evidence suggests that these motets honored Agnès de Navarre and Lucia Bernabò Visconti.

Works: Anonymous: Tant a souttille pointure/Bien pert qu’en moy n’a d’art point/Cuius pulcritudinem sol et luna mirantur (42, 50-56); Anonymous: Se päour d’umble astinance/Diex, tan desir estre amés de m’amour/Concupisco (42, 50-56); Anonymous: L’ardure qu’endure/Tres dous espoir/Ego rogavi Deum, ut ignis iste non dominetur michi/Contratenor (42, 56-59).

Sources: Anonymous: Cuius pulcritudinem sol et luna mirantur (51-53); Anonymous: Concupisco (51-53); Anonymous: Ego rogavi Deum, ut ignis iste non dominetur michi (56-57).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Daniel Rogers

[+] Clercx-Lejeune, Suzanne. "Les débuts de la Messe unitaire et de la Missa parodia au XIVe siècle et principalement dans l'oeuvre de J. Ciconia." In L'Ars nova italiana del trecento I: Primo convengno internazionale, Cetraldo 1959, ed. Bianca Becherini, 97-104. Certaldo: Centro di studi sull'Ars nova del Trecento, 1962.

Index Classifications: 1300s

[+] Davis, Shelley. "The Solus Tenor: An Addendum." Acta Musicologica 40 (January/March 1968): 176-78.

Certain revisions concerning borrowing needed to be made to the author's original article, "The Solus Tenor in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries," which appeared in Acta Musicologica 39. A solus tenor is a line that can assume a strongly harmonic character, as demonstrated in Royllart's isorhythmic motet Rex Karole, Johannes genite/Leticie, pacis, concordie. The definitive characteristic of a motet with this kind of tenor is that it can be performed in either a three-part or a four-part setting. As in the anonymous Januam quam clauserat/Jacinctus in saltibus/Quartus cantus/Jacet granum, these pieces work equally well with either number of parts. Another interesting aspect of these works is illustrated by the motet Inter densas deserti/Imbribus irriguis/Admirabile est nomen tuum, whose tenor scholars recently determined was actually added by a later scribe. So, the piece was actually based on a different borrowed tenor than the one that currently accompanies it. In all of these pieces, the common thread is a tenor with a strong harmonic character that belongs to a motet that can function with either three or four voice parts.

Works: Royllart: Rex Karole, Johannes genite/Leticie, pacis, concordie (176-77); Motet: Inter densas deserti/Imbribus irriguis/Admirabile est nomen tuum (176); Matteo da Perugia: Gloria in Mod (177); Johannes Brassart: Magne decus potencie/Genus regule esperie (177); Motet: Januam quam clauserat/Jacinctus in saltibus/Quartus cantus/Jacet granum (178).

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Contributed by: Rebecca Dowsley

[+] Davis, Shelly. “The Solus Tenor in the 14th and 15th Centuries.” Acta Musicologica 39 (January/June 1967): 44-64.

In compositions of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the tenor and the contratenor had similar structural roles. From their structural interaction and overlap, composers extracted a new voice called the solus tenor. This new voice, which functioned as a replacement for both the tenor and the contratenor, effectively reduced a four-part composition to three. The result is that some sources transmit a particular piece with the solus tenor, others retain the tenor and contratenor, while still others transmit all three voices.

Works: Vitry: Gratissima Virginis species/Vos quid admiramini/Gaude gloriosa (45-47, 50, 53-54), Virtutibus laudabilis/Impudenter circuivi/Alma redemptoris mater (46-47, 50-51, 53); Anonymous: Gloria (48); Binchois: Dueil angoisseux, rage demeseurée (48-49); Pennard: Credo (51-52); Du Fay: Apostolo glorioso/Cum tua doctrina/Andreas Christi famulus (52, 55); Franchois: Ave Virgo lux Maria/Sancta Maria (52); Pycard: Gloria (53); Lantins: Celsa sublimatur victoria/Sabine presul dignissime (54); Anonymous: O Maria virgo davitica/O Maria maris stella (54).

Sources: Vitry: Gratissima Virginis species/Vos quid admiramini/Gaude gloriosa (45-47, 50, 53-54), Virtutibus laudabilis/Impudenter circuivi/Alma redemptoris mater (46-47, 50-51, 53); Anonymous: Gloria (48); Binchois: Dueil angoisseux, rage demeseurée (48-49); Pennard: Credo (51-52); Du Fay: Apostolo glorioso/Cum tua doctrina/Andreas Christi famulus (52, 55); Franchois: Ave Virgo lux Maria/Sancta Maria (52); Pycard: Gloria (53); Lantins: Celsa sublimatur victoria/Sabine presul dignissime (54); Anonymous: O Maria virgo davitica/O Maria maris stella (54).

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Contributed by: Daniel Rogers

[+] Everist, Mark. “Motets, French Tenors, and the Polyphonic Chanson ca. 1300.” The Journal of Musicology 24 (Summer 2007): 365-406.

The literature that considers the development of the genre of French polyphonic song around 1300 overlooks a collection of motets built on French tenors in the Montpellier Codex (F-MOf H 196), the Turin motet book (I-Tr vari 42), and the Roman de Fauvel (F-Pn fr. 146). Rather than following the style of polyphonic chanson by composers like Adam de la Halle, which includes the near homophonic setting of a single text in all voices, composers of these motets took their ideas from the compositional practices of the early motet, including the conventional treatment of overlapping musical phrases and a polytextual setting. In addition to these features, the upper voices of these motets mirror the structure of their borrowed tenors in a variety of ways and to varying degrees. Throughout this body of motets, two techniques are prominent. The first includes the adopting of the repetitive structure of the tenor in the upper voices, both musically and textually. The second prominent technique composers use to reflect the structure of the tenor in the upper voices is to retain the conventional overlapping of phrases between voices while creating song structures in all three parts.

Works: Anonymous: Tout solas et toute joie/Bone amour/Ne me blasmes (374-80); Anonymous: Dame bele et avenant/Fi, mari/Nus n’iert (380); Anonymous: Par une matinee/O clemencie/D’un joli dart (381-82); Anonymous: Entre Copin et Bourgeois/Je me cuidoie/Bele Ysabelos (382-85); Anonymous: Amours m’a pris/Bien me maine/Riens de vous vaut (382-86); Anonymous: En mai, quant rosier/L’autre jour/Hé, revelle toi (386-87); Anonymous: Au cuer ai un mal/Ja ne m’en repentiray/Jolietement (387-90); Anonymous: Au tans nouvel/Chele m’a tollu ma joie/J’ai fait tout nouvelement (391-93); Anonymous: S’on me regarde/Prennés i garde/Hé, mi enfant (391-98); Anonymous: Je voi douleur/Fauvel nous a fait present/Autant (398-400).

Sources: Anonymous: Ne me blasmes (374-80); Adam de la Halle: Fi, mari (380); Anonymous: O clemencie (381-82); Anonymous: Bele Ysabelos (382-85); Anonymous: Riens de vous vaut (383-86); Anonymous: Hé, revelle toi (386-87); Anonymous: Jolietement (387-90); Anonymous: J’ai fait tout nouvelement (391-93); Anonymous: Hé, mi enfant (391-98).

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300, 1300s

Contributed by: Daniel Rogers

[+] Finscher, Ludwig. “Parodie und Kontrafaktur (bis 1600).” Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwort, 7. 1394-1416. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1998.

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

[+] Fischer, Kurt von. "Kontrafakturen und Parodien italienischer Werke des Trecento und frühen Quattrocento." Annales Musicologiques 5 (1957): 43-59.

Bartolomeo di Bononia and Antonio Zacara da Teramo based some Mass movements on their ballate. Bartolomeo's ballata Vince con lena makes up the middle section of the corresponding Gloria. Since the composer of the Mass changed hardly anything in the source, which he incorporated as a whole, this is a case of contrafactum. Zacara, however, segmented and rearranged his ballate Rosetta che non cançi, Un fior gentil, and Deus deorum horizontally, using some of their melodic material also in the free sections. The contratenor (probably not by Zacara) may have been added later. Thus Zacara's technique denotes a transitional stage from contrafactum to the parody Masses of Ockeghem, Faugues, and Bedingham.

Works: Salve mater Jesu (45); Est illa (45); Dilectus meus misit (45); Virgo beata (45); "Kyrie" (Munich, Bayrische Staatsbibl., mus. 3232 a, fol. 58v-59) (46); motet Beatum incendium (46); Bartolomeo di Bononia: Et in terra (Oxford, Bodl. Can. misc. 213, no. 317) (47); Zacara: Et in terra Rosetta (Bologna, Conservatorio di Musica G. B. Martini, Q 15, no. 56) (47), Et in terra Fior gentil (Bologna, Conservatorio G. B. Martini, Q 15, no. 58) (47), Patrem Deus deorum (Bologna, conservatorio G. B. Martini, Q 15, no. 59) (47).

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Fuller, Sarah. "Modal Tenors and Tonal Orientation in Motets of Guillaume de Machaut." In Studies in Medieval Music: Festschrift for Ernest H. Sanders, ed. Peter M. Lefferts and Brian Seirup. Also in Current Musicology 45-47 (1990): 199-245.

Index Classifications: 1300s

[+] Fuller, Sarah. “Additional Notes on the 15th-Century Chansonnier Bologna Q16.” Musica Disciplina 23 (1969): 81-103.

The contents of the chansonnier Bologna Q16 probably originate in instrumental music from the fifteenth century. Two pieces in particular undoubtedly stem from instrumental practice. La bassa castiglia is the earliest known polyphonic setting of the basse danse and is built around the familiar tune La Spagna. The second is an arrangement of the upper voice of Dufay’s Le servitor with an additional florid tenor attributed to Hanart. In each of these settings a newly composed voice is far more elaborate than the borrowed tune. Another piece, Vostre amor, may also belong to this group, though the source of the borrowed tune is unidentified.

Works: Anonymous: La bassa castiglya (94); Hanart: Le servitor (94); Anonymous: Vostre amour (95).

Sources: Anonymous: La Spagna (94); Dufay: Le servitor (94).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Daniel Rogers

[+] Günther, Ursula. "Zitate in Französischen Liedsätzen der Ars Nova und Ars Subtilior." Musica Disciplina 26 (1972): 53-68.

In the fourteenth century, composers of the isorhythmic motet often borrowed the text of a preexisting composition's refrain and stated it at the beginning and/or end of a new composition. These pieces, called motet entées, often alluded to the musical structure and melody of the model as well. Composers sometimes used these quotations as a means of paying homage to another musician. (The most notable of these motets, Ciconia's Sus un fontayne, quotes three ballads by De Caserta.) By the end of the fourteenth century, the art of quotation died out in France, both in the literary and musical realms.

Works: Anonymous: Ma dame m'a congié douné, Dame qui fust si tres bien assenée (55, 61), Je la remirey, la belle greift (60), Pour vous revëoir (61); Andrieus: Armes, amours, dames, chevalerie (58); Anthonello: Dame d'onour (59); Bossu: Jeu du Pélerin (53); Ciconia: Aler m'en veus en strange paartie (62, 66); Sus un fontayne (62-6, 68), Le ray au soleil (65, 67), Quod jacatur (67); Deschamps: Qui saroit bien que c'est d'Amour servir (58); Devise: A bon droyt (65); Vitry: En Albion de fluns environnée (56); Dufay: La belle se siet (68); Franciscus: Phiton, Phiton, beste tres venimeuse (56); Froissart: Ne quier veoir Medée ne Jason, Je puis moult bien ma dame comparer (57), Tresor amoureux, En servant armes et amours (58); Machaut: On ne porroit pen ser ne souhaidier, Jugement dou Roy de Navare, Tant com je vivray, sans meffaire (54); Taillandier: Se Dedalus an sa gaye mestrie (56-7); Trebor: En seumeillant (58). Sources: Andrieus: Armes, amours, dames, chevalerie (58); Caserta: En remirant (62), En atendant (62,64-6), De ma dolour (62, 65); De la Halle: Tant com je vivray (54); De la Mote: Dyodonas (56); Froissart: D'armes, d'amours et de moralité (58); Machaut: Li Regret Guillaume, Comte de Hainaut (54), Se je me planig, je n'en puis mais (55), De fortune me doy plaindre et loer, Phyton, le mervilleus serpent (56), Ne quier vëoir, Je puis trop bien ma dame comparer (57), Prisonnés, Je la remirey sans mesure (60), Soit tart, tempre, main et soir (61), Puis qu'en oubli sui de vous (62); Vaillants: Par maintes foys (59).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Dana Gorzelany

[+] Handschin, Jacques. "Zur Frage der melodischen Paraphrasierung im Mittelalter." Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft 10 (1927-28): 513-59.

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300, Polyphony to 1300, 1300s

[+] Harrison, Frank Llewellyn. Music in Medieval Britain. London: Routledge and Paul, 1958. 2nd ed., London: Routledge and Paul, 1963.

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300, Polyphony to 1300, 1300s, 1400s

[+] Hoppin, Richard H. "Reflections on the Origin of the Cyclic Mass." In Liber Amicorum Charles van den Borren, ed. Albert Vander Linden, 85-92. Anvers: Imprimerie Lloyd Anversois, 1964.

In contrast to the long-held view that the cyclic mass originated in polyphonic settings, it has recently been demonstrated by Leo Schrade that unified cycles of plainchant masses existed for several hundred years before the first documented polyphonic mass. The argument can be strongly made, however, that these early plainchant masses were unified far more by liturgical considerations than by musical ones. An exception to this may be six plainchant masses found in the Cypriot manuscript, in which each mass is unified by general similarities of melodic style and use of a single mode. Although this concept may not have originated with these works, if the 1413 dating of the Cypriot manuscript is correct, then these six masses predate any known complete polyphonic mass cycles.

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Contributed by: Sherri Winks

[+] Hoppin, Richard H. "The Cypriot-French Repertory of the Manuscript Torino, Biblioteca Nazionale, J. II. 9." Musica disciplina 11 (1957): 79-125.

The repertory of the Cypriot manuscript developed at the court of Cyprus as various court poets contributed poems that were borrowed and used in musical compositions. These works draw from a good deal of the same literature for their references, and consistently refer to characters from Greek mythology such as Jason, Medea, Pygmalion, and Oedipus. Contrary to earlier scholarship, some similarities between this repertory and music of the west do exist. Strong textual and formal similarities exist between the anonymous motet Toustans que mon esprit mire and Machaut's Lay de Notre Dame. Both focus especially on simultaneous appearances of sustained notes. Incessanter expectari/Virtutis ineffabilis also bears a strong textual connection with Vitry's Impudenter circuivi. This repertory does in fact bear connections with western music.

Works: Motet: Toustans que mon esprit mire (96-97), Incessanter expectari/Virtutis ineffabilis (98-99).

Sources: Machaut: Lay de Notre Dame (96); Vitry: Impudenter circuivi (98-99).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Rebecca Dowsley

[+] Huestis, Robert LeLand. "Contrafacta, Parodies, and Instrumental Arrangements from The Ars Nova." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1300s

[+] Jackson, Roland. "Musical Interrelations between Fourteenth Century Mass Movements (A Preliminary Study)." Acta Musicologica 29 (April/September 1957): 54-64.

The Agnus Dei in the Cambrai m.s. Communale 1328 served as the model for the Sanctus of the Sorbonne Mass and the Sanctus of the Ivrea Mass. A close analysis of their musical relationships, including a comparison of their formal design, texture, motivic treatment and direct musical correspondences, reveals the exact order of their composition. Superior formal coherence and clarity of design suggest the Cambrai was the model that was later expanded by the composer of the Ivrea with frequent interpolations and condensed by the composer of the Sorbonne, who omits large blocks of material. Professor Schrade's (1955) contention that there is a relationship between the Gloria of the Sorbonne Mass and the Credo of the Ivrea is somewhat tenuous; however, such a relationship does exist between a Sanctus from the Apt Manuscript and a Kyrie and Patrem from the Ivrea Manuscript. Based on a comparison of the shared musical material, formal structure, and melodic complexity, one can conclude that the Patrem was either the original upon which the other two were based or it was the link between them. These two examples prove that the parody technique existed in the fourteenth century. These movements should not be considered a precursor to parody, but rather as a separate technique.

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Dana Gorzelany

[+] Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. "Compositional Procedure in the Four-Part Isorhythmic Works of Philippe de Vitry and His Contemporaries." Ph.D. diss., University of Cambridge, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1300s

[+] Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. "Related Motets from Fourteenth-Century France." Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 109 (1982-83): 1-22.

A comparison of Ars nova motets by De Vitry and Machaut and their contemporaries, shows they are closely related by compositional detail. Comparable external stylistic features and constructional formulae suggest a link between the works of each composer, as well as a link between the two. The features that link these works are the type a composer may borrow either from another composer or from one of his own preexisting works. Related features include color length, quantity of chant notes, and integer valor length. The application of similar compositional strategies suggests these motets were composed during the same period. Although these findings do not reveal a concrete chronology, or provide definitive answers in regards to attribution, they do suggest that the isorhythmic repertoire, pre-1365, was the output of a small group of composers who knew each others' work.

Works: Vitry: Cum/Hugo/Magister invidie (1-2, 16, 19), Tuba/In arboris/Virgo sum (1-2, 11-13, 15-16, 18, 20), O Canenda/Rex/Rex regum (2, 11, 16); Vos/Gratissima/Gaude gloriosa (2,16,19), Impudenter/Virtutibus/Alma redemptoris mater (2-3, 6, 8-9, 12-13, 16, 18), Colla/Bona/Libera me (2, 6, 16, 19), Douce/Garison/Neuma (5-6, 16), Petre/Lugentium (9, 14, 18); Machaut: Christe/Veni/Tribulatio (3-4, 14, 16), Tu qui/Plange/ Apprehende (3,16), Felix/Inviolata/Ad te suspiramus (3-4, 16), Amours/Faus/Vidi Dominum (4, 14), Bone/Bone/Bone pastor (4, 12, 14, 16, 19), Aucune/Qui/Fiat voluntas tua (5-6 16, 19-20), Tout/De souspirant/Suspiro (13-14, 16, 19), Qui es/Ha fortune/Et non est qui adjuvet (12, 16-17, 19), Hareu/Hareu/Obediens usque ad mortem (12); Ivrea/Anon.: In virtute/Decens/Clamour meus (3, 5-6, 8, 16, 18-19), Flos/Celsa/Quam magnus pontifex (6, 11-12, 16-19), Fortune/Ma doloreus/Tristis est anima mea (6, 12, 14, 16, 19), A vous/Ad te/Regnem mundi (6, 15, 16, 17, 19), Rachel/Ha fratres (6, 12, 16-19), Almifonis/Rosa (6, 12-14, 16, 20), Amer/Durement/Dolour meus (6, 12-14, 16), Se paour/Diex/Concupisco (6, 12, 14-15, 16, 19,), Zolomina/Nazerea/Ave Maria (7, 12, 16-17, 19), Trop/Par Sauvage (7, 12, 16-17, 19), L'amoureuse/En l'estat (7, 12, 15-17), Mon chant/Qui doloreus/Tristis est anima mea (7, 12, 16-17, 19), Apta/Flos/Alma redemptoris mater (8-9, 16, 19), Portio/Ida/Ante tronum (10, 16), Apollinis/In omnem terram (10, 16, 20), Tant/Bien/Cuius pulchritudinum (15-16, 19), Les Mayn/Je n'y saindrai plus (19); Et in terra (10, 16); F-Pn67/Anon.: Musicalis/Sciencie/Alleluia (6, 16); Chantilly Ms./Anon: Sub arturo/Fons/In omnem terram (10).

Sources: Vitry: Douce/Garison/Neuma (5); Anon.: In virtute/Decens/Clamour meus (3), Et in terra (10), Almifonis Ros (13), Se paour/Diex/Concupisco (6, 14-15, 16, 19).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Dana Gorzelany

[+] Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. Compositional Techniques in the Four-Part Isorhythmic Works of Philippe de Vitry and His Contemporaries. Outstanding Dissertations in Music from British Universities. New York: Garland, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1300s

[+] Mathiesen, Thomas J. "'The Office of the New Feast of Corpus Christi' in the Regimen Animarum at Brigham Young University." Journal of Musicology 2 (Winter 1983): 13-44.

An English codex from 1343 includes a nearly complete exemplar of the Office for the Feast of Corpus Christi, with notation, providing new clues to the development of this office. Both texts and chants differ in some respects from other sources. Neither the texts nor the chants for this office were composed by St. Thomas Aquinas, as tradition holds. The chants were borrowed from numerous earlier sources, accurately listed in the marginalia in a Paris manuscript for the feast. These sources include the relatively late feasts of St. Thomas of Cantebury and St. Bernard, who were canonized in 1173 and 1174.

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300, 1300s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] Peraino, Judith A. "Monophonic Motets: Sampling and Grafting in the Middle Ages." The Musical Quarterly 85 (Winter 2001): 644-80.

Monophonic works identified in medieval sources as motets lie outside our traditional definition of the motet. Although not all monophonic motets were motets entés in the commonly understood sense of borrowing refrains, the concept of grafting (enté) between monophonic and polyphonic repertories was integral to this genre of monophonic motets, as attested to by both medieval theoretical sources and modern analysis. By relating monophonic motets to sampling in today's popular music, one can gain insights about the intertextual nature of monophonic motets and the ways in which they engage their audience through technology (notational) and literacy (musical and textual). For example, the motet D'amor nuit et jor me lo (F-Pn fr. 845), although recorded in nonmensural notation like the other monophonic motets in its source, has notational peculiarities that suggest that it was transcribed from a voice of a polyphonic work recorded in mensural notation. Moreover, "grafting," whether in music or in gardening, implies a sense of cultural refinement that raises the motet enté to a level of technical and intellectual superiority. These motets represent a moment of transition in recording technology (notation and literacy), drawing from both the trouvère tradition, which was monophonic and orally transmitted, and the motet tradition, which grew out of an intellectual and literate context.

Works: Anonymous: En non Dieu c'est la rage (646-49, 674), Quant plus sui loig de ma dame (654-44), D'amor nuit et jor me lo (652, 660-62), Onc voir par amours n'amai (663-64), Bone amourete m'a souspris (664-66), Han, Diex! ou purrai je trouver (672-74).

Sources: Adam de la Halle: Bonne amourete mi tient gai (664-66); Anonymous (from Le roman de Fauvel): Ve qui gregi deficiunt (672-74).

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300, Polyphony to 1300, 1300s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Elmi, Kerry O'Brien, Virginia Whealton

[+] Petzsch, Christoph. "Kontrafaktur und Melodietypus." Die Musikforschung 21 (July/September 1968): 271-90.

Index Classifications: General, Monophony to 1300, 1300s, 1400s

[+] Pirrotta, Nino. "Una arcaica descrizione trecentesca del madrigale." In Festschrift Heinrich Bessler, ed. Institut für Musikwissenschaft der Karl-Marx-Universität, 155-61. Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1961.

Index Classifications: 1300s

[+] Plamenac, Dragan. "Faventina." In Liber Amicorum Charles van den Borren, ed. Albert Vander Linden, 145-64. Anvers: Imprimerie Lloyd Anversois, 1964.

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

[+] Plumley, Yolanda. "Citation and Allusion in the Late Ars nova: The Case of Esperance and the En attendant Songs." Early Music History 18 (1999): 287-363.

Musical citation and "grafting" in the late-fourteenth-century Ars subtilior chanson was much more prevalent than is currently believed. At that time, citation was viewed as an opportunity for composers to display their musical and intellectual erudition. A case study of three Ars subtilior chansons beginning with the words "En attendant" by Jacob de Senleches, Philippus de Caserta and Johannes Galiot demonstrates this point in a clear juxtaposition of the Ars subtilior chansons with the Ars nova work Esperance qui en mon cuer s'embat, which serves as a musical and textual source for all three chansons. The common musical material from which all three composers draw brings about a phenomenon of interrelated musical borrowing, which could have been caused by a collaborative compositional process for a common political or religious event relating to the Visconti and Valois families during the politic turmoil of the late fourteenth century. These works also fit into a larger spectrum of songs in French mainstream culture and were clearly products of a circle of composers who knew each other and communicated with each other about their work. In this context, points of musical allusion or citation were evident only in careful observation within a web of intertextual references. Thus, the practice of musical citation and allusion still flourished in the late fourteenth century, playing an important role in the works of Ars subtilior composers in a much more subtle way than previously thought by current scholars.

Works: Johannes Galiot: En attendant la douce vie (289-334); Jacob de Senleches: En attendant, Esperance conforte (289-334); Philippus de Caserta: En atendant souffrir m'estuet grief payne (289-334, 337-46).

Sources: Anonymous: Esperance qui en mon cuer s'embat (293-334, 346-63); Machaut: En amer a douce vie (294-334).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Elmi

[+] Plumley, Yolanda. "Intertextuality in the Fourteenth-Century Chanson." Music and Letters 84 (August 2003): 355-77.

The practice of intertextual citation and allusion in lyric poetry during the fourteenth century is also apparent both musically and textually in the Ars Nova chanson repertory. Examination of these songs provides new evidence that the practice of citation and allusion was more widespread, more developed, and more varied in its function than previously argued by scholars such as Ursula Günther. Furthermore, looking at cases of borrowing from this period allows one to consider contemporary significance and meaning of works, contacts between composers, and transmission of works. Uses of pre-existing music are noticeable in Mauchaut's Pour ce que tous mes chans fais, where he borrows the opening of the chace Se je chant as a way of conveying ironic humor. In the following Ars Subtilior generation, composers often quoted Machaut's lyrics or made references to his poems in their works. For example, Matteo da Perugia cited both text and music from Machaut's De Fortune in Se je me plaing de Fortune, calling upon a previous authority and developing the model for his own purposes. Subtle musical connections in interrelated works between composers (such as the En attendant songs of Galiot, Senleches, and Philipoctus de Caserta, which all cite the anonymous Esperance qui en mon cuer s'embat) suggest citation games or contests. These examples demonstrate a variety of borrowing methods within the music, creating a web of connections that the audience would have recognized and appreciated.

Works: Machaut: Se je me pleing, je n'en puis mais (Ballade 15) (361), Pour ce que tous mes chans fais (Ballade 12) (363-64); Matteo da Perugia: Se je me plaing de Fortune (365-69); Galiot: En attendant d'amer la douce vie (370); Senleches: En attendant, Esperance conforte (370); Philipoctus de Caserta: En atendant souffrir m'estuet (370); Matheus de Sancto Johanne: Je chant ung chant (371-73); Trebor: Passerose de beauté (374-77).

Sources: Machaut: Se je chant (363-64), De Fortune me doy pleindre et loer (Ballade 23) (365-69); Anonymous, Esperance qui en mon cuer s'embat (370); Philipoctus de Caserta: En attendant souffrir m'estuet (370); Jean Haucourt: Se j'estoye aseürée (371-73); Egidius: Roses et lis (374-77).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Mary Ellen Ryan, Karen R. Anton, Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Reese, Gustave. Music in the Middle Ages, with an Introduction on the Music of Ancient Times. New York: W. W. Norton, 1940.

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300, Polyphony to 1300, 1300s

[+] Schmidt, Günther. "Zur Frage des Cantus firmus im 14. und beginnenden 15. Jahrhundert." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 15 (November 1958): 230-50.

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

[+] Schrade, Leo. "A Fourteenth Century Parody Mass." Acta Musicologica 27 (January/July 1955): 13-39. Reprinted in De Scientia Musicae Studia atque Orationes, ed. Ernst Lichtenhahn, 241-82. Bern: Paul Haupt, 1967.

The presence of parody techniques in The Mass of the Sorbonne proves the practice of parody existed in the 14th century, earlier than previously thought. Identical opening material, common melodic goals, and common main tones, suggest a relationship between the Sorbonne Mass Gloria and Ivrea Credo. The presence of similar motives and staggered sequences in the Benedictus sections, and nearly identical melismas in the tenores suggests the Sorbonne Sanctus and Ivrea Sanctus are also related. The musical insertions, "Salva nos" trope, and old form of writing in the Ivrea Manuscript suggest the composer based his setting on a source that is now lost. The composer adhered to the original source but altered it enough to accommodate a text trope, which he set to a new quadruplum melody. The composer of the Sorbonne, did not use the Ivrea version, but rather parodied the primary source.

Works: Mass of Toulouse, La Messe de Besançon (13-15); Mass of Sourbonne (14-16, 18-20, 25-32, 34-36, 39).

Sources: Gloria Qui sonitu melodie (13); Kyrie Rex Angelorum (16).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Dana Gorzelany

[+] Schrade, Leo. "A Note Concerning 'A Fourteenth Century Parody Mass.'" Acta Musicologica 28 (January/March 1956): 54-55.

Index Classifications: 1300s

[+] Scott, Ann B. "The Beginnings of Fauxbourdon: A New Interpretation." Journal of the American Musicological Society 24 (Fall 1971): 345-63.

Scholars have long debated over the true evolution of the practice of fauxbourdon. They argue over whether it was a reproduction of an English method of cantus supra librum, or if it was conceived independently on the continent. The technique first appeared in the Communion of Dufay's Missa Sancti Jacobi, and the term "faburden" was in use in England by 1430. It evolved from a tradition of improvised polyphony in England that involved three voices singing in a primarily parallel style. The borrowed cantus firmus appeared in the middle voice, a technique that sets English practice apart from the continental one, where the cantus firmus appears in the treble. Musicians on the continent used and modified faburden, with similar aural results. Two written examples in the Old Hall manuscript are exceptions that prove the rule that faburden was an improvisatory technique. O lux beata Trinitas uses the plainchant in the middle voice transposed up a fifth and in a rhythmically flexible manner, with the outer voices lightly ornamented. In the Gloria trope Spiritus procedens, the chant is paraphrased untransposed in the middle voice. Thus, pieces using fauxbourdon exhibit the characteristics of faburden, proving the English origin of the practice.

Works: Dufay: Missa Sancti Jacobi (345); Binchois: Te Deum (351); Anonymous: O lux beata Trinitas (352); Gloria trope: Spiritus procedens (352); Credo: Conditor alme siderum (352); Anonymous: Te Deum (352).

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Contributed by: Rebecca Dowsley

[+] Stone, Anne. “A Singer at the Fountain: Homage and Irony in Ciconia’s ‘Sus une fontayne.’” Music and Letters 82 (2001): 361-90.

Despite the common interpretation that Johannes Ciconia’s quotations of polyphonic songs by Filippotto da Caserta in Sus une fontayne reflect a relationship of homage between the two composers, the evidence suggests that contemporary audiences would have understood the quotations as ironic gamesmanship. Although the sources of the quotations are never acknowledged in Ciconia’s text, their appearance can be interpreted as a type of diegetic music within the fictional realm of Ciconia’s virelai. That is, the fictional speaker of Ciconia’s text can hear Filippotto’s music. Similar to the word play of some contemporaneous poems, which require a reader to follow encoded instructions to discover the author’s name, Ciconia’s unattributed quotations invite the audience to identify the quoted composer through the interplay of metaphors (such as the fountain) and musical symbols (such as mensuration signs). Thus, Ciconia’s work seems to suggest that he was not a student paying homage to a teacher but a master composer.

Works: Ciconia: Sus une fontayne (361-90).

Sources: Filippotto da Caserta (Philipoctus de Caserta): En remirant vo douce portraiture (362-64, 371-72, 380, 388-89), En attendant soufrir m’estuet (365, 372-79), De ma dolour (362, 366-67, 372).

Index Classifications: 1300s

Contributed by: Daniel Rogers

[+] Wayne, David. "Parodies, Contrafacta, and Paraphrases of the Motet Alle Psallite cum Luya/Alleluya in Medieval English Music." D.M.A. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1977.

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300, 1300s

[+] Welker, Lorenz. “New Light on Oswald von Wolkenstein: Central European Traditions and Burgundian Polyphony.” Early Music History 7 (1987): 187-226.

Oswald von Wolkenstein, a fifteenth century German poet and composer, is unique in that his works have been handed down in manuscripts devoted to him alone. By comparing these two manuscripts (Vienna, Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 2777, known as Wolkenstein manuscript A, and Wolkenstein manuscript B) with other Germanic and non-Germanic manuscripts, it has become clear that Oswald used pre-existent melodies as a vehicle and starting point for his newly-created texts. Twelve polyphonic songs in these manuscripts have been identified as contrafacta of pieces that were widely disseminated throughout Germany. Furthermore, he did not make contrafacta of only older Ars Nova pieces, as had previously been assumed by scholars. He also used contemporary Burgundian polyphonic pieces, as is evident from the newly discovered models A son plaisir by Pierre Fontaine and La plus jolie by Nicolas Grenon.

Works: Oswald von Wolkenstein: Vierhundert jar auff erd (192-99, 203-7), Wer die ougen will verschüren (200-207), Ave mater o Maria (207-14).

Sources: Pierre Fontaine: A son plaisir (192-99); Nicolas Grenon: La plus jolie et la plus belle (200-207).

Index Classifications: 1300s, 1400s

Contributed by: Amanda Jensen



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