Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] [Unsigned]. "Larry Adler to Unveil Gershwin String Quartet at Edinburgh Festival." Variety 231 (5 June 1963): 43.

Gershwin's Lullably, for string quartet, premiered at the 1963 festival, is an early work whose primary material was later re-used by Gershwin for part of the score for the Scandals of 1922.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] [Unsigned]. "New Gershwin Tunes Featured in Movie." Down Beat 31 (23 April 1964): 14-15.

Billy Wilder's 1964 film Kiss Me Stupid re-used some Gershwin songs used previously (during the composer's lifetime) and introduced some new ones (posthumously). The new songs were released to the public for the first time from the composer's musical notebooks.

Works: Gershwin: 'S Wonderful,I'm a Poached Egg,All the Livelong Day,Sophia.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] Abbate, Carolyn. "Wagner, Cinema, and Redemptive Glee." The Opera Quarterly 21 (Autumn 2006): 597-611.

The epiphanic moment in which a listener realizes that musical borrowing has taken place concerns not only the relation between two texts but also performance. For instance, in the 1939 film The Thief of Baghdad there is a brief allusion to a passage from the overture to Wagner's Der fliegende Holländer. When one recognizes such borrowing, it is dependent on a "polysemic mélange" that works together to make such recognition possible. For instance, beyond the musical resemblances, the film and the opera share a number of images, such as a ship and blood-red sails. Also, in both film and opera it seems as if music animates objects. An individual's particular viewing experience can also contribute to the experience, such as when a movie theater and an opera hall share similar acoustics. Such ludic details of performance are often overlooked but are an inseparable part of such epiphanic moments.

Works: Miklós Rózsa: Score to The Thief of Baghdad (597-609).

Sources: Richard Wagner: Der fliegende Holländer (597-609).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: John F. Anderies

[+] Adams, Stephen. R. Murray Schafer. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983.

In this treatment of the life and work of Schafer, several examples of borrowing are discussed. Son of Heldenleben (1968) is based on Strauss's Ein Heldenleben, and it demonstrates Schafer's ambivalence toward the Romantic era. Strauss's first theme serves as a cantus firmus in extreme augmentation for most of the piece, and other borrowed themes are presented in a rush at the end of the work. Written for orchestra and tape, Schafer's piece praises and belittles Strauss simultaneously, a conflict which is audible. Besides the direct quotations, two tone rows are derived from Strauss. Adieu, Robert Schumann (1976) is an example of collage, as it uses quotations from several of Schumann's works, including Kreisleriana and Carnaval. Written for a contralto, who plays the role of Clara Schumann, and orchestra, the work takes place in the last days before Schumann's death in a mental institution. It exemplifies Schafer's ability to blend old and new styles to create something distinctly his own.

Works: Schafer: Son of Heldenleben (110-17), Adieu, Robert Schumann (158-60).

Sources: Richard Strauss: Ein Heldenleben, Robert Schumann: Kreisleriana, Carnaval.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Adler, Eliyana R. “No Raisins, No Almonds: Singing as Spiritual Resistance to the Holocaust.” Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 24 (2006): 50-66.

For several Yiddish-speaking Jews, music served as a vehicle for spiritual resistance during the Holocaust. Writers often composed new lyrics to pre-existing tunes from popular songs and folksongs, and the music chosen was often both easily identifiable and significant to the writer. Through adapting older, well known songs, the writers were able to express subtle messages and meanings to their listeners. Broadly speaking, songs could be adapted in three ways: reuse, rewriting, and response. Reusing older melodies allowed concentration camp inmates to create a song that reflected their reality while also observing their Jewish heritage. Rewriting, or adding new lyrics to existing tunes, drew on the listeners’ familiarity with both the original tune and the original words to create symbolic meanings. Finally, songs in the response category would make references to original song texts, but not the original tunes, creating a deliberate contrast between the new song and the source.

Works: Anonymous: Ani Ma’amin (55, 57); Anonymous: Zog Nitkeyn Mol (57); Anonymous: Tsen Brider (57-58); Rilke Glezer: Papirosn (62); Yankele Hershkowitz: Papirosn (62); Sh. Sheinkinder: Papirosn (63); Yankele Hershkowitz: Nishtu Keyn Przydziel (62-63); Shimshon Fersht: Unter di Grininke Beymelekh (64); David Beyglman: Nit kayn Rozhinkes, nit kayn Mandlen (64).

Sources: Abraham Goldfaden: Rozhinkes mit Mandlen (54, 60-61, 64); Ani Ma’amin (57); Mordecai Gebirtig: Es Brent (56, 57); Anonymous: Tsen Brider (57-58); Abraham Goldfaden: Shulamis (58-59); Herman Yablokoff: Papirosn (61-62); A. M. Bernstein: Tsum Hemerl (58-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Adrio, Adam. "Die Weisen der böhmischen Brüder im Werk Ernst Peppings." In Musicae Scientiae Collectanea: Festschrift Gustav Fellerer zum siebzigsten Geburtstag am 7. Juli 1972, ed. Heinrich Hüschen, 23-34. Köln: Arno-Volk-Verlag, 1973.

Cantus firmus is treated differently in several a cappella works by Ernst Pepping. All the pieces selected borrow from the sacred songs of the Bohemian Brothers.

Works: Works: Pepping: Deutsche Choralmesse für sechsstimmigen Chor (23), Spandauer Chorbuch (23), Liedmotetten nach Weisen der Böhmischen Brüder für Chor a capella (24ff.), Gesänge der Böhmischen Brüder in Variationen für Chor a cappella (31).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Albrecht, J. "Das Variations- und Imitations-Prinzip in der Tektonik von Bartóks Bratschenkonzert." Studia Musicologica 14, no. 1-4 (1972): 317-27.

Works: Bartók: Viola Concerto

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Alexander, Michael J. The Evolving Keyboard Style of Charles Ives. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Keele, 1984. Reprinted verbatim, New York and London: Garland, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Alfeld, Anna Poulin. "Unsung Songs: Self-Borrowing in Amy Beach's Instrumental Compositions." M.M. thesis, University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music, 2008.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Altmann, Peter. Sinfonia von Luciano Berio: Eine analytische Studie. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1977.

In the third movement of his Sinfonia, Berio uses collage on three levels. (1) The Scherzo ("Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt") from Mahler's Second Symphony, of which the proportions remain essentially the same, makes up the structural basis. The addition stresses the proportional importance of the fateful number eleven standing for imperfection, which in turn is related to the meaning of Mahler's scherzo. (2) In the course of the whole movement, Berio quotes composers from Bach through Stockhausen, and while we recognize some of the quotations immediately, others can hardly be perceived. (3) The text consists of passages from Beckett's novel The Unnamable interspersed with words by Joyce, expression marks, political slogans, and phonetic material. Mahler's music implies the quotations on the second level, be it tonally (Berio even changed some notes for tonal reasons), motivically (the minor second functions as a central motive), programmatically, or by instrumentation. Even the disposition of the text follows Mahler and it is often only through the text that we can identify musical quotations. This kind of collage therefore does not destroy but reinterprets the "Fischpredigt." The study includes some didactic suggestions.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 2; Berio: Sinfonia.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Anderson, Paul Allen. “The World Heard: Casablanca and the Music of War.” Critical Inquiry 32 (Spring 2006): 482-515.

The music of Casablanca was a metaphor for the power of political unity against the adversaries of America: American music defied enemy music and thus enemy culture. This metaphor is accomplished both diegetically and through Max Steiner’s score, which creates leitmotifs out of national songs and the famous ballad, As Time Goes By. Because current wartime tensions created political insecurities for audiences, it was difficult for viewers to regard the film as fantasy, and the film’s music aids in a transition to fiction. For example, the relationship between the diegetic performances of As Time Goes By and Steiner’s appropriation of the ballad reinforces a past of assured political ideology as well as American unity and idealism. Additionally, the film demonstrates fantasies and realities of race and segregation through the treatment of and musical performances by the character Sam.

Works: Michael Curtiz (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Casablanca.

Sources: Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (484, 497-98, 500-501); Carl Wilhelm: Die Wacht am Rhein (484, 497-98, 500-501); Herman Hupfeld: As Time Goes By (485, 487, 497, 502-14).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Das revolutionär-politische Zitat in der avantgardistischen Musik nach 1965." Musik und Bildung 11 (May 1979): 313-18.

Although Stockhausen, Nono, and Henze approach the preexistent material differently, they all try to combine simple, tonal melodies with the complex structures of sound (Klangstrukturen) of the avantgarde around 1967. In his Hymnen, Stockhausen borrows different national anthems to represent internationality and disparities between nations. He develops, for example, the Internationale in a way that underlines the program of the composition, the struggle for a peaceful world, gradually synchronizing different layers of sound. Nono's Per Bastiana--Tai-Yang Cheng does not borrow the (communist) Chinese folk song The East Is Red in a traditional way. The pentatonic melody and its intervallic structure permeate the whole composition. "Tai-Yang Cheng," a textual quotation from the song, expresses Nono's hope for a "red shining life" of his daughter Bastiana under the banner of communism. Henze expresses the difficulties of our West-European world by attempting to write a symphony in 1969 with traditional techniques and dead (kaputt) musical material and his admiration for communist Cuba (the piece was written for Havana) by quoting Cuban folk songs and communist tunes (such as the song of the National Liberation Front in Vietnam, Stars of the Night).

Works: Stockhausen: Hymnen, Nono: Per Bastiana--Tai-Yang Cheng; Henze: Sinfonia No. 6 for two Chamber Orchestras (315-17).

Sources: Marseillaise (314-15), Internationale (314-15), The East is Red (315), Stars of the Night (316).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Gustav Mahlers IX. Symphonie: Kompositionsprozess und Analyse." Ph.D. diss., University of Freiburg, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Traditionsmomente in Kompositionen von Christóbal Halffter, Klaus Huber und Wolfgang Rihm." In Die neue Musik und die Tradition: Sieben Kongressbeiträge und eine analytische Studie, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann, 130-52. Mainz: Schott, 1978.

Halffter, Rihm, and Huber use quotations with different intentions. Halffter's Noche pasiva del sentido makes extensive use of a descending four-tone motive that not only associates the piece with Spanish folklore in general but also plays an important role in Ravel's Rhapsodie espagnole. Rihm modeled the fourth movement of his String Quartet No. 3 over long stretches on the "Cavatina" from Beethoven's String Quartet, Op. 130; some of the thematic material is derived from Beethoven and the movements show similar outlines. "Genesis," the first movement from Huber's Violin Concerto (Tempora) represents the emergence of sound from "primitive noises" (Urgeräusche), including in this process a structurally important quotation of the B-A-C-H motive. The third movement, "quod libet," displays its link to the classical tradition by including literal quotations, thus alluding to the contraction "quodlibet." In his ...inwendig voller figur..., Huber reuses material from the second ("De Natura") and last ("quod nescitur") movements of his Violin Concerto, relating Dürer's sketch Traumgesicht and texts of the apocalypse of John.

Works: Halffter: Noche pasiva del sentido (131-35); Rihm: In Innersten (String Quartet No. 3, 138-43); Huber: Tempora 143-50), . . . inwendig voller figur . . . (146, 149).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Arauco, Ingrid. "Bartók's Romanian Christmas Carols: Changes from the Folk Sources and Their Significance." Journal of Musicology 5 (Spring 1987): 191-225.

Four sources provide the basis for the study of Bartók's folk song arrangements, the Romanian Christmas Carols: (1) the transcriptions from the recordings he made on location; (2) notebook entries of melodies written down on-the-spot; (3) the versions of the carols as given in the preface to Bartók's Romanian Folk Music, vol. 4; and (4) the arrangement. Arauco especially examines changes between sources (2) and (3) and interprets them as a rapprochement to Western art music. Removal of incidental tones and ornaments, repositioning of barlines, and alteration of notes and rhythms clarify the harmonic and motivic phrase structures, which become easier to understand for listeners familiar with the tradition of Western art music and to some extent make up for the loss of the text originally comprising that function. Arauco argues that the change of elements incidental to the essence of the folk song not only adds structural clarity but, as a consequence, also reinforces the "inner emotive power."

Works: Bartók: Romanian Christmas Carols.

Sources: carols collected by Bartók in Transylvania, 1910-14 (193-95).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "Copyright on Catfish Row: Musical Borrowing, Porgy and Bess, and Unfair Use." Rutgers Law Journal 37 (Winter 2006): 277-354.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "From J. C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright, and Cultural Context." North Carolina Law Review 84 (January 2006): 547-645.

Current copyright laws do not adequately support the forms of musical borrowing prevalent in hip-hop. The use of pre-existing recordings in hip-hop samples simultaneously violates the protected rights of both the existing musical composition and the recording of that musical composition. Sampling continues to be viewed as theft rather than a source of innovation within music. Aesthetic values prevalent in hip-hop, such as oral tradition, textual emphasis, repetition, polyrhythm, and borrowing, need to be situated in a broader context of musical aesthetics and, consequently, legal treatment of borrowing practices. Treating hip-hop as theft or plagiarism robs it of its rightful place within the historical context of musical borrowing in many different kinds of music. Modifications to current copyright laws, such as payment structures and differentiation of different types of sampling, are necessary to address the legality of hip-hop sampling.

Works: Irving Gordon (songwriter), Natalie Cole (performer): Unforgettable (562); Beastie Boys: Pass the Mic (570-72); N.W.A.: 100 Miles and Runnin' (574-76); Biz Markie: Alone Again (580-81); Handel: Israel in Egypt (601-603, 610).

Sources: James Newton: Choir (570-72); George Clinton (songwriter), Funkadelic (performers): Get off Your Ass and Jam (574-76); Gilbert O'Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (580-81); Dionigi Erba: Magnificat (601-603, 610).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "The Freedom to Copy: Copyright, Creation, and Context." U. C. Davis Law Review 41 (December 2007): 477-559.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. “Blues Lives: Promise and Perils of Musical Copyright.” Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 27 (2010): 574-619.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

[+] Armitage, Merle. George Gershwin. New York: Van Rees, 1958.

Like Bartók and Stravinsky, Gershwin was both a discoverer and an inventor (pp. 39-59). Many of his musical sources were African-American and Jewish, and he was inventive in the areas of rhythmic variation, placement of accents, and color. Gershwin observed a large population of Gullah Negroes on Folly Island in order to compose the score of his "folk opera" Porgy and Bess (pp. 149-53). He had great difficulty with the critics for his "vulgar" borrowing from the jazz idiom (pp. 84-121).

Works: Gershwin: Porgy and Bess, Piano Concerto, An American in Paris.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Atlas, Allan W. “Belasco and Puccini: Old Dog Tray and the Zuni Indians.” The Musical Quarterly 75 (Fall 1991): 362-98.

The aria “Che faranno i vecchi miei,” sung by the minstrel character Jake Wallace in Act I Puccini’s opera La Fanciulla del West, was long thought to have its source in the Stephen Foster tune Old Dog Tray. In fact, the source for the Puccini aria is Carlos Troyer’s arrangement of the Chorus of Virgin Maidens from the Zuni Indian Festive Sun-Dance. The long-standing misconception of this aria’s source arose primarily because the play on which La Fanciulla is based, David Belasco’s The Girl of the Golden West, includes a line that implores Jake Wallace to sing Old Dog Tray; since then, scholars have assumed a direct source-work connection between the songs in the play and the opera. Not only does the tune Belasco included in the play—an ensemble arrangement written by the music director for the play, William Walter Furst—not match Puccini’s aria in either poetic meter or melody, but Belasco’s tune also differs greatly from the music and lyrics of Foster’s song. A look at Puccini’s sketches and letters solves this puzzle: the composer received a book containing the Festive Sun-Dance from Sybil Seligman in 1907. With the exception of phrase repetition, the melody of the opening period in “Che faranno” matches the Zuni Indian tune exactly.

Works: Puccini: La Fanciulla del West (362-92); William Walter Furst: Old Dog Tray (370-76).

Sources: William Walter Furst: Old Dog Tray (370-76); Stephen Foster: Old Dog Tray (373-77); Carlos Troyer: The Festive Sun-Dance (384-87, 391).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Auh, Mijai Youn. "Piano Variations by Brahms, Liszt and Friedman on a Theme by Paganini." D.M. diss., Indiana University, 1980.

An introduction to Paganini's place in history and his contributions includes background information on the 24th Caprice of Op. 1, an analysis of its theme, and a list of works (p. 28) based on this theme. Auh provides introductions and analyses of Liszt's sixth Grande etude, Brahms's Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35, and Friedman's Studies on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 46b, and compares the elements of retention and variability of the original theme, variation technique, grouping for performance, and technical musical difficulties. Almost all of the variations assume the basic structure and given harmony of Paganini's theme; thus the variation techniques used are mainly of harmony, rhythm, and character.

Works: Johannes Brahms: Variations on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 35; Ferrucio Busoni: An die Jugend (7); Ignaz Friedman: Studies on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 46b; Franz Liszt: Etudes d'execution transcendente d'après Paganini (7), Grosse Paganini-Etuden; Robert Schumann: Studies after Caprices of Paganini, Op. 3 (7), 6 Concert Etudes after Caprices of Paganini, Op. 10 (7).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Auner, Joseph H. "Schoenberg's Handel Concerto and the Ruins of Tradition." Journal of the American Musicological Society 49 (Summer 1996): 264-313.

In the early 1930s, Schoenberg transcribed and recomposed compositions of the Baroque era to reaffirm his position in the lineage of German composers during a time when Germany was under the government of the National Socialists. Schoenberg described his Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra as "freely transcribed" from Handel's Concerto Grosso, Op. 6, No. 7. Its reworking is different from that of Schoenberg's arrangements of Bach and Brahms, as it alters the original much more, using techniques such as reharmonization, the addition of contrapuntal parts, and compressing and expanding the material. Schoenberg reinterprets Handel's music most freely in the third movement. In so doing, he created a duality between the past and the present and contrasted Baroque tonality and compositional techniques with the chromatic/atonal traditions of the twentieth century. Schoenberg also transposed the third movement to a new key, changed the tempo from Andante to Allegro grazioso, and imposed a formal Sonata-Allegro plan onto the material. This work suggests Schoenberg's identity crisis as German and Jewish as well as the larger social and cultural world of the 1930s (specifically 1933), when the work was composed.

Works: Schoenberg: Cello Concerto (264, 285-86), Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra (265-69, 271, 287-313).

Sources: Georg Matthias Monn: Keyboard Concerto F. 41 (264); Handel: Concerto Grosso, Op. 6, No. 7 (265-66, 287-313).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed, Matthew Altizer

[+] Auslander, Philip. "Intellectual Property Meets the Cyborg: Performance and the Cultural Politics of Technology." Performing Arts Journal 14, no. 1 (January 1992): 30-42.

The technology of digital sampling challenges our traditional understanding of authorship, and the resulting ambiguities are reflected in our cultural and political environment. For instance, when the group Frankie Goes to Hollywood sampled Led Zeppelin's drummer John Bonham for their recording of Relax, who was the author? Was it John Bonham (who was deceased at the time)? Was it the sampling software? Donna Haraway, in her "Manifesto for Cyborgs," has argued that high-tech culture problematizes many of the binarisms built into our culture, and such destabilization can be politically useful. One artist who has exploited technology for politically useful ends is Laurie Anderson. In her film Home of the Brave she opens by lecturing the audience through a synthesized "male" voice, blurring the binarism of gender. She also samples the voice of William S. Burroughs, who is also silently present for one scene, playing with the dualism of recording and "liveness." Throughout her film, she goes on to challenge other dualisms such as speaking/singing, self/other, author/reader, and person/machine. Anderson's work provides a glimpse of the effect that technology can have on politics and culture.

Works: Frankie Goes to Hollywood (Peter Gill, Holly Johnson, Brian Nash, Mark O'Toole): Relax (31); Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Ula Hedwig (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Bette Midler (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Laurie Anderson: Home of the Brave (37-41).

Sources: Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Bette Midler (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Bobbie Freeman (songwriter and performer): Do You Want to Dance (33).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Austin, William W. "Debussy, Wagner, and Some Others." 19th-Century Music 6 (Summer 1982): 82-91.

In Debussy and Wagner (1979), Robin Holloway seeks out those passages in Debussy which recall or which can be viewed as quotations of passages in Wagner. Some of the cases seem forced. Some compositions by Holloway himself include references to the music of Debussy and Wagner and others.

Works: Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande (83), "Golliwog's Cake-Walk," from Children's Corner (83), La Damoiselle élue (84), Le Martyre de Saint Sébastien (84), Jeux (84-85,88); Holloway: Clarissa (88-90), Scenes from Schumann: Seven Paraphrases for Orchestra (90), Romanza (90-91).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (83-84), Parsifal (84, 88-90); Debussy: Jeux (88-90); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor (90-91); Bach: D major fugue from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book Two (91).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Babbitt, Milton. "Contextual Counterpoint." Chap. in Words about Music. Edited by Stephen Dembski and Joseph N. Straus. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

During a discussion of twelve-tone counterpoint, it is noted that the "Contrapunctus Secundus" from Luigi Dallapiccola's Quaderno Musicale di Annalibera is a gloss on the second movement of Webern's Piano Variations, Op. 27.

Works: Dallapiccola: "Contrapunctus Secundus," Quaderno Musicale di Annalibera (38-40).

Sources: Webern: Piano Variations, Op. 27 (33-40).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] Badolato, James Vincent. "The Four Symphonies of Charles Ives: A Critical, Analytical Study of the Musical Style of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Catholic University of America, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Baker, Catherine. “Wild Dances and Dying Wolves: Simulation, Essentialization, and National Identity at the Eurovision Song Contest.” Popular Communication 6 (2008): 173–89.

Through the simulation and essentialization of recognizable folk-musical traits, several Eastern European nations competing at the Eurovision Song Contest in the early 2000s were successfully able to represent, misrepresent, or brand the ethnic folk traditions of their home nation. The Eastern European countries that consistently won the contest between 2001 and 2007 played upon Western stereotypes of the East by incorporating stylized national music, instruments, and ethnic musical characteristics into their song entries. In doing so, they created a distinctively alternative sound to the modern musical styles (such as pop, rock, or disco) featured in the Western countries’ entries. In particular, the Ukrainian singer songwriter Ruslana exemplifies this kind of simulation and essentialization, with her winning entry Wild Dances making use of various traditional instruments, folk-inspired performance practices, and stylistic allusions to Hutsul traditional music that she collected during her ethnographic field work in the Carpathian Mountain region. Her entry is both an example of simulation, as she is presenting a commercialized and stylized version of traditional folk music, and an example of essentialization because her entry only represents a small demographic within Ukraine. Other winning entries, such as Željko Joksimovi’s Lane Moje, also incorporate ethnic folk elements and folk musical tropes.

Works: Ruslana: Wild Dances (175-77, 180, 184); Željko Joksimović: Lane Moje (178), Lejla (178), Call Me (178); Boris Novković: Vukovi umiru sami (179-80).

Sources: Damir Lipošek, Vedran Božić, and Husein Hasanefendić: Moja domovina (179-80).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Baker, David. "From The Composer's Perspective: Three Saxophone Concertos." International Jazz Archives Journal 1 (Fall 1993): 104-13.

In a discussion of three of his saxophone concertos, David Baker describes Ellingtones: A Fantasy for Saxophone and Orchestra as "an attempt to capture the spirit and feel of Duke Ellington." In the first movement, the piece features quotations of the A sections of Ellington's Caravan,Drop Me Off in Harlem, and Minnehaha, while fragments from other songs are used as linking materials. The second movement uses Ellington's All Too Soon not only as one of the themes but also as music heard underneath the saxophone solo. Movement III introduces Ellington's It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing in the introduction. Baker describes his treatment of the theme as "Morse-code-like." He then presents six variations on the borrowed tune's ground bass, which he refers to as a passacaglia.

Works: Baker: Ellingtones: A Fantasy for Saxophone and Orchestra.

Sources: Ellington: Caravan (106), Drop Me Off in Harlem (106), Minnehaha (106), All Too Soon (106), It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing (107).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Ballantine, Christopher. "Charles Ives and the Meaning of Quotation in Music." The Musical Quarterly 65 (April 1979): 167-84.

Quoted musical fragments are as deep in symbolic content as Freudian symbols of "dream-text" fragments. A distinction is made between quoted musical matter that involves words and quoted musical matter that does not. Quotations of untexted music, such as "Westminster Chimes" in Ives's Second String Quartet and the opening motive of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony in Ives's Second Piano Sonata ("Concord"), evoke philosophical associations but not literary meaning. But quoting texted music, such as the songs Ives uses in his Fourth Symphony and his song West London, provides a deeper meaning if the listener knows the original words. Different structures of meaning exist for various listeners in a work that utilizes borrowed materials: (1) abstract, which concerns purely musical relationships; (2) programmatic, eliciting extra-musical associations; and (3) musico-philosophical, uniting all levels of perception and transcending both abstract musical relationships and programmatic images. Ives's Central Park in the Dark and Washington's Birthday illustrate the way in which these levels work. Although in some cases Ives may have borrowed material for structural and thematic reasons, he was still undoubtedly exploiting the connotations of this borrowed material to incorporate different levels of meaning into his music.

Works: Ives: String Quartet No. 2 (171-72), Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord, Mass., 1840-60 (172), West London (173-74), Fourth Symphony (174-76).

Sources: "Westminster Chimes" (171-72); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor (172); "There is a fountain" (173-74); Lowell Mason: "Bethany" (174-75), "Watchman" (175); Arthur Sullivan: "Proprior Deo" (175-76).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh, Fredrick Tarrant, Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Banks, Paul. "The Early Social and Musical Environment of Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., St. John's College, 1980.

See especially "Folk Music in Iglau," in which Mahler's allusions to folk tunes and folk types are discussed.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Barber, Nicola J. "Brigg Fair: A Melody, Its Use and Abuse." The Grainger Journal 6 (August 1984): 3-20.

Both Percy Grainger and Frederick Delius set folksinger Joseph Taylor's rendition of the English folksong Brigg Fair.Brigg Fair is related to two other English folksongs, Maria Marten and Dives and Lazarus.Dives and Lazarus sometimes bears the title Come all you Faithful Christian Men, or in the Irish tradition, The Star in the Country.The Jolly Miller is a variant of the same melody. Grainger originally collected the folksong from Taylor in 1905 and made his setting, Brigg Fair, for tenor and mixed chorus in 1906. Delius's setting, in his Brigg Fair: An English Rhapsody, was inspired by Grainger's earlier setting and dates from 1907. Delius's setting borrows ideas from Grainger's but does not copy it stylistically.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] Barbera, C. André. "George Gershwin and Jazz." In The Gershwin Style, ed. Wayne Schneider, 175-206. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

In a study of George Gershwin's historical relationship with jazz, it is suggested that the composer's songs continue to be attractive to jazz musicians because of their rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and formal characteristics. For instance, Gershwin tended to repeat notes in his melodies, allowing for the performer to embellish harmonically and rhythmically, as was exemplified by Billy Holiday's recording of Oh, Lady Be Good! In other instances, Gershwin songs are favored because their harmonies can be separated from their melodies, as in Nice Work If You Can Get It. Songs like Somebody Loves Me and The Man I Love contain repeated four-measure phrases, a characteristic musical succinctness that improvisers have long found inviting.

Works: George Gershwin: How Long Has This Been Going On? (188, 200), I Got Rhythm (188, 190, 201), They Can't Take That Away From Me (188-90, 200), A Foggy Day (188-90, 198, 201), Fascinating Rhythm (188,199), Oh, Lady Be Good! (189-90, 193-94, 196-97, 200), Nice Work If You Can Get It (190, 195-96, 198, 201), Bess, You Is My Woman Now (193, 200), The Main I Love (193-94, 197, 200-201), But Not For Me (193), Summertime (195,197, 201), Embraceable You (197, 199, 200-201), Somebody Loves Me (197-98, 200-201), Liza (198), Someone To Watch Over Me (198), Soon (198), Our Love is Here To Stay (198), 'S Wonderful (200).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Barford, Philip T. "Mahler: A Thematic Archetype." The Music Review 21 ([November] 1960): 297-316.

A pentatonic archetypal theme is found in Mahler's music. The archetype may be considered as a private symbol, the "musical expression of some recurrent pattern of exprience." Ninety-two examples of the archetype, often in varied form, are presented. Buddhism and Hegel's concept of das unglückliche Bewusstsein may account for the ubiquity of the idea.

Works: Mahler: Songs of a Wayfarer (310), Das Lied von der Erde (311-12, 314-15), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (313).

Sources: Anonymous: La bergère que je sers (310), Frère Jacques (313).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Baron, Carol K. "Varèse's Explication of Debussy's Syrinx in Density 21.5 and an Analysis of Varèse's Composition: A Secret Model Revealed." The Music Review 43 (May 1982): 121-34.

Varèse's composition Density 21.5 is in the truest sense musical parody, as it uses another work as its structural basis: Debussy's Syrinx. Structural similarities exist between the two pieces, such as the use of the two whole-tone scales as basic pitch collections. Though Varèse himself never explicitly confirmed this connection, Density may be read as a commentary upon Debussy's piece.

Works: Varèse: Density 21.5.

Sources: Debussy: Syrinx.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Barrett, Sam. “Classical Music, Modal Jazz, and the Making of Kind of Blue.Dutch Journal of Music Theory 16 (2011): 53-63.

A dynamic or cyclical notion of influence allows for a more sophisticated approach to understanding the relationship between twentieth-century classical music and Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue. While numerous scholars have generated a long list of influences to Davis’s album, multiple techniques and sources invite further consideration. There are three categories of art music that serve as sources to Kind of Blue: late-romantic and impressionist music, American classical modernism, and Stravinsky ballets. In the first category, Rachmaninoff’s and Ravel’s works include general harmonic, intervallic (specifically concerning vamp patterns), and tonal elements that can be found in the songs So What and Flamenco Sketches, while Khachaturian’s use of non-diatonic melodies over tonal harmonies can be found across Davis’s entire album. In the second category, widely spaced leaps and upper-register sonorities from Copland’s music of the 1940s can be found in So What. In the final category, Stravinsky's ballets provide a procedure of fragmentary melodic variation that relates to Davis’s own “melodic variation” in his solos on every song. That these particular classical styles influence Kind of Blue on different levels indicates that “modal” jazz is a meaningful term to describe the album's musical language.

Works: Miles Davis: Kind of Blue.

Sources: Ravel: Piano Concerto for the Left Hand (53-56), String Quartet in F Major (56-57); Rachmaninoff: Piano Concerto No. 4, Op. 40 (53-57); Khachaturian: Gayane Suites (57-58); Debussy: Images No. 1 (“Reflets dans l'eau”) (58); Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (58), Appalachian Spring; Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (59-60), Petrushka (59-60).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Barry, Barbara R. "The Hidden Program in Mahler's Fifth Symphony." The Musical Quarterly 77 (Spring 1993): 47-66.

Following his health and conducting crises in 1900, Mahler turned to Beethoven's Fifth Symphony as a model for his own Symphony No. 5. The opening motive of the Beethoven symphony serves to unify the entire symphony, and the opening trumpet motto of Mahler's symphony serves a similar function. That motto is itself based on Beethoven's opening motive, and the key regions Mahler uses are the same as Beethoven (the second movement of both is in the submediant). The Trauermarsch of the second movement is a varied form of the first movement's, which is similar to the way the Scherzo in the Beethoven is based on an altered form of the symphony's opening motive. The moments in Mahler's work when earlier material returns are based on Beethoven's practice.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 in C sharp Minor (51-66), Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (52-53), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (58).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (51-55, 57, 61-2); Mahler: Kindertotenlieder (58, 60), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (59), Rückertlieder (59-60); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (60); Mahler: Symphony No. 4 in G Major (65).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Bartlett, Andrew. "Airshafts, Loudspeakers, and the Hip Hop Sample: Contexts and African American Musical Aesthetics." African American Review 28 (1994): 639-52.

Rap music, and in particular the practice of sampling in rap music, can be grounded within a larger context of African-American interest in imitation. Early examples of imitation in slave culture suggest interests similar to sampling, namely the desire to reconfigure aspects of dominant culture into strictly African-American forms. Sampling can be seen as a way to archive interactive historical material. Rap artists use new language to describe their use of samples, and acknowledge their sources to avoid legal trouble. EMPD, for example, thanks their sources and introduces their raps by indicating which pre-existing compositions the new rap embodies.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Bartók, Béla. "The Influence of Peasant Music on Modern Music." In Béla Bartók Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff, 340-44. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976.

Folk music has been used as source material for composers of many eras. Composers of the Viennese classic period were influence by and used folk music in their compositions; for example, Beethoven's Symphony No. 6 uses a Yugoslavian dance melody for the primary theme. Other composers who used folk material include Chopin, Smetana, Dvorák, and Mussorgsky. In the twentieth century, composers began to collect or study folk music in an attempt to integrate that music into their style. Three possibilities exist for the use of folk materials in Western art music. A composer can simply compose an accompaniment for an existing folk melody, a newly composed melody can take on folk characteristics, or folk music can be integrated into the style of a composer to such an extent that neither folk melodies or imitations of folk melodies are used, but the composer's works are imbued with the style of peasant music.

Works: Beethoven: Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Pastoral (340); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsodies (340); Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps (343); Kodály: Psalmus Hungaricus (344).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Bartók, Béla. "The Relation of Folk-Song to the Development of the Art Music of Our Time." The Sackbut (June 1921): 5-11.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Baskerville, David. "Jazz Influence on Art Music to Mid-Century." Ph.D. diss., University of California at Los Angeles, 1965.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Batchelor, Stephen. "Benjamin Britten and His Works for the Guitar." The Journal of the British Music Society 18 (1996): 35-49.

Benjamin Britten's 1963 Nocturnal after John Dowland for solo guitar is a set of variations on Elizabethan composer John Dowland's 1597 lute song Come Heavy Sleep. Unlike most theme and variation forms, however, the theme appears at the end, rather than the beginning of the composition. The eight variations, based on melodic fragments of Dowland's song, depict various stages of insomnia, and have the character of fleeting, nightmarish episodes. The interaction of notes, chords, and keys a semitone apart is a salient feature of the variations. The tension generated by this dissonant harmonic relationship dissipates when Dowland's song is quoted at the end of the composition.

Works: Britten: Nocturnal after John Dowland (35-40, 46-48).

Sources: Dowland: Come Heavy Sleep (46-48).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Batta, András. "A Nietzsche Symbol in the Music of Richard Strauss and Bela Bartók." The New Hungarian Quarterly 23 (Spring 1982): 202-7.

The enthusiasm the young Bartók displayed for the music of Richard Strauss is attested by the extent to which Bartók emulated the orchestral decorativeness as well as the déjà vu effect of Strauss. A deeper relationship also exists, demonstrated by Bartók's incorporation of harmonic and structural elements of Strauss's Also Sprach Zarathustra into his early operatic works, not so much for the surface effect as to underscore the philosophical kinship both composers shared with Nietzsche.

Works: Bartók: 14 Bagatelles (203), Suite No. 1 (204-5), Bluebeard's Castle (206), The Wooden Prince (207).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Bayles, Martha. “Rock ‘n’ Rollers or Holy Rollers?” Chapter 8 in Hole in Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Bazelon, Irwin. Knowing the Score: Notes on Film Music. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975.

Film score composers are often required to compose forty minutes worth of music in several weeks time, necessitating the use of previously invented music or the liberal borrowing of others' previously written music. The fragmented form of film music often discourages developed themes on large compositional canvases, but calls for the use of "mere snatches of music." Using the widely understood extramusical associations of previously written music, the first film score composers often borrowed easily recognizable music, conveying meaning quickly to early moviegoers. The "Bridal Chorus" from Wagner's Lohengrin was used to seal holy matrimony, Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata for moonlit nights and calm waters, and Rossini's William Tell Overture to underscore Western cowboy heroics, creating a language of musical cliché for generations of film score composers to come. With all art, both serious and popular, becoming an amusement commodity for leisure-time activity, the film industry has absorbed the materials of traditional art in order to imbue its product with all the outer trappings of genuine culture.

Works: Stanley Kubrick: compilation score to 2001: A Space Odyssey; Wendy (Walter) Carlos: score to A Clockwork Orange (35); Leonard Rosenman: score to Fantastic Voyage (39); Ezra Laderman: score to The Eleanor Roosevelt Story (38); Elmer Bernstein: score to The Magnificent Seven (75); Lalo Schifrin: score to Cool Hand Luke (75); Toru Takemitsu: score to Woman in the Dunes (78); Hanns Eisler: score to Hangmen Also Die (84).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Beadle, Jeremy. Will Pop Eat Itself? Pop Music in the Soundbite Era. London: Faber and Faber, 1993.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Beaudoin, Richard. “You’re There and You’re Not There: Musical Borrowing and Cavell’s ‘Way.’” Journal of Music Theory 54 (Spring 2010): 91-105.

Stanley Cavell’s style of philosophical writing, which incorporates numerous borrowings of other philosophical texts, can be likened to musical borrowings by Ignaz Friedman, Luciano Berio, and Richard Beaudoin. Borrowing strategies in both music and philosophical texts exist along a continuum of borrowing procedures, with points such as “works without explicit borrowing,” “local borrowing,” and “critical borrowing.” Within this continuum, Cavell mostly employs “local,” “structural,” and “critical” borrowing procedures. There is a long tradition of philosophers who have engaged with “writing about the writings of other writers,” though Cavell takes this stylistic trait to an extreme; in fact, his writings involve using the words of others to such a high degree that some might consider there to be little of his own “self” remaining. The borrowing procedures of Cavell’s Philosophy the Day After Tomorrow can be likened to Ignaz Friedman’s Gavotte from the Sixth Sonata for Violin by J. S. Bach Arranged for Piano. Both of these works employ lengthy quotations to play a sophisticated game of meaning with their sources, with the composer serving as a sort of “intellectual guide” along the way. Cavell’s procedures of borrowings in Philosophical Passages are similar to those of Berio’s Sinfonia. Both borrow from one main literary document, ignoring major parts of the original source, and include material of their own making alongside the borrowed material. Finally, borrowing procedures in Cavell’s Philosophical Passages can also be likened to the author’s own Etude d’un prelude IV—Black Wires. Both approaches to borrowing involve nested histories and commentaries, which act like a dialog between authors who never coexisted. Borrowings—both musical and literary—are important because they reveal essential aspects of their transcribers.

Works: Ignaz Friedman: Gavotte from the Sixth Sonata for Violin by J. S. Bach Arranged for Piano (95-97); Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (98-99); Richard Beaudoin: Etude d’un prelude IV—Black Wires (99-102).

Sources: Johann Sebastian Bach: Partita in E, BWV 1006 (95-97); Chopin (composer) and Martha Argerich (performer): Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28, No. 4 (100-102).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Beaumont, Antony. Review of Albrecht Riethmüller's Ferruccio Busonis Poetik.Music and Letters 70 (1989): 571-74.

Riethmüller aims to outline Busoni thought patterns by analyzing two works, the Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a, completed in 1898, and the Improvisation for Two Pianos on Bach's Chorale-Song 'Wie wohl ist mir,' composed in 1916. The Improvisation reworks material from the Second Violin Sonata. The structure of the variations in the third movement of the violin sonata is modeled on Beethoven's Piano Sonata, Op.109. Riethmüller misses the fact that the opening notes of the Bach chorale are identical to the bass line of Beethoven's variation theme, and hence serve in Busoni's sonata as a good example of Busoni's idea of "the Oneness of Music." Riethmüller points out the "latent characteristic of quotation in Busoni's music," and discovers the borrowing of sketches for an unfinished piano work in the chorale variations and the borrowing from Bach's Trauerode, BWV 198 in the opening of Busoni's third movement. Riethmüller analyzes the Improvisation in terms of borrowing from the violin sonata, calling it obscurer, more aggressive, and more enigmatic. But the relationship of the two works is more like "that of a healthy mother to a very sickly child," since the average listener does not know its antecedent in detail and since some passages are incoherent and illogical.

Works: Busoni: Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a, (571-73), Improvisation for Two Pianos on Bach's Chorale-Song 'Wie wohl ist mir' (573).

Sources: J.S. Bach: "Wie wohl ist mir" from Notenbuch für Anna Magdalena Bach (571), Trauerode, BWV 198 (572), Beethoven: Piano Sonata, Op. 109 (571), Busoni: Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a (573).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Beirens, Maarten. “Quotation as a Structural Element in Music by Michael Nyman.” Tempo 61 (October 2007): 25-38.

British composer Michael Nyman’s style could be characterized as a combination of musical quotations fused with minimalist compositional characteristics. Often his music establishes a dialogue with the past, engaging the listener with an active reevaluation of the original quoted work. In the soundtrack to Peter Greenaway’s film Draughtsman’s Contract (1982), Nyman based the entire score on elements of the music of Purcell, especially on ground basses and archetypes of functional harmony, gradually reducing out elements of Purcell’s stylistic language until just common harmonic patterns remained. This creates a sense of tension between the present and the past. In Drowning by Numbers, Nyman borrows from Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante, K. 364. Nyman employs two different techniques of borrowing: variation and montage. Variation technique describes a process by which Nyman systematically varies every musical element associated with a borrowing (such as rhythm and pitch); this technique creates a sense of alienation between the two different musical eras (Classical and modern). Montage technique describes a process by which Nyman cuts up source material and brings it together again in a new framework; the individual compositional cells remain very close to the original, but their combination is quite different and introduces a new kind of formal coherence. These techniques of musical borrowing can also be seen in Nyman’s String Quartet No. 1 (1985), which borrows from works by Schoenberg and John Bull, creating a commentary on the music in which it is based. Nyman creates a dialectic between the two, with Bull representing traditional musical practices and Schoenberg representing more radical or modern practices, fully asserting himself as a European composer of the classical tradition in the process. Two charts (28, 33) summarize the borrowings in Drowing by Numbers and the String Quartet No. 1.

Works: Peter Greenaway (director) and Michael Nyman (composer): score to The Draughtsman’s Contract (26); Michael Nyman: Drowning by Numbers (27-32), In Re Don Giovanni (30), String Quartet No. 1 (33-37).

Sources: Purcell: Chasing Sheep is Best Left for Shepherds (26); Mozart: Sinfonia Concertante, K. 364 (27-32), Don Giovanni (30); John Bull: Walsingham (33-37); Schoenberg: String Quartet No. 2 (33-35).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Bekker, Paul. Gustav Mahlers Sinfonien. Berlin: Schuster &Loeffer, 1921.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Benítez, Joaquim M. "Meiji 40-nen shuppan sanbutsuka ni okeru sanbika no shakuyo." Toyo ongaku kenkyu 66 (August 2001): 1-15.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Benkö, András. "Motivul B-A-C-H in muzica secolului XX." Lucrari de muzicologie 4 (1968): 137-56.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Berger, Arthur V. "Aspects of Aaron Copland's Music." Tempo, no. 10 (March 1945): 2-5.

Aaron Copland alters material borrowed from American folksong to make it individual and to evoke folksong as a genre. In adapting the source tunes, Copland changes their character (Lincoln Portrait), shifts rhythmic emphasis (Billy the Kid, Rodeo), and fragments motives (El salón México). The compositional technique is comparable to that in the more abstract works; for example, Danzon Cubano and the Violin Sonata employ similar rhythmic patterns. Works by Copland that draw upon folksong portray not only the open space of the prairies, but also the isolation of New York City, Copland's own environment.

Works: Copland: Piano Sonata (2), Danzon Cubano (2-3), Violin Sonata (2-3), Lincoln Portrait (3), Billy the Kid (3), El salón México (4), Rodeo (4).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Berger, Arthur. Aaron Copland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953.

Within a life and works study, musical borrowings from American folk music are considered. A number of works after 1934 borrow from folk sources, including El salón México,Billy the Kid,Rodeo, and Lincoln Portrait. Copland transformed and developed his borrowings through melodic and rhythmic displacement, character changes, and motivic fragmentation. As a result of folk influence, Copland composed more melodic music that relies upon diatonic harmonies. The use of folksong assisted Copland in his search for a simpler style accessible to a wider audience. Copland's borrowings were also the result of his Americanism and his desire to bring the American popular-music heritage into the concert hall.

Works: Copland: Vitebsk (52), Lincoln Portrait (60-61), Rodeo (63-64), El Salón México (63-65), Billy the Kid (65n, 91), Appalachian Spring (65n), Third Symphony (72-80), The Heiress (film score) (89), Las Agachadas (91); Rimsky-Korsakoff: Russian Easter Overture (73); Stravinsky: Petrouchka (73, 91), Pulcinella (91).

Sources: Springfield Mountain (60-61); El Mosca (63); If He'd Be a Buckaroo (63-64); Sis Joe (64); El Palo Verde (65); The Gift to Be Simple (Simple Gifts) (65n); Goodbye Old Paint (65n, 91); Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (75); Giovanni Martini: Plaisirs d'amour (89).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Berlin, Edward A. King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Within a study of Scott Joplin and his compositions, several cases of borrowing or modeling are explored. The most imitated Joplin piece was Maple Leaf Rag, his biggest hit. Also imitated to some extent were Elite Syncopations,Palm Leaf Rag, and Original Rags. Many imitations were little more than plagiarisms. Joplin's imitations of himself, however, were brilliant. Gladiolous Rag,Rose Leaf Rag, and Cascades preserve what Joplin apparently felt were attractive structural elements of the Maple Leaf Rag. Also noteworthy is the possibility of Irving Berlin's Alexander's Ragtime Band borrowing from Joplin's Treemonisha.

Works: Settle: X.L. Rag (51, 68); Etter: Whoa! Maud (52, 69); Butler: The Tantalizer (67); Donaldson: Latonia Rag (68); Nonnahs: That's Goin' Some (68); Tournade: Easy Money (113); Scott: A Summer Breeze (113); Morton: Fuzzy Wuzzy Rag (113-14); Verge: Who You Heiffer (131); Joplin: Cascades (136-38), Gladiolous Rag (169-72), Rose Leaf Rag (169-72); Berlin: Alexander's Ragtime Band (210-12).

Sources: Joplin: Original Rags (50-51), Maple Leaf Rag (67-69, 136, 152, 169-70, 179, 182-83), The Entertainer (108-10), A Breeze From Alabama (110-12), Elite Syncopations (113-14), Palm Leaf Rag (130-32), Treemonisha (210-12).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Berman, Laurence David. "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun and Jeux: Debussy's Summer Rites." 19th-Century Music 3 (March 1980): 225-38.

The plots of both works are similar so that Debussy's method of translating poetry into music can be compared. The retrospective character of the prelude is apparent in the evocation of (1) Tristan, (2) Chopin's Nocturne No. 8 in Db major, (3) Saint-Saëns's Mon coeur s'ouvre à ta voix, and (4) the love music of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet.

Works: Debussy: Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (227-32), Jeux (232-38).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (232), Chopin: Nocturne No. 8 in D flat (232), Saint-Saëns: Mon coeur s'ouvre à ta voix (232), Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet (232).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Bernard, Jonathan W. "Tonal Traditions in Art Music Since 1960." In The Cambridge History of American Music, ed. David Nicholls, 535-66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

A group of composers, known as "Converts," began as "post-tonalists" and experimentalists and then moved toward more tonal idioms in the 1960s and 1970s. One of the first composers to leave the "post-tonal" world was George Rochberg, who began using collage and other borrowing techniques in his compositions of the mid-1960s. He began quoting his contemporaries and slowly moved to allusion of past composers and eras with his Third String Quartet. Another composer to use collage and allusion was David Del Tredici, who used various traditional and popular tunes to support the texts of Lewis Carroll. William Bolcom, John Harbison, Chick Corea, Keith Jarrett, and Anthony Davis began mixing art music and popular music through quotation, allusion, and homage to create a tonal idiom unlike those found in the music of Rochberg and Del Tredici. In the 1980s and 1990s, young composers also looked back to the Romantic period, but they did not use quotation or other actual borrowing techniques to the extent of the Converts. The young Romantic composers usually composed original music that only alluded slightly to the former composers of the 1800s.

Works: Rochberg: Music for the Magic Theater (546), String Quartet No. 3 (546-47); Del Tredici: Pop-Pourri (547), Vintage Alice (548); Zwilich: Concerto Grosso (561); Larson: Symphony: Water Music (563).

Sources: Mozart: Divertimento K. 287 (546); Bach: Es ist genug (547); Traditional: Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star (548), God Save the Queen (548); Handel: Violin Sonata in D (561), Water Music (563).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Bernier, Kiyono Monique. "Disparate Measures: Two 20th Century Treatments of the Paganini Theme." DMA diss., University of Arizona, 2000.

Niels Viggo Bentzon's Variationer for klaver, Op. 241, and Robert Muczynski's Desperate Measures (Paganini Variations) participate in a long tradition of variations in general and variations on Paganini's Caprice No. 24, and their contributions to the latter tradition exhibit divergent approaches to variation technique. Bentzon obscures all melodic references to Paganini's theme and does not label variations, preferring instead to make subtle allusions to Paganini's harmonies and rhythms within the context of Bentzon's own language. Muczynski's Desperate Measures, on the other hand, is a work conceived of as entertainment, and references to Paganini's melody remain clear within a more traditional approach to variations and tonality, to which Muczynski adds modern dance idioms.

Works: J. S. Bach: Goldberg Variations (11-13); Mozart: Variations in F Major, "Salve tu Domine," K. 398; Beethoven: Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (14); Chopin: Twelve Concert Etudes, Op. 10 (18); Liszt: Grandes études de Paganini, Op. 6 (28, 30-32, 101); Busoni: Paganini-Liszt Theme mit Variationen, Etüden, No. 6 (28-32); Lutosławski: Variations on a Theme of Paganini (28, 32); Brahms: Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35 (28, 32-33, 101); Rachmaninov: Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43 (28, 32-33); Niels Viggo Bentzon: Variationer for Klaver, Op. 241 (29, 34, 37-62, 65, 98-101); Robert Muczynski: Desperate Measures (Paganini Variations) (29, 65-98, 100-102).

Sources: Anonymous: Ich bin so lang nicht bei dir g'west (12), Kraut und Rüben (12); Paisiello: "Salve tu, domine" from I filosofi immaginarii (13); Anton Diabelli: Waltz (14); Paganini: 24 Caprices, Op. 1 (26-29); Liszt: Grandes études de Paganini, Op. 6 (30).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Berrett, Joshua. "Louis Armstrong and Opera." The Musical Quarterly 76 (Summer 1992): 216-41.

Louis Armstrong's prolifically wide-ranging tastes regarding art and music find their outlet in his incorporation of operatic fragments in his improvised solos. Armstrong was inclined to imitate operatic gestures such as recitative style, as exemplified by his solo in Blue Again. Armstrong also played operatic cadenza-like passages in certain breaks, such as in I Can't Give You Anything But Love (234). In other instances, Armstrong quoted operatic themes, such as Verdi's Rigoletto quartet and "Vesti la giubba" from Pagliacci. By quoting Pagliacci and Rigoletto, he was showing that his artistic influences were not limited to the pantheon of New Orleans cornet virtuosos of the early twentieth century. Armstrong did not distinguish between "high" and "low" art; it was all jazz to him, and his quotations of well-known music are a demonstration of this belief.

Works: Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Araby (220), Blue Again (222, 235), New Orleans Stomp (223), Dinah (223-24, 234, 236), Tiger Rag (225), New Tiger Rag (225); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Kansas City Man Blues (228), Texas Moaner Blues (229); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Potato Head Blues (229); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Cake Walking Babies from Home (230, 234); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on West End Blues (231-36); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Mandy Make Up Your Mind (232), Early Every Morn (233); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Beau Koo Jack (235), Once in a While (235), Can't Give You Anything But Love (235).

Sources: Verdi: Rigoletto (218, 222-23, 231-32); Gounod: Faust (220); Ponchielli: Dance of the Hours (221), Gershwin: Lady Be Good! (223); Sindig: Rustle of Spring (225); Leoncavallo: Pagliacci (225); Porter Steele: High Society (227, 232); Bizet: Carmen (231); Eva Dell'Acqua: Villanelle (232-33); Suppé: Poet and Peasant Overture (233).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan, Marc Geelhoed

[+] Betz, Marianne. "The Voice of the City: New York in der Musik von Charles Ives." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 61, no. 3 (2004): 207-25.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Beyer, Richard. "Das musikalische Selbstzitat: Eigene Musik in anderen Werken nochmals verwendet." Das Orchester: Zeitschrift für Orchesterkultur und Rundfunk-Chorwesen 49 (2001): 20-24.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Bezuidenhout, Morné P. "Metamorphosis in 'Metamorphoses': A Set Theory approach to the Harmonic Continuo in Lutoslawski's 'Funeral Music.'" South African Journal of Musicology 4 (1984): 17-21.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Bick, Sally. "Political Ironies: Hanns Eisler in Hollywood and Behind the Iron Curtain." Acta Musicologica 75 (2003): 65-84.

By borrowing a musical passage from his film score Hangman also Die within the opening of his song Auferstanden aus Ruinen, Hanns Eisler utilized the same music for two extremely different political and social circumstances—a paradox that illustrates music's ability to mediate meaning through cultural encoding. The 1943 motion picture Hangmen also Die by Fritz Lang is a product of the Hollywood entertainment industry and American capitalism, whereas Auferstanden aus Ruinen is a patriotic song adopted by the communist German Democratic Republic as its national anthem. In the film, the story centers on the struggle of the united Czech people to overcome the brutal Nazi occupation; the relevant musical passage is heard in a scene in which the leading Czech resistance leader lies on his deathbed after a Nazi raid. The slow, syncopated rhythm in the bass line and the three-note descending sequential figure in the melody symbolize the patriotism and heroism of the Czech people fighting against fascism. Eisler borrows these same gestures in the opening of the anthem, and in both cases exploits the emotional power of music to mediate a political and social message. The paradox of Eisler's self-borrowing emphasizes music's ability to cross social and political boundaries.

Works: Eisler: Auferstanden aus Ruinen.

Sources: Eisler: Score for Hangman also Die.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Mary Ellen Ryan

[+] Birchler, David Carl. "Nature and Autobiography in the Music of Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Biron, Ferand. Le chant gregorien dans l'enseignement et les oeuvres musicales de Vincent d'Indy. Ottawa: Les Editions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 1941.

Vincent d'Indy was heavily influenced by Gregorian plainsong, and this influence was clearly reflected in his musical philosophies, teaching, and compositions. D'Indy's music quotes, paraphrases, or alludes to the style of Gregorian chant in several ways. These are organized according to compositional genre. The use of Gregorian chant fits into d'Indy's musical aesthetic in several ways.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Bittel, Hermann. "Der Cantus firmus in der zeitgenössischen geistlichen Chormusik." Ph.D. diss., Munich, 1950.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Blanchard, Gérard. Images de la musique de cinéma. Paris: Collection Médiathèque, 1984.

Within the context of an examination into film music as a component equally crucial to the film as the images on the screen, musical borrowing is discussed with special attention paid to the musical cliché. The use and creation of musical clichés in film music derives first and foremost from the recontextualization of "classical" music in film. The musical cliché is analogous to the literary. In some cases, the classifications and associations assigned to the musical cues of the silent films derive from already established semiotic codes, but in most cases film composers were creating and re-creating cultural and psychological points of reference in the ears and minds of the film spectators. In the process of recognizing the real social importance of these musical clichés, their respective archetypes are uncovered.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Blaustein, Susan. "Uses of Sonata Form in Schubert's Op. 29/I and Schoenberg's Op. 30/I." M.A. thesis, Yale University, 1980.

There is evidence to suggest that Schoenberg modeled the first movement of his Third String Quartet (1927) on the first movement of Schubert's String Quartet in A minor, Op. 29 (1824). Schoenberg's incessant eighth-note ostinato in the second violin and viola at the opening of the movement shows a clear allegiance to the perpetual eighth notes at the opening of the Schubert. But what is especially noteworthy is Schoenberg's unique manipulation and recasting of the traditional elements of sonata form within the new environment of the twelve-tone system.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Blay, Philippe, and Hervé Lacombe. "A l'ombre de Massenet, Proust et Loti: Le manuscrit autographe de L'Ile du rêve de Reynaldo Hahn." Revue de musicologie 79, no. 1 (1993): 83-108.

The recently revealed manuscript for L'Ile du rêve contains Hahn's marginal comments written in the style of Massenet. An examination of these markings displays Hahn's infatuation and dependence on not only Massenet, but also contemporary writers Loti and Proust. Regarding his teacher Massenet, Hahn wrote that he was dependent on him for compositional technique and melodic ideas. (EH)

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Blezzard, Judith H. Borrowings in English Church Music, 1550-1950. London: Stainer &Bell, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Block, Adrienne Fried. "Amy Beach's Music on Native American Themes." American Music 8 (Summer 1900): 141-66.

Amy Beach composed five works using Native American music as themes. Her usage reflected an interest, shared by MacDowell, Dvorak, Farwell and others, in developing an American musical idiom. In her Indianist works, Beach integrated source tunes through dissonance, chromaticism, drones, and other devices, facilitating her development of a unique musical language.

Works: Beach: Eskimos, Op. 64 (148-50), An Indian Lullaby, Op. 57, No. 3 (149), From Blackbird Hills: An Omaha Tribal Dance, Op. 83 (150-52), Trio, Op. 150 (152-54), String Quartet, Op. 89 (154-63).

Sources: Native American tunes transcribed by Boas in The Central Eskimo (144, 149-50, 152, 156, 160); Beach: The Returning Hunter, Op. 64, No. 2 (152-53).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Block, Adrienne Fried. "Dvorak's Long American Reach." In Dvorak in America, 1892-1895, ed. John C. Tibbetts, 157-81. Portland, Ore: Amadeus, 1993.

Dvorák had a wide-ranging impact on the creation of an American nationalism in music. His ideas about a national American music fall into three different categories, each dealing with a style of folk music. Dvorák felt that American composers should look toward these three folk styles as foundations for their compositions, following the model of his own New World Symphony from 1893. The first category of national American music is Native American music. Composers continued to follow Dvorák's ideas by collecting the music, using previous collections made by ethnologists, and alluding to the culture of the Native American in symphonic and chamber music and opera. The second folk style Dvorák discussed is African-American music. Composers broke into two categories of African-American music, yet they all still were following many of the ideals set forth in the writings of Dvorák. Many composers looked towards the traditions of the Creole people in the South, while others focused mainly on spirituals and other slave songs for the inspiration of various compositions. Finally, composers began looking toward Anglo-American folk traditions, which was the final type of folk music briefly discussed by Dvorák as a basis for a national music. Dvorák was a significant influence on the creation of American music from his entrance into the country until mid-twentieth century.

Works: Works: Dvorák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (158-59); MacDowell: Indian Suite (163); Loomis: Lyrics of the Red Men (163-64); Nevin: Poia (164); Farwell: The Hako (164); Griffes: Two Sketches Based on Indian Themes (164-65); Beach: String Quartet, Op. 89 (165-66); van Brockhoven: Suite Creole (169); Gilbert: Dance in Place Congo (169); Beach: Cabildo (169); Shelly: Carnival Overture (170); Schoenefeld: Suite, Op. 15 (170); Goldmark: Negro Rhapsody (171); Gilbert: Negro Episode (171); Mason: String Quartet in G Minor on Negro Themes (172); Cook: Uncle Tom's Cabin (173); Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (174).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Block, Geoffrey. "Ives and the 'Sounds That Beethoven Didn't Have.'" In Charles Ives and the Classical Tradition, ed. Geoffrey Block and J. Peter Burkholder, 34-50. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Ives's borrowings from Beethoven in his Concord Sonata extend beyond reverence and homage. Ives integrates the famous four-note opening to Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 into his own theme, which he calls the "human faith melody." By reworking Beethoven's motto into a new context, Ives pays tribute to Beethoven and also challenges Beethoven's music by improving the material with new sounds Beethoven might have used had he been Ives's contemporary. The Concord Sonata thus displays Ives's success in overcoming what Harold Bloom calls the "anxiety of influence" by confronting Beethoven's influence head-on.

Works: Ives: Arrangement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2, No. 1 (34-37), Second Piano Sonata (Concord) (37-50).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2, No. 1 (34-37), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (40-44,47-50), Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Op. 106 (Hammerklavier) (44-47); Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (42-45); Charles Zeuner: Missionary Chant (42-44).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Brent C. Reidy

[+] Block, Geoffrey. "Remembrance of Dissonances Past: The Two Published Editions of Ives's Concord Sonata." In Ives Studies, ed. Philip Lambert, 27-50. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Block, Geoffrey. Ives: Concord Sonata. Cambridge Music Handbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Block, Steven. "George Rochberg: Progressive or Master Forger?" Perspectives of New Music 21 (1982-1983): 407-9.

Rochberg is an imitator who does not place his personal stamp on the compositions he quotes. Rochberg's style of quotation presents a shallow picture of the composer he tries to portray without adding anything of his own.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sergio Bezerra

[+] Block, Steven. “Bemsha Swing: The Transformation of a Bebop Classic to Free Jazz.” Music Theory Spectrum 19 (Fall 1997): 206-231.

Critics of Cecil Taylor’s recordings have incorrectly accused him of abandoning tonality and emphasizing texture in his improvisations. Pitch-class set analysis of Taylor’s improvisations, however, reveals a much closer connection between Taylor and his predecessors than previously acknowledged. Two recordings of Thelonious Monk and Denzil Best’s Bemsha Swing, one by Monk in 1955 and one by Taylor in 1958, demonstrate this close connection. Monk uses only a small collection of pitch-class sets and pitch-class operators for many of his improvisations, all in the context of standard bebop extended tonality. Taylor uses sets that imply traditional jazz scales and derive from Monk’s improvisations. By applying pitch-class operations, particularly multiplication, to these sets, Taylor gradually removes them from a tonal context.

Works: Thelonious Monk and Denzel Best (composers) and Cecil Taylor (performer): Bemsha Swing (219-31).

Sources: Thelonious Monk and Denzil Best (composers) and Thelonious Monk (performer): Bemsha Swing (207-19).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Blyton, Carey. “Sondheim’s ‘Sweeney Todd’: The Case for the Defence.” Tempo 149 (June 1984): 19-26.

Stephen Sondheim’s Sweeney Todd is not a musical, but an opera, and has suffered by not being performed by opera companies for opera audiences. In Sweeney Todd, Sondheim shows his knowledge of the Western art music tradition through musical borrowing, leitmotif-like motivic recurrence, stylistic allusion to canonic composers and popular musics, harsh dissonance and bi-tonality, mixed meter, and other techniques. Such techniques provide the work with dramatic cohesion and musical integrity.

Works: Stephen Sondheim: Sweeney Todd.

Sources: Anonymous: Dies Irae (20, 24-25).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Bohlman, Philip V., and Andrea F. Bohlman. "(Un)Covering Hanns Eisler's Hollywood Songbook." Danish Yearbook of Musicology 35 (2007): 13-29.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

[+] Boldt, Kenwyn. "The Solo Piano Variations of Rachmaninoff." D.M. document, Indiana University, 1967.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Bolley, Richard. "Ancient and Modern 3." Early Music 8, no. 4 (October 1980): 3-5.

While at university in Manchester, Peter Maxwell Davies immersed himself in early music. From the Liber Usualis, the volumes in the Tudor Church Music series, and performances at Manchester Cathedral, Davies heard and studied this repertoire. Upon purchasing the volume of John Dunstable's works in the Musica Britannica collection, Davies began to use Dunstable's music in his own compositions as an alternative to the serial procedures currently in vogue. He says that he borrowed the idea of plainsong transformation from Dunstable, as well as the manner in which he structured rhythm. Davies was also concerned with aesthetic expression and the process in which a composition would speak to the listener. In order to reach the height of expression, a composition must also be in correct proportion, an idea Davies shares with Dunstable. However, the proportional structure need not be heard to communicate to the listener. Davies also uses the vocabulary of early music when he speaks of a cantus or tenor working its way through his compositions. For Davies, this is no mere intellectual exercise, but a compositional process which he believes allows him to communicate to a wide audience.

Works: Davies: Prolation (3).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Bomberger, E. Douglas, and Adrienne Fried Block. “On Beach’s Variations on Balkan Themes, Op. 60.” American Music 11 (Autumn 1993): 368-71.

Amy Beach recommended in her essay “Ten Commandments for Young Composers” that when composers approached a new form, they should choose a work to use as a model for their composition. Her Variations on Balkan Themes may have been modeled after Beethoven’s Six Variations, Op. 34, a work that Beach had in her repertoire throughout her career. There is a similar tonal scheme between the two works, though Beach’s is in minor and Beethoven’s in major.

Works: Amy Beach: Variations on Balkan Themes, Op. 60.

Sources: Beethoven: Six Variations, Op. 34 (369-70).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux

[+] Bomberger, E. Douglas. “Motivic Development in Amy Beach’s Variations on Balkan Themes, Op. 60.” American Music 10 (Autumn 1992): 326-47.

Amy Beach’s Variations on Balkan Themes, her largest and most difficult piano composition, utilizes four Balkan tunes throughout the work. Beach originally thought these melodies were peasant melodies, but two have been positively identified as Bulgarian urban songs. Though there are four melodies used, titled O Maiko Moya, Stara Planina, Nasadil e Dado, and Macedonia,, they do not receive equal treatment in length and development. For instance, the main theme of the variations is based solely on O Maiko Moya, whereas Nasadil e Dado only appears once in the entire work. The other two melodies had charged political meanings, suggesting that Beach was sympathetic to the Balkan people, especially the Macedonians. The form of the work is best described as “free” or “fantasia” variations since the theme is metrically and harmonically free, allowing for development of motives. In this regard, Beach’s variations are constructed similarly to Dvořák’s Symphonic Variations and Tchaikovsky’s Piano Trio, Op. 50. The descending-thirds key relationships between several of the variations also resemble Beethoven’s Six Variations, Op. 34, while the oscillation between slow and fast tempos in the sixth variation recalls the lassu-friss style found in Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsodies. The penultimate variation is a funeral march reminiscent of Chopin’s Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor in its pianism, especially the use of the lower range of the piano.

Works: Amy Beach: Variations on Balkan Themes, Op. 60.

Sources: Anonymous: O Maiko Moya (328-32, 337, 342-43), Stara Planina (328-332, 336-37, 340-41, 344), Nasadil e Dado (328-29, 337-38), Macedonia (328-332, 341-42); Dvořák: Symphonic Variations (333); Tchaikovsky: Piano Trio, Op. 50 (333); Beethoven: Six Variations, Op. 34 (336), Eroica Variations, Op. 35 (340), Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (340); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsodies, S.244 (337); Chopin: Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor, Op. 35 (339-40).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux

[+] Bónis, Ferenc. "Bartók and Wagner." New Hungarian Quarterly 10 (Summer 1969): 201-9. Reprinted in Bartók Studies, comp. and ed. Todd Crow, 84-92. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1976. German translation in Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 36 (March 1981): 134-47.

Bartók's compositions contain numerous "hidden autobiographical elements," quotations from his own and from other composers' works. These can often be revealed only through careful analysis. In Bluebeard's Castle, Bartók quotes an ostinato motive from Bach's St. Matthew Passion and also uses the motive B-A-C-H. The Wooden Prince begins with an evocation of nature modeled upon that which begins Wagner's Das Rheingold except that in Bartók the first seven harmonics are combined (as opposed to the first five in the Wagner) to create the "Bartók chord." Other examples noted include reference to Ravel's Scarbo in Bartók's Allegro barbaro and the reformulation of the slow movement of Beethoven's String Quartet in A Minor, Op.132, in the second movement of Bartók's Third Piano Concerto.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Bónis, Ferenc. "Quotations in Bartók's Music: A Contribution to Bartók's Psychology of Composition." Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 5 (1963): 355-82.

Bartók's quotations have never been completely examined. His quotations are rarely made for "effect," but are instead hidden away and are of a personal significance. Many examples are noted with reference to folk melodies and to the works of Haydn, Liszt, Wagner, Bach, Beethoven, Debussy, Ravel, Kodaly, and Stravinsky. Bartók also quotes music from his own earlier works. The quotations discussed are divided into four groups: (1) the reference to the music of other composers, often inspired by similar compositional situations, (2) programmatic and autobiographical quotations, (3) quotations of a humorous or ironic nature, and (4) "shopwork" quotations, themes which recur in several works and are molded to "final perfection." Bartók is viewed as an innovator who at the same time is a great synthesizer of disparate influences.

Works: Bartók: Kossuth (357), Rhapsody for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 1 (357), Scherzo for Piano and Orchestra (357), First Suite for Orchestra, Op. 3 (357), Second Suite for Orchestra, Op. 4 (357), Violin Concerto No. 1 (359), Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion (361), Bluebeard's Castle (365), Piano Concerto No. 3 (369), Second String Quartet (371), Allegro barbaro (372), Contrasts (372), Violin Concerto No. 2 (373), Concerto for Orchestra (377), Cipósütés (378).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Bonner, Dyl. "Ready-made Music." Music and Musicians 23 (August 1975): 28-30.

An aesthetic of musical borrowing is emerging where the borrowed material functions as the central idea and inspiration of a work. The works of Bernd Aloys Zimmerman and Peter Maxwell Davies receive particular attention in a discussion that mentions numerous examples of works incorporating musical borrowings. Bonner theorizes that the technique has become particularly important in music of this century due to the growing lack of communication between composers and modern audiences. Borrowed material in new compositions provides a basis of familiarity, thereby serving as a path to comprehension of the new work.

Works: William Albright: Tic (30), Caroms (30); Alban Berg: Wozzeck (30), Violin Concerto (30); Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (30); William Bolcom: Whisper Moons (30), Sessions IV (30); Gavin Bryars: Jesus's Blood (30); John Cage: HPSCHD (30); Peter Maxwell Davies: Alma Redemptoris Mater (29), Frammenti di Leopardi (29), St. Thomas Wake (29), Eight Songs for a Mad King (29), I Love Dr. Herberden Best (29), Comfort ye (29); Brian Dennis: Programmes (30); Hans Werner Henze: Second Violin Concerto (30); Alec Hill: Mayerl Order (29); Christopher Hobbs: Remorseless Lamb (29); Gustav Holst: Hymn of Jesus (28); Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: "Supper scene" from Don Giovanni (28); Robert Schumann: Fantasy in C Major, Op. 17 (28); Dimitri Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15 (30); Karlheinz Stockhausen: Hymnen (30), Opus 170 (28), Prozession (30); Igor Stravinsky: L'Histoire du Soldat (30); John Tavener: Coplas (30), Celtic Requiem (30); Michael Tippett: Third Symphony (30); William Walton: Façade (28); Bernd Aloys Zimmerman: Die Soldaten (28), Musique pour les soupers du Roi Ubu (28), Monologue (28).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Börner, Hermann. "Original oder originell? Bachbearbeitungen von Komponisten des 20. Jahrhunderts." Musik und Gesellschaft 29 (1979): 79-84.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Boyd, Malcolm. "Britten, Verdi and the Requiem." Tempo, no. 86 (1968): 2-6.

There are similarities between the requiems of Britten (WarRequiem) and Verdi. These primarily concern not melodic resemblances but similarities in texture, speed, rhythm, tonality, and the deployment of vocal and instrumental resources. The Verdi-like passages serve as terms of reference for the listener, helping to form a familiar background against which to contrast the tritone relationships in the music and the disruptive elements of the Owen verses. However, in emulating another composer, Britten tried to purge his musical style of certain traits (including some Verdian ones), which resulted sometimes in completely different forms of expression.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Boyd, Malcolm. "Dies Irae: Some Recent Manifestations." Music and Letters 49 (October 1968): 347-56.

Amplification of Gregory 1953. Quotation of the Dies Irae has been overdone, but some modern works have enriched the symbolism grown around the ancient plainchant melody. Russia especially has most closely associated this melody with the death of a revolutionary hero. Khatchaturian, in his Second Symphony, uses it in the general expresion of mourning of the war 1914-1918. Tchaikovsky's Suite No. 3 lacks a program to explain the chant's presence. In Respighi's Impressioni Brasiliane, the chant portrays the physical characteristics and deadly qualities of snakes. Dallapiccola's Canti di Prigionia uses the chant structurally in an outcry against tyranny and oppression. Pierres and Stevenson use it for similar effect. Some borderline cases are Rachmaninoff's Isle of the Dead and Mahler's Second Symphony. A list (pp. 355-56) of some secular references to the Dies Irae is provided.

Works: Bantock: Macbeth (355); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (347, 348, 355); Dallapiccola: Canti di Prigionia (351, 352, 355); Peter Maxwell Davies: St. Michael (355); Khatchaturian: Symphony No. 2 (348, 350, 355); Kraft: Fantasia Dies Irae for Organ (355); Liszt: Totentanz (351, 355); Mahler: Das klagende Lied (355), Symphony No. 2 (354, 355); Medtner: Piano Quintet (356); Miaskovsky: Symphony No. 6 (348-350, 356); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death, #3 (356); Pierres: A Litany for the Day of Human Rights (352, 356); Pizetti: Requiem (348); Rachmaninoff: The Isle of the Dead (353, 354, 356), The Bells (353, 356), Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (354, 356), Symphonic Dances (354, 356); Respighi: Impressioni brasiliane (351, 356); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (356); Schelling: Victory Ball (356); Sorabji: Variation upon Dies Irae (356), Sequentia cyclica (356); Stevenson: Passacaglia on DSCH (352, 356); Stravinsky: Three Pieces for String Quartet (356); Tchaikovsky: In Dark Hell (356), Suite No. 3 (356); Vaughan-Williams: Five Tudor Portraits (356); Bergman film: The Seventh Seal (356); Fernandel film: The Sheep has Five Legs (356).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Braun, Joachim. "The Double Meaning of Jewish Elements in Dimitri Shostakovich's Music." The Musical Quarterly 71 ([Winter] 1985): 68-80.

The identification of Jewish elements in Shostakovich's music is preceded by a definition of what these elements may be considered as being. The understanding of the meaning of these elements in Shostakovich's music depends upon the understanding of the position of Jewish culture in the Soviet Union. Twelve works which include Jewish elements are listed in Table I. Jewish elements often appear in works that employ the self-identification motive of D-S-C-H [D-Eb-C-B] which corresponds to the D. SCHostakovitch of the composer's name in German usage. The use of Jewish elements may be interpreted as concealed dissidence.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Braun, William Ray. "Three Uses of Pre-Existent Music in the Twentieth Century." Ph.D. diss., University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1974.

The techniques of quodlibet, quotation, and parody are discussed for a selection of fifteen works written between 1908 and 1970. The reasons for borrowing are considered, along with the categories of renewal, homage, humor, and satire.

Works: Foss: Baroque Variations; Berio: Sinfonia; Rochberg: Nach Bach; Stravinsky: The Fairy's Kiss; Hindemith: Symphonic Metamorphosis, Mathis der Maler; Debussy: "Golliwog's Cakewalk" from Children's Corner; Bartók: Concerto for Orchestra; Berg: Violin Concerto; Crumb: Black Angels.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Breuer, János. "Bach és Bartók." Muzsika (Budapest) 18 (September 1975): 20-24. Translated as "Bach und Bartók." In Bericht über die Wissenschaftliche Konferenz zum III. Internationalen Bach-Fest der DDR, Leipzig 18./19. September 1975, ed. Werner Felix, Winfried Hoffmann, and Armin Schneiderheinze, 307-13. Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Brincker, Jens. "Et liedcitat i Gustav Mahlers V. symfoni." In Musikvidenskabelige Essays udgivet auf Musikvidenskabeligt Institut ved Kobenhavns Universitet, ed. Niels Krabbe, 9-15. Copenhagen: Musikvidenskabeligt Institut, Kobenhavns Universitet, 1974.

In the last few years, interest has increased in the connections between Mahler's song and symphonies. While there is general agreement on these connnections in the vocal symphonies II, III, IV, and VIII, and the instrumental symphonies I and IX, there is less certainty for the middle symphonies V, VI, and VII. The Kindertotenlieder and the Wunderhornlieder have been linked by Theodor Adorno to symphonies VI and VII, respectively, while Monika Tibbe has determined that one motive in the first movement of the fifth symphony is quoted from the first song of the Kindertotenlieder. Brincker shows that this motive, the actual statement of which appears near the end of the movement, appears in varied form throughout the movement, a result of Mahler's own variation technique.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (9-15), Symphony No. 1 (9-10), Symphony No. 2 (9-10), Symphony No. 3 (9-10), Symphony No. 4 (9-10), Symphony No. 6 (9-10), Symphony No. 7 (9-10), Symphony No. 8 (9-10), Symphony No. 9 (9-10).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Brincker, Jens. "Et liedelement i Gustav Mahlers V. symfoni." In Elleve Kortere musikhistoriske og musikteoretiske bidrag tilegnet Dr. phil. Povl Hamburger i anledning af hans halvfjerds ars fodselsdag tirsdag den 22. juni 1971 af kollegaer og tidlgere elever, ed. [??], 37-45. Copenhagen: Musikvidenskabeligt Institut, Kobenhavns Universitet, 1971.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Brindle, Reginald Smith. "The Search Outwards--The Orient, Jazz, Archaisms." In The New Music: The Avant-garde since 1945, 133-45. London: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Some modern composers have felt limited by the mainstream avant-garde movement and have turned elsewhere for inspiration. This includes uses of music of the East, a tradition which goes back to Debussy and consists mostly of stylistic modeling. It also includes the use of jazz, which brings a popular style to art music. Avant-garde composers have also looked to music of the past, mostly to medieval music. While many use general stylistic references, a few have used direct borrowings. For example, Peter Maxwell Davies's Missa super L'Homme Armé offers his criticism on the material he borrows, demonstrating that the mass has degenerated in modern society; hence, he interrupts the sacred reference with the foxtrot. Donatoni reduces borrowed material to small sound bites, offering no respect for the composer's ego or personality. These and other examples demonstrate that the search for outside inspiration has advantages as well as disadvantages; some composers seem to seek mere novelty or shock value, but fresh developments in the field have been interesting in any case.

Works: Berio: Sinfonia (141-2); Davies: Missa super L'Homme Armé (142); Donatoni: Etwas ruhiger im Ausdruck (143-4).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Brinkmann, Reinhold, ed. Die Neue Musik und die Tradition. Mainz, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Briscoe, James Robert. "Debussy d'après Debussy: The Further Resonance of Two Early Melodies." 19th-Century Music 5 (Fall 1981): 110-16.

A knowledge of Debussy's earliest works is important to the understanding of the development of his personal style. One can compare the first conception of an idea to its further realization in a later work. Two examples are considered: (1) Fête galante (a mélodie of 1882) and its later revision as the menuet of the Petite Suite (1889); and (2) La Fille aux cheveux de lin (a mélodie of ca. 1882-84) and the prelude for piano (Book I, 1910) of the same title. These works demonstrate that Debussy's personal style is already implicit in his earliest works.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Brixel, Eugen. “Original Band Compositions vs. Transcriptions: A European View.” Journal of the World Association for Symphonic Bands and Ensembles 4 (1997): 5-22.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Brodhead, Thomas M. "Ives's Celestial Railroad and His Fourth Symphony." American Music 12 (Winter 1994): 389-424.

About half the music of "Hawthorne," the second movement of Ives's Second Piano Sonata, Concord, Mass., 1840-60, also appears in The Celestial Railroad, a "Phantasy" for solo piano, and virtually all of the latter appears in the second movement of his Fourth Symphony. In Memos, Ives wrote that the sonata was written first, then the symphony movement, and then The Celestial Railroad. An examination of his manuscripts suggests a different order, in which The Celestial Railroad was adapted from "Hawthorne" and then was used in turn as the basis for the symphony movement. All three works have a common root in the abandoned "Hawthorne" Piano Concerto, conceived between 1910 and 1916 as part of Ives's planned "Men of Literature" series. The "Hawthorne" Concerto was reworked as the sonata movement. In the early 1920s, Ives was working on a "Concord" suite for piano, derived from the sonata. Four Transcriptions from "Emerson" recasts material from the first movement, and The Celestial Railroad, using material from "Hawthorne," was intended to be the second section of the suite. Clippings from the published score of the sonata appear in the manuscript of The Celestial Railroad. Ives worked on it in stages, affixing new patches with revisions onto the manuscript. The final stages correspond to material as presented in the Fourth Symphony movement. Thus Ives worked out the material in detail for The Celestial Railroad, then orchestrated the work for his Fourth Symphony. Because The Celestial Railroad predates the second movement of the Fourth Symphony, the program of the piano work--a short story by Hawthorne--may be used to interpret the narrative of the symphonic movement.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Brook, Barry S. "Stravinsky's Pulcinella: The 'Pergolesi' Sources." In Musiques, Signes, Images: Liber Amicorum François Lesure, ed. Joel-Marie Fauquet, 41-66. Geneva: Minkoff, 1988.

The body of materials upon which Stravinsky based Pulcinella are organizes and clarified. First, Stravinsky's remarks on the process of composing Pulcinella are proven unreliable. Second, a table shows the Pulcinella source materials housed at the Paul Sacher Stiftung in Basel. Elements once falsely attributed to Pergolesi are movements from ten trio sonatas by Domenico Gallo, an air and a gavotte for keyboard by Carlo Monza, and a concerto attributed to Count Unico Wilhelm von Wassenaer. Verifiable Pergolesi sources are a movement from a cello sonata, eleven pieces from his operas Il flaminio and Lo Frate 'nnamorato, and one from his cantata Luce degli occhi miei. As a postscript, the discovery of an intermediary score of Pulcinella in the Stefan Zweig Collection of the British Library shows something of Stravinsky's compositional process and connects the sketches held at the Paul Sacher Stiftung with the fair copy piano score, also in the British Library.

Works: Stravinsky: Pulcinella.

Sources: Pergolesi: Twelve Sonatas for Two Violins and Bass (46, 49-50, 54-55, 62-63); Domenico Gallo: Trio No. 7 (49, 50-51, 62-64); Alessandro Parisotti: Arie Antiche, "Se tu m'ami" (46, 62-63); Carlo Monza: Pièces Modernes pour le clavecin, Suite in E Major, Air (51-52, 62, 64); Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer: Concerti Armonici, no. 2 (52-53, 62-63); Carlo Monza: Pièces Modernes pour le clavecin, Suite in D Major, Gavotte (53-54, 62, 64); Pergolesi: Il Flaminio, "Mentre l'erbetta pasce l'agnella" (55, 62-63), "Con queste paroline" (55, 62-63), Luce degli occhi miei, "Contento forse vivere" (55, 62-63), Lo Frate 'nnamorato, "Pupilette, fiammette d'amore" (55, 62, 64), "Chi disse c'à la femmena" (55, 62-63), "Gnora credeteme ch'accosi è" (55, 62-63), Nina's aria from Act III, scene 3, introduction (56, 62-63), "Sento dire non c'è pace" (56, 62-63); Pergolesi: Il Flaminio, "Benedetto maledetto" (62-63).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Brooks, William. "Unity and Diversity in Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony." Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Research 10 (1974): 5-49.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Brown, Kristi A. "The Troll Among Us." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 74-87. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt Suites carry cultural codes for the complex and ironic relationship between human and monster. These codes were recognized by authors such as Lageröf, Lie, and Ibsen, and they enter intertextually into films like Griffith's Birth of a Nation. Fritz Lang uses Peer Gynt to represent a murderer in M, and after this film, the music takes on generically spooky connotations. The film Needful Things goes beyond coding for malevolence by taking advantage of the written-in acceleration of Peer Gynt (beginning it early and making it quite fast) and synchronizing the music with the onscreen action. Film scenes using Peer Gynt exemplify Nicholas Cook's categories of conformance and contest, which characterize the relationship between image and music (the elements are invertible or each medium deconstructs the other, respectively).

Works: D. W. Griffith (director) and Joseph Carl Breil (composer): Sound track to Birth of a Nation (74-75); Fritz Lang (director): Sound track to M (77-80); Dario Argento (director): Sound track to Demoni (81-82); Fraser Clarke Heston (director): Sound track to Needful Things (80-85); Jerry Zucker (director): Sound track to Rat Race (84-85).

Sources: Edvard Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite (74-87); Schubert: Ave Maria (82); Patrick Doyle: Dies irae (82).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Brown, Rae Linda. "William Grant Still, Florence Price, and William Dawson: Echoes of the Harlem Renaissance." In Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays, ed. Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., 71-86. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990.

While William Grant Still's Afro-American Symphony, Florence Price's Symphony in E Minor, and William Dawson's Negro Folk Symphony are examples of American musical nationalism, they also represent the culmination of the Harlem Renaissance, an affirmation of the black cultural heritage in which composers sought to elevate the Negro folk idiom to symphonic form. Still's Afro-American Symphony is based on a theme in the Blues idiom. The second theme of the first movement of Dawson's Negro Folk Symphony is based on the spiritual "Oh, M' Littl' Soul Gwine-a Shine," and the two themes of the third movement are based on the spirituals "O Le' Me Shine, Lik' a Mornin' Star" and "Hallelujah, Lord I Been Down into the Sea." In Symphony in E Minor, Price is more subtle in her use of elements from the Afro-American folk tradition: her instrumentation calls for African drums; the principal theme of the first movement and its countermelody are built upon a pentatonic scale (the most frequently used scale in Afro-American folk songs); and the third movement is based on the syncopated rhythms of the Juba, an antebellum folk dance.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Brown, Robert L. "Classical Influences on Jazz." Journal of Jazz Studies 3 (Spring 1976): 19-35.

From the earliest beginnings of jazz, classical music has played a role in its development. Early and pre-jazz musicians were known to have performed classical music publicly, and others, such as Scott Joplin, studied with European teachers. As jazz moved into the twentieth century, the borrowing of classical music instrumentation became prominent. In the 1950s, jazz musicians employed fugal writing, as exemplified by Dave Brubeck's Fugue on Bop Themes, among other works. In the 1960s, twelve-tone rows were utilized, as exemplified by Bill Evans's T.T.T. Also, the procedure known as "jazzin' the classics" has been a constant feature within jazz tradition, from Jelly Roll Morton's recording of a version of the Misere from Il Trovatore through Joe Walsh's synthesized arrangement of Ravel's Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty. An appendix includes selective annotated discography.

Works: Brubeck: Fugue on Bop Themes (22); Lewis: Vendome (23), Three Windows (23), Concorde (23), Versailles (23); Hampton: Fugue (23); Williams: Prelude and Fugue (23); Ferguson: Passacaglia and Fugue (23); Johnson: Music for Brass (23); Schuller: Abstraction (23); Bank: Equation Part I (23); De Franco: 12-Tone Blues (23); Giuffre: Densities I (23); Farberman: . . . Then Silence (23); Smith: Elegy for Eric (23); Schifrin: The Ritual of Sound (23); Coltrane: Miles Mode (24); Evans: T.T.T. (24-25); Heckman: The Twelves (26); Waller: Russian Fantasy (26); Morton/Verdi: Misere (26-27); Gershwin: The Man I Love as performed by Paul Whiteman (27); Ellington: Ebony Rhapsody (27); Walsh/Ravel: Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty (30); Ginastera: Toccata as performed by Emerson, Lake, and Palmer (30).

Sources: Liszt: Rigoletto Concert Paraphrase (26); Rossini: William Tell Overture (26); Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite (26); Rachmaninoff: Prelude in C sharp Minor (26); Verdi: Il Trovatore (26-27); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (27); MacDowell: To a Wild Rose (27); Rimsky-Korsakov: Song of India (27); Wagner: Tristan and Isolde (27); Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (27), Passacaglia in C (27); Stravinsky: Rite of Spring (28, 30); Ginastera: Toccata (30); Ravel: Mother Goose Suite (30).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Brown, Rosemary. "Dallapiccola's Symbolic Use of Self-Quotation." Studi musicali 4 (1975): 277-304.

Luigi Dallapiccola's use of symbolism has been a fundamental part of his compositional process throughout his life. Symbolic techniques range from a madrigalian style of text painting to complex structural associations to ideograms and personal rhythmic representation. One of the most salient forms of symbolism in Dallapiccola's music can be found in his practice of self-quotation. Beginning as early as 1937, Dallapiccola quotes thematic material from his Tre laudi in Volo di notte. His 1942 Liriche greche quotes sections from the Cinque frammenti di Saffo, and this practice continues in the composer's quotation of the Canti di prigionia in Il prigioniero as well as the Quaderno musicale di Annalibera and Il prigioniero in the Canti di liberazione. The culmination of this practice is Dallapiccola's 1968 opera Ulisse, in which quotations from a wide range of the composer's previous works can be found, especially in the work's Epilogue. Many times these self-borrowings have a symbolic meaning in that they draw upon earlier dramatic or textual contexts present in the original works and insert those associations into a new musical environment. The wide-reaching use of self-quotation in Dallapiccola's work not only serves a symbolic function but also works as a unifying factor in the composer's output as a whole.

Works: Dallapiccola: Volo di notte (277-80), Liriche greche (280-82), Due liriche di Anacreonte (282), Il prigioniero (282-89), Canti di liberazione (282-90), Il Cenacolo--Le vicende del capolavoro di Leonardo da Vinci (290), Variazioni (290), Ulisse (290-302), Sicut Umbra (303-4).

Sources: Dallapiccola: Tre laudi (277-80), Cinque frammenti di Saffo (280-82), Canti di Prigionia (282-84), Il prigioniero (284-90, 295), Quaderno musicale di Annalibera (289-90), Goethe-Lieder (290-94), Volo di notte (294-95), An Mathilde (297-98), Requiescant (299-302), Canti di liberazione (301-2), Ulisse (302-4).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Elmi

[+] Brown, Royal S. Overtones and Undertones: Reading Film Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Certain characteristics of "classical" music (in styles from Baroque to late Romantic) were adopted and changed in the music of the early cinema. On the surface, film music from the mid 1920s through the early 1940s shares certain aesthetic principles with the music of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven, such as a similar manipulation of themes and motives. Although many existing compositions were employed in early film scores, the aesthetics of the music newly composed for film are the primary focus (Chapters 2-3, pp. 12-66). The "Interviews" section (pp. 269-334) offers candid discussions of and useful insights into the compositional process of film music composers, such as the comment from Harold Shore that "You're constantly in the music library digging up old records, writing new pieces, parodying pieces of this or that."

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Brown, Stephen C. "Tracing the Origins of Shostakovich's Musical Motto." Intégral 20 (2006): 69-103.

Shostakovich's D-S-C-H motive (D-Eb-C-B) as it first appears in his Tenth Symphony was potentially derived from two possible sources: from Shostakovich's own works, dating back to his First Symphony, or from the use of similar motives in the works of composers Shostakovich admired, such as Bach or Schumann. When considered as a specific transposition and ordering of a 0134 tetrachord, the D-S-C-H motive can be seen as the culmination and ultimate distillation of certain compositional techniques favored by the composer in works predating the Tenth Symphony, such as "modal lowering" (in which Shostakovich flattens various scale degrees, thereby creating a 0134 tetrachord), "modal clash" (in which various forms of the same scale degree are juxtaposed), and "scalar tightening" (in which Shostakovich contracts a given scale down to four pitches). These techniques all resulted in 0134 tetrachords, and Shostakovich gradually came to favor and repeat the "D-S-C-H level" tetrachord that has come to be associated with the first letters his name. However, Shostakovich's use of a specific four-note motive can also be viewed as an imitation of other four-note motives, either by contemporary or past composers who used prominent 0134 tetrachords (ranging from Bach to Stravinsky) or by composers from the past who used motives to represent names or ciphers (such as the B-A-C-H motive or Schumann's A-S-C-H motive from Carnaval, both of which share pitches with Shostakovich's D-S-C-H motive). Both theories of origin are plausible and are not mutually exclusive; however, the theory that the D-S-C-H motive is derived from earlier examples of 0134 tetrachords in Shostakovich's own works might better explain why his namesake motive emerged as gradually and late in his output as it did.

Works: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 10 in E Minor (69-72, 74, 85, 87-89), String Quartet No. 8 in C Minor (69, 95).

Sources: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 1 in F Minor (71, 79-81), String Quartet No. 5 in B-flat Major (71-72), Violin Concerto No. 1 in A Minor (71, 73), Twenty Four Preludes, Op. 34 (74-77), Piano Sonata No. 2 in B Minor (76, 78), Six Romances on Texts by Japanese Poets (82-83), Symphony No. 6 in B Minor (82-84), String Quartet No. 2 in A Major (83-87), From Jewish Folk Poetry, Op. 79 (95); Robert Schumann: Carnaval (90-91), Doppelgänger (91-92); J. S. Bach: The Art of Fugue (90-91), The Well-Tempered Clavier (91-92); Ravel: Rapsodie espagnole (91-92); German Galynin: Piano Concerto (91); Veniamin Fleyshman: Rothchild's Violin (91-93); Stravinsky: Symphony of Psalms (96-98), Octet (98); Rimsky-Korsakov: The Tsar's Bride (98-100).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Alexis Witt

[+] Browner, Tara. "'Breathing the Indian Spirit': Thoughts on Musical Borrowing and the 'Indianist' Movement in American Music." American Music 15 (Fall 1997): 265-84.

The "Indianist" composers of the period 1890-1920 took two approaches to the Native melodies that they used: music as raw material, and music as culture. Edward MacDowell used the Native melodies collected by Theodore Baker in his ‹ber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden (1882). For MacDowell, these tunes were strictly raw musical material, with no reference or attention to tribal sources. Whatever cultural interpretation he made of the music is a generic one based on Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of "cultural evolutionary stages." Arthur Farwell's source of Native melodies came from the work of Alice Fletcher and Francis LaFlesche, whose research focused on the Omaha nation and dealt extensively with cultural context. Ultimately, the Indianist composers sacrificed cultural authenticity as a result of their attempt to make the music accessible for a consumer culture.

Works: Edward MacDowell: Second ("Indian") Suite, Op. 48 (268-71), Second Sonata (Eroica), Op. 50 (271); Arthur Farwell: American Indian Melodies: "The Old Man's Love Song" (277, 279).

Sources: Kiowa melody, collected by Theodore Baker: "Kiowa Song of a Mother to Her Absent Son" (269-71); Omaha melody, collected by Alice Fletcher: "Be-Thae Wa-An" (277-78).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Bruce, David. "Source and Sorcery." The Musical Times 137, no. 1842 (August 1996): 11-15.

For his ballet The Fairy's Kiss, Stravinsky borrows harmonic progressions, melodic fragments, and general style characteristics from Tchaikovsky's early piano pieces and songs. Similarities in style might also be the result of both composers' Russian nationality and embrace of classicism. Though a large portion of Stravinsky's score does borrow from Tchaikovsky, Stravinsky writes several unique passages of his own. Literal quotations rarely last for more than a few measures, as Stravinsky commonly expands upon Tchaikovsky's material. Aside from Stravinsky's quotation and expansion upon Tchaikovsky's works, there are a few moments in The Fairy's Kiss wherein style and orchestration become more overtly romantic or the texture becomes static. These moments sound plain and "un-Stravinskian" and likely led to contemporary criticism of the ballet. Stravinsky's later re-working of The Fairy's Kiss into a concert version (Divertimento) is devoid of these moments.

Works: Stravinsky: The Fairy's Kiss.

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Zwölf mittelschwere Stücke, Op. 40, No. 7 (12-13), Natha-Valse, Op. 51, No. 4 (13-14), Humoreske, Op. 10, No. 2 (14-15).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Laura B. Dallman

[+] Bruna, Ellen Carole. "The Relationship of Text and Music in the Lieder of Hugo Wolf and Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Bruns, Steven Michael. "'In stilo Mahleriano': Quotation and Allusion in the Music of George Crumb." American Music Research Center Journal 3 (1993): 9-39.

The works of Gustav Mahler have exerted a profound influence on those of George Crumb, especially in the latter's settings of Federico Garcia Lorca's poetry. These influences include formal and tonal designs, instrumentation, notation, poetic imagery, motivic structure, and theatrical effects. Self-quotation is also present in Crumb's music, as in the finger-cymbal crashes in Echoes of Time and the River and Night Music I. Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde has also been a fertile source for Crumb, as his Songs, Drones and Refrains of Death borrows from it heavily. The use of a guitar and mandolin in Mahler's Symphony No. 7 is echoed in Crumb's Songs, Drones and Refrains of Death, Eleven Echoes of Autumn, 1965, and Makrokosmos I. An oboe figure from the Mahler is obviously evoked in Ancient Voices of Children.

Works: Crumb: Night Music I (9-14, 16-17, 22), Echoes of Time and the River (9, 14, 20), Ancient Voices of Children (10, 24-33), Eleven Echoes of Autumn, 1965 (12-15, 20, 24, 33), Songs, Drones and Refrains of Death (14-15, 17-20, 26), Makrokosmos I (15-17), Night of the Four Moons (21-24, 33), Five Pieces for Piano (36).

Sources: Bartok: Out of Doors (11); Mahler: Symphony No. 7 (10, 15, 17, 33, 35-6), Das Lied von der Erde (12, 15, 17, 20-33), Symphony No. 6 (17, 33), Symphony No. 5 (20), Das Klagende Lied (20), Symphony No. 9 (21); Haydn: Symphony No. 45, Farewell (21-22); Mahler: Symphony No. 3 (29), Symphony No. 4 (29).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Budde, Elmar. "Bermerkungen zum Verhältnis Mahler-Webern." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 33 (1976): 159-73.

There are many connections between Mahler and the Second Viennese School. At least one example of melodic resemblance exists, but more important is Webern's distinctive orientation to sound, for which Mahler is the predecessor. The flow of the movement is suspended in a number of episodes in Mahler's Tempo di Minuetto (Symphony No. 3) and Lied von der Erde. The extremely transparent orchestration and the equal importance of all the parts--often combined with ritardando--constitute "spaces of sound" (Klangräume), structuring the piece formally. The "space of sound" in Webern's fourth variation of the second movement of the Symphony Op. 21 becomes the axis of symmetry on which the whole work is constructed and to which all the other "sound-identical" spaces are structurally related. The comparisons between Webern's symphony and Mahler's Lied von der Erde seem to imply not only that Webern was influenced by Mahler but that the "spaces of sound" in Webern can be traced from specific episodes in Mahler's work.

Works: Webern: Langsamer Satz for String Quartet (165); Six Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 6 (170); Symphony, Op. 21 (172).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Budde, Elmar. "Zitat, Collage, Montage." In Die Musik der sechziger Jahre, ed. Rudolf Stephan, 26-38. Mainz: B. Schott's Söhne, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Budde, Elmar. "Zum dritten Satz der Sinfonia von Luciano Berio." In Die Musik der sechziger Jahre, ed. Rudolf Stephan, 128-44. Mainz: B. Schott's Söhne, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "'Quotation' and Emulation: Charles Ives's Uses of His Models." The Musical Quarterly 71 ([Winter] 1985): 1-26.

It has long been known that Charles Ives borrows from other composers and from himself. These borrowings have generally been labeled quotations. However, quotation is not the only technique Ives uses when he is alluding to other pieces. Others include modeling (emulation), paraphrasing, cumulative setting, and quodlibet. The emphasis of this article is on Ives's use of models since this has not yet been discussed. If a composer models his piece on another, he borrows the structure or reworks musical material to build the framework of the composition. The use of models is the most important factor to consider in tracing the compositional process. Motivic borrowings are only the most visible part of a deeper dependence on the sources, allusions that lead us to the pieces on which Ives modeled his compositions.

Works: Ives: Holiday Quickstep, Slow March, Turn Ye, Turn Ye, Waltz, Study No. 20 for Piano, The One Way, Charlie Rutlage, Serenity, On the Counter, The Celestial Country, West London.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "'Quotation' and Paraphrase in Ives's Second Symphony." 19th-Century Music 11 (Summer 1987): 3-25. Reprinted in Music at the Turn of the Century: A 19th-Century Music Reader, ed. Joseph Kerman, 33-55. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Most of the borrowings in Ives's Second Symphony are not quotations but paraphrases. They are not inserted into an existing framework but form the very basis of the piece. All of the themes paraphrase American vernacular tunes, and the themes in turn provide the material for developments and transitions. In each movement one or more transitional passages are paraphrased from episodes from music by Bach, Brahms, or Wagner. This connection is the first real synthesis of American and European musical traditions in Ives's oeuvre, uniting the sound of American melody with the forms and procedures of the European symphony.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "Charles Ives the Avant-Gardist, Charles Ives the Traditionalist." In Bericht über das Internationale Symposion "Charles Ives und die amerikanische Musiktradition bis zur Gegenwart," Köln 1988, edited by Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller, Manuel Gervink, and Paul Terse, 37-51. Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung, Vol. 164. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "Ives and the Four Musical Traditions." In Charles Ives and His World, ed. J. Peter Burkholder, 3-34. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "Ives and the Nineteenth-Century European Tradition." In Charles Ives and the Classical Tradition, ed. Geoffrey Block and J. Peter Burkholder, 11-33. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Expanded version of "Charles Ives the Avant-Gardist, Charles Ives the Traditionalist."

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "The Evolution of Charles Ives's Music: Aesthetics, Quotation, Technique." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "The Organist in Ives." Journal of the American Musicological Society 55 (Summer 2002): 255-310.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. All Made of Tunes: Charles Ives and the Uses of Musical Borrowing. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. Charles Ives: The Ideas Behind the Music. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burnett, Robert and Bert Deivert. "Black or White: Michael Jackson's Video as a Mirror of Popular Culture." Popular Music and Society 19, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 19-40.

Analysis of visual and musical elements of Michael Jackson's video for his song Black or White reveals it as a series of intertextual references that generate meaning through allusions to aspects of popular culture. Intertextuality is defined according to Gerard Genette's theories of transtextuality and therefore is taken to be a relationship between "two or more texts existing or showing their presence within a work," including quotation, plagiarism, and allusion as types of intertextuality. In every scene of the video, intertextual references can be found, including the use of quintessential heavy metal guitar and drum sounds, cinematic allusions to Hitchcock and the film Raising Arizona, evocation of the militant political groups the Black Panthers as Jackson morphs into a panther, a rhythmic reference to Buddy Rich drum solos, and the inclusion of a brief section of rap.

Works: Bill Botrell and Michael Jackson: Black or White.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Burns, Lori. “Feeling the Style: Vocal Gesture and Musical Expression in Billie Holiday, Bessie Smith, and Louis Armstrong.” Music Theory Online 11 (September 2005).

Billie Holiday was quoted as saying that she wanted the “feeling” of Bessie Smith with the “style” of Louis Armstrong. Two Holiday songs, Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do and I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues, serve as clear homages respectively to Smith and Armstrong, each of whom recorded the songs well before Holiday. Both the style and feeling are identifiable by three vocal metrics: quality (dynamics/intensity), space (range/range-based timbre), and articulation (enunciation/rhythmic emphasis). Detailed transcriptions of the Smith, Armstrong, and Holiday recordings of these song, including dynamics, bending of pitches, and rhythmic manipulation show not only that Holiday was strongly influenced by her predecessors, but also that elements of vocal quality, space, and articulation that Holiday actively wanted to emulate appear in her performances of these songs.

Works: Porter Grainger and Everett Robbins (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do; Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues.

Sources: Porter Grainger and Everett Robbins (composers) and Bessie Smith (performer): Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do; Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler (composers) and Louis Armstrong (performer): I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Butler, Mark. "Taking it Seriously: Intertextuality and Authenticity in Two Covers by the Pet Shop Boys." Popular Music 22 (January 2003), 1-19.

Artistic authenticity is a central concern in the genre of rock music. "Covering" previously recorded songs directly involves rock and popular bands' rendering of a cover song as either authentic or artificial (inauthentic). Two cover songs by the Pet Shop Boys exemplify two opposing notions of authenticity. Their cover of U2's Where the Streets Have No Name casts the original version as artificial, as the Pet Shop Boys ignore the original song's emphasis on individuality, undermine the structural importance of motivic elements, recast the song in a quasi-disco style, and make other significant musical changes. On the other hand, the Pet Shop Boys' version of Go West heightens the authenticity of the Village People's version. The song evokes the climate of "1970s urban gay culture," with an emphasis on community and the freedom to be liberated by going west. The Pet Shop Boys' cover not only recaptures the Village People's message, placing it in its 1970s pre-AIDS culture, but also uses musical devices to also evoke the song's new context in an post-AIDS culture. For example, the interaction among the musicians seems more formally restrained, which resembles the heightened sense of caution members of the gay community must take in an AIDS-stricken world. Ultimately, the Pet Shop Boys' Go West celebrates the history of gay culture and casts the Village People's version as authentic.

Works: Bono (Paul Hewson) and U2: Where the Streets Have No Name as performed by the Pet Shop Boys (4-7); Henri Belolo, Jacques Morali, and Victor Willis: Go West as performed by the Pet Shop Boys (7-15).

Sources: Bono (Paul Hewson) and U2: Where the Streets Have No Name (2-6); Bob Crewe and Bob Gaudio: Can't Take My Eyes Off You as performed by Frankie Valli and by Boystown Gang (5-6); Henri Belolo, Jacques Morali, and Victor Willis: Go West (7-12); Pachelbel: Canon in D (13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Cadenbach, Rainer. "'Das Werk will nur Musik sein': Zitate in Max Regers Kompositionen." Reger-Studien 2 (1986): 73-104.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cahn, Peter. "Zitate aus Pfitzners op. 36 in einem zeitgenössischen Kammermusikwerk. Zu Peter Ruzicka: Introspezione. Dokumentation für Streichquartett (1970). Hamburg: Skorski, 1977." Mitteilungen der Hans Pfitzner-Gesellschaft 41 (April 1980): 55-56.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Carner, Mosco. "The Exotic Element in Puccini." The Musical Quarterly 22 (January 1936): 45-67.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Carr, Cassandra I. "Charles Ives's Humor as Reflected in His Songs." American Music 7 (Summer 1989): 123-39.

Although Ives's writings discuss concepts of sardonic wit in composition, his songs reveal a wide range of expression of humor, which became more complex over the course of his career. His humorous compositions can be categorized into at least four categories: parody, whimsical reminiscence, philosophical humor, and exaggerated insignificance. Ives's techniques of humor often do not rely on musical borrowing, but rather from outlandish performance directions, general stylistic allusions, or incongruous juxtapositions of styles. Nonetheless, musical borrowing can contribute to the humor.

Works: Ives: The Side Show (125, 129-31).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Carroll, Charles Michael. "Musical Borrowing--Grand Larceny or Great Art?" College Music Symposium 18 (Spring 1978): 11-18.

The exclusive right of the artist to the benefits that accrue from his or her intellectual property is a characteristic of modern culture. Borrowing is a common phenomenon, and exists in three types: (1) self-borrowing, or use of themes from one piece in another; (2) borrowing which is done as an obvious tribute or burlesque of the original, and (3) unacknowledged borrowing. Modern sensitivities consider this latter type of borrowing to be outright theft. The eighteenth century acknowledged but did not condemn this type of borrowing.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Carver, Philip. "The Metamorphosis of a Jazz Standard." Jazz Research Papers (1996): 18-31.

As a well-constructed song, Cole Porter's What Is This Thing Called Love? became a popular source tune for jazz musicians. James P. Johnson's 1930 recording displays stride and boogie-woogie patterns, and only slightly modifies the chord progression. More drastic alterations are exhibited by Clifford Brown and Sonny Rollins in their 1956 recording with the Max Roach Quartet. In this case, the tune was highly ornamented and expanded, non chord-tones were emphasized during solos, and the tempo was twice as fast as prior versions. Brief analyses of treatments by Sidney Bechet, James "Bubber" Miley, Ella Fitzgerald, John Hardee, Bill Evans, Marian MacPartland, and Thad Jones attest to the variety of ways in which jazz musicians developed different perspectives on What Is This Thing Called Love?

Works: Porter: What Is This Thing Called Love?

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Cavallini, Ivano. "Gustav Mahler fra epigonismo romantico e musica nuova." M.A. thesis, University of Padova, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cavendish, Thomas H. "Folk Music in Selected Twentieth Century American Operas." Ph.D. diss., Florida State University, 1966.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Chanan, Michael. "Dialectics in Peter Maxwell Davies." Tempo, no. 90 (Autumn 1969): 12-22.

Peter Maxwell Davies consistently demonstrates an interest in the medieval and Renaissance periods in his compositional output. He begins with material borrowed from works in these periods and through his treatment of that material creates symbolic effects of powerful meaning. In addition to borrowing, Davies also utilizes parody as a compositional device, creating a commentary on the past and the present. In compositions such as Alma Redemptoris Mater and Fantasia on an In Nomine of John Taverner Nos. 1 and 2, the borrowed material is built into the structural framework of the work and therefore is less audible. Shakespeare Music uses the same technique, but fragmentary allusions to the models are occasionally allowed to come through the texture. Parody is employed in the Purcell realizations Fantasia and Two Grounds and Two Pavans,Taverner, and Antechrist. In these compositions borrowed material is used more extensively and can be heard in surface details.

Works: Davies: Fantasia and Two Grounds (12), Two Pavans (12), Taverner (12), Ecce manus tradentis (13), Antechrist (13), Shakespeare Music (13), L'homme armé (14), Revelation and Fall (14), Songs for a Mad King (14), Worldes Blis (14), St. Thomas Wake (15).

Sources: Davies: O Magnum Mysterium (12); Anonymous: Deo confitemini Domini (13); Bull: Pavan (15).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Charles, Sydney Robinson. "The Use of Borrowed Materials in Ives's Second Symphony." The Music Review 28 (May 1967): 102-11.

Understanding Ives's use of borrowed materials demands that one first verify that seemingly quoted materials are in fact there, and from what source they derive. Judgments are difficult to make in many cases because it is impossible to be familiar with all of the music Ives knew. Then the material should be classified according to its structural importance. Some of Ives's quotations are brief and structurally insignificant, others are structurally important within a single movement, and still others serve as unifying factors among movements. Given that many of the tunes Ives used have more than one text, the approach seeking extra-musical "reasons" that Ives quoted one tune or another is less serviceable than the preceding.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Chell, Samuel L. "Music and Emotion in the Classic Hollywood Film: The Case of The Best Years of Our Lives." Film Criticism 8, no. 2 (Summer 1984): 27-38.

The "suture effect," adapted from psychoanalytic theory by Jean-Pierre Oudart, identifies the relationship of the spectator to the chain of signifying images, while also accounting for the subject's connection with the film score. Once becoming aware of the absence of vital information presented visually, the spectator unconsciously closes the gap between the seen and unseen, simultaneously sealing the spectator within the film. Music serves as an off-screen signifier, replacing the absence of corresponding affect, and the spectator is freed to claim the imaged emotion as his own. The film score permits the spectator to impart human depth to the flatness of photographed images by using programmatic music or music which carries off-screen meaning. Hugo Friedhofer's 1946 score for The Best Years of Our Lives draws stylistically from neo-classicism in its employment of numerous leitmotifs; the opening notes of the theme suggest somber memories of war, corresponding directly to the opening intervals of "Taps." Hoagy Carmichael's "Among My Souvenirs" is borrowed as a sentimental relic from the popular songs of the 1930s, as well as "Up a Lazy River" and "Chopsticks."

Works: Hugo Friedhofer: score to The Best Years of Our Lives (27-28, 31-38).

Sources: Taps (32); Traditional: It's Raining, It's Pouring (33); Hoagy Carmichael: Among My Souvenirs (33), Up a Lazy River (35); Antonin Dvorak: New World Symphony (33).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Chmaj, Betty E. M. "Sonata for American Studies: Perspectives on Charles Ives." Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies 4 (Winter 1978): 1-58.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Chou, Chien. "Variation Procedure in Rachmaninoff's Piano Works." D.M. document, Boston University, 1994.

The musical continuity in Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini represents the culmination of his approach to writing a set of variations explored in his earlier pieces as well as in those of his predecessors. Through such continuity he resolves the stop-and-start method that composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, and Brahms employed in variation writing: the breaks that occur when one variation ends on a cadence and the next one begins at once. Musical continuity in the variation process was not new but was revitalized by Rachmaninoff, who focuses more on the variations as a whole rather than on their individuality. Within such continuity, his variation sets are connected to his models. For example, in the Corelli Variations, the majority of the variations retain the regular phrase structure, similar length, and simplicity of the Folia melody. In the Paganini Rhapsody, Rachmaninoff's use of chromaticism, particularly in the introduction, is a direct reference to the chromatic contrary motion that resolves the augmented-sixth harmony in the penultimate measure of the original Paganini theme.

Works: Rachmaninoff: Variations on a Theme of Chopin, Op. 22 (19-26), Variations on a Theme of Corelli, Op. 42 (26-33), Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43 (34-205).

Sources: Chopin: Prelude, Op. 28, No. 20 (23-24); Corelli: Violin Sonata, Op 5, No. 12 (30); La Folia melody (30); Paganini: Caprice in A Minor, Op.1, No. 24 (42-44).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Christoforidis, Michael. “Manuel de Falla’s Homage to Debussy . . . and the Guitar.” Context 3 (Winter 1992): 3-13.

Manuel de Falla’s Homenaje a Debussy functions not only as a tribute to the French composer but also as a tribute to the guitar through its ending quotation of Debussy’s Soirée dans Grenade, prominent habanera rhythm, and scoring for solo guitar. Debussy’s influence on Falla cannot be quantified but can be heard in a number of his pieces. Falla wrote his homage shortly after Debussy’s death and coupled the composition with a tributary article that highlighted Debussy’s compositional talents as well as his connection to Spain and Spanish music. Around this same time, Falla had recently become interested in the guitar. Having previously turned down requests from friend and guitarist Miguel Llobet to compose a piece for the instrument, Falla saw an opportunity to satisfy his and his friend’s interests while also paying tribute to Debussy, who was equally fascinated with the Spanish guitar. In addition to writing for solo guitar, Falla links Debussy to the instrument and to Spain by using harmonies common to the Andalusian tuning of the guitar. Homenaje a Debussy makes prominent use of the habanera rhythm, which Debussy used frequently in his Spanish-inspired pieces. Falla’s quotation of Soireé dans Grenade reinforces Debussy’s musical connection to Spain.

Works: Manuel de Falla: Homenaje a Debussy.

Sources: Debussy: Soirée dans Grenade (5).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Clague, Mark. "Playing in 'Toon: Walt Disney's Fantasia (1940) and the Imagineering of Classical Music." American Music 22 (Spring 2004): 91-109.

Fantasia uses pre-existing classical music as the subject of animation that demonstrates three types of music: program music, music that does not have a plot but paints pictures, and absolute music. The film is an example of Disney's imagineering (engineering and imagination), in which images and stories add meaning to the abstract music. Images in the film create a familiar narrative to describe unfamiliar music to middle-class audiences. The structure of The Rite of Spring was modified to fit the narrative of the animators, and the narrative itself is not one intended by Stravinsky. Fantasia can be understood as an effort to construct ideologies of current social positions and behaviors through imagineering of the music, as seen in the animation for Beethoven's Symphony No. 6.

Works: Walt Disney (producer): Sound track to Fantasia.

Sources: J. S. Bach (arranged by Leopold Stokowski): Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (92-96); Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (97-98); Beethoven: Symphony No. 6 in F Major (Pastorale) (99-105).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Clapp, Philip Greeley. "All in the Family." Chord and Discord 2 (1950): 33-41.

In 1904 or 1905, Frederick Delius composed his Mass of Life (with a text from Nietzsche's Also sprach Zarathustra), that is compared with several other works of that time, especially Mahler's Veni Creator and Bruckner's Te Deum. The article is the result of the author's "reminiscence hunting" and presents the findings as a series of personal reactions to Delius's work rather than in a systematic order. They concern "family resemblances" of content and style, including correspondeces of the dramatic layout.

Works: Delius: Mass of Life; Strauss: Also Sprach Zarathustra,Elektra; Bruckner: Te Deum; Mahler: Veni Creator, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 8, Das Lied von der Erde; Wagner: Tristan.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Clark, Sondra Rae. "The Transcendental Philosophy of Charles E. Ives as Expressed in The Second Sonata for Pianoforte, 'Concord, Mass., 1840-1860'." M.A. thesis, San Jose State College, 1966.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Code, David J. “Rehearing The Shining: Musical Undercurrents in the Overlook Hotel.” In Music in the Horror Film: Listening to Fear, ed. Neil Lerner, 133-51. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Scholarship on music in The Shining has largely ignored the semiotic richness of the incorporation of modernist musical works, but the historical subtexts of the pieces contribute to a unique Kubrickian approach to horror that relies on more than purely visceral audience response. By exploring congruencies between music and visual elements, certain symmetries come into focus that allow for a broader reading of music in the “Kubrick universe.” During the maze scene, Bartók’s Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta is a temporal phenomenon and is thus not congruous with the four-dimensional maze. Ligeti’s Lontano is used in two instances to accompany scenes of “shining,” but the third instance of its use deflects this established association. The symmetry between the music of Penderecki and the film extends even to the level of musical notation. Ultimately, one could read The Shining as an allegory of literate culture in the face of post-literate culture, represented in part by the use of modernist graphic scores.

Works: Stanley Kubrick (director) and Wendy Carlos (composer): soundtrack to The Shining (133-51).

Sources: Anonymous: Dies irae (131-32, 135); Bartók: Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (134, 136-41); Ligeti: Lontano (136, 141-44); Penderecki: The Awakening of Jacob (144-46), Polymorphia (147).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Cohen, Judah M. "Hip-Hop Judaica: The Politics of Representin' Heebster Heritage." Popular Music 28 (Winter 2009): 1-18.

Musical artists within the Jewish American "hipster" scene (ca. 1986-2006) drew on conventions from rap and hip-hop as a means of negotiating a new Jewish identity. Of the many strategies to draw on the conventions of rap, one common tactic was parody. For instance, parody artist Shlock Rock parodied Aerosmith and Run DMC's Walk This Way (1986) and created Wash This Way, now a song about the Jewish hand-washing ritual. Despite the different lyrics, Shlock Rock's parody borrows vocal inflection, instrumentation, and even attitude. Although humor and parody were common reasons to incorporate rap and hip-hop into Jewish music, the Yeshiva-educated duo Black Hattitude used rap to promote a political and controversial program. Drawing on the stylings of rap, the duo included spoken tracks, took polemical points of view, and sampled artists such as Led Zeppelin. Such music provided a site in which young Jews could simultaneously negotiate a new Jewish identity and preserve and transmit their culture through such change.

Works: Lenny Solomon and Etan Goldman (songwriters), Shlock Rock (performers): Bless On It/Boogie in the Shul [Synagogue] (5), Wash This Way (5); Black Hattitude, R.E.L.I.G.I.O.N (7); Etan G (Etan Goldman): South Side of the Synagogue (8).

Sources: Newcleus: Jam On It/Boogie in the Club (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Aerosmith (performers): Walk This Way (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Run DMC (performers): Walk This Way (5); Led Zeppelin (Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Bonham, and John Paul Jones) and Willie Dixon: Whole Lotta Love (7, endnote 11); Peter Gabriel: Sledgehammer (7, endnote 11); Lenny Solomon (songwriter), Shlock Rock (performers): Yo Yo Yo Yarmulke (8), Recognize the Miracles (8).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Combe, Charles-Henry. "Les Citations d'hymnes nationaux chez Debussy." Revue Musicale de Suisse romande 39 (March 1986): 19-27.

Humor and programmatic effect are the two primary reasons for Debussy's musical borrowings. Debussy draws his borrowed material from classical music, popular songs, and national anthems. These points are illustrated through detailed analyses of pieces in which Debussy incorporates national anthems.

Works: Chabrier: Souvenirs de Munich (20); Debussy: "Golliwog's Cake-walk" from Children's Corner (20), "La Boite à joujoux," from Images oubliées (20), "Jardins sous la pluie" from Estampes (20), "Rondes de printemps" from Images (20), 9th Prelude (Book II) (20), Berceuse heroique (20, 22-23), En blanc et noir (second piece) (20, 23-26), "Feux d'artifice" from Préludes, Book II (21); Fauré: Fantasie en forme de quadrille sur des motifs du Ring (20); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (20); Clementi: Symphony No. 3 in G Major, "Great National Symphony" (21).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (20); Mendelssohn: "Wedding March" from Midsummer Night's Dream (20); Arne: God Save the King (20-22); Campenhout, François van: "Brabançonne" (20, 22-23); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (21-22, 24, 26); Luther: Ein feste Burg (24-25); Haydn: Symphony in G Major, Hob. I:100, "Military" (24)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Cone, Edward T. "The Uses of Convention: Stravinsky and His Models." The Musical Quarterly 48 (July 1962): 287-99.

Stravinsky's use of conventions involves the defeat of the expectations set up by those conventions. The reference to earlier conventions may or may not involve thematic allusions. Pulcinella is based upon borrowed materials while the Symphony in C is not. In the case of the symphony, however, the presentation of the first theme (in its I-II-V sequence) does recall the presentation of the first theme in Beethoven's First Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Cone, Edward T. The Composer's Voice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

In examining the composition and performance of musical works, the question of persona is raised: whose persona does the music represent--that of the composer, the performer, or (in the case of vocal music) the character portrayed by the performer? With respect to musical borrowing, the relevant question is: whose voice or persona is speaking in the borrowed material, the original composer's or the borrower's? In the case of self-borrowing by a vocal composer, it is the composer's own voice, rather than that of the poet whose text he or she originally set, that speaks through the borrowed material (p. 41). In an instrumental transcription of a vocal work, the vocal melody retains its original textual associations, thereby preserving the original composer's voice despite the removal of the text (pp. 76-78). When the situation is reversed, as in a popular vocal arrangement of an instrumental classic, the original composer's persona is still felt, as is the case with arrangements of Chopin and Tchaikovsky melodies (p. 45). Concerning the transcription of an existing instrumental work for a new instrumental combination, the integrity of the transcription (its preservation of the original composer's voice) rests on its use of a restricted choice of instrumentation (p. 108). Lastly, folk-tune or anthem borrowings can seem ridiculous if they are too obvious, where the original composer's voice completely overpowers the borrower's persona, disrupting the new piece. Puccini's use of The Star-Spangled Banner in Madama Butterfly is a prime example of this (p. 162).

Works: Brahms: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano left hand); Busoni: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano); Liszt: Liebestraum No. 3, Sonnets of Petrarch; Puccini: Madama Butterfly ; Webern: Ricercar a 6 voci by J. S. Bach (arr. for orchestra).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Edward D. Latham

[+] Copland, Aaron, and Vivian Perlis. Copland Since 1943. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

This is the companion volume to Copland: 1900 Through 1942. References to musical borrowings occur throughout the text. Much of the borrowing now focuses on associative connections for film scores. Apart from outright arrangements or music intended for student performers, there are few pieces that incorporate American folksongs past The Tender Land (1954). Much of Copland's borrowing in this period is of stylistic traits rather than direct quotation. Self-borrowing is most common in the later works.

Works: Aaron Copland: The North Star (film score) (15-16), Appalachian Spring (32-33), Variations on a Theme by Goosens (61), The Cummington Story (film score) (62-63), Third Symphony (68-69), Tragic Ground (unfinished) (76, 166-67), The Red Pony (film score) (88-91), The Heiress (film score) (98-107), Old American Songs (166-67), The Tender Land (220-21), Three Latin-American Sketches (273), Dance Panels (275-76), Music for a Great City (333-34), Emblems (343-44), Happy Anniversary (261)

Sources: Song of the Fatherland (16); Internationale (16); Simple Gifts (32-33, 166); Aaron Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (68), Tragic Ground (88) Something Wild (film score) (333-34); I Got Me a Cat (76); So Long, Old Paint (90); Giovanni Martini: Plaisirs d'Amour (100, 106); Daniel Decatur Emmett: The Boatmans's Dance (166); The Dodger (166); Long Time Ago (166); The Little Horses (167); John G. McCurry (attrib.): Zion's Walls (167, 220-21); The Golden Willow Tree (167); Robert Lowry: At the River (167); Ching-a-Ring Chaw (167, 220); Amazing Grace (343); Happy Birthday (361, 375).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman, Felix Cox

[+] Copland, Aaron, and Vivian Perlis. Copland: 1900 Through 1942. New York: St. Martin's/Marek, 1984.

Within the context of a comprehensive autobiography, numerous musical borrowings are considered. The majority of pieces quote or paraphrase American folksongs; these are named when known. Other types of borrowing include arrangement, variations, settings, and self-borrowing. Copland also mentions instances of borrowing in the music of his colleagues.

Works: Aaron Copland: Dance Symphony (86, 163), Vitebsk (160-63), Statements for Orchestra (236), El Salón México (245ff), Second Hurricane (261), Billy the Kid (279-80), Billy the Kid (suite) (284-85), John Henry (291), Lincoln Portrait (342ff), Las Agachadas (355), Rodeo (357), Four Dance Episodes from Rodeo (363); Virgil Thomson: The Plow That Broke the Plains (357, 388n19).

Sources: Aaron Copland: Grohg (86, 163); James W. Blake and Charles B. Lawlor: The Sidewalks of New York (236); El Mosca (246); El Palo Verde (246); La Jesusita (246); La Malacate (246); The Capture of Burgoyne (261); Great Grand-Dad (280, 284-85); The Chisholm Trail (280, 284); Git Along Little Dogies (280, 284); Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie (284, 354); John Henry (291); Stephen Foster: Camptown Races (342-43); Springfield Mountain (The Pesky Sarpent) (342-43); Ground Hog (357); Old Paint (363, 388n19); If He Be a Buckaroo by Trade (363); Sis Joe (363, 354); Bonyparte (363); McLeod's Reel (363); The Man on the Flying Trapeze (367).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman, Felix Cox

[+] Cormack, Mike. "The Pleasures of Ambiguity: Using Classical Music in Film." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 19-30. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

The recontextualization of pre-existing classical music within film brings complexity and ambiguity to film. Four reasons for this ambiguity are as follows: the music's original meaning may be indeterminate; the process of extracting and recontextualizing music increases ambiguity; audiences understand music in different ways; and awareness that the music was not originally written for the film creates distance between the music and straightforward interpretation. Since Rachmaninov's Second Piano Concerto is pre-existing but does not have an agreed upon meaning, it can be understood in film through several different codes and interpretations (including conventional cinematic musical codes), making it more complex than newly composed scores. In Détective, the disjunction between the visual film and the short well-known classical music excerpts does not allow the use of cinematic musical codes, but it does produce complexity.

Works: Martin Scorsese (director): Sound track to Raging Bull (21-23, 28); David Lean (director) and Noel Coward (writer/producer): Sound track to Brief Encounter (23-26, 28-29); Jean-Luc Godard (director): Sound track to Détective (26-29).

Sources: Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (21-23); Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No. 2 in C-sharp Minor (24-26); Schubert: Symphony No. 8 in B minor (Unfinished) (27); Wagner: Rienzi (27).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Cornett-Murtada, Vanessa. "Quotation, Revolution, and American Culture: The Use of Folk Tunes and the Influence of Charles Ives in Frederic Rzewski's North American Ballads for Solo Piano." DMA diss., University of North Carolina, Greensboro, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Covach, John R. "The Rutles and the Use of Specific Models in Musical Satire." Indiana Theory Review 11 (1990): 119-44.

The 1978 NBC "docudrama," The Rutles: All You Need Is Cash, is a humorous satire of the music and history of the Beatles. According to Schopenhauer, an amused reaction arises as a response to the "recognition of incongruity between a representation and a concept." Thus, for a listener to experience an amused response to musical satire, he or she must possess "stylistic competencies" that allow for the recognition of the congruity-incongruity dialectic in the music. The fictitious Rutles's Hold My Hand is modeled on three Beatles songs, and it incorporates elements of lyrics, pitch, rhythm, harmony and instrumentation from the sources. Evidence of modeling in Ouch!, a parody of the Beatles' song, Help!, is found in instrumentation and in formal and harmonic similarities to the source. The harmonic parallelism is such that a dialogue between Ouch! and Help! emerges, which is facilitated by diminution of the model's harmonic rhythm and partial reordering of the harmonic progression. Leonard Meyer's theory of style, in combination with the semiotic theory of intertextuality, can become a powerful analytic device in explaining musical satire. The humor arises from the listener's recognition of the model and the clever alterations and juxtapositions of the original material. This recognition must take place on three different levels of specificity: dialectic or general style (e.g., British invasion), individual idiom (e.g., early Beatles style), and intraopus style or the style within a single work (e.g., the style of Help!).

Works: Neil Innes: Hold My Hand (124-32), Ouch! (133-37).

Sources: John Lennon and Paul McCartney: I Want to Hold Your Hand (124-32), She Loves You (124-32), All My Loving (124-32), Help! (133-37).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey, Sarah Florini

[+] Cowell, Henry, and Sidney Cowell. Charles Ives and His Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1955; 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cowell, Henry, ed. American Composers on American Music. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1933; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1962.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Coyle, Michael. "Hijacked Hits and Antic Authenticity: Cover Songs, Race, and Postwar Marketing." In Rock Over the Edge: Transformations in Popular Music Culture, ed. Roger Beebe, Denise Fulbrook, and Ben Saunders, 133-157. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.

The term "cover" does not accurately describe the history behind or motivations for an artist recording a previously recorded song. In the 1950s, listeners did not make the same associations between song and singer that they make today; therefore re-recording a song was not understood as a reference in any way to the earlier artist. "The music itself" existed independently of its realization; therefore multiple versions of a song could circulate and not be considered to be referential. Re-recording a song that was circulating at the time was known as "hijacking a hit." It was not until Elvis re-recorded older R&B records that were no longer circulating that the cover song in the modern sense of the word came into existence.

Works: Chuck Willis (songwriter), Derek and the Dominos (performers): It's Too Late (151-52); Otis Redding (performer): It's Too Late (151-52).

Sources: Chuck Willis (songwriter and performer): It's Too Late (150-52); Otis Redding (performer): It's Too Late (151-52).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Crawford, Richard. "George Gershwin's I Got Rhythm (1930)." In The American Musical Landscape, 213-344. Berkley: University of California Press, 1993.

Since its premiere in Gershwin's 1930 musical Girl Crazy, the song I Got Rhythm has been performed, arranged, and recorded countless times. In these subsequent realizations of Gershwin's song three approaches can be identified in which the original material is treated as (1) a song played and sung by popular performers, (2) a jazz standard, a piece known and frequently played by musicians in the jazz tradition, and (3) a musical structure, a harmonic framework upon which jazz instrumentalists have built new compositions. These new compositions, called contrafacts, include examples such as Duke Ellington's 1940 Cotton Tail, Charlie Parker's 1940 Steeplechase, Parker and "Dizzy" Gillespie's 1945 Shaw 'Nuff, and many others. Tables listing titles of Parker I Got Rhythm contrafacts and recordings of I Got Rhythm contrafacts (up to 1942) are included.

Works: Ellington: Cotton Tail (229-30), Parker: Steeplechase (232), Red Cross (232), Moose the Mooche (233), An Oscar For Treadwell (233); Parker and Gillespie: Shaw 'Nuff (239).

Sources: Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (213-44).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Creshevsky, Noah. "On Borrowed Time." Contemporary Music Review 20, no. 4 (2001): 91-98.

Composers can expand their musical possibilities by borrowing samples of pre-existent music. For instance, Noah Creshevsky's Borrowed Time samples music from the twelfth to twentieth centuries. By incorporating a variety of disparate samples, one can represent the multicultural society in which we currently live. The revolution of technological media has made sampling equipment readily available. Creshevky's compositional processes have changed in reaction to this technological shift, in that the samples used are often so short in duration as to obscure their origins. Sampling an entire stanza from an aria would be a quotation, belonging to composer and librettist, but sampling just a syllable is an unidentifiable form of sampling and musical borrowing. Whether in times of bounty or scarcity, composers should borrow music, for there is plenty to go around.

Works: Noah Creshevsky: Borrowed Time (91, 96).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Cudworth, Charles. "Ye Olde Spuriosity Shoppe." Notes 12 ([Month] 1954): (I) 25-40, (II) 533-53.

Index Classifications: General, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Culter, Chris. "Plunderphonia." Musicworks 60 (Summer 1994): 6-19.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Cusic, Don. "From Zap to Rap: Digital Sampling, Rap Music, and the Folk Tradition." The Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 54, no. 4 (1991): 139-43.

According to Charles Seeger, folk music represents the epitome of plagiarism. Since rap music relies so heavily on digital sampling, rap and folk music are therefore linked through similar processes of musical borrowing. The explanation for such borrowing is not plagiarism but a new definition of creativity: creativity as synthesis of existing materials. Rap and folk music are also extensions of oral traditions, which value synthesis over novelty.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Cusic, Don. "In Defense of Cover Songs." Popular Music and Society 28 (May 2005): 171-77.

Recording labels in Nashville demand that recording artists be singer-songwriters: that is, that musicians write and perform their own songs. Critics and fans believe that writing and performing one's own songs is the best measure of the legitimacy of a musician's abilities. This expectation ignores the potential value of cover songs and the interpretive skill of covering artists. Not only can a cover song provide a new interpretation of a song, but it may introduce music to new listeners who are unfamiliar with the original because of separation by time or genre. For covering artists, cover songs are important for three reasons: (1) the song has a proven track record of commercial success, (2) the song can act as a nod or tribute to an important influence on the artist, and (3) it can provide audiences with familiar music as they hear a new artist.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Cyr, Gordon. "Intervallic Structural Elements in Ives's Fourth Symphony." Perspectives of New Music 9 and 10 (Spring/Summer-Fall/Winter 1971): 291-303.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Czackis, Lloica. “Yiddish Tango: A Musical Genre?” European Judiasm 42 (Autumn 2009): 107-21.

Although the tango originated in Buenos Aires, several Ashkenazi Jewish songwriters in Europe soon adopted this genre as their own, either by giving existing tango melodies new lyrics in Yiddish or by composing new ones. The Ashkenazi Jews soon exported their Yiddish tangos to cities like New York City and Buenos Aires, where they became staples of Yiddish theater and musical productions. During World War II and after, the tango became an especially symbolic and even painful genre for Jews, as Nazis sometimes forced prisoners in concentration camps to play tangos when other prisoners were killed. Despite this, the tango genre also offered Jewish prisoners a medium for expression and a tie to their heritage, and the familiar melodies allowed the prisoners to easily remember their new lyrics. For instance, songs like Kinder yorn and Makh tsu di eygelekh include musical gestures that allude to the tango, while the contrafact camp song Yiddish Tango was adapted and reworked from Shpil zhe mir a lidele in yidish as a song of resistance.

Works: Anonymous: Death Tango (116); Anonymous: Der Todesfuge (116); Dovid Beigelman: Kinder yorn (117), Makh tsu di eygelekh (117); Ruven Tsarfat: Yiddish Tango (118); Rikle Glezer: Es iz geven a zumertog (118); Anonymous: Niewolnicze tango (118); Mary Sorianu: Tango fun libe (118).

Sources: Eduardo Bianco: Plegaria (116); Julio César Sanders: Adios Muchachos (111); Ángel Villoldo: El Choclo (111); Dovid Beigelman: Ikh ganve in der nakht (114); Henech Kon: Shpil zhe mir a lidele in yidish (118); Herman Yablokoff: Papirosn (118); Gerardo Matos Rodríguez: La Cumparsita (118).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Dadaszad, Zümrüd. "My eto ved toze cast mira." Muzykal'naja akademija 1 (2002): 158-72.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Dale, S. S. "Musical Quotations." The Musical Opinion 96 (September 1973): 623-27.

Dale lists works (from Beethoven till present) that include quotations. They can be grouped into pieces (1) quoting Dies Irae, (2) quoting Beethoven, (3) by Wagner quoting other works, (4) by Borodin, Elgar, and Ives quoting other works, (5) in which Schumann was quoting, and (6) by other composers. The principle of quoting is clearly separate from parody, the stylistic imitation of an other composer, which is not included in this essay.

Works: Borodin: The Valiant Knights (626); Elgar: The Music Makers (626); Ives: An Elegy for Stephen Foster (626).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Daley, Mike. "Patti Smith's 'Gloria': Intertextual Play in a Rock Vocal Performance." Popular Music 16, no. 3 (October 1997): 235-53.

Patti Smith's version of Van Morrison's Gloria transforms the meaning of the original through the use of textual tropes and altered vocal performance that ultimately decenters the "dominant male rock singer" to clear out creative space for herself. In her version, Gloria in excelsis deo, Smith adds a great deal of text to the original lyrics but retains some of Morrison's text without changing the male perspective, deliberately playing up the male sexual undertones. Smith also utilizes a number of subtle vocal inflections to emphasize specific words and phrases and bring out meaning in the text. These vocal performance techniques include qualities such as "raspy," "hard/nasal," "breathy," or "creaky," as well as exaggerated or closed vowel sounds and pitch inflections. An appendix contains the text to Morrison's Gloria and a transcription of Smith's version featuring both traditional staff notation and the author's notation for indicating vocal performance techniques.

Works: Van Morrison and Patti Smith: Gloria in excelsis deo.

Sources: Van Morrison: Gloria.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Danuser, Hermann. "Musikalische Zitat- und Collageverfahren im Lichte der (Post)Moderne-Diskussion." Bayerische Akademie der Schönen Kunste: Jahrbuch 4 (1990): 395-409.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Danuser, Hermann. "Tradition und Avantgarde nach 1950." In Die neue Musik und die Tradition: Sieben Kongressbeiträge und eine analytische Studie, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann, 22-54. New York: Schott, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Danz, Louis. "Gershwin and Schoenberg." In George Gershwin, ed. Merle Armitage, 99-101. New York: Longmans, Green, 1938.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Davies, Ann. "High and Low Culture: Bizet's Carmen and the Cinema." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 46-56. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Cinema attempts to claim a status as an art form and offer the elitism of opera to new audiences in opera film. The opera film creates a hybrid cultural artifact that blurs boundaries between high and low culture, which can be seen in Cecil B. DeMille's Carmen, Otto Preminger's Carmen Jones, and Francesco Rosi's Carmen. Bizet's Carmen as an opera is a hybrid of high and low culture in and of itself, a characterization maintained in film opera versions of it. Otto Preminger's Carmen Jones uses Bizet's music but with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein and an entirely black cast, playing into the tradition of the musical. The consideration of filmed opera as a cultural hybrid, implying distance, allows tension between high and low culture to be preserved and invites the audience to appreciate the elite high culture.

Works: Works: Cecil B. DeMille (director): Sound track to Carmen (48-49, 55); Otto Preminger (director): Sound track to Carmen Jones (49-51, 55); Francesco Rosi (director): Sound track to Carmen (51-55).

Sources: Bizet: Carmen (48-55).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Davies, Hugh. "A History of Sampling." Organised Sound: An International Journal of Music Technology 1, no.1 (April 1996): 3-11.

The commercially available samplers invented in the 1980s have a long history that can be seen to include the early digital (but not binary) technology of the telegraph up until the invention of modern digital technology. After World War I inventors constructed and patented musical instruments based on available sound recording technologies as well as early versions of magnetic tape recorder dictating machines. This is generally considered the first "sampler." By 1948, Pierre Schaeffer initiated musique concrète and developed a technique similar to the later tape loop, the sillon fermé. Influenced by the invention of magnetic tape, Schaeffer transferred all of his disc recording techniques to the medium of magnetic tape and patented his Phonogène in the 1950s. In 1964, the first successful instrument based on magnetic tape technology, the Mellotron, was marketed. The first digital sampling instruments appeared in the early 1970s, and by the second half of the 1980s digital sampling technology had become a standard part of every electronic piano, organ, or synthesizer. Musicians have explored extensively the possibilities of the manipulation of recorded sound. The phonograph has been used for works like John Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 5 as well as "scratching" by DJs in the popular music tradition. Other works have used this technology to manipulate pre-existing recorded works by other artists, generating conflict with copyright law. Among these works are James Tenney's Collage No. 1 ('Blue Suede') and John Oswald's Plunderphonics. Live manipulations of prerecorded magnetic tape material, such as Laurie Anderson's Tape Bow Violin, have also been explored. Commercial digital samplers are now used in a variety of contemporary composers' works, such as Michel Waisvisz 's The Archaic Symphony or Nicolas Collins's Devil's Music.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Davis, Merilyn Mather. "A Comparative Analysis of Musical Texture as Found in Selected Symphonies of Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1970.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] De Leeuw, Reinbert. "Charles Ives, Zijn Muziek: Inleidung, Ives' Gebruik van Muzikall Materiaal." In Charles Ives, by J. Bernlef and Reinbert de Leeuw, 133-209. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1969. Translated by Bertus Polman, in Student Musicologists at Minnesota 6 (1975-76): 128-91.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Deazley, Ronan. “Copyright and Parody: Taking Backward the Gowers Review?” The Modern Law Review 73 (September 2010): 785-807.

In the United Kingdom, the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 does not except parody from copyright violation. Since then, both the Gowers Review of Intellectual Property in 2006 and the Intellectual Property Office in 2008 stated that including an exception for parody would be in the best interests of producers and consumers. In 2009 the Intellectual Property Office reversed their position, rejecting an exception for parody. Yet such an exception should be made, as demonstrated by considering the conditions for parodic use under the current laws and the arguments for and against the exception of parody. In certain situations, direct borrowing of significant portions of music is necessary for the success of the parody, and often the necessity directly depends on various factors surrounding each individual case; this is where copyright fails to protect the parodist.

Works: Rick Dees: When Sonny Sniffs Glue (792); 2 Live Crew: Pretty Woman (792); Saturday Night Live: I Love Sodom (794).

Sources: Jack Segal and Marvin Fisher: When Sunny Gets Blue (792); Roy Orbison: Oh, Pretty Woman (792); Steve Karmen: I Love New York (794).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Del Mar, Norman. "The Chamber Operas. III. The Beggar's Opera." In Benjamin Britten: A Commentary on His Works from a Group of Specialists, ed. Donald Mitchell and Hans Keller, 163-85. London: Rockliff, 1952; reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972.

In 1948, Britten composed his realization of the The Beggar's Opera. Of the realizations made of this opera, Britten's was the first to use so many of the original songs, sixty-six of the sixty-nine airs. His realizations range from supplying original accompaniments to the development of operatic forms such as melodramas, scenas, and finales based on one or more tunes. The airs as treated by Britten may be classified ino six categories: (1) "Straight setting" (similar to his folksong settings); (2) "Straight settings, but with the phrases of the air spaced apart"; (3) "Straight settings, but with the melody itself treated freely"; (4) "Settings in which the air is worked into an elaborate, but formally concise, musical scheme" (subdivided into numbers with and without chorus); (5) "Settings embodied in larger musical designs" (numbers with introductions and codas based on original material derived from the airs); and (6) "Settings in which two or more airs are used in combination." As part of his settings, Britten was able to retain the original keys of a large number of the airs. He also restored Macheath's role from a baritone, as it had been sung for several years, to the original tenor.

Works: Benjamin Britten: The Beggar's Opera.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Del Mar, Norman. Richard Strauss: A Critical Commentary on His Life and Works. 3 vols. London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1962, 1969, and 1972.

Throughout this thorough examination of Strauss's life and works, musical borrowings are cited in music of every genre in which Strauss composed. There is a separate list of self quotations for Ein Heldenleben in vol. 1, p. 177.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Delage, Roger. "Ravel and Chabrier." The Musical Quarterly 61 (October 1975): 546-52.

Ravel himself acknowledged his great debt to the music of Chabrier. There are few works by Ravel which do not to some extent echo one or another work by Chabrier. Some specific allusions are noted. Ravel's harmonic procedures are also influenced by Chabrier.

Works: Ravel: Pavane pour une infante défunte (547), Jeux d'eau (550), "Ondine" and "Scarbo" from Gaspard de la Nuit (550), Alborada del graciozo (550), Rapsodie espagnole (550), Vocalise en forme de habanera (550), La Valse (550), Histories naturelles (551).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Demers, Joanna. “Sampling the 1970s in Hip-Hop.” Popular Music 22 (January 2003): 41-56.

Hip-hop draws influence directly from 1970s African American culture. Many prominent hip-hop artists, including Public Enemy, Ice Cube, and the Fugees, mention this decade in their music as one in which blacks began to assert themselves politically and culturally. This is demonstrated primarily by hip-hop musicians and producers borrowing the music of Blaxploitation films, which often portrayed African American pimps and drug dealers fighting against white authority. Hip-hop borrows musically and culturally from these Blaxploitation films’ introductory theme music for the main characters, politically charged content, and focus on the ghetto. While these films and their music do not uniformly glorify or demonize black poverty, drug abuse, and violence, the hip-hop community has borrowed their material almost exclusively to show street credibility.

Works: Jay-Z: Reservoir Dogs (49); Smoothe Da Hustler: Hustler’s Theme (49); Snoop Doggy Dogg: Doggystyle (52); Dr. Dre: Rat Tat Tat Tat (53); Ol’ Dirty Bastard: Got Your Money (54).

Sources: Isaac Hayes: Theme to Shaft from Shaft (49); Curtis Mayfield: Freddie’s Dead from Super Fly (49); Willie Hutch: Brother’s Gonna Work It Out from The Mack (53); Rudy Ray Moore: The Signifying Monkey from Dolemite (54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Dennison, Peter. "Elgar and Wagner." Music and Letters 66 (April 1985): 93-109.

The music of Wagner exerted a strong influence on Elgar. This influence is evident in the thematic cohesion and chromatic harmony of Elgar's music. It is also evident in the many allusions and reminiscences of particular passages in Wagner, listed here in pairs (Elgar/Wagner): (1) Froissart, Op. 19/love duet from Die Walküre and "Prize Song" from Die Meistersinger; (2) The Black Knight, Op. 25/Prelude to Siegfried and "magic sleep" from the Ring; (3) The Light of Life, Op. 29/Act 2/2 and Act 3/2 from Parsifal; (4) Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf, Op. 3O/Die Meistersinger; (5) Te Deum/"trial song" from Die Meistersinger; (6) Caractacus/the "ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre, Act 2 from Die Meistersinger, Act 2 from Siegfried, and Tannhäuser; (7) The Dream of Gerontius, Op. 38/start of Parsifal and the "ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre; (8) Second Symphony, Tristan (final cadential progression). Most of these allusions are probably subconscious, although Elgar was consciously aware of the significance of Wagner to his creative workings. Wagner had a profound influence on Elgar, especially in his first two periods of composition. Elgar had the opportunity to both hear and perform many of Wagner's works, and Dennison discusses these and Elgar's comments on Wagner in great detail. Many of Elgar's quotations from Wagner only bear superficial resemblance. Very often, however, Elgar uses a Wagnerian leitmotif in passages with similar programmatic or dramatic implications. Elgar is also heavily indebted to Wagner for many compositional techniques. In his later compositions Elgar does not rely on Wagner as often, but sometimes draws specific parallels for dramatic or psychological effect. Dennison includes an appendix of works by Wagner heard or performed by Elgar.

Works: Elgar: The Black Knight, Op. 25; The Light of Life, Op. 29; Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf, Op. 30; Te Deum and Benedictus, Op. 34; Caractacus, Op. 35; The Dream of Gerontius, Op. 38; Second Symphony, Op 63.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler, Will Sadler

[+] Dennison, Peter. "Reminiscence and Recomposition in Tippett." The Musical Times 126 (January 1985): 13-18.

Michael Tippett used musical borrowing in his compositions to create extramusical meanings through the quotation of pre-existent music. Many of his works borrow from external and internal sources. His procedures varied from simple quotation within the context of an original work to complex recomposition of another composer's work. He began through the application of variation technique and quotation, as in the Piano Sonata No. 1 and A Child of Our Time, in which he used spirituals, respectively. Beginning in the Divertimento on Sellinger's Round, Tippett placed the pre-existent material in each of the five movements either complete or transformed. Recomposition was applied to two Corelli works in the Fantasia Concertante on a Theme of Corelli. Tippett abandoned such borrowing practices for a substantial period of time, but later returned to them, though tempered by a severe, economic sense, as in The Knot Garden. Tippett then moved into a borrowing practice based on unification in which a web of compositions is thematically connected through self-quotation, beginning with his Symphony No. 4 and continuing into The Mask of Time. Tippett's borrowing techniques consisted of a vast range of dramatic and poetic techniques to create powerful meanings within his compositions.

Works: Tippett: Piano Sonata No. 1 (13), Fantasia on a Theme of Handel (13), A Child of Our Time (13), Suite for the Birthday of Prince Charles (13), The Midsummer Marriage (13), Divertimento on Sellinger's Round (15), The Mask of Time (15, 17-18), Fantasia Concertante on a Theme of Corelli (15), The Knot Garden (16), Songs for Dov (16), Symphony No. 3 (16-17), Triple Concerto (17).

Sources: Tippett: Suite for the Birthday of Prince Charles (13); Byrd: Sellinger's Round (15); Gibbons: Fantasia (15); Veni creator spiritus (15); Corelli: Concerto Grosso Op. 6, No. 2 (15), Trio Sonata Op. 3, No. 4 (15); Schubert: Die liebe Farbe (16); Beethoven: Kennst du das Land? Op. 75, No. 1 (16), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (16); Wagner: Der fliegende Holländer (16); Mussorgsky: Boris Godunov (16); Tippett: Come Unto the Yellow Sands (16), King Priam (16), String Quartet No. 4 (17), Symphony No. 4 (17-18), Triple Concerto (18); Dowland: I Saw My Lady Weep (18); Monteverdi: Ecco mororar l'onde (18).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] DeVeaux, Scott. The Birth of Bebop: A Social and Musical History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

This book examines the development of bebop from artistic, social, and commercial perspectives, beginning in the Swing Era and progressing through the 1940s. The repertory at jam sessions in the early 1940s was based primarily on a few familiar chord progressions, notably the blues, Gershwin's I Got Rhythm, and a handful of other pop song "standards" of which How High the Moon and Whispering were among the most frequently used. The economics of the recording industry promoted the composition of new melodies over existing chord progressions; having a new, colorful title would attract buyers, and by calling it a new work the record company could avoid paying royalties to the copyright owners of the song from which the chord progression was taken. In addition to using existing chord progressions in new songs, bebop musicians often borrowed material from each other and incorporated it into new compositions and arrangements. Moreover, musical borrowing in the form of quotation within improvised solos was both a ubiquitous and a controversial presence in bebop. Charlie Parker frequently inserted clearly recognizable quotations from jazz or popular sources into solos in live performance, but some performers criticized Parker for diluting his music. In other instances, European art music directly influenced jazz: stride pianists used materials from opera or "light classics" in a new idiom. For some bebop musicians, borrowing (or at least recognizing borrowings) was less important. Struggles over the definition of "the work" pervade any discussion of quotation in jazz, and such discussion must recognize the multiple "composers" at work in a jazz performance: the nominal composer who notates a song, and the improviser who re-composes the score in live performance.

Works: Thelonious Monk: The Theme (224), Rhythm-a-Ning (224), 52nd Street Theme (292), Hackensack (403): Dizzy Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (292, 421), Things to Come (433): Coleman Hawkins: Mop Mop (292, 306-7), Rainbow Mist (309), Father Co-operates (326), Bean at the Met (326), On the Bean (330), Stumpy (330), Rifftide (390), Bean Stalking (394), Too Much of a Good Thing (401), Bean Soup (403-5), Hollywood Stampede (404-5); Charlie Parker: Red Cross (307, 374); Benny Harris: Ornithology (323, 382); Howard McGhee: New Orleans Jump (362), Sportsman?s Hop (391, 393); Billy Eckstine: Good Jelly Blues (341-3, 424); Jerome Kern: All the Things You Are (342-43, 424).

Sources: George Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (203, 224, 292, 305, 306-7, 326, 374, 421), Lady Be Good (390, 403); Nancy Hamilton and Morgan Lewis: How High the Moon (305, 323, 326, 382); John Schonberger, Malvin Schonberger, and Richard Coburn: Whispering (305, 330); Edward Heyman, Robert Sour, Frank Eyton, and Johnny Green: Body and Soul (309); Dizzy Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (326-28), Be-Bop (362, 404-5, 433), Groovin' High (403-5); Rachmaninoff: Prelude in C-Sharp Minor (342-43, 424); Igor Stravinsky: Petrouchka (360n); Benny Goodman, Edgar Sampson, Clarence Profit, and Walter Hirsch: Lullaby in Rhythm (391, 393); Jesse A. Stone: Idaho (394); Kay Swift and Paul James: Fine and Dandy (401); Ben Bernie, Ken Casey, and Maceo Pinkard: Sweet Georgia Brown (404-5); Benny Harris: Ornithology (404-5); Vincent Youmans and Irving Caesar: Tea for Two (405); Billy Eckstine: Good Jelly Blues (424).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger, Amy Weller

[+] Dickinson, Peter. “Style-modulation: An Approach to Stylistic Pluralism.” The Musical Times 130 (April 1989): 208-11.

Traditionally, modulation is associated with either key or with metric procedures; however, this term can be expanded to incorporate style. “Style-modulation” occurs when different musical styles within a single work are employed in as controlled a way as any other compositional element. Often popular music, especially genres derived from African-American traditions, incorporate style-modulations. Style-modulation is not necessarily brought about by musical quotations, but often has a direct relationship to them. If a quotation is recognizable and departs from established continuity, it may be an example of a style-modulation, such as the Bach chorale in Berg’s Violin Concerto or Chopin’s Funeral March in Satie’s Embryons Desséchés. A work with many quotations, such as Luciano Berio’s Sinfonia, is not necessarily an example of a style modulation, however, as the quotations do not break from the work’s overall continuity. In twentieth-century works in particular, the moment of style-modulation often creates a force of an epiphany. Charles Ives is a good example of a composer whose music includes style-modulations, especially in pieces such as the Concord Sonata,Country Band March, and the Fourth Symphony.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (208), Symphony No. 4 (208); Berg: Violin Concerto (210); Satie: Embryons Desséchés (210); Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (210-11).

Sources: Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (208); Ives: Country Band March (208), String Quartet No. 1 (208).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Dienst, Karl. "Die 'Marseiller Hymne der Reformazion.'" Zeitschrift der Luther-Gesellschaft 59, no. 1 (1988): 29-44.

Luther's chorale Ein feste Burg represents not only a religious message but also a symbol of the identity of all Protestants. Its many settings reflect both its religious and its cultural impact. Many composers identified with the revolutionary spirit the Reformation and saw the potential of the tune as a symbol of the time and its historical significance. Depending on the political context in which composers used the tune, the meaning of it changed. For example, Meyerbeer used it in Les Huguenots as a gesture to Protestantism, even though the tune was not necessarily a historical emblem for Huguenots. Mendelssohn's symphonic setting added a programmatic element to the tune. Debussy, on the other hand, used the tune in wartime by evoking it as a symbol of German aggression. He juxtaposed the tune with French anthem, La Marseillaise, which musically triumphs over Ein feste Burg in the end. The various settings of the tune also allow it to assume a multifarious spectrum in that it can be meaningful in an ecumenical sense. Essentially, it became a "banner Lied" for faithful believers and critics across centuries of use.

Works: Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (36); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (37-39); Debussy: En blanc et noir (39-40).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (29-34, 40-41).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Diether, Jack. "The Expressive Content of Mahler's Ninth: An Interpretation." Chord and Discord 2, no. 10 (1963): 69-107.

In Mahler's later works, and in particular his Ninth Symphony, he often employed brief quotations from his songs. He used musical rather than verbal quotations, implying the emotional content of the original rather than directly stating an image. As this "thematic allusion" recurs, it gains greater significance, and its meaning differs at each occurence, a technique that Mahler initiated. An example of this technique is found in the web of "subtle but pregnant interconnections" within the Ninth Symphony, especially highlighting Mahler's reuse of a theme from the final line of Das Lied von der Erde.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 9, Symphony No. 5 (70).

Sources: Mahler: Kindertotenlieder (70), Urlicht (70), Das Lied von der Erde (72-77, 101), Symphony No. 3 (92), Symphony No. 8 (93, 101, 104-05); Bruckner: Symphony No. 9 (98).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Dömling, Wolfgang. "Collage und Kontinuum: Bemerkungen zu Gustav Mahler und Richard Strauss." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 133 (1972): 131-34.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Doonan, Michael. "The Pilgrim's Progress: An Analytical Study and Case for the Performance of the Opera by Ralph Vaughan Williams." D.M.A. diss., Indiana University, 1975.

Chapters II ("Musical Symbolism: The Use of Leitmotivic Symbols and Motto Tunes") and V ("The RVW Style as Manifested in This Work") contain information about his use of borrowed materials. Among the materials Vaughan Williams incorporates into the opera are the hymn tunes York and Lasst uns erfreuen and Thomas Tallis's Third Mode Melody.

Works: Vaughan Williams: The Pilgrim's Progress.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Dos Santos, Silvio José. "Marriage as Prostitution in Berg's Lulu." The Journal of Musicology 25 (Spring 2008): 143-82.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Downes, Olin. "Porgy Fantasy: R. R. Bennett Makes Symphonic Work from Gershwin Opera." New York Times, 15 November 1942, 7 (VIII).

Robert Russell Bennett's Porgy and Bess: A Symphonic Picture for Orchestra is similar to his "symphonic synopsis" of Jerome Kern's Show Boat. Bennett did not alter Gershwin's melodies or his orchestration. Bennett did compose new material for the work, in the form of "connective tissue" to link the various sections together. He did not present the excerpts in order, but began with the Second Act, moving to the Third, and finally back to the First and to the well-known songs.

Works: Robert Russell Bennett: Porgy and Bess: A Symphonic Picture for Orchestra (7).

Sources: Gershwin: Porgy and Bess (7).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Downes, Stephen. "Hans Werner Henze as Post-Mahlerian: Anachronism, Freedom, and the Erotics of Intertextuality." Twentieth-Century Music 1 (September 2004): 179-207.

Beginning in the early 1960s, Hans Werner Henze began to take a special interest in the music of Gustav Mahler, particularly Mahler's exploration of form, his use of earlier music, and his music's connection to personal experience. It was at this time that Henze began to transition away from the Darmstadt school and move towards a more expressive idiom. This can be seen in Henze's Being Beauteous (1963) and The Bassarids (1965), both of which borrow from Mahler's Fifth Symphony. Being Beauteous draws from the Adagietto of Mahler's Fifth Symphony, and The Bassarids draws from the fourth movement. These intertextual connections exemplify both a transition in Henze's music and also a portrait of how Henze conceived of the importance of Mahler's music.

Works: Hans Werner Henze: Being Beauteous (183-98, 203), The Bassarids (198-204).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (185-93, 199-201).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Dubitsky, Franz. "'Ein feste Burg' und 'B-A-C-H' in Werken der Tonkunst." Musikalisches Magazin 61 (1914): 3-22.

Luther's Ein feste Burg resembles the B-A-C-H motive in that it signifies something outside of its musical character. In addition, Ein feste Burg begins with four memorable notes, comparable not only to the four notes of B-A-C-H but also to the striking four-note opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. Insofar as Ein feste Burg has a broader function outside of its musical characteristics, it epitomizes the powerful and energetic voice of evangelical Christianity, in a tradition began by Luther. Bach felt deeply moved by the religious sentiments of the tune and set it in a cantata with eight movements. Meyerbeer altered the tune more than Bach did and subjected it to various musical treatments, including theme and variations as well as parody, in Les Huguenots. The Romantic generation in particular responded to the tune in various compositional manners, especially by means of reinstrumentation and paraphrase technique, including settings by Mendelssohn, Nicolai, and many others. Wagner set the tune in his Kaisermarsch in order to evoke the sense of driving away the enemy. All of these settings discussed seek to maintain the spirit of the tune. The prolific uses of the tune reinforce the religious connotations that Luther intended. Although the B-A-C-H motive is not specifically associated with a source, many composers, including Schumann, Rimsky-Korsakov, Liszt, and others incorporate it in various ways into their works.

Works: J. S. Bach: Ein feste Burg, BWV 720 (7); Beethoven: Gott ist eine feste Burg, WoO 188 (7); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (8); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (9-10); Nicolai: Kirchliche Fest-Ouvertüre über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Heinrich Karl Breidenstein: Grosse Variationen über "Ein feste Burg" für Orgel (10); Friedrich Lux: "Ein feste Burg" Konzertfantasie für Orgel (10); H. Schellenberg: Fantasie über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Karl Stern: Präludium und Fuge über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Karl August Fischer: Präludium und Fuge über "Ein feste Burg" für Orgel mit Blasinstrumenten (10); Wagner: Kaisermarsch (11); Raff: Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, Op. 127 (11-12); Reinecke: Zur Reformationsfeier (12); Heinrich Schulz-Beuthen: Reformationssinfonie (12); Richard Bartmuss: Liturgischen Feiern No. 5, Reformation (13); Heinrich Pfannschmidt: Reformationsfestspeil (13); Hans Fährmann: Fantasie und Doppelfuge für Orgel über "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott," Op. 28 (13); Reger: Chorale fantasia "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (14), Schumann: Sechs Fugen über den Namen Bach, Op. 60 (16-17); Rimsky-Korsakov: Sechs Stücker über BACH, Op. 10 (17-18); Liszt: Präludium und Fuge über Bach (18-19); Wilhelm Middelschultes: Kanonische Fantasie über BACH und Fugue über vier Themen von J. S. Bach (19); Hans Fährmann: Orgelsonata in B moll, Op. 17 (19-20), Vorspiel und Doppelfuge für Orgel (20); Georg Schumann: Passacaglia und Finale für Orgel, Op. 39 (20).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (7-8).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Edson, Jean Slater. Organ-Preludes: An Index to Compositions on Hymn Tunes, Chorales, Plainsong Melodies, Gregorian Tunes, and Carols. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1970.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Eggebrecht, Hans Heinrich. Die Musik Gustav Mahlers. Munich: Piper, 1982.

Many of Mahler's motives and themes remind us of preexisting musical phrases. They sound familiar already at their first appearance. The musicologist makes it his task to locate these allusions. It is, however, impossible or at least misleading to attempt this. These seemingly borrowed excerpts are rather Mahler's attempt to evoke a "colloquial" sound (umgangssprachlicher Ton) or the impression of déjà vu. The use of military fanfares and posthorns should not be interpreted as quotation, even if Mahler consciously quoted one. What is important is the meaning of the fanfare or the posthorn according to the context in which it is found, not as a quotation but as an event. Eggebrecht, however, also discusses the obvious reuses of material such as "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt" (from the Wunderhorn-Lieder) in the Second Symphony and "Oft denk' ich, sie sind nur ausgegangen" (from the Kindertotenlieder) in the Ninth. All three aspects are of importance for the interpretation and understanding of Mahler's works and enable the author to explain their meaning.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Eiseman, David. "Charles Ives and the European Symphonic Tradition: A Historical Reappraisal." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Eldridge, T. G. "Variations for Piano." Musical Opinion 85, no. 1015 (April 1962): 403-7.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Ellison, Mary. "Ives' Use of American 'Popular' Tunes as Thematic Material." In South Florida's Historic Ives Festival 1974-1976, ed. F. Warren O'Reilly, 30-34. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami at Coral Gables, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Engelhardt, Jürgen, and Dietrich Stern. "Verfremdung und Parodie bei Strawinsky." Melos/Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 3 (1977): 104-8.

In Petrushka (1911), Renard (1915-16), and The Soldier's Tale (1917-18), Stravinsky uses abstraction and parody to create new dramaturgical forms and musical meanings. The use of abstraction and the view of musical forms (such as ragtime) as archetypes not only affected Stravinsky's style in the 1914-17 period but also paved the way toward his neoclassical style, where it was transformed from mere irony to stylization of the musical material.

Works: Stravinsky: Petrushka,Renard,The Soldier's Tale.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Engländer, Richard. "Das musikalische Plagiat als ästhetisches Problem." Sonderdruck aus Archiv für Urheber- Film- und Theaterrecht 3 (1930): 33-44

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Epstein, Dena J. "A White Origin for the Black Spiritual?: An Invalid Theory and How It Grew." American Music 1 (Summer 1983): 53-59.

The myth that the black spiritual was completely derived from white folk hymns is one of the most pervasive in the literature about black folk music. Early studies of black folk music such as Richard Wallaschek's Primitive Music (1893) and George Pullen Jackson's White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (1933) relied solely on transcriptions, a process which does not account for performative and aural contexts of folk music. In effect, these studies mistakenly equated transcriptions with the music as it was performed and thus tacitly assumed that any deviation from the diatonic scale was due to a performer's misinterpretation of music of white origins. These analyses do not account for the process of syncretism which had to have taken place between African- and European-derived musical elements in the development of the black spiritual.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Escal, Françoise. Le compositeur et ses modèles. Paris: Presse Universitaires de France, 1984.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Everett, Walter. "The Learned vs. the Vernacular in the Songs of Billy Joel." Contemporary Music Review 18, no. 4 (2000): 105-129.

Due to his formal musical training and informal musical upbringing, Billy Joel was equally adept at incorporating both classical and popular styles in his songs depending on the expressive context of the lyrics. Many of his songs deliberately quote popular tunes, while others are either modeled after specific songs, especially by the Beatles, or are modeled after the general style of different popular artists (as shown in the appendix). Likewise, Joel was known to quote classical works in some of his songs, and many other songs exhibit a harmonic or contrapuntal language reminiscent either of classical style in general or of specific classical composers, especially Chopin. These learned and vernacular styles are exemplified particularly in two songs, James (1976) for the learned style and Laura (1983) for the vernacular style, and the personae of these two titular characters reflect the expressive correlations of their particular musical styles.

Works: Billy Joel: Storm Front (106), Lullabye (Goodnight, My Angel) (106), Modern Woman (106), All You Wanna Do Is Dance (106), C'etait toi (You Were the One) (106), Laura (106, 122-24), The Great Suburban Showdown (106), Uptown Girl (106), Captain Jack (107), Scandinavian Skies (107), A Room of Our Own (107), Just the Way You Are (107), Attila (album) (107), Why Judy Why (107), If I Only Had the Words (To Tell You) (107), 52nd Street (album) (107), This Night (110), Leningrad (110), Souvenir (110), The Ballad of Billy the Kid (111), She's Got a Way (111), James (119-22).

Sources: Harold Arlen: Stormy Weather (106); Duke Ellington: Mood Indigo (106); Ethelbert Nevin: Mighty Lak' a Rose (106); John Lennon and Paul McCartney (songwriters), The Beatles (performers): Rubber Soul (album) (106), Here, There, and Everywhere (106), Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds (107), I Am the Walrus (107), Glass Onion (107), I Will (107), Birthday (107), Her Majesty (107); George Harrison (songwriter), The Beatles (performers): Something (107); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique) (110); Robert Schumann: Piano Concerto in A Minor, Op. 54 (110); Chopin: Prelude in D-flat Major, Op. 28, No. 15 (110), Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28, No. 4 (111-12); Copland: Appalachian Spring (111).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Everett, Yayoi Uno. “Significance of Parody and the Grotesque in György Ligeti’s Le Grand Macabre.Music Theory Spectrum 31 (Spring 2009): 26-56.

György Ligeti’s only opera, Le Grand Macabre (1977, revised 1996), an example of grotesque realism, uses many techniques of parody and collage, though such techniques resist categorization because of the vast array of incorporated procedures. An analysis of Le Grand Macabre works to unveil the work’s narrative and meta-musical implications in relation to these techniques of musical borrowing and the relevant source material, suggesting that the work is governed by two different narrative trajectories. Ligeti’s uses of operatic conventions in this opera are related to specific sources and techniques; such conventions suggest that Ligeti assigns distinctive stylistic or timbral idioms to typecast main characters. For example, a parodic strategy via troping of stylistic types from the lover’s duet (Scene 1), which draws on Monteverdi’s L’incoronazione di Poppea; a second example is Piet the Pot’s “drunken” aria (Scene 1), exemplifies the technique of troping incongruous stylistic topics through abrupt shifts in musical discourses, while drawing on Berg’s Wozzeck. All three scenes in the opera share a parallel construction which culminates in a polymetric or polytemporal collage. In each scene, a trope of chaos and deconstruction is established through these collages, which is offset by either buffa elements or pastoral topics. The expressive states of ludicrousness and horror are explored in tandem, culminating in the third movement where the distinction between these two expressive states becomes increasingly blurred. Le Grand Macabre is in some ways an “anti-opera,” because of its overall narrative of ambivalence, which comes about primarily due to the blurring of expressive states. Thus, the aesthetic of this work is not “postmodern” but is better defined as “oppositional” postmodernism, which is concerned with a critical deconstruction of tradition.

Works: Ligeti: Le Grand Macabre.

Sources: Verdi: Falstaff (34-35); Monteverdi: L’incoronazione di Poppea (36); Berg: Wozzeck (36-37); Gluck: Alceste (43); Stravinsky: l’Histoire du Soldat (43).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Fabian, Imre. "Ein unendliches Erbarmen mit der Kreatur: Zu György Ligetis Le grand macabre." Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 36 (October/November 1981): 570-72.

György Ligeti includes in his opera Le Grand Macabre all the stylistic achievements of his earlier orchestral and chamber music works. Some passages that Ligeti himself calls reflections, not quotations allude to Monteverdi, Mozart, Stravinsky, Rossini, Verdi, or Beethoven. They are not inserted as collage-like citations, but represent a reflective retrospection on the operatic genre.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Fajzuleva, Margarita. "Narodno-pesennaja osnova tatarskoj opery [Folksong origins of Tatar opera]." M.A. thesis, Leningradskaja Konservatorija, 1980.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fallas, John. "Into the New Century: Recent Holloway and the Poetics of Quotation." Tempo 61, no. 242 (October 2007): 2-10.

Among the various works in his oeuvre, composer Robin Holloway has both affirmed and denied certain instances of musical borrowing, yet Holloway may use more instances of borrowing then he openly acknowledges. For example, he often uses melodic tags, which are short quotations. When melodic tags share similarities, Holloway can play upon the similarities to make the tags more ambiguous. This technique, which can alter meaning, is called "punning." Another technique, "suppressed vocalization," involves setting poetry to melodic lines and then transferring the melodic lines, without words, to instruments. As listeners we are often unaware of such transferences and can only become aware of them if Holloway admits to using the procedure. These two techniques should also be considered in light of Holloway's narrative and extramusical subjects. For instance, the loose narrative base of William Langland's poem Piers Plowman, an allegory of the world as a working field, in the Fourth Concerto for Orchestra led to Holloway's quotation of Eric Coates's song Calling All Workers. Although quotations of Sheherazade and Daphnis et Chloé in the Fourth Concerto do not share themes with Langland's poem, they are favored works of the concerto's commissioner, Michael Tilson Thomas. Investigating relationships such as these, along with Holloway's various borrowing techniques, will help uncover the multiple layers of and connections between his works.

Works: Robin Holloway: Second Concerto for Orchestra (2-5), Fourth Concerto for Orchestra (2, 6-9), Symphony (3-7).

Sources: Hubert Parry: Jerusalem (3-4); Eduardo di Capua: O sole mio (3); Renato Rascel: Arrivederci Roma (3); Sibelius: Symphony No. 4 in A Minor (3); Mahler: Symphony No. 9 in D Major (3-4); Ravel: Daphnis et Chloé (3-4); Richard Strauss: Salome (3-4), Elektra (3-4); Elgar: "Nimrod," Enigma Variations (3-4); Scriabin: Poem of Ecstasy (3-4); Debussy: Jeux (3-4), La Mer (3-4); Schoenberg: String Quartet No. 1 in D Minor, Op. 7 (3-4); Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (3-4); Robin Holloway: First Concerto for Orchestra (5), En Blanc et Noir (6); Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade (6); Eric Coates, Calling All Workers (6).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Laura B. Dallman

[+] Fanning, David. The Breath of the Symphonist: Shostakovich's Tenth. Royal Musical Association Monographs, 4. London: Royal Musical Association, 1988.

[Includes lists of quotations and allusions.]

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fanselau, Rainer. "Michael Tippets 3. Symphonie (1970-72): Botschaft der Humanität." In Zwischen Wissenschaft und Kunst: Festgabe zur Richard Jacoby, ed. Peter Becker, Arnfried Edler, and Beate Schneider, 263-76. Mainz: Schott, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Faust, Karl. Introduction to brochure notes (Interview with the Composer) for Mauricio Kagel, Ludwig van. DGG 2530 014. Deutsche Grammophon, 1970.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fearn, Raymond. "At the doors of the Kranichstein: Maderna's 'Fantasia' for 2 Pianos." Tempo, no. 163 (December 1987): 14-20.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fearn, Raymond. The Music of Luigi Dallapiccola. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2003.

The music of Luigi Dallapiccola has been shaped by his many political, musical, and poetic experiences as a young composer in the northeastern corner of Italy and later in Florence during the two world wars, the most tumultuous years of the twentieth century for western Europe. His compositions are full of textual and musical allusions to the past both distant and recent. His music includes allusions to Wagner, Webern, Schoenberg, Bach, Monteverdi, and Berg among many others. Yet his practice of self-borrowing is prevalent as well, especially later in his career. The greatest example of this is his full-length opera Ulisse (1968), which makes reference to at least six of his previous works in addition to its use of compositional techniques typical of Monteverdi, Wagner, and Bach. Preceding this work is a companion instrumental piece entitled Three Questions with Two Answers (1962-63), which introduces the opera's fundamental tone rows and foreshadows some of its most prevalent musical and philosophical themes. The rapport between Dallapiccola's music and that of his predecessors as well as his practice of self-borrowing imply a theme of constant retrospection and self-analysis in his artistic career.

Works: Dallapiccola: Tre laudi (33-45, 242-45), Volo di notte (38-49, 242-45), An Mathilde (193-97, 242-45), Three Questions with Two Answers (224-31), Ulisse (224-52), Il prigioniero (239-45), Cinque canti (242-45), Canti di liberazione (242-45).

Sources: J. S. Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier (14, 158), The Art of Fugue (157); Dallapiccola: Tre laudi (33-45, 242-45), Volo di notte (38-49, 242-45), Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (72-73, 232-35), An Mathilde (193-97, 242-45), Three Questions with Two Answers (224-31), Il prigioniero (239-45), Cinque canti (242-45), Canti di liberazione (242-45); Monteverdi: Orfeo (245-47).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Elmi

[+] Feder, Stuart. "Charles and George Ives: The Veneration of Boyhood." The Annual of Psychoanalysis 9 (1981): 265-316.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Feder, Stuart. "Decoration Day: A Boyhood Memory of Charles Ives." The Musical Quarterly 66 (April 1980): 234-261.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Feder, Stuart. Charles Ives: "My Father's Song"; A Psychoanalytic Biography. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Federhofer, Hellmut. "Das Ende der musikalischen Parodie?" Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft 15 (1970): 96-106.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Feisst, Sabine. "Meister der elektronischen Tondichtung: Der U.S.-amerikanische Komponist Ingram Marshall." Musik Texte: Zeitschrift für Neue Musik 105 (2005): 21-30.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Felber, Erwin. "Exotismus und Primitivismus in der neueren Musik." Die Musik 21 (1925): 724-31.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fellerer, Karl Gustav. "Zur Grundlage hermeneutischer Musikbetrachtung." In Beiträge zur musikalischen Hermeneutik, ed. Carl Dahlhaus, 27-31. Regensburg: Bosse, 1975.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Fenner, Lucie. "Erinnerung an die College-Jahre: Musikalische Entlehnung in Calcium Light Night und TSIAJ von Charles Ives." Musik-Konzepte 123 (January 2004): 25-49.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fenner, Lucie. Erinnerung und Entlehnung im Werk von Charles Ives. Musikwissenschaftliche Schriften der Hochschule für Musik und Theater München 3. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 2005.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Filler, Susan M. "Mahler and the Anthology of Des Knaben Wunderhorn." Journal of the Canadian Assocation of Schools of Music 8 (1978): 82-111.

Das himmlische Leben, a Wunderhorn text-setting from Mahler's Fourth Symphony, provides much of the material for that work, and portions of it were incorporated into the first and third movements of the Third Symphony. It was originally to be included in the Third Symphony as its final movement, and, later, as its second movement, though Mahler ultimately changed his mind about both ideas. The fifth, choral movement of the Third Symphony was originally to be part of the Fourth. These changes of mind and heart show the composer's inspiration coming from a single source that resulted in two very different symphonies.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3 in D Minor (90-102), Symphony No. 4 (95-96, 99-100), Symphony No. 5 in C sharp Minor (102, 107), Symphony No. 10 (102), Symphony No. 9 (103).

Sources: Mahler: Des Knaben Wunderhorn (90-107).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Fink, Robert. "The Story of ORCH5, or, The Classical Ghost in the Hip-Hop Machine." Popular Music 24 (October 2005): 339-56.

ORCH5, a digital sample of a single chord from Igor Stravinksy's Firebird created on the Fairlight Computer Musical Instrument, became one of the first recognized samples used in popular music. It was used as a sample in some eclectic electronic music in the early 1980s, but gained fame as the orchestral sound that began Afrika Bambaataa's seminal 1982 song Planet Rock. This song also prominently samples music from the German electronic group Kraftwerk, including a chromatic Weltschmerz theme from their song Trans Europe Express. Taken together, these two samples--a digital orchestral sound and a melody with intentional commentary on the decay of German music--create some unintended resonances of the decline of classical music in the Western world. While the use of ORCH5 in Planet Rock signals the decay of classical music in popular culture, the sample is also given new life by being appropriated into both the Afro-futurist movement and especially the early stages of hip-hop sampling, where it is used in the same capacity as a DJ's vinyl scratch.

Works: Kate Bush: The Dreaming (343); The Art of Noise: Close (to the Edit) (343); Afrika Bambaataa &the Soulsonic Force with Arthur Baker and John Robie: Planet Rock (343-54).

Sources: Stravinsky: The Firebird (341-54); Kraftwerk: Trans Europe Express (344-54), Numbers (344-54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Finson, Jon. "Music and Medium: Two Versions of Manilow's 'Could it be Magic.'" The Musical Quarterly 65 (April 1979): 265-80.

Barry Manilow and Adrienne Anderson wrote two versions of the 1975 hit "Could it be Magic." The first version was intended for the LP and FM radio airplay, while a substantially shortened second version was intended for a 45 single and AM radio airplay. "Could it be Magic" quotes intact a substantial amount of Chopin's Prelude Op. 28, No. 20 in C minor; the first version of the song begins with measures one through eight of the prelude and ends with measures nine through thirteen of the prelude. There are several possible reasons for quoting Chopin: this could be simply another example of the growing number of rock musicians who quote classical music; the composers seem to share a fascination for modal ambiguity with Chopin; Chopin's preludes have become part of a narrow canon of classical music known to composers of all musical genres; and the constant demand for novelty in the popular music industry has encouraged popular music artists to draw from other styles to ensure quick composition. The two versions of Manilow's song allow us to examine how a popular artist responds to the demands of different media.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Fisher, Fred. "Ives's Concord Sonata." Piano Quarterly 92 (Winter 1975-76): 23-27.

Ives's Concord Sonata is probably modeled on monumental piano sonatas by Beethoven and Liszt. More specifically, Ives borrowed a motive from Brahms's Second Piano Sonata, Op.2, perhaps intentionally. In its basic form the motive consists of a three-note scale fragment followed by a downward leap of a fifth. William S. Newman has remarked that the Brahms motive reduces to this same basic motive. Ives may have borrowed intentionally, since his teacher Horatio Parker idolized Brahms and since Brahms themes and influences occur in other works by Ives. Also, Ives called the Concord Sonata his second even though he had already written two (he wrote the Three-Page Sonata in 1905).

Works: Ives: Second Piano Sonata ("Concord")

Sources: Brahms: Second Piano Sonata, Op.2.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Fisher, Fred. Ives' Concord Sonata. Denton, Texas: C/G Productions, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fleury, Albert. "Historische und stilgeschichtliche Probleme in Pfitzner's Palestrina." In Helmuth Osthoff zu seinem siebzigsten Geburtstag, ed. Ursula Aarburg and Peter Cahn in connection with Wilhelm Stauder, 229-39. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Flinn, Carol. "Male Nostalgia and Hollywood Film Music: The Terror of the Feminine." Canadian Music Review 10 (Summer 1990): 19-26.

The score to Edgar G. Ulmer's 1945 film Detour exemplifies the duplicitous portrayal of women through the employment of music that strongly evokes nostalgia and longing. Detour belongs to the 1940s detective film genre known as film noir, which often uses music to support references to the past. Flashback narrative structures are commonly used in film noir to explain the present or the film as a whole. Women are often portrayed in this genre as either the good and wholesome virgin-mother or as the undermining villainous beauty. The song "I Can't Believe That You're in Love with Me," by Jimmy McHugh, becomes a reoccurring leitmotif for nostalgic references to the character's past throughout the film, played on the jukebox and later scored off-screen by blending from the song to a Brahms lullaby. "I Can't Believe That You're in Love with Me" is especially effective at evoking nostalgia as a 1927 Tin Pan Alley song, performed by Count Basie, Earl Hines, Ella Fitzgerald, and Bing Crosby; the 1945 filmgoers recognized the tune not as a current hit, but one of the past. Brahms's Waltz in A flat, Op. 39, No.15, is used to signify the intensification of the obsession with nostalgia as the villainous heroine abandons the detective. Home Sweet Home is later used to reinforce the sense of nostalgia as the detective is reunited with the heroine.

Works: Leo Erdody: score to Detour (19).

Sources: Jimmy McHugh: I Can't Believe That You're in Love with Me (20); Brahms: Waltz in A flat, Op. 39, No. 15 (23); Henry R. Bishop: Home Sweet Home (23).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Floros, Constantin. "Die Skizzen zum Violinkonzert von Alban Bergs." In Alban Berg Symposion 1980, Alban Berg Studien 2, ed. Rudolf Klein, 000-000. Wien: Universal Edition, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Floros, Constantin. Gustav Mahler II: Mahler und die Symphonik des 19. Jahrhunderts in neuer Deutung. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1977.

Floros discusses three main elements of Mahler's music with the aim of a philosophical or programmatic interpretation: form and formal procedures; the use of specific genres such as chorale, pastorale, march, scherzo, and dancelike movements; and interpretation of symbols. All the elements are interpreted in the context of other composers, especially Berlioz, Liszt, and Bruckner. In interpreting the first two categories, Floros focuses on Mahler's position in the history of music. But in the third category, by locating the same musical symbols (e.g. the tonisches Symbol des Kreuzes in Liszt and Bruckner; see also Floros, Gustav Mahler III: Die Symphonien, 1985) in works of other composers where the meaning is clear, Floros can offer interpretations that would otherwise be impossible. Without the interpretation of symbols, no real progress in musicology is possible.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Floros, Constantin. Gustav Mahler III: Die Symphonien. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1985.

Floros's study of Mahler's music is an attempt to interpret it comprehensively, taking into account especially Mahler's intellectual background. In these semantic analyses, the author discusses borrowings and quotations of all sorts: (1) quotations of tunes and their integration into compositions (e.g. Bruder Martin in the First Symphony), (2) borrowings of complete sections (e.g. in the Second Symphony), (3) reuse of whole songs (e.g. Urlicht in the Second Symphony), and (4) quotation of short motives (such as the beginning of Dies irae or Liszt's tonisches Symbol des Kreuzes ["sounding" symbol of the cross]) to symbolize titles or programs. Decoding these borrowings is one of the most important steps in finding the program that is the basis even of the purely instrumental symphonies. Above all, some passages can be interpreted by comparison to similar passages from works by Richard Strauss where their meaning is clear. These comparisons may throw light on composition dates, for instance that of the Scherzo of the Sixth Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Flothuis, Marius. "Einige Betrachtungen über den Humor in der Musik." Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 38 (December 1983): 688-95.

Among several devices mentioned in this article which have been used for humorous effect in music is quotation. Various means of achieving humor through quotation are by paradox, pun, parody, and exploiting the historical significance of the music quoted, all of which assume previous knowledge on the part of the listeners of the music being referred to.

Works: Beethoven: Es war einmal ein König, der hatt' einen grossen Floh (693); Chabrier: Souvenirs de Munich (692); Debussy: "Golliwog's Cake Walk," from Children's Corner (691); Falla: The Three-Cornered Hat (692); Saint-Saëns: Le Carnaval des Animaux (690); Satie: Sonatine bureaucratique (695).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Flothuis, Marius. "Kapellmeistermusik." In Mahler-Interpretation: Aspekte zum Werk und Wirken Gustav Mahlers, ed. Rudolf Stephan, 9-16. Mainz: Schott, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Floyd, Samuel A. Jr. "Troping the Blues: From Spirituals to the Concert Hall." Black Music Research Journal 13, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 31-51.

African-American music has continually used the troping of texts in blues, jazz, and other popular traditions. Two examples of troping occur in the use of the spiritual "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" and the riding train. Troping of the spiritual has occurred on the textual and musical level. Furry Lewis tropes the idea of a motherless child in his piece "Big Chief Blues." Washington "Bukka" White also creates his trope relating to the motherless child in "Panama Limited" while singing about being far from home. Musical troping can be found in George Gershwin's repetition of the tune of "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" in the piece "Summertime" from the opera Porgy and Bess. Gershwin tropes the spiritual's intervallic structure, rhythm, melodic structures, and beat structure throughout "Summertime." David Baker and Olly Wilson also trope the music and text of "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child." The train trope deals in the sounds created by a passenger train throughout the United States. Duke Ellington's composition "Happy-Go-Lucky-Local" tropes the passenger train through its use of chugging rhythms, whistles, and sounds of steam locomotives through orchestration. These tropes display an evolution in African-American music through repetition and revision of texts and music.

Works: Traditional: Big Chief Blues as performed by Furry Lewis (36-37); White: Panama Limited (37); Gershwin: "Summertime" from Porgy and Bess (37-43); Baker: Through This Vale of Tears (43-44); Wilson: Sometimes (44-45); Ellington: Happy-Go-Lucky-Local (46-47); Logan: Runagate Runagate (47-50).

Sources: Traditional: Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child (35-45).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Flynn, George W. "Listening to Berio's Music." The Musical Quarterly 61 (July 1975): 388-421.

Both musical and literary quotations are present in Berio's work. In Laborintus II, quotations are drawn from Dante, Pound, the Bible, Eliot, and Sanguineti; furthermore, an added text recalls a work by Isidore of Seville. The texts are presented in collage technique. In Sinfonia, musical and literary collage is involved. The third section is primarily based on Mahler's scherzo of the Second Symphony for the musical and on writings of Beckett for the textual continuity. The fifth section presents a collage of elements from the previous sections. Another work in which musical and textual collage is present is Recital I (for Cathy).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Forte, Allen. "Middleground Motives in the Adagietto of Mahler's Fifth Symphony." 19th-Century Music 8 (Fall 1984): 153-63.

Forte mentions the relationship between the second song of the Kindertotenlieder and the Adagietto of the Fifth Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Forte, Allen. “Olivier Messiaen as Serialist.” Music Analysis 21 (March 2002): 3-34.

In composing his serialist works, Messiaen suffered from an anxiety of Viennese influence, manifested as a strong desire to show how his serial methods can produce a totally different music from that of the Second Viennese School. However, certain aspects of Messiaen’s serial music are modeled on famous Viennese dodecaphonic works, as both similarities to and distinctive differences from these works may prove. Livre d’orgue, a set of seven pieces for organ, provides a good case study for these modeling procedures. For example, a significant difference from the Second Viennese School in the first movement is that his serial permutations are not the four “classic” order transformations (prime, inversion, retrograde, and retrograde inversion); instead, Messiaen uses other permutations which do not necessarily include the whole row, permutations that are unique to his work. This demonstrates that Messiaen was going out of his way to avoid serial techniques of the past, which is confirmed in excerpts from Messiaen’s writings. An example of a similarity to Viennese dodecaphonic music can also be found in the first movement. Several trichords and hexachords, as well as their permutations, specifically evoke the music of Bartók and Webern. Furthermore, certain large-scale permutations evoke the first section of Berg’s Wozzeck as well as the second movement of Webern’s Symphony, Op. 21. This demonstrates that Messiaen was still influenced by the music of these composers, which he knew well.

Works: Messiaen: Livre d’orgue (5-29).

Sources: Berg: Wozzeck (23); Webern: Symphony, Op. 21 (23).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Foss, Lukas. "Foss Talks About 'Stolen Goods' and the Mystique of the New." Music and Artists 3 (September/October 1970): 34-35.

In an interview Foss discusses his Phorion (Greek for "stolen goods") as a "controlled chance" composition based on the prelude from J. S. Bach's Partita for Solo Violin in E. Designed so that each performance is unique, the work incorporates Morse code and instructs performers to "race" each other through technically challenging passages of Bach's music. Foss also discusses critical reaction, including a German orchestra that took a vote on whether to perform the "desecration" of Bach, prompting Foss to observe that "the Germans are a very tender and sensitive people." (Foss, a Jew, left Germany as a refugee in 1933.) Bach is not harmed by Phorion; his music exists intact independently of its treatment in this work. If audiences are uncertain how to respond, that is Foss's intent. Violence in art, such as Foss is committing here, in fact communicates a message of non-violence.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Franke, Lars. "The Godfather Part III: Film, Opera, and the Generation of Meaning." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 31-45. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Pietro Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana is integrated into The Godfather Part III in complex ways. Coppola uses music from Cavalleria rusticana in a scene in which the opera is attended in addition to exploiting traits of opera on other levels. The opera appears in three levels within the narrative of the film: a literal level, a cultural level, and a dramatic level. The literal level is achieved through the usage of the diegetic, staged opera within the film. At this level, Coppola uses the opera aurally and rearranges it for cinematic effect. The Preghiera develops multiple meanings within the context of the film, from a contrast of faith/harmony with murder to religious ceremony in opera. The themes of ritualism and violence in the opera also parallel the film. The cultural level depicts opera as a cultural artifact that permeates life, an example of which is the arrangement of "Va, pensiero, sull'ali dorate" from Verdi's Nabucco, which functions as a cultural icon of Sicily as well as a portrayal of the character Michael's relationship with Sicily. The dramatic level adapts operatic structure, appearance, and narrative to the film as a whole.

Works: Francis Ford Coppola (director): Sound track to The Godfather Part III.

Sources: Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (31-45); Verdi: Nabucco (37-39).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Frisch, Walter. "The 'Brahms Fog': On Tracing Brahmsian Influences." The American Brahms Society Newsletter 7, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 1-3.

Brahms's influence on the composers of the succeeding generation has often been slighted or eclipsed by the "white heat" of Wagner's effect on the same artists. Traces of Brahms are apparent in many late-nineteenth-century composers ranging from Herzogenberg, who plagiarized his oeuvre, to Reger and Schoenberg, who were both indebted to him for pianistic models.

Works: Herzogenberg: Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (2); Reger: Resignation (3).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Frith, Simon, ed. Music and Copyright. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993.

[Addresses sampling and other recent borrowing issues.]

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Fulcher, Jane. "Speaking the Truth to Power: The Dialogic Element in Debussy's Wartime Compositions." In Debussy and His World, ed. Jane Fulcher, 203-34. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

One of the most striking elements in Debussy's wartime compositions, including the piano sonata En blanc et noir and the song Noël des enfants qui n'ont plus de maison, among other pieces, is his tendency to politicize his music. He wrote during a time in which the French government had great control over cultural products, and his musical language reflects this. Accompanying this polemic are notable instances of borrowing in En blanc et noir and Noël des enfants. Debussy dedicated the second movement of En blanc et noir, "Lent et sombre," to his friend Lt. Jacques Charlot, who was killed in World War I. In order to create a solemn character, Debussy used nonfunctional and static harmonies, evoking a "funeral drone." In doing so, he stylistically alluded to the Renaissance tombeau, a piece to mourn the dead, often used by Clément Janequin. Further, he used Luther's hymn Ein feste Burg within a discordant setting, deliberately removing it of its triumphal qualities. In Noël des enfants, Debussy also used stylistic allusion, in this case to Schubert, by recalling the "menacing" and "ironic" character of Erlkönig. He evoked the spirit of Schubert's song by using a child as the subject of the song and by composing a fast-paced, vigorous accompaniment. In addition, Debussy employed structural modeling by basing the song on a Lied. His instances of borrowing serve a larger role within the political framework of the French republic.

Works: Debussy: En blanc et noir (216-20); Noël des enfants qui n'ont plus de maison (220).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (218-19); Schubert: Erlkönig (220).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Funk-Hennings, Erika. "Zimmermanns Philosophie der Zeit--dargestellt an Ausschnitten der Oper Die Soldaten." Musik und Bildung 10 (October 1978): 644-52.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gabbard, Krin. "The Quoter and His Culture." In Jazz in Mind: Essays on the History and Meanings of Jazz, ed. Reginald T. Bruckner and Steven Weiland, 92-111. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991.

Jazz today can be considered part of the avant garde movement of the early twentieth century. One of the common characteristics of the avant garde is pastiche, a characteristic jazz shares, particularly in improvisatory virtuosic solos. The purpose of such pastiche is to call into question the distinction between high and low art. Soloists such as James Moody, Lester Young, and Louis Armstrong regularly quoted other works from both the classical tradition and the popular tradition. Juxtaposing a jazz melody with a quotation from the classical tradition provides irony for the listener, who will understand at least that the quotation comes from an entirely different genre of music. A list of several examples is included.

Works: James Moody, Body and Soul (92, 104); Louis Armstrong, Ain't Misbehavin' (93); more in footnotes.

Sources: Percy Grainger, Country Garden; George Gershwin, Rhapsody in Blue.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Gabbard, Krin. Jammin' at the Margins: Jazz and the American Cinema. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Jazz in Hollywood films creates a context for the formation of a stylized representation of African-American culture, beginning with The Jazz Singer (1927). American myths regarding white ethnics and African-American sexuality are assimilated through the borrowing of African-American music, specifically jazz, as used in director Alan Crossland's The Jazz Singer (1927) and Paul Whiteman's King of Jazz (1930), and later in Alfred E. Green's The Jolson Story (1946) and Luis Valdez's La Bamba (1987). Spike Lee's Mo' Better Blues portrays the larger tradition in which the trumpet is a crucial signifier of masculinity, by borrowing from the music of Louis Armstrong and Miles Davis. In contemporary films, jazz has been configured to signify elegance and affluence as an art form through borrowings from Ellington, Armstrong, Nat King Cole, and Carmichael.

Works: Charles Wolcott: score to Blackboard Jungle (9); Taj Mahal: score to Zebrahead (101); Alfred Newman: score to No Way Out (102); Hugo Friedhofer, Edward B. Powell, and Marvin Hatley: score to Topper (256); Franz Waxman and William Lava: score to To Have and Have Not (261).

Sources: Max C. Freedman and Jimmy DeKnight: Rock Around the Clock (9); John Coltrane: Say It Over and Over Again (102); Duke Ellington: In a Sentimental Mood,Sophisticated Lady (102); Nat King Cole: When I Fall in Love (247); Hoagy Carmichael: Old Man Moon (256), I Am Blue (261).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Gail, Dorothea. Charles E. Ives' Fourth Symphony: Quellen--Analyse--Deutung. 3 vols. Hofheim: Wolke, 2009.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gardner, Kara Anne. "Edward MacDowell, Antimodernism, and 'Playing Indian' in the Indian Suite." The Musical Quarterly 87 (Fall 2004): 370-422.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Garner, Ken. “‘Would You Like to Hear Some Music?’: Music In-and-Out-of-Control in the Films of Quentin Tarantino.” In Film Music: Critical Approaches, ed. K. J. Donnelly, 188-205. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001.

There are three primary categories in which Tarantino uses pre-existing music in his films: main themes and underscoring, incidental diegetic music, and diegetic music chosen by characters. While it is tempting to view Tarantino’s use of dated music in his credit themes as distorting filmic conventions of soundtrack and temporal location or as a postmodern smirk, in reality it can function as an authentication of characters’ identity, as audio-visual counterpoint, and as an authorial statement on the film’s tone and mood. Each of Quentin Tarantino’s major films, Reservoir Dogs,Pulp Fiction, and Jackie Brown, features a scene in which a character selects and plays a piece of music. Such scenes differ from other uses of diegetic music in that they foreground the process of music selection, thus granting characters power to control the score and allowing the selection to represent and illustrate characters or situations. Young audiences of Tarantino’s films will empathize with these foregrounded musical situations, witnessing how an act similar to their own private, mood-related engagement with music is projected onto other characters. This empathy also has an impact on record sales: if youth are able recognize the act of private, mood-boosting engagement with music, they are also likely to enjoy the music itself.

Works: Quentin Tarantino (director): soundtrack to Jackie Brown (188-93, 198-201), soundtrack to Reservoir Dogs (188, 191, 193-96, 202), soundtrack to Pulp Fiction (188, 191, 196-201).

Sources: The Delfonics: Didn’t I (Blow Your Mind This Time) (189-91); Dusty Springfield: Son of a Preacher Man (191, 200); Urge Overkill: Girl, You’ll Be a Woman Soon (191, 200-201); Stealers Wheel: Stuck in the Middle with You (191, 202); Bobby Womack: Across 110th Street (192-93); George Baker Selection: Little Green Bag (193-96); Dick Dale: Misirlou (196-97); Roy Ayers: soundtrack to Coffy (198-99).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Garnett, Liz. "Cool Charts or Barbertrash?: Barbershop Harmony's Flexible Concept of the Musical Work." Twentieth-Century Music 2 (September 2005): 245-63.

The field of modern competitive barbershop singing is in a state of crisis over falling membership and popularity, and repertoire is one variable being considered as a means of increasing the appeal of barbershop music. This particular genre tends to blur the distinctions between composer, arranger, and performer. As a result, the product of that network, the musical work, acquires an equally fluid identity. A question of ownership arises: what is "the work" and to whom does it belong? Arrangements vary in their fidelity to an original published tune, and a certain amount of improvisation or rearranging is expected in barbershop, at the very least in the form of tags or codas at the end of a chart.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Garrett, Charles Hiroshi. “Charles Ives’s Four Ragtime Dances and ‘True American Music.’” In Struggling to Define a Nation: American Music and the Twentieth Century, 17-47. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Ragtime took the United States by storm in the early twentieth century, and Charles Ives incorporated ragtime elements into numerous works. Nevertheless, a closer examination of musical and biographical evidence reveals the composer’s ambivalent and even contradictory attitude towards the genre. On the one hand, Ives demonstrates an enthusiasm for ragtime through his bold embrace of a genre associated with African Americans in a racially divided era. On the other hand, this positive engagement is at odds with the tone of his writings, which often dismissed ragtime as inferior to art music and Protestant hymns. The disparity can be explained by considering the popularity of ragtime during Ives’s youth, how he reworked his early ragtime-based pieces later in life, and the significant time lapse that often occurred between composing a piece and writing about it. Four Ragtime Dances also reflects this ambivalence, and the work can be interpreted either as a statement of progressive inclusivity or of racial inequality. This diversity of hearings is possible because Four Ragtime Dances engages with many types of musical friction—sacred and secular, classical and popular, and racial—and in this regard the work reflects the inherent “messy quality” of Ives’s music in general.

Works: Ives: Four Ragtime Dances (24-46), Central Park in the Dark (46-47).

Sources: George Minor: Bringing in the Sheaves (26, 31); Edward Rimbault: Happy Day (26); Lewis Hartsough: I Hear Thy Welcome Voice (26, 31); Joseph E. Howard and Ida Emerson: Hello! Ma Baby (46-47).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone, Daniel Rogers, David G. Rugger

[+] Gaunt, Kyra. “The Veneration of James Brown and George Clinton in Hip Hop Music: Is it Live! Or is it Re-memory?” In Popular Music: Style and Identity, 117-22. Montreal: Centre for Research on Canadian Cultural Industries and Institutions, 1995.

Hip-hop’s joining together of samples to create a sonic whole is not done to express a “postmodern” stance mocking the linearity and rationality of modernism, but is done to honor black funk musicians of the past, especially James Brown and George Clinton. “Live” in black culture can mean “excellence,” and in recordings connotes a live-performance aesthetic which is contrary to the polished sound of the recording industry. Brown and Clinton sought to create this live aesthetic in their recordings through crowd noise and other signifiers of live performance. Comparing James Brown’s Make It Funky to Public Enemy and producer Hank Shocklee’s Fight the Power (which samples the Brown track) shows that the funk ideals of the 1970s are utilized in hip-hop. Thus, “live” in hip-hop is not in a binary with recorded sound, but is an act of “re-memory,” or a piecing together of a history by “remembering” critical pieces of the past.

Works: Eric B &Rakim: I Know You Got Soul (117); Janet Jackson: That’s the Way Love Goes (118); Public Enemy: Fight the Power (119-20).

Sources: James Brown: Papa Don’t Take No Mess (118), Make It Funky (119).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Gendron, Bernard. "Jamming at Le Boeuf: Jazz and the Paris Avant-Garde." Discourse 12 (1989-90): 3-27.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gerasimowa-Piersidskaja, Nina. "Parodija v russko-ukrainskoj muzyke XVIII veka i ee svjazi a intermedijnym teatrom [Parody in Russo-Ukrainian Music of the 18th Century and its Connection with the Theatrical Intermedio]." In Musica antiqua. Acta scientifica, V, ed. Ignacego Paderewskiego, 575-[000]. Bydgoszcz: Filharmonia Pomorska im., 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gerlach, Hannelore. "Die Analyse. Günter Kochan: Mendelssohn-Variationen für Klavier und Orchester." Musik und Gesellschaft 24 (1974): 86-90.

Written for the one-hundred-and-twenty-fifth anniversary of Mendelssohn's death in 1972, Kochan's Mendelssohn-Variationen for Piano and Orchestra constitutes a musical homage on two different levels. It takes as its theme that of Mendelssohn's Variations Serieuses, which itself pays homage to Bach in its use of the B-A-C-H motive. Kochan acknowledges his 'second generation' homage by using a quotation from an aria in Bach's St. Matthew Passion (a work that Mendelssohn championed) as a 'hidden theme' that is developed alongside, and combined with the main theme throughout the course of the piece.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Gershwin, George. "Rhapsody in Catfish Row: Mr. Gershwin Tells the Origin and Scheme for His Music in That New Folk Opera Called Porgy and Bess." New York Times 85 (20 October 1935): X-1-2.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gershwin, George. "The Relation of Jazz to American Music." In American Composers on American Music, ed. Henry Cowell, 186-87. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1933; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1962.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gibbens, John Jeffrey. "Debussy's Impact on Ives: An Assessment." D.M.A. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gibbons, William. "'Yankee Doodle' and Nationalism, 1780-1920." American Music 26 (Summer 2008): 246-74.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Gilbert, Henry F. "Folk-Music in Art-Music--A Discussion and a Theory." The Musical Quarterly 3 (October 1917): 577-601.

Folk songs most accurately reflect the spirit of a people, and art music is an extension of the spirit of the folk song. Three ways composers use folk songs are: "(1) verbatim, as a musical germ from which to develop a composition; (2) verbatim, but having no particular relation to the musical structure; (3) as suggestion--toward the composition of folk-like themes expressive of the folk spirit."

Works: Haydn: Symphony in D Major (583); Weber: Der Freischütz (584); Schumann: Rheinweinlied (585); Brahms: Academische Festoverture (585); Grieg: Humoreske Op. 6, No. 2 (586), No. 1 of Aus dem Volksleben Op. 19 (586), Ballade Op. 24 (586), Improvisata Op. 29 (586), Norwegian Dances Op. 35 (586); Glinka: Life to the Czar (587); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2 (587), String Quartet Op. 11 (587), Piano Concerto in B flat Minor, Op. 23 (587), Marche Slav (587); Borodin: Prince Igor (588), Steppenskizze (588); Rimsky-Korsakov: Fantasie, Op. 6 (589), La Pskovitaine (589), Antar (589), Sinfonietta, Op. 31 (589), La Grand Paque Russe (589); Stravinsky: Firebird (589), Petrouchka (589); Smetana: Die Brandenburger in Böhmen (589), Das Geheimniss (589), Aus meinem Leben (590), Tábor (590), Aus Böhmens Flur und Hain (590); Dvorak: Slavonic Dances (590), Hussitska Overture (590); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsodies (590), Mazeppa (590), The Battle of the Huns (590), Hungarian Coronation Mass (590), St. Elizabeth (590); Pedrell: Los Pirineos (591); Bizet: L'arlesienne (592).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Gilliam, Bryan. "Strauss's Preliminary Opera Sketches: Thematic Fragments and Symphonic Continuity." 19th-Century Music 9 (Spring 1986): 176-88.

Strauss tended to compose his operas in four stages: (1) musically annotated libretto, (2) sketchbook, (3) piano-vocal score, and (4) orchestral score. Strauss kept a sketch book with him at all times, working and reworking motives into new forms. Some motives can be traced through a series of different works.

Works: R. Strauss: Sinfonia Domestica (181), Der Rosenkavalier (181), Don Quixote (182), Elektra (182).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Gillmor, Alan M. "Musico-poetic Form in Satie's 'Humoristic' Piano Suites (1913-14)." Canadian University Music Review, no. 8 (1987): 1-44.

Stylistic analysis of Satie's music remains underdeveloped, due at least in part to the ineffectiveness of traditional analytical approaches. Any analysis of Satie's music, like that of Debussy or Ives, must take into account the "juxtaposition of multiple layers of aesthetic meaning," including the literary and the pictorial. The piano suites composed in 1913-14 provide a focus for studying Satie's creative ideal and the connection (as in the case of Ives) of that ideal with a particular sonic environment. Satie's use of sounds and tunes from his own world brings meaning to the new piece. Satie's use of existing material not only serves expressive purposes, but also provides a creative stimulus. Appended is a list of "Quoted Tunes in Satie's 'Humoristic' Piano Suites."

Works: Satie: Heures séculaires et instantanées (3), Descriptions automatiques (4), Vieux sequins et vieilles cuirasses (6), Embryons desséchés (17), Croquis et agaceries d'un gros bonhomme en bois (23), Chapitres tournés en tous sens (25), Sports et divertissements (30).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Gimbel, Allen. "Elgar's Prize Song: Quotation and Allusion in the Second Symphony." 19th-Century Music 12 (Spring 1989): 231-40.

The distinction between quotation and allusion has long been problematic. Four conditions must be met for a quotation: (1) The pitch pattern corresponds to a preexisting pattern in the musical literature (rhythm does not have to reflect this correspondence); (2) the composer sets this pattern in relief; (3) it can be documented that the composer was familiar with the work or passage in question; and (4) the extramusical context of the composer's work is reflected by that of the quoted work. These four conditions may be applied to Elgar's Second Symphony, in which Wagner's "Preislied" from Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg is either quoted or alluded to. The correspondence of Wagner and Elgar is literal and thus condition 1 is met. In fulfillment of condition 2, Elgar treats the motive in question extensively and separately from the two other principal ones. It can be documented that the composer was familiar with the work or passage in question, thus condition 3 is met. Finally, a quotation of the "Preislied" in the Second Symphony could have three possible extramusical meanings, as a symbol of artistic freedom, as "an homage to two departed Wagnerians," and as a love letter to Mrs. Stuart-Wortley, "a brilliant and deeply sympathetic woman with a fine understanding of artists." Since all four requirements are met, we have to speak of quotation in Elgar's Second Symphony.

Works: Elgar: Second Symphony (231, 237-40); "Enigma" Variations (232-33).

Sources: Wagner: "Preislied" from Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (231, 233-40); Mendelssohn: Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (232); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (232-33).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Gingerich, Lora Louise. "A Technique for Melodic Motivic Analysis in the Music of Charles Ives." Music Theory Spectrum 8 (1986): 75-93.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gingerich, Lora Louise. "Processes of Motivic Transformation in the Keyboard and Chamber Music of Charles E. Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Givan, Ben. “Django Reinhardt’s I’ll See You in My Dreams.Annual Review of Jazz Studies 12 (2002): 41-62.

A jazz performer’s improvisation on a given model can provide insight into that performer’s understanding of the model’s essential elements. What the performer preserves, avoids, and manipulates from the model can indicate not only that performer’s competency, but also their inventiveness. Django Reinhardt’s 1939 recording of Isham Jones’s I’ll See You in My Dreams is one such example. In the context of a rhythmically repetitive structure, Reinhardt creates variety by alternatively highlighting and obscuring phrase boundaries. In cases of the former, Reinhardt includes chromatic turns at midpoints and endings of choruses. In cases of the latter, Reinhardt repeats rhythmic motives across phrases. Additionally, Reinhardt’s use of paraphrase and thematic improvisation demonstrates a deep understanding of the melody from Jones’s model. When paraphrasing, Reinhardt preserves between one and six measures of the melody; longer paraphrases, however, are rare. In thematic improvisations, Reinhardt highlights an important large-scale melodic connection in one of two ways. In the first, he foregrounds the connection as a short melody and plays it repeatedly; in the second, he increases the technical virtuosity of his improvisation while maintaining the melodic outline of the model.

Works: Isham Jones (composer) and Django Reinhardt (performer): I’ll See You in My Dreams (41-58).

Sources: Isham Jones: I’ll See You in My Dreams (41-42).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Givan, Benjamin. “The South-Grappelli Recordings of the Bach Double Violin Concerto.Popular Music and Society 29 (2006): 335-57.

The South-Grappelli recordings of Bach's Double Violin Concerto with Django Reinhardt in 1937 were, in addition to an aesthetically adventurous experiment, a socio-political statement based on the diverse musical and cultural backgrounds of the performers. The recordings were organized by Charles Delaunay, who convinced the reluctant violinists to record Bach's score without rehearsal. The first recording corresponds highly to the score: only a handful of ornamentations decorate the violinists' notes, and Grappelli omits some of his part. The second recording involves a much freer interpretation of the Bach original by both violinists, and Reinhardt's accompaniment is highly altered. In both cases, most of Bach's music was omitted so that the recordings could fit on a 78 rpm disc.

Works: Stéphane Grappelli and Eddie South: Interprétation Swing du Première Mouvement du Concerto en Re Mineur de Jean-Sébastien Bach (336-40, 351-54), Improvisation sur le Première Mouvement du Concerto en Re Mineur de Jean-Sébastien Bach (336-40, 351-54).

Sources: Johann Sebastian Bach: Concerto for Two Violins in D minor, BWV 1043 (335-54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Goldberg, Isaac. "What's Jewish in Gershwin's Music." B'nai B'rith Magazine 50 (April 1936): 226-27, 247.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gooding, David. "A Study of the Quotation Process in the Songs for Voice and Piano of Charles Edward Ives." M.A. thesis, Western Reserve University, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Goodwin, Andrew. "Sample and Hold: Pop Music in the Digital Age of Reproduction." In On Record: Rock, Pop, and the Written Word, ed. Simon Frith and Andrew Goodwin, 258-273. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990.

Sampling techniques in popular music give credence to Walter Benjamin's theory of the "age of reproduction." Recent trends in popular music have seen the resurrection of older popular music through two means: new digital reproductions of otherwise unavailable records; and the integration of samples from older music into new music. There are so many references in today's pop music that we now have references to references of original sources. Authorship and authenticity are problematized in the process. Some popular artists claim that samples and references preserve a popular music archive, but by reproducing these sounds digitally, the human element of original production is lost.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Gorbman, Claudia. "Ears Wide Open: Kubrick's Music." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 3-18. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Music in film plays a key role in depicting point of view. Pre-existing songs may be used to provide ironic commentary, as music may be planted to specifically complement the action onscreen. Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut shows Kubrick's increasingly sophisticated use of pre-existing music as he skillfully combines music and image. Four kinds of music are used in this film: a Shostakovich waltz, a Ligeti piano suite, a newly composed score, and pre-existing songs. The Ligeti is used to underscore objective events, while the newly composed score by Jocelyne Pook underscores jealous fantasies. Music goes beyond signifying moods and emotions in Eyes Wide Shut, also pointing out Kubrick's narrational agency.

Works: Stanley Kubrick (director): Sound track to Eyes Wide Shut.

Sources: Dmitri Shostakovich: Jazz Suite, Waltz No. 2 (7-9); György Ligeti: Musica Ricercata (9-13); Jimmy McHugh and Dorothy Fields: I'm in the Mood for Love (16); Isham Jones and Gus Kahn: It Had to Be You (16); Wayne Shanklin: Chanson d'Amour (16); Victor Young and Edward Heyman: When I Fall In Love (16); Harry Warren and Al Dubin: I Only Have Eyes for You (16); Mozart: Requiem (17); Liszt: Nuages gris.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Gorbman, Claudia. Unheard Melodies: Narrative Film Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Musical borrowing is discussed within the context of a theoretical discourse on film music, particularly in part I (chapters 1-5). Early and contemporary film music has drawn on several 19th-century genres, including English musical theater (for melodrama) and Wagnerian opera (for leitmotif). Two different yet complementary theories can be used to consider the affective roles of music in film: the semiotic concept of ancrage, in which music anchors the instability of visual signification, and the psychoanalytic theory of suture, which explains the ability of film music to create subjectivity in spectators. The late-19th-century musical aesthetic in the film scores of Max Steiner proves particularly significant in the effect his scores have had on subsequent film composers.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Gottlieb, Jack. "Symbols of Faith in the Music of Leonard Bernstein." The Musical Quarterly 66 (April 1980): 287-95.

Bernstein has been concerned with theological meaning in his symphonic works. The acceptance of faith in God is consistently associated with a specific motive (a descending fourth followed by the further descent of a whole- or half-step). This motive invariably appears in the closing and/or opening moments of a work. It appears in Symphony No. 1 (Jeremiah), Symphony No. 2 (The Age of Anxiety), the "Spring Song" from The Lark, Symphony No. 3 (Kaddish), Chichester Psalms, Mass, and Dybbuk. The use of this particular motive may be related to Bernstein's youth since it is common in the liturgy of the High Holy Day music and is also present (as a final cadence) in the Three Festivals of Sukkoth, Passover, and Shavuot. The motive then, "could seep into and take hold of the impressionable mind of a growing musician." It is probably an unconscious association on the part of Bernstein.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Grant, Parks. "Bruckner and Mahler--The Fundamental Dissimilarity of Their Styles." The Music Review 32 (February 1971): 36-55.

Grant argues that Bruckner and Mahler are dissimilar in many respects, which he enumerates, and suggests that the linking of Mahler with Richard Strauss might be more meaningful. Their influence was reciprocal. Part of the last song in Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen may be seen as the ancestor of the final duet in Der Rosenkavalier, and the off-stage fanfares in the outer movements of Mahler's First Symphony may have suggested the off-stage fanfares in Ein Heldenleben. Strauss also influenced Mahler, with apparent connections between Ein Heldenleben and the last movement of Mahler's Eighth Symphony; the neuroticism of Salome and parts of Das Lied von der Erde and the Ninth Symphony; and "wandering" solo violin passages in Strauss's Don Juan and Ein Heldenleben and similar solo violin passages in Mahler's Eighth Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Gratovich, Eugene. "The Sonatas for Violin and Piano by Charles Ives: A Critical Commentary and Concordance of the Printed Editions and the Autographs and Manuscripts of the Yale Ives Collection." D.M.A. diss., Boston University School of Fine and Applied Arts, 1968.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Graydon, Philip. "'Rückkehr in die Heimat': Postwar Cultural Politics and the 1924 Reworking of Beethoven's Die Ruinen von Athen by Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal." The Musical Quarterly 88 (Winter 2005): 630-71.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Green, Douglass M. "Cantus Firmus Techniques in the Concertos and Operas of Alban Berg." In Alban Berg Symposion Wien 1980: Tagungsbericht; Redaktion: Rudolf Klein, ed. Franz Grasberger and Rudolf Stephan, 56-68. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1981.

Schoenberg and his circle were quite opposed to a return to past forms to compensate for the problems of composing in a new harmonic language. Yet, at least some of them desired a return back to some compositional techniques of the past; for example, Webern wished to return to a polyphonic manner of thinking. Berg is no exception, and he demonstrates this in Wozzeck, the Kammerkonzert,Lulu, and the Violin Concerto. In each of these compositions, Berg employs cantus firmus technique, specifically chorale variations. The primary motivator in the treatment of the cantus firmus stems from his desire to produce dramatic action, even in the non-operatic works, and to provide meaning for the texts uttered by the characters in his operatic compositions. Berg's treatment of the chorale variations includes fugato, diminution, canon, and other various types of counterpoint. Furthermore, in the passages examined here, Berg creates the accompanying voices from the cantus firmus, allowing for greater unity in a contrapuntal context.

Works: Berg: Wozzeck (57-58), Kammerkonzert (58-59), Lulu (59-62), Violin Concerto (62-65).

Sources: Bach: Es ist genug (63).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Greene, Paul D. “Mixed Messages: Unsettled Cosmopolitanisms in Nepali Pop.” Popular Music 20 (May 2001): 169-87.

Nepalese “mix music” utilizes the latest technologies to produce music which borrows sound bites and sonic styles from both foreign popular music and indigenous music. These “mixes” rapidly juxtapose musical styles without an organizing form, and seek to celebrate sonic multiplicity instead of idiomatic unity. Yet despite the sonic similarity or sameness of the new work and its source materials, the meaning of the new music becomes different from that of the sources’ cultural and contextual meanings. These differences in meaning are illuminated through ethnographic methods, as can be seen in Nepalese heavy metal and in Nepalese mixes.

Works: Mongolian Hearts: Unbho Unbho (178-79); Brazesh Khanal: Deusee rey extended mix (180-82).

Sources: Anonymous: Deusee rey (180).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Greenwald, Helen M. "Verdi's Patriarch and Puccini's Matriarch: Through the Looking-Glass and What Puccini Found There." 19th-Century Music 17 (Spring 1994): 220-36.

Puccini's musical borrowing from Verdi can be best understood through an analogy to the "mirror image" from Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. The mirror image of Verdi's Don Carlos (1867, 1884) appears in Puccini's one-act opera Suor Angelica (1918), on the levels of characterization, declamation, timbre, tonality, and dramatic syntax. A comparison between the scenes of La Zia Principessa and Angelica in Suor Angelica and Philip and the Grand Inquisitor in Don Carlos illuminates Puccini's imitation, modeling, and recomposition techniques. Puccini's female-dominant characterization contrasts to Verdi's more "masculine" cast. Puccini used Verdi as a model for the dramatic relationship between the characters, atmosphere, action, particular arrangement of scenery, monologue, dark vocal sonorities, and tonal development. The greatest similarities are in the middle sections of the two scenes when the characters explore their most intimate desires both musically and dramatically. Puccini's scene can be seen as a reincarnation and a contrafactum of Verdi's. Like his contemporaries Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and Bartók, Puccini struggled with ways to "remake the past" as he experienced conflict with his own musical lineage.

Works: Puccini: Suor Angelica.

Sources: Verdi: Don Carlos.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Greenwald, Jeff. "Hip-Hop Drumming: The Rhyme May Define, but the Groove Makes You Move." Black Music Research Journal 22 (Autumn 2002): 259-71.

The importance of drums in hip-hop is often overlooked, but the drums establish the groove, emphasize the vocal style, and enhance the music beyond its vocal content. Ingrid Monson's discussion of repetition in African diasporic musics and Olly Wilson's concept of the heterogeneous sound ideal in African and African American musics can both be applied to the sonic role of drumming. Both sampling and drum machines play integral roles in hip-hop drumming, but the drum machine is more flexible than a sample because drum machines allow subtle changes to the beat without the necessity of a live performer. A Tribe Called Quest's Everything Is Fair, for example, mimics the delivery of Clyde Stubblefield's drum break in James Brown's Funky Drummer, but incorporates further syncopation and a pause before the downbeat emphasis.

Works: A Tribe Called Quest: Everything Is Fair (268-70).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (261-63, 268-70).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Gregory, Robin. "Dies Irae." Music and Letters 34 (April 1953): 113-19.

Background information on the Dies Irae sequence notes no records of the melody's origins and attributes the text to Thomas of Celano. Composers have used the chant in two ways: (1) as an integral part of their settings of the Requiem Mass in its proper context; (2) in secular works, often in a debased form to help create the appropriate diabolical or supernatural atmosphere. Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique was the first in a Romantic trend of using this theme associated with death and the last judgment in its most terrible aspects. The character of the melody's significance has changed significantly from its original connotation. Composers of the Romantic era used the melody for its associations with terror and dread, while ignoring the message of hope that is also explicit in the words. Some manifestations of the Dies Irae melody served as models for other composers to follow. One example is Liszt's Dante Symphony, which influenced Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death and Tchaikovsky's Francesca da Rimini. In the twentieth century, the tradition was kept alive by Sergei Rachmaninaov, who used the Dies Irae to represent evil spirits in the Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini.

Works: Berlioz: Requiem (135), Symphonie Fantastique (135-36); Alfred Bruneau: Requiem (135); Liszt: Totentanz (136, 137); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death (136); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (137); Tchaikovsky: Francesca da Rimini (137), In Dark Hell (137), Suite in G Major (137); Rachmaninoff: Tone Poem, Op. 29 (138), Symphonic Dances, Op. 45 (138), Symphony No. 3 (138), Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini (138); Vaughan Williams: Tudor Portraits (138).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang, Randy Goldberg

[+] Griffiths, Dai. "Cover Versions and the Sound of Identity in Motion." In Popular Music Studies, ed. David Hesmondhalgh and Keith Negus, 51-64. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Cover versions of songs invite analysis of the effects of musical change, particularly when cover versions cross lines of gender, sexuality, race, place, class, and language. For example, Judy Collins's cover of Bob Dylan's Just Like a Woman can be read as a monologue, a lesbian version, an address to another woman, or a strict rendition of the original because Collins does not change any of the gendered pronouns from Dylan's original lyrics. Additionally, covers across race lines may either appropriate stylistic elements from the original or rewrite the cover version in a different style. International or cross-language covers often designate English as the hegemonic norm and raise questions about the use of another language as merely an exotic type of instrument. A discography of all music discussed is included.

Works: Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Thelma Houston (performer): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Communards (performers): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Bob Dylan (songwriter), Roberta Flack (performer): Just Like a Woman (52-53); Bob Dylan (songwriter), Judy Collins (performer): Just Like a Woman (53-54); John Gluck, Wally Gold, and Herb Weiner (songwriters), Bryan Ferry (performer): It's My Party (54); Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller (songwriters), Elvis Presley (performer): Hound Dog (55-56); Little Richard (songwriter), Pat Boone (performer): Long Tall Sally (55-57); Hank Williams (songwriter), Ray Charles (performer): Your Cheatin' Heart (55, 57, 59-60); Paul Simon (songwriter), Simon and Garfunkel (performers): Bridge Over Troubled Water (58-59); Paul Simon (songwriter), Aretha Franklin (performer): Bridge Over Troubled Water (59).

Sources: Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Harold Melvin and the Bluenotes with Teddy Pendergrass (performers): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Bob Dylan: Just Like a Woman (52); John Gluck, Wally Gold, and Herb Weiner (songwriters), Lesley Gore (performer): It's My Party (54); Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller (songwriters), Big Mama Thornton (performer): Hound Dog (55-56); Little Richard: Long Tall Sally (55-57); Hank Williams: Your Cheatin' Heart (55, 57, 59-60); Claude Jeter (songwriter), Swan Silvertones (performers): Mary Don't You Weep (58-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Griffiths, Paul. "Quotation-->Integration." In Modern Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945, 188-222. New York: George Braziller, 1981.

The move from quotation to integration can be summarized under four headings: (1) Out of the Past, (2) Out of the East, (3) Collage, and (4) Integration. The music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was too close to composers' own time to be approached without an ironic detachment, so the much more distant past can be used without being labeled conservative. Plainsong melodies and twentieth-century techniques of variation are used by Peter Maxwell Davies to create un-fifteenth-century sounding melodies. For example, his opera Taverner uses the sequence Victimae paschali laudes, which is parodied and used as a symbol of the Resurrection. Davies uses plainsong to question his own music and methods and those of his contemporaries, in an attempt to convince himself of his work's genuineness. The East has exerted a marked influence on composers since 1950, including Messiaen, Cage, Reich, and LaMonte Young. The percussion-based ensembles in works by Boulez and Stockhausen have exotic Eastern resonances, but this influence has been seen less in works by Eastern composers themselves. Takemitsu, for example, seems to be more inspired by Debussy, Boulez, and Feldman than any particular Eastern orientation. Collages have been composed in order to test the present against the past, and vice versa, and to improve audience contact by providing a familiar subject. Cage's works of the 1960s, such as Williams Mix, Fontana Mix, Variations IV, and HPSCHD, were attempts to bring together real-world sounds and composed music (both live and on tape), often including much multi-media apparatus. Bernd Alois Zimmermann, however, often brings together musical worlds with the intent of setting the quoted material in relief, in direct contrast to the methods of Cage, whether it comes from Bach, Prokofiev, or Berg. Integration is similar in style to collage, but the two differ greatly in intent. In integration, the original material is suppressed in order to serve the new work, as is the case in the third movement of Berio's Sinfonia. The assembly of so many quotations is accomplished so well that the work may well be considered a new creation. Again unlike Cage, the work is an organized picture of disorder, rather than disorder itself. Stockhausen's Hymnen is also an integration, this time of national anthems. Recordings of various anthems are intermodulated within each other, setting up juxtapositions of the anthems. Hymnen sets up a stream of electronic sound around, between, and through the presentation of the anthems, seemingly drifting from one region to another.

Works: Messiaen: Couleurs de la cité céleste (190-91), La Transfiguration de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ (191, 196); Peter Maxwell Davies: Taverner (190, 192), Alma redemptoris mater (191), String Quartet (191), Blind Man's Buff (192), St. Thomas Wake (192), First Fantasia on an In nomine of John Taverner (192), Second Fantasia on an In nomine of John Taverner (192-93), Worldes Blis (192-93), Ave maris stella (193), Prolation (193), St. Michael Sonata (193), Symphony (193), A Mirror of Whitening Light (193-5); Jean-Claude Eloy: Equivalences (197), Faisceaux-diffractions (197), Kamakala (197), Shanti (197); Henze: L'autunno (197); Tristan (197); Stockhausen: Telemusik (199-200, 206-7, 210, 213); Cage: Credo in Us (200), Variations V (200-201), Fontana Mix (200), Theatre Piece (201), Variations IV (201); Cage and Lejaren Hiller: HPSCHD (201); Eric Salzman: The Nude Paper Sermon (201); Crumb: Ancient Voices of Children (202), Night of the Four Moons (202); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Die Soldaten (202), Antiphonen (202), Nobody knows the trouble I see (202), Présence (202), Musique pour les soupers du Roi Ubu (202-3), Photopsis (203), Monologe (203-5); Michael Tippett: Symphony No. 3 (203); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15 in A Major (203); Mauricio Kagel: Ludwig van (203), Variationen ohne Fuge (203-8); Stockhausen: Kurzwellen (206), Opus 1970 (206-7); André Boucourechliev: Ombres (206, 220); Berio: Sinfonia (207-9, 219-20); Stockhausen: Hymnen (210-13); Henri Pousseur: Echos de Votre Faust (213), Jeu de miroirs de Votre Faust (213), Votre Faust (213), Miroir de Votre Faust (213-14), Couleurs croisées (214), Les ephemeredes d'Icare (214), Mnemosyne II (214), Racine (214), Répons (214), Invitation à l'utopie (214), Icare apprenti (214), Die Eprobrung des Petrus Hébraïcus (214-15), Stravinsky au future (215), L'effacement du Prince Igor (215, 217); Peter Schat: Canto general (216, 218), To you (216); George Rochberg: Blake Songs (219), Contra mortem et tempus (219), Music for the Magic Theater (219), String Quartet No. 1 (219), String Quartet No. 2 (219), String Quartet No. 3 (219), Symphony No. 2 (219), Symphony No. 3 (219), Violin Concerto (219).

Sources: Machaut: Messe de Notre Dame (189); Plainchant: Victimae paschali laudes (190); Monteverdi: Vespers (191); Plainchant: Dies irae (193); Berg: Wozzeck (202); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (203); Mahler: Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (208), Symphony No. 4 in G Major (208); Henri Pousseur: Votre Faust (213); Stravinsky: Agon (215-16); Webern: Variations, Op. 27 (216).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Gruhn, Wilfried. "Integrale Komposition: Zu Bernd Alois Zimmermanns Pluralismus-Begriff." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 40 (November 1983): 287-302.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gruhn, Wilfried. "Lukas Foss Phorion. Die Obsession einer Melodie von Johann Sebastian Bach in den Baroque Variations. Analytische Betrachtungen und Materialien zur didaktischen Interpretation und Unterrichtsplanung." Musik und Bildung 13 (March 1981): 140-53.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gruhn, Wilfried. "Zitat und Reihe in Schönbergs Ein Überlebender aus Warschau." Zeitschrift für Musiktheorie 5 (1974): 29-33.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gunther, John G. “Transmigrations of Body and Soul: Three Contemporary Interpretations of a Jazz Classic Analyzed and Applied to Performance.” In Five Perspectives on “Body and Soul”: And Other Contributions to Music Performance Studies, ed. Claudia Emmenegger and Olivier Senn, 61-76. Zurich: Chronos, 2011.

Transcribing jazz improvisations should entail more than note-by-note recording, especially for advanced performance students. Three additional steps reinforce the pedagogical benefits of transcription: an overall description of what occurs in an improvisation, an assessment of the musical parameters that the improvisation highlights, and an application of that assessment to creating improvisations in a similar style. Analyses of three interpretations of Body and Soul by Bill Frisell, Cassandra Wilson, and Keith Jarrett encourage three different approaches to improvisation. From Frisell, an improvisational model includes incorporating looping technology for repeating aleatoric motives. From Wilson, an improvisational model encourages a singer to replace the notes of a song while keeping its lyrics. Finally, from Jarrett, an improvisational model provides a performer with preset motives that can be manipulated with a large-scale formal trajectory in mind.

Works: Johnny Green: Body and Soul as performed by Bill Frisell (64-66), Cassandra Wilson (66-69), and Keith Jarrett (70-75).

Sources: Johnny Green: Body and Soul (61-62).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Gutman, Hanns. "Der banale Mahler." Musikblätter des Anbruch 12 (March 1930): 102-5.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hall, Michael F. "Correspondence: The National Anthem." Gramophone 61 (November 1983): 567.

A letter written in response to a previous correspondence by Frank Hill on Shostakovich's borrowings (Oct. 1983 Gramophone). Hall wants to clarify that over 115 composers have used the tune of the British National Anthem in their compositions, in over 125 works of all types. No specific works are mentioned, but the list of composers includes J. C. Bach, Haydn, Beethoven, Liszt, Verdi, Brahms, Ives, and Stockhausen.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Hamberlin, Larry. “National Identity in Snyder and Berlin’s ‘That Opera Rag.’” American Music 22 (Fall 2004): 380-406.

Snyder and Berlin’s “coon song” That Opera Rag is a strong case study for examining the complex attitudes towards class, race, nationality, and gender in the early 1900s. That Opera Rag, despite its many conventional features, has three which defy expectations: a mediant relationship between the two tonal areas of A minor and F major, operatic (as well as popular) quotations, and irregular phrase lengths resulting from the opera quotations. This song perhaps began as an instrumental example of “ragging the classics” by combining highbrow operatic music with lowbrow ragtime conventions, and can be heard as a spoof of operatic grandeur. The lyrics, which utilize minstrelsy misspellings, “humorously” portray black housepainter Sam Johnson as an opera neophyte who misidentifies the quotations. Johnson’s recognition of operatic music represents a contemporary fear for white Americans that African Americans were asserting cultural aspirations through the appreciation of opera. Yet That Opera Rag was also used in the Broadway play Getting a Polish, in which a (white) Montana widow tries to transcend her “common” status by seeking refinement in Paris. May Irwin, the star of Getting a Polish, used That Opera Rag as an unconventional vehicle to stardom by performing these racist songs in a masculine fashion; she gained much renown and success despite being a woman and not being traditionally attractive. Thus, critical interpretation of the song renders multiple levels of commentary which represent the coexisting and contradictory cultural spaces that existed in America in the early twentieth century.

Works: Ted Snyder and Irving Berlin: That Opera Rag; Irving Berlin: When the Midnight Choo Choo Leaves for Alabam’ (389).

Sources: Verdi: Miserere from Il Trovatore (387-88); Bizet: Toreador Song from Carmen (389); Donizetti: Sextet from Lucia di Lammermoor (389); Henry Bishop: Home! Sweet Home! from Clari, or the Maid of Milan (389); Ted Snyder and Irving Berlin: That Opera Rag (389-90).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Hamm, Charles. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Haney, Joel. "Slaying the Wagnerian Monster: Hindemith, Das Nusch-Nuschi, and Musical Germanness after the Great War." The Journal of Musicology 25 (Fall 2008): 339-93.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hanninen, Dora A. “A Theory of Recontextualization in Music: Analyzing Phenomenal Transformations of Repetition.” Music Theory Spectrum 25 (Spring 2003): 59-97.

Because repetitions in music are over-generalized and under-analyzed, a framework is needed for analyzing transformations of repetitions which happen with an explicit change of context, including clear definitions for terms such as segment, criterion, instantiation, coincidence, realization, musical context, idea, and structural interpretation. This allows for a discussion of how repetitions are altered within a particular musical context, instead of simply noting that repetitions exist. Musical borrowings or quotations fulfill the setup conditions for recontextualization—repetition with an explicit change of context—but it is important that the context of these musical borrowings is actively transformed. In other words, quotations that are simply set down in a new context and are not “actively transplanted” are not recontextualized. The quotation of the opening of Tristan und Isolde in Berg’s Lyric Suite is an excellent example of a musical borrowing that is also recontextualized.

Works: Berg: Lyric Suite (64-65).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (64).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Hansen-Appel, Gabriele. "Gustav Mahlers Kindertotenlieder: Quellenstudien und Interpretationen." Ph.D. diss., University of Saarbrücken, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Harbison, John. "Peter Maxwell Davies' Taverner." Perspectives of New Music 11 (Fall-Winter 1972): 233-40.

The opera Taverner by Peter Maxwell Davies highlights the composer's ability to portray the struggle between old and new musical styles. Davies has always been interested in musical borrowing. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, this was manifested by his interest in melodic fragments from the seventeenth century. In the 1970s, his interest turned toward theatrical venues and his borrowing became more extensive. The opera tells the story of the composer John Taverner and is based on Taverner's In Nomine, stated in full only at the end of the work. Throughout the work, Davies plays with certain intervals and phrases from Taverner's piece, including the whole tones found in the cantus firmus and the tritones that appear in several voices. By greatly slowing the harmonic motion, Davies is able to reinterpret the pitches and their functions as they stood in the original. This relates to the theme of the opera, which involves an examination of the artist being in league with the devil and with death.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Hare, Belva Jean. "The Uses and Aesthetics of Musical Borrowing in Erik Satie's Humoristic Piano Suites, 1913-1917." Ph.D. diss., University of Texas, Austin, 2005.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Harrison, Lou. "On Quotation." Modern Music 23 (Summer 1946): 166-69.

Many twentieth-century composers are motivated to borrow musical materials out of a sense of nostalgia. Two practices can be found: that of Mahler and Ives and that of the neo-classicists. Mahler and Ives both used quoted material drawn from popular and folk culture, Mahler for the purpose of capturing the spirit of the people and thus enabling himself to speak for them, Ives for the purpose of presenting his observations of life and nature; both seldom develop their musical materials. Ives's process of composition is similar to that of the writer James Joyce, in that both begin with simple subjects and use them to create multi-layered meanings. In contrast to Mahler and Ives, the neo-classicists display their nostalgia through reference not to popular music but to the art music of the 18th century. Ironically, the listener finds neo-classicism, with its limited frame of reference, easier to grasp than the music of Ives and Mahler, which draws from a larger pool of resources.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sergio Bezerra, Randal Tucker, Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Hart, Alec. "Correspondence: Shostakovich's Borrowings." Gramophone 61 (August 1983): 212.

A quotation in the fourth movement of Shostakovich's Piano Concerto No. 1 is incorrectly attributed as Ach du Lieber Augustin. According to Hart, the quotation is actually from an English nursery song titled Poor Jennie is a-weeping, a-weeping.

Works: Shostakovich: Piano Concerto No. 1.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Hartford, Robert. "Correspondences: Shostakovich, Wagner and the Revolution." Gramophone 61 (June 1983): 4, 89.

Shostakovich's Symphony No. 15 quotes Rossini's William Tell Overture in the first movement and Wagner's "Annunciation of Death" motive from Die Walküre in the final movement. These quotations are symbolically related to Eine Kapitulation (1870), a play by Wagner that expressed "contempt for the lost ideals of failed revolutionaries." Shostakovich, through the use of musical allusion, was making a forbidden political statement and giving his Soviet masters "the Russian equivalent of two fingers."

Works: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15.

Sources: Rossini: William Tell Overture; Wagner: Die Walküre.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Harvey, Mark Sumner. "Charles Ives: Prophet of American Civil Religion." Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Hatten, Robert. "The Place of Intertextuality in Music Studies." American Journal of Semiotics 3/4 (1985): 69-82.

Intertextuality may be defined as "the view of a literary work as a text whose richness of meaning results from its location in a potentially infinite network of other texts." In adapting this notion for music, intertextuality operates on two essential levels: stylistic and strategic. A purely stylistic intertextuality arises when a composer makes reference to the conventions of an earlier style or musical tradition without evoking any particular earlier work. Beethoven exploits stylistic intertextuality in the third movement of his String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132, where the music is imbued with richer meaning through the conscious evocation of Renaissance and Baroque styles. Strategic intertextuality arises when a composer makes reference to a specific earlier work or works. A "spectacular, perhaps unique, example of strategic intertextuality" occurs in the third movement of Berio's Sinfonia, which represents the end of a chain of intertextual references involving the third movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 2, Schumann's "Das ist ein Flöten und Geigen" from Dichterliebe, and Bach's Cantata No. 19 ("Es erhub sich ein Streit") along with an extensive collage of shorter quotations from musical, literary, and non-literary sources.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Hay, Fred J. “Black Musicians in Appalachia: An Introduction to Affrilachian Music.” Black Music Research Journal 23 (2003): 1-19.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Healey, Gareth. “Messiaen’s Cantéyodijayâ: A ‘Missing’ Link.” The Musical Times 148 (Spring 2007): 59-72.

Messiaen’s Cantéyodijayâ, a single-movement work for solo piano best known for its incorporation of total serialism, contains numerous thematic, harmonic, and rhythmic features that derive from other Messiaen works. So many gestures, passages, and harmonic excerpts are self-borrowed that only 53 of the 347 measures of this work cannot be traced to other Messiaen pieces. Short melodic phrases (1-3 measures) are taken unchanged from the Turangalîla Symphony and from Cinq Rechants. These melodic self-quotations often contain the same timbres, rhythms, and pitches, making their source material clear. Instead of incorporating harmonic changes based on the “Modes of limited transposition” as in other works, in Cantéyodijayâ Messiaen reprises earlier harmonic progressions, such as those in Vingt regards sur l’Enfant-Jesus and the Turangalîla Symphony, and relies on earlier formulations such as the “Chords of inverted transposition on the same bass note.” Past rhythmic procedures are also incorporated in Cantéyodijayâ, as well as other self-borrowed compositional features such as serial organization and large-scale formal designs. On the whole, these self-quotations create a “collage” of Messiaen’s works of the past, by retaining their core technical features. A multi-page table summarizes thematic, harmonic, and rhythmic features of Cantéyodijayâ that derive from other Messiaen works.

Works: Messiaen: Cantéyodijayâ (60-71).

Sources: Messiaen: Turangalîla Symphony (63-65), Cinq Rechants (64), Vingt regards sur l’Enfant-Jesus (65-66).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Heile, Björn. "Uri Caine's Mahler: Jazz, Tradition, and Identity." Twentieth-Century Music 4 (September 2007): 229-55.

Jazz pianist Uri Caine quotes extensively from symphonic and vocal works by composers in the classical or art music tradition. On his albums Dark Flame (2003) and Urlicht/Primal Light (1997), Caine's borrowing from Mahler takes a variety of forms, ranging from quotation of a full piece to selective quotation of important and sequential melodic fragments in order to mimic the structure of Mahler's original in a more condensed form. Mahler is a particularly appropriate source for the jazz artist's borrowing, as the earlier composer's use of "folk" materials provides a model for Caine's own appropriation of musical material to explore Jewish identity. Caine's use of Mahler's music is not simply a matter of performance, or of arrangement for different voices; rather, Caine's borrowing is a reflection upon Mahler, history, and subjectivity. Even so, Caine's borrowing within a jazz context raises valuable questions about the validity of the frequently assumed dichotomy between composition and improvisation.

Works: Uri Caine: Dark Flame (230-31, 237-38, 241, 248, 250-52), Urlicht/Primal Light (230-31, 233, 237-39, 241-42, 248-52).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (237, 238), Symphony No. 1 (237, 242, 247), Symphony No. 2 (238, 250), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (238, 241), Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (238, 250), Das Lied von der Erde (239, 241, 248), Fünf Rückertlieder (241); Anonymous, Frère Jacques (237).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Heimbecker, Sara. "HPSCHD, Gesamtkunstwerk, and Utopia." American Music 26 (Winter 2008): 474-98.

Scholarship often portrays John Cage as a composer at odds with tradition, but such a portrayal obscures the composer's engagement with Gesamtkunstwerk and its utopian aesthetics. In 1967 Cage was working at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign with Lejaren Hiller. The university at this time had cutting-edge computer technology. Cage and Hiller collaborated to plan HPSCHD, a four-hour work for seven harpsichords, 51 tape players, 208 computer generated tapes, 64 slide projectors and 8 film projectors. Cage used chance procedures to create the harpsichord parts from pieces by Mozart, as well as Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann, Gottschalk, Busoni, Hiller, and himself. In HPSCHD, Cage aimed to create a microcosm of an ideal, utopian anarchist world of abundance. This is analogous to Wagner's conception of Gesamtkunstwerk as a model for social unity. HPSCHD is also a theater piece and offers a space in which participants can create their own postmodern narrative. Seeing Cage's work in conjunction with his politics helps one to see his participation in high modern European traditions like Gesamtkunstwerk.

Works: John Cage, HPSCHD (474-98).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F minor, Op. 57 (Appassionata) (493); Chopin: Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28, No. 24 (493); Schumann: "Reconaissance" from Carnaval (493); Gottschalk: The Banjo (493); Busoni: Sonatina No. 2 (493); Cage: Winter Music (493); Lejaren Hiller: Sonata No. 5 (493).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Heister, Hanns-Werner. “Mimesis, Memoria, Montage: Über einige Prinzipien des Komponisten Ives.” In Charles Ives, 1874-1954: Amerikanischer Pionier der neuen Musik, ed. Hanns-Werner Heister and Werner Kremp, 163-78. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier (WVT), 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Heister, Hanns-Werner. “Trauer eines Halbkontinents und Vergegenwärtigung von Geschichte: Alberto Ginastera--Cantata para América mágica, Op. 27.” In Alberto Ginastera. Zu Leben und Werk, 45-75. Bonn: F. Spangemacher, 1984. Reprinted in Hanns-Werner Heister, Vom allgemeingültigen Neuen: Analysen engagierter Musik—Dessau, Eisler, Ginastera, Hartmann, ed. Thomas Phelps and Wieland Reich, 127-53. Saarbrücken: Pfau-Verlag, 2006.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Heller, Charles. "Traditional Jewish Material in Schoenberg's A Survivor from Warsaaw, Op. 46." Journal of the Arnold Schoenberg Institute 3 (March 1979): 69-74.

Schoenberg's setting in A Survivor from Warsaw of the Shema Yisrael has an audible similarity to traditional melodies used for this prayer. The emphasis of the minor second as the concluding interval in Schoenberg's version evokes the "Avavoh Rabboh" Jewish cantillation mode, closely related to the Phrygian mode of Western music. Schoenberg seems to have constructed the basis twelve-tone row used in this piece with its application to the Shema in mind. Heller joins Christian Schmidt in disputing the contention of Wilfried Gruhn that other material in this work also has sources in traditional Jewish music.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. "Ives's Use of Quotation." Music Educators Journal 61 (October 1974): 24-28.

Ives's method of quotation is seen as a reworking of borrowed material by altering melodic segments. These modifications range from omission or substitution of several notes to the paraphrasing of a hymn, with preexistent forms used in order to describe and/or serve as a structural foundation. Many musical examples illustrating Ives's techniques are cited. Examples are rhythmic transformation seen in the Fourth Symphony's use of Nettleton, treatment of the head motive of Foster's Old Black Joe in the Three Places in New England, and the improvised qualities of Erie in the First Piano Sonata. The article concludes with a diagram of the architectonic structure of."The 'St. Gaudens' in Boston Common" from Three Places in New England.

Works: Ives: Sonata No. 1 for Violin and Piano (24), Piano Sonata No. 2 ("Concord, Mass., 1840-1860") (24), Three Places in New England (24, 25, 28), Washington's Birthday (25), Symphony No. 4 (24-26), String Quartet No. 2 (24), Three Quarter-tone Piano Pieces (26), Piano Sonata No. 1 (26), Central Park in the Dark (26), Symphony No. 3 (26), General William Booth Enters into Heaven (26), Sonata No. 3 for Violin and Piano (26).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. "Quotation as a Style Element in the Music of Charles Ives." Ph.D. diss., Washington University, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. "Structural Importance of Borrowed Music in the Works of Charles Ives: A Preliminary Assessment." In Report of the Eleventh Congress of the International Musicological Society Held at Copenhagen, 1972, ed. Henrik Glahn, Soren Sorensen, and Peter Ryom, vol. 1, 437-46. Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen, 1974.

Henderson gives a survey of Ives's structural use of borrowed material and in some cases mentions its extramusical value. The following features are discussed and partially illustrated in figures: (1) Quotation in a rhapsodic/improvisatory style; (2) quotation in a chorale-oriented style (reminiscent of organ music); and quotations to create (3) a rondo form; (4) verse and refrain structures; (5) ternary forms; (6) arch-forms; and (7) cyclic forms. Several designs can be combined in one piece.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 1 (438), Symphony No. 3 (439), Symphony No. 4 (442), Central Park in the Dark (439), General William Booth Enters Into Heaven (439), Violin Sonata No. 3 (439), A Symphony: "New England Holidays" (440), "The 'St. Gaudens' in Boston Common" from Three Places in New England (441), Piano Sonata No. 2 ("Concord, Mass., 1840-1860") (443).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. The Charles Ives Tunebook. Bibliographies in American Music, no. 14. Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Henderson, Donald. "Hans Pfitzner's Palestrina: A Twentieth-Century Allegory." The Music Review 31 (February 1970): 32-42.

Pfitzner's opera about Palestrina's divinely inspired act of composing the Pope Marcellus Mass upholds the musical tradition of the Wagnerian music drama and the philosophical tradition of Schopenhauer. A quotation from the Pope Marcellus Mass, the Kyrie eleison head-motive, provides the structural and philosophical cornerstone of the work. Pfitzner's theory of composition based on divine musical inspiration receives its finest realization in the first act of the opera, which focuses on Palestrina's reception of that head-motive.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Henderson, Lyn. "How The Flaming Angel became Prokofiev's Third Symphony." The Music Review 40 (February 1979): 49-52.

Henderson points out in detail the cut and paste approach Prokofiev used to create a symphony from his unsuccessful opera, The Flaming Angel. Entire sections of the opera are simply added one after the other to form the various movements of this orchestral piece. A chart at the end of the article lists the measure numbers of the symphony followed by the location of their sources in the opera.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Henrich, Heribert. "Eigenbearbeitung und Selbstentlehnung in Bernd Alois Zimmermanns Frühwerk." Musik-Konzepte (2005): 83-102.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Henze, Hans Werner. "Tristan." In Music and Politics: Collected Writings 1953-81, 222-29. Trans. Peter Labanyi. London: Faber &Faber, 1982.

This essay, written in 1975, is part of a collection of personal memoirs by the composer. Although many of his works involve borrowings of various kinds, this essay deals with the concept explicitly and presents a subjective, first-hand account of the process. In 1972, Henze wrote a piano piece he called "Prélude" which distantly recalled Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. Through further thinking and dreaming, the orchestra piece Tristan began to take shape. Part of the process involved a computer analysis of the first four measures of Act III of Wagner's opera. Tristan, written in 1973, uses tapes generated by the computer analysis of the Wagner excerpt as well as a full orchestra. Other quotations in the work include several bars of Brahms's First Symphony, which Henze explains is intended to represent an enemy, and Chopin's funeral march from his Sonata in B-flat major.

Works: Henze: Prélude (222), Tristan (223-29).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Henzel, Christoph. "Giuseppe Becces Musik zu 'Richard Wagner—Eine Filmbiographie' (1913)." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 60, no. 2 (2003): 136-61.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

[+] Hepokoski, James A. "Formulaic Openings in Debussy." 19th-Century Music 8 (Summer 1984): 44-59.

Debussy's early works involve explicit reliance on existing models while in his later works the models become more tacit and personalized. This process can be observed in his formulaic openings to works. There are three main categories of such openings: (1) monophonic openings, (2) modal/chordal openings, and (3) introductory sequences and expansions. Numerous examples are cited for each. Such formulas are primarily a mid-to-late nineteenth-century phenomenon. Hepokoski invokes Dahlhaus's concept of originality and the influence of the Symbolists.

Works: Debussy: Printemps (46), La Damoiselle élue (48).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Hepokoski, James. “Temps Perdu.The Musical Times 135 (December 1994): 746-51.

Two paradoxical interpretations of Charles Ives’s use of borrowed music coexist: an authorial reading and a reading based on the element of lost time (“temps perdu”). The mature music of Charles Ives is internally teleological, building pieces or movements out of “memory fragments” of pre-existing American popular or sacred tunes and quoting the entire tune only at the end of the work (a form called “teleological genesis” or elsewhere “cumulative form”). An authorial reading of this technique situates the meaning of the piece in the creation of a peak experience, which itself intimates to the audience a transcendental understanding of the music beyond the sound itself. Listeners might consider thinking of Ives’s use of “memory-fragments,” or musical borrowings, through the filter of Ives’s personal experiences with his sources, which they may discover (at least in part) through his writings. The second reading of this phenomenon is that striking dissonance, “memory fragments,” and musical manipulation in Ives’s mature pieces represent his attempt to protect a treasured American past from the effects of adulthood and the modern world. Ives’s stylistic plurality in his mature years can be heard as a radical attempt to recover traditional securities of the past, a narrative thread (the “Motive of Lost Wholeness”) common in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century thought in general. Such pieces depict the past as only existing imperfectly in memory; thus listeners are invited by Ives to embark on a musical journey in search of lost time.

Works: Ives: The Fourth of July (747), Symphony No. 3 (747), Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (747), String Quartet No. 2 (747), Violin Sonata No. 2 (747-49), Violin Sonata No. 4 (749-50), Violin Sonata No. 3 (750).

Sources: Robert Lowry: Need (750); Asahel Nettleton or John Wyeth (attr.): Nettleton (747); David T. Shaw: The Red, White, and Blue (Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean) (747-49); William Bradbury: Jesus Loves Me (749-50).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kate Altizer, Chelsea Hamm, Daniel Rogers

[+] Hertz, David Michael. “Ives’s Concord Sonata and the Texture of Music.” In Charles Ives and His World, ed. J. Peter Burkholder, 75-117. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

A comparison of Charles Ives’s Concord Sonata with his Essays Before a Sonata shows shifts in Ives’s compositional practice from a patterned linearity of German classicism to coloristic explorations of the Romantic form and new models based on perception. Ives’s innovations, including cumulative form, sonic exuviation, and a mixing of voices (heteroglossia), have European precursors. The Concord Sonata can be interpreted as a further development of the virtuosic piano works by several European composers, a piece where Ives pushed the boundaries of form and sound while simultaneously breaking from earlier European models. The use of cumulative form in the Concord Sonata shows Ives’s rejection of the strict European sonata form; it can be seen also as a move toward psycho-perceptual models possibly derived from Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor. In addition, the use of stylistic traits such as the development and manipulation of motives and the modeling of visual sound, found in the solo piano works of Beethoven, Debussy, Chopin, and Scriabin, indicates Ives’s stylistic competency in canonic solo piano repertoire. Ives’s Essays Before a Sonata, published together with the Concord Sonata, offers an Emersonian insight into the potential method and purpose of the sonata. Historically and aesthetically speaking, Ives is similar to American poets Walt Whitman and Ralph Waldo Emerson, and an understanding of the poetics and ideology of these literary figures is necessary for understanding Ives’s own ideology and musical innovations.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (75-117), Violin Sonata No. 3 (81), The Unanswered Question (87).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Op. 106 (Hammerklavier) (82, 84, 86-87, 92, 102, 114), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (82-84, 91, 95-99, 102); Liszt: Piano Sonata in B Minor (82, 88-90, 92-93, 96-99, 102); Charles Zeuner: Missionary Chant (83, 85, 94, 114-15); Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (83, 85, 87, 94, 114); Stephen Foster: Massa’s in de Cold Ground (94, 114); Chopin: Ballade No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 23 (100), Ballade No. 4 in F Minor, Op. 52 (100), Étude in C Minor, Op. 10, No. 12 (Revolutionary) (100-101), Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor, Op. 35 (100), Piano Sonata in B Minor, Op. 58 (103), Prelude in G Major, Op. 28, No. 3 (100); Debussy: Arabesques (103), Estampes (103), Images (103-5), L’isle joyeuse (104-5), Des pas sur la neige (104), Bruyères (104), Etudes, Book 2, No. 11 (“Pour les arpèges composes”) (107); Scriabin: Piano Sonata No. 5 (107-8), Piano Sonata No. 8 (107, 109), Piano Sonata No. 10 (109-11).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Hertz, David Michael. Angels of Reality: Emersonian Unfoldings in Wright, Stevens, and Ives. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Heyman, Barbara B. "Stravinsky and Ragtime." The Musical Quarterly 68 (1982): 543-62.

Discusses Stravinsky's incorporation of ragtime elements into Histoire du Soldat, Ragtime for Eleven Instruments, and Piano-Rag Music. Heyman presents convincing evidence that Stravinsky likely heard early jazz in Europe before 1918, contradicting Stravinsky's own statements that he had not. Stravinsky neither quoted from specific pieces nor used jazz pieces as formal models, but he used characteristic ragtime rhythms and instrumental colors of early jazz.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Hicks, Michael. "Text, Music, and Meaning in the Third Movement of Luciano Berio's Sinfonia." Perspectives of New Music 20 (Fall/Winter 1981-Spring/Summer 1982): 199-224.

Berio's aesthetic is one of communication and commentary. The third movement of the Sinfonia is first and foremost a setting and interpretation of the main text, Beckett's The Unnamable. Mahler's scherzo from the Second Symphony is the cantus firmus of the movement. An understanding of the song upon which Mahler based his movement, "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt" from Des Knaben Wunderhorn, aids in the understanding of the Berio movement. A discussion of quotation and allusion includes reference to James Joyce. In the cases of Beckett, Mahler, Joyce, and Berio, "the artist has become the subject of art." A complete analysis of Berio's movement is beyond the scope of the article. Allusions to Schoenberg, Debussy, Mahler, Hindemith, Berg, Brahms, Ravel, Strauss, Berlioz, Stravinsky, Berio himself, Pousseur, Beethoven, Boulez, Webern, Stockhausen, and perhaps Schumann are pointed out. In music of the 1970s, especially in the music of American composers, quotation is the rule rather than the exception.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Hicks, Michael. "The New Quotation: Its Origins and Functions." D.M.A. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1984.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hill, Frank. "Correspondence: Shostakovich's Borrowings." Gramophone 61 (October 1983): 416.

While this correspondence has nothing to do with Shostakovich's borrowings, it contains several interesting comments on musical borrowings in general. Hill states that "Notte e giorno faticar" from Mozart's Don Giovanni is quoted in Offenbach's Tales of Hoffman because Hoffman is waiting for his latest love, Stella, who is appearing in a performance of Don Giovanni in the theater next door. Hill parenthetically adds that "it is very difficult to think of a work of any length without a quote," and states that at least 24 works borrow from God Save the King.

Works: Offenbach: Tales of Hoffmann.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Hillman, Roger. “Music as Cultural Marker in German Film.” In Unsettling Scores: German Film, Music, and Ideology, 24-46. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Pre-existing music creates historical montage in a film, layering historical times to occur simultaneously in a single cinematic act. Reflecting their proximity to and distance from World War II, the films created by West German directors of the 1970s and early 1980s are particularly engaged in this act of historical montage. They are also distinct from Hollywood in their particular use of nineteenth-century art music, and New German filmmakers used the cultural weight of and audience deference to art music to resist traditional bourgeois values and highlight filmic and musical auteurs. Filmmakers juxtaposed the historically recent reception of Germanic music under the Nazis and the immediate reception of it by modern audiences, culturally marking the music, highlighting questions of national identity, and asserting cultural resilience in the face of both Germany’s history and the encroachment of Hollywood. Due to historical Germanic emphasis on music as a nonrepresentational art form, Germanic film music must transcend the theory of mimesis, commonly demonstrated by movies outside Germany. While reception theory is a promising tool for uncovering musical meaning, semiotics and the musical language of the borrowed work are also crucial elements in film music studies.

Works: Billy Wilder (director): soundtrack to A Foreign Affair (28); Rainer Werner Fassbinder (director): Deutschland im Herbst (35); Hans-Jürgen Syberberg (director): soundtrack to Hitler: A Film from Germany (37).

Sources: Miklós Rózsa: Violin Concerto, Op. 24 (28); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (36-37, 41, 44-45); Haydn: Deutschlandlied (36-37, 44-45); Wagner: Götterdämmerung (37).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Hillman, Roger. “The Great Eclecticism of the Filmmaker Werner Herzog.” In Unsettling Scores: German Film, Music, and Ideology, 136-50. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Unlike many New German filmmakers, director Werner Herzog is not concerned about the historical baggage of twentieth-century Germany but is rather focused on forging new territory for the cinematic image. Similarly, he ignores the reception history of the Western art music he uses, in particular Germanic music. Herzog resists interpretation of his musical choices, despite the variety of music he employs, as well as his diverse treatment of that music. Music is used quite differently in the films Woyzeck (to underscore the transcendence of society), Fitzcarraldo (to enhance artifice and unreality and to underscore Herzog’s self-generated mythos in cinematic history), and Lessons of Darkness (to be a universal, rather than Germanic, herald of death and destruction). In each film, Herzog selects pre-existing music to enhance dramatic and narrative elements specific to the film, but does not engage the historic memory of the music itself.

Works: Werner Herzog (director): Nosferatu (148-49), Woyzeck (139-40), Fitzcarraldo (140-46), Lessons of Darkness (146-50).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in E-flat Major, Op. 81a (139); Richard Strauss: Death and Transfiguration (141); Bellini: I Puritani (141, 145-46); Verdi: Un ballo in maschera (141), Requiem (147, 150), Ernani (141-46); Wagner: Die Walküre (141), Parsifal (147-48), Das Rheingold (147-49), Götterdämmerung (147); Grieg: Peer Gynt (147, 149); Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (147, 149); Pärt: Stabat Mater (147); Prokofiev: Sonata for Two Violins, Op. 56 (147); Schubert: Notturno in E-flat Major, Op. 148 (147).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Hinrichsen, Max. "Compositions Based on the Motive B-A-C-H." In Hinrichsen's Musical Yearbook: Vol. 7, ed. Max Hinrichsen, 379-81. London: Hinrichsen Edition, 1952.

A list of twenty-nine works using B-A-C-H, the majority of which are by German composers.

Works: Joseph Ahrens: Triptichon; Johann Albrechtsberger: Organ Fugue in G Minor; J. C. Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor; J. S. Bach: Prelude and Fugue on the name BACH, Art of Fugue; Otto Barblan: Chaconne, Op. 10, Passacaglia, Variations, and Triple Fugue, Op. 24; Ludwig van Beethoven: 2 sketches for an Overture and Canon, 10th Symphony; Heinrich Bellerman: Organ Prelude and Fugue, Op. 8; Johannes Brahms: Cadenza to Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Major; Alfred Herbert Brewer: Meditation; Ferruccio Busoni: Fantasia Contrappuntistica; Alfredo Casella: Due Ricercari sul nome di Bach; Cyril S. Christopher: Soliloquy on B-A-C-H and the Chorale "Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein; Hanns Eisler: Piano Trio on the 12-tone Scale; Wolfgang Fortner: Fantasia; Vincent d'Indy: "Beuron," No. 11 from Tableaux de Voyage, Op. 33; Sigfrid Karg-Elert: Passacaglia and Fugue, Op. 150, Basso Ostinato, Op. 58, repeated in one of his two Op. 142, Sempre Semplice; Johann Ludwig Krebs: Organ Fugue in B-flat Major; Franz Liszt: Prelude and Fugue for Organ, Fantasia and Fugue for Piano; Felix Mendelssohn: 6 Fugues; Wilhelm Middelschulte: Canonical Fantasia; Riccardo Nielsen: Ricercare, Chorale and Toccata; Ernst Pepping: Three Fugues; Walter Piston: Chromatic Fantasy; Max Reger: Organ Fantasia and Fugue, Op. 46; Josef Rheinberger: Organ Fughetta, Op. 123a No. 3; Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov: Six Variations, Op. 1; Robert Schumann: 6 Fugues, Op. 60; Georg Andreas Sorge: 3 Fugues.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Hinton, Stephen. "'Matters of Intellectual Property': The Sources and Genesis of Die Dreigroschenoper." In Kurt Weill: The Threepenny Opera, ed. Stephen Hinton, 9-49. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Because of the speed with which it was written and the collaborative nature of the project, the true origins of The Threepenny Opera are difficult to trace with precision. Nominally the work is a parody of John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, which had enjoyed a successful revival in London from 1920 to 1923. In fact the publisher Schott had contacted the young Paul Hindemith with the idea of providing new music for this play. Weill retained only one of the 69 melodies from the original Beggar's Opera, but several other tunes may have been patterned after specific models.

Works: Kurt Weill, The Threepenny Opera (13, 36-40).

Sources: Johann Christoph Pepusch: The Beggar's Opera (13, 36); Eduard Künneke: Der Vetter aus Dingsda (36); Puccini: Madame Butterfly (40); Engelbert Humperdinck: Hänsel und Gretel (40-41).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Hitchcock, H. Wiley. "Ivesiana: The Gottschalk Connection." Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter 15 (November 1985): 5.

In Psalm 90, Ives quotes Louis Moreau Gottschalk's famous piano work, The Last Hope. The quotation appears in the second half of Verse 6, with the text "in the evening it is cut down, and withereth." Ives's borrowing may refer to The Last Hope, subtitled "religious meditation," or to the hymn Mercy, also known as Gottschalk, itself derived from The Last Hope and attributed to Edwin Pound Parker.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Hitchcock, H. Wiley. Ives. Oxford Studies of Composers 14. London, New York, and Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1977. Reprint with corrections as Ives: A Survey of the Music. Brooklyn: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Hobus, André. "Sweet Home Chicago ou un regard impertinent sur un mythe." Soul Bag 169 (December 2002): 23-25.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hold, Trevor. "Grieg, Delius, Grainger and a Norwegian Cuckoo." Tempo, no. 203 (January 1998): 11-19.

A web of influence and borrowing exerted itself in the friendships between Edvard Grieg, Frederick Delius, and Percy Grainger. Grieg's Norwegian folksong settings served as models for Grainger's own folksong arrangements, and specific musical quotations exist in Delius's On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring, a meditation on Grieg's "I Ola Dalom." Delius quotes the melody from Grieg's setting, but was also influenced by his textures, harmonic structure, free variation, and development. It has also been noted that Delius's composition has a resemblance to Grieg's "The Students' Serenade" from Moods, Op. 73, No. 6. Furthermore, the interval of a descending minor third from leading tone to dominant is borrowed from Grieg. This melodic interval resembles a cuckoo call and was likely to have prompted Delius to use Grieg's setting as a model from which to draw.

Works: Delius: On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring (13, 15-19).

Sources: Grieg: Norwegian Folk Songs, Op. 66: "Je gaar I tusind tanker" (12),"I Ola Dalom (12-18), Moods, Op. 73, No. 6, "The Student's Serenade" (17-18).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes, Tong Cheng

[+] Holliman, J.V. "A Stylistic Study of Max Reger's Solo Piano Variations and Fugues on Themes by Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann." PhD diss., New York University, 1975.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Holloway, Robin. Debussy and Wagner. 1979. [See Austin review.]

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Holm-Hudson, Kevin. "John Oswald's Rubaiyat (Elektrax) and the Politics of Recombinant Do-Re-Mi." Popular Music and Society 20, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 19-36.

Advances in technology in the twentieth century, such as the reproduction and manipulation of sound, have led to controversies regarding intellectual property, copyright law, and even the very definition of the "musical work." Modern sampling techniques allow artists to appropriate pre-existing musical material and then alter its codes of meaning through processes of recontextualization and alteration. This act of generating meaning through the use of existing "musical artifacts" can be highly subversive, as is the case with John Oswald's 1989 CD Plunderphonics and subsequent CD Rubaiyat (Elektrax). For Rubaiyat (Elektrax), commissioned by Electra records for the company's fortieth anniversary, Oswald utilized pre-existing material recorded by Electra artists as raw material that was then altered using various techniques that undermine and change the work's original meaning. Oswald's techniques include recontexualization of familiar material, the restoration of a previously controversial or "banished" text, and encouraging the listener to create similar works at home with available technology.

Works: John Oswald: O Hell (25-28), Vane (28-29), Mother (29-30), Plunderphonics (24-25), Rubaiyat (Elektrax) (25-34).

Sources: John Densmore, Robbie Krieger, Ray Manzarek, and Jim Morrison [The Doors]: Hello, I Love You (26-28), When the Music's Over (26-28); Carly Simon: You're So Vain (28-29), You're So Vain as performed by Faster Pussycat (28-29); Michael Davis, Wayne Kramer, Fred "Sonic" Smith, Dennis Thompson, and Rob Tyner [MC5]: Kick Out the Jams (29-30).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Holm-Hudson, Kevin. "Quotation and Context: Sampling and John Oswald's Plunderphonics." Leonardo Music Journal: Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology 7 (1997): 17-25.

Though sampling only emerged with the invention of digital technology in the 1980s, it is best understood as part of the long history of musical borrowing. Specific melodic quotation, akin to literal sampling, can be found throughout western art music in the works of composers like Bach, Berlioz, Tchaikovsky, and Ives. In this repertoire, the context in which the quotation appears imposes commentary or new meaning on the original. A similar process occurs with digital sampling where meaning is often generated through recontextualization and juxtaposition of samples. In attempts to generate a "taxonomy" of sampling practices, scholars David Sanjek, Thomas Porcello, and Chris Cutler have created classification systems based, respectively, on reconcilability of the source, procedural methods, and in terms similar to Christopher Ballentine's "musical-philosophical" ideals. The central difference between digital sampling and traditional borrowing is that "the timbre is appropriated in addition to pitch and rhythm." In addition to illustrating the role of recontextualization of sampled material in creating meaning, John Oswald's works Plunderphonics and Plexure demonstrate the role of timbre in conveying musical meaning. For example, Oswald experiments with the timbre of Michael Jackson's voice in the piece "DAB" on Plunderphonics.

Works: Alex Paterson and Youth [Orb]: Little Fluffy Clouds (18-19); James Tenney: Collage #1: Blue Suede (19); John Oswald: Plunderphonics (20-23), DAB (21-22), Plexure (23-24).

Sources: Ennio Morricone: Score for Once Upon a Time in the West (18-19); Steve Reich: Electric Counterpoint (18-19); Carl Perkins: Blue Suede Shoes as performed by Elvis Presley (19); Michael Jackson: Bad (21-22).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Hoogerwerf, Frank W. "Willem Pijper as Dutch Nationalist." The Musical Quarterly 62 (July 1976): 358-73.

Willem Pijper (1894-1947) crusaded actively for the cause of a Dutch musical style independent from the German and French traditions. His campaign was waged both in his writings and in some nationalist compositions. The opera Halewijn is based on the Halewijn Lied, one of the oldest known Dutch songs. The song recurs within the opera, and in addition, Pijper derived the scalar material of the entire work from one line of the Lied. Pijper's work Six Symphonic Epigrams uses a motive from the Dutch song O Nederland let op U saeck (Oh Netherlands, Heed Thy Cause), which is part of a seventeenth-century collection of national songs.

Works: Willem Pijper: Halewijn (369-70), Six Symphonic Epigrams (370-71).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Horn, David. "The Sound World of Art Tatum." Black Music Research Journal 20 (Autumn 2000): 237-57.

Reactions to Art Tatum have been divided between admiration of his technical proficiency and criticism of his perceived lack of creativity. Both of these stances, however, ignore the complex intertextual nature of Tatum's music. Tatum's music from throughout his career contains a significant number of quotations of tunes recorded by others during the 1920s and 1930s, recordings which Tatum would have heard and which might have had a greater impact on him than on many other musicians because of his partial blindness and his resulting difficulty in reading sheet music. Two consistent features in the majority of Tatum's quotations are the retention of the original melody, and the ornamentation of that melody in a manner which embellishes without comment or critique. The result is a relationship--frequently dialogic--between the original and the quotation.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Hoshowsky, Robert. "Plunderphonics Pioneer." Performing Art and Entertainment in Canada 31, no. 1 (Summer 1997): 12-13.

John Oswald's now infamous works were created through analogue and digital editing and recombining of pre-existing musical material. Oswald adjusted the speed, timbre, pitch, and other aspects of various fragments of music and then combined and layered them to create a type of musical collage. In 1989, he generated a great deal of controversy with the release of his album Plunderphonics, which consisted of exclusively borrowed material. Though Oswald had produced the album at his own expense and was receiving no profit from the endeavor, giving the copies away to libraries, radio stations, and others for free, legal action was taken by Michael Jackson, CBS Records, and the Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA). Oswald was forced to destroy the Plunderphonics master copy and any remaining copies in his possession. Since then, Oswald has produced Rubaiyat for Electra Records' 40th anniversary and the two-CD set Plexure. In Plexure, Oswald plays with the "threshold of recognizability" or the amount of material a listener must hear to identify the original source.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Hosokawa, Shuhei. "Distance, Sestus, Quotation: Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny of Brecht and Weill." International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 16 (December 1985): 181-99.

The use of quotation in the context of opera creates a significant rhetorical and syntactical relationship to the text into which it is juxtaposed. It can be used to provide ironic commentary and lend deeper levels of meaning to characters and situations. Brecht and Weill use sources from Wagner, Weber, popular jazz, and folk tunes.

Works: Weill: Aufsteig und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Houtchens, Alan, and Janis P. Stout. "'Scarce Heard Amidst the Guns Below': Intertextuality and Meaning in Charles Ives's War Songs." The Journal of Musicology 15 (Winter 1997): 66-97.

Textual and musical ambiguity in Charles Ives's four war songs, In Flanders Fields, Tom Sails Away, He Is There!, and They Are There!, may reflect Ives's own ambiguous attitude towards war. In the first three songs, written in 1917, Ives quotes several patriotic, martial, and popular tunes, but these quotations do not always retain their original meaning. Ives uses patchwork technique or other means of quotation to include melodic fragments from unambiguously patriotic songs; however, he often combines these fragments with a morose character, complex harmonies, and inconclusive cadences. Collectively, these three songs reflect Ives's ambivalence towards World War I. Twenty-five years later, They Are There!, a World War II revision of the earlier He Is There!, moves from ambivalence to a direct expression of Ives's anti-war sentiments. In conjunction with contemporary biographical evidence and Ives's own biting recording of the song, They Are There! demonstrates a shift in Ives's personal stance towards war and brings into question the possibility of parody in his three earlier war songs.

Works: Charles Ives: In Flanders Fields (72-80), Tom Sails Away (80-84), He Is There! (84-87), They Are There! (91-97).

Sources: Taps (75, 77-78, 81-82); David T. Shaw: The Red, White, and Blue (Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean) (75-76, 78-79, 82, 86); George F. Root: The Battle Cry of Freedom (76-77, 86); Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (76, 78, 86); America (God Save the King) (77-79); Reveille (78, 86); Henry S. Cutler: All Saints New (78); Samuel Woodworth and George Kiallmark: Araby's Daughter (The Old Oaken Bucket) (81); George M. Cohan: Over There (82, 86); Ives: Country Band March (86), He Is There! (91-97); Walter Kittredge: Tenting on the Old Camp Ground (86-87).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla, Laura B. Dallman, Paul Killinger

[+] Howard, Joseph. "The Improvisational Technique of Art Tatum." 3 Vols. Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

[+] Huang, Hao, and Rachel V. Huang. “Billie Holiday and Tempo Rubato: Understanding Rhythmic Expressivity.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 7 (1996): 181-200.

Billie Holiday's recordings reveal a sophisticated use of tempo rubato, the slowing-down and speeding-up of a melody over a steady accompaniment. While Holiday's version of a tune rarely strays from the pitch material of the original, the rhythmic comparison is considerably more complex. Holiday tends to begin her lines or melodic fragments late relative to the accompaniment, yet she catches up to the accompaniment by the end of the passage. In fact, Holiday takes the given melody at a faster tempo than the original. Transcriptions of Holiday's recordings indicate that the ratio between her tempo and that of the accompaniment is as advanced as 6 to 5 or 7 to 5, a much higher ratio than similar procedures found in African, Afro-Cuban, and African-American music (such as the music of Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith).

Works: Cole Porter: What is This Thing Called Love as performed by Billie Holiday (182-92) and Ella Fitzgerald (185-86); Gerald Marks and Seymour Simons (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): All of Me (192-94).

Sources: Cole Porter: What is This Thing Called Love (182-92); Gerald Marks and Seymour Simons: All of Me (192-94).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Huber, Nicolaus A. "John Cage: Cheap Imitation." Neuland 1 (1981): 135-41.

Discusses the reasons behind Cage's use of Satie's Socrate and also what Cage himself says about how he utilized the music to compose a new piece. Through musical analysis Huber shows how Cage follows the precepts he set in borrowing Satie's work. Huber also mentions the beginning to Beethoven's Eroica and the second movement of Bruckner's Symphony No. 7 as employing similar compositional techniques.

Works: John Cage: Cheap Imitation.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Hufschmidt, Wolfgang. "Musik über Musik." In Reflexion über Musik heute: Texte und Analysen, ed. Wilfried Gruhn, 254-89. Mainz: Schott, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hung, Eric. “Hearing Emerson, Lake, and Palmer Anew: Progressive Rock as ‘Music of Attraction.’” Current Musicology 79-80 (2005): 245-59.

Progressive rock, a loose label for music which combines elements of rock and roll with those of various forms of art music from around the world, has in the past been viewed by critics and scholars as being most successful (or most appalling) when elements of “high” and “low” culture are synthesized. However, Emerson, Lake, and Palmer’s popular “free transcription” of Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky frequently shifts between different styles, suggesting that its success is due not to stylistic synthesis but an “ever-changing, channel-surfing quality.” Pictures at an Exhibition, which was played at every Emerson, Lake, and Palmer concert from 1970 to 1988, allowed fans to react to the changes in texture as they happened, dancing when it was appropriate and cheering when Emerson would destroy his organ in the final “Great Gate of Kiev” movement. These fans showed an interest in being “present” at concerts, enjoying each subjective moment as it happens now, like the counter-cultural hippies from the 1960s. This is related to Susan Sontag’s call in “Against Interpretation” for greater focus on “presentness” in art criticism, and to Tom Gunning’s “cinema of attractions” concept, which states that in films before 1908 the audience’s focus was not on the plot narrative but on the moment-to-moment spectacle.

Works: Emerson, Lake, and Palmer: Pictures at an Exhibition (247-53).

Sources: Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition (247-53).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Hunter, Mead. "Interculturalism and American Music." Performing Arts Journal 11, no. 3 and 12, no. 1 (1988): 186-202.

Interculturalism, musical borrowing from multiple cultures, is a burgeoning trend in twentieth-century art music, theatrical music (opera, musicals, Gesamtkunstwerks), film music, and popular music. "World beat," an aesthetic that fuses popular styles from different parts of the world, is one manifestation of interculturalism. Interculturalism creates meaning in musical works, which manifest as political statements, instructional tools, "syntheses of styles, cultures and perspectives," or works that embrace or reject particular cultural values. These extramusical meanings result from various intercultural borrowing techniques, including patchwork, collage, and "suggestive" allusion (stylistic and pertaining to specific works).

Works: Dissidenten: Sahara Electric (190); Toshi Tsuchotoris: score to Mahabharata (192); Bob Telson: score to Sister Suzie Cinema (192-93), score to The Gospel at Colona (193), score to The Warrior Ant (194); Philip Glass: Satyagraha (196), Akhnaten (197-98); John Cage: Truckera (200), Europeras 1 &2 (200-201).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Husarik, Stephen. "John Cage and Lejaren Hiller: HPSCHD, 1969." American Music 1 (Summer 1983): 1-21.

The performance of John Cage's and Lejaren Hiller's HPSCHD, for seven harpsichords, tape, and a menagerie of multimedia, at the University of Illinois in 1969 was an event unlike any other, and especially unlike MUSICIRCUS, put on at the same university two years previous. For HPSCHD, Cage and Hiller set out to write a computer program that could divide the octave 52 ways, since this was something a computer could do that a human could not. Mozart's Musical Dice Game was used to come up with the material for the seven solo harpsichord parts, in conjunction with the I-Ching. For Solo Harpsichord II, 20 "passes" of the original part devised from the Dice Game and I-Ching were performed. Solo Harpsichords III and IV played the same material, but with replacement parts culled from Mozart piano sonatas included in place of some measures from the Dice Game. Parts V and VI were similar to III and IV, except that their replacement measures came from Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann, Gottschalk, Busoni, Cage, and Hiller piano pieces. Solo Harpsichord I was a transcription of the tape-orchestra part in which the octave was divided into 12 tones. Finally, VII played any Mozart piece or anything else anybody else was playing, at any time. Cage's interest in what happened when many layers were superimposed was the impetus behind the work, in addition to exploring different levels of microtonality.

Works: Cage and Hiller: HPSCHD.

Sources: Mozart: Musical Dice Game, K. 294d/K. Anh. C 30.01 (7-9), Piano Sonata in D Major, K. 284 (7), Piano Sonata in C Major, K. 330, Piano Sonata in G Major, K. 283, Fantasy in C Minor, K. 475, Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, K. 281; Beethoven: Piano Sonata No. 23 in F Minor, Op. 57, Appasionata (8); Frédéric Chopin: Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28 (8); Robert Schumann: Carnaval (8); Ferrucio Busoni: Sonatina No. 2 (8); Cage: Winter Music (8); Hiller: Sonata No. 5 (8).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Ives, Charles E. Memos. Edited and with appendices by John Kirkpatrick. New York: W. W. Norton, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Jablonski, Edward. "An Almost Completely New Work: Gershwin's Own Suite from Porgy and Bess." The American Record Guide 25 (August 1959): 848-49.

Gershwin's own Suite from his opera Porgy and Bess is a large improvement on the suites composed by Morton Gould and Robert Russell Bennett, in that the orchestration is left alone more often and less new material is written into it than in the other two versions. Basically a "scissors and paste job," the new suite includes some music cut from the opera itself, along with many of the hit songs. The suite demonstrates Gershwin's considerable mastery of orchestral writing and orchestration as well.

Works: Gershwin: Catfish Row: Suite from Porgy and Bess (848-49).

Sources: Gershwin: Porgy and Bess (848-49).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Jahnke, Sabine. "Materialien zu einer Unterrichtssequenz: Des Antonio von Padua Fischpredigt bei Orff-Mahler-Berio." Musik und Bildung 64 (November 1973): 615-22.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Jampol'skij, Izrail'. "Pamjati borcov-anti fasistov [To the memory of the anti-fascist fighters]." Sovetskaia muzyka (February 1976): 116-18.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Jefferson, Alan. The Lieder of Richard Strauss. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971.

Strauss's songs contain a variety of quotations and allusions to preexistent material. The musical borrowings are cited but are not included in separate lists.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Jeffery, Charles. "BWV 80: Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott." In Johann Sebastian Bach: Four Chorale Cantatas: A Commentary, 9-46. Stratford-upon-Avon: Sapphire Book Club, 1980.

Luther's hymn Ein feste Burg falls into a category of many tunes with a revolutionary cause, from La Marseillaise to John Brown's Body, because it signifies the German Reformation and the religious triumph of Lutheranism. Indeed, Luther's hymn emerges from a vernacular tradition, not only in the translation of the Bible into German, but also in the poetic and musical union meant to appeal to the people in the entire congregation rather than to specific members of the choir and clergy. J. S. Bach, inspired by many Lutheran chorales, chose to exhibit this piece for a Festival of 1730, marking the Bicentenary of the Confession of Augsburg in which the Protestants declared the aims of the Lutheran church. Bach entitled his setting In Festo Reformationis, and he meant for it to represent his piety. Some movements, including the soprano and bass duet as well as the bass recitative, feature the relatively unembellished tune to evoke its military and unifying purposes. In a more complex setting, the chorale fantasia on verse one, Bach uses the tune as a cantus firmus embedded within a set of variations. In addition, later composers such as Mendelssohn and Roderick-Jones, like Bach, use the tune to invoke powerful religious sentiment, whereas Meyerbeer strips it of its religious content and uses it to accompany a ceremonial march.

Works: J. S. Bach: In Festo Reformationis, BWV 80 (16-47); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (46); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (46); Richard Roderick-Jones: Chanticleer (46).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (9-15).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Jeutner, Renate, ed. Peter Maxwell Davies. Bonn: Boosey and Hawkes, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Joe, Jeongwon. "Reconsidering Amadeus: Mozart as Film Music." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 57-73. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

While many writers have been critical of Amadeus for what they regard as trivial treatment of Mozart's music, the music used in the film acts as a structural support for visual rhythm and as a means to unify narratively related scenes through continuity of music, tonality, and motto. For example, Pergolesi's Stabat Mater is used to link three disjunct yet related events having to do with the death of Salieri's father. Milos Forman's use of music also both inscribes and subverts the standard practice of phantasmagoric aesthetics in Hollywood as well as displaying Brechtian alienation, with multiple examples of Brechtian interventions. For example, as soon as Salieri praises The Marriage of Figaro, the Emperor yawns, which obliterates the seriousness of Salieri's jealousy.

Works: Milos Forman (director): Sound track to Amadeus.

Sources: Mozart: Don Giovanni (60, 64-66, 68), Requiem (60, 64), Symphony No. 25 in G Minor, K. 183 (61), Mass in C minor, K. 427 (62), The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte) (62), The Abduction from the Seraglio (Die Entführung aus dem Serail) (62-63) The Marriage of Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro) (63-64, 67-68), Piano Concerto in D Minor, K. 466 (64-65, 69), Wind Serenade in B-flat Major, K. 361 (66-68); Pergolesi: Stabat Mater (62, 70).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Johnson, Tim. “Out of Belfast and Belgrade: The Recent Music of Ian Wilson.” Tempo 57 (April 2003): 2-9.

Ian Wilson is an Irish-born modern composer whose works often reflect the violent conflict and its devastating effects that Wilson experienced while living in Belfast and Belgrade. One such work, Messenger, was written in Belgrade during the NATO campaign of the 1990s. The second movement of Messenger is almost unique in Wilson’s output, as it is one of only three works acknowledged by the composer to contain musical borrowings. This movement contains an allusion to Brahms’s Lullaby, Op. 49, No. 4; this musical borrowing is unique in Wilson’s work because it is a recognizable musical motif that is used to suggest something quite specific. This allusion to Brahms’s Lullaby is recapitulated in the middle of the fourth movement, another rarity for Wilson. In the second movement the allusion appears in a sparse texture and repeats the Lullaby’s opening minor third quite often. In the fourth movement the allusion is shorter (only three measures), and the often repeated minor third is transposed down a half-step from the second movement. Other recent works by Wilson do not contain allusions to outside musical sources, but do contain some elements of self-quotation. For example, a concerto for piano and strings, titled an angel serves a small breakfast, returns to a technique he first used in his 1998 concerto for piano and strings, Limena. The piano parts of these two works share much melodic material, and the parts of both accompaniments comprise reworked melodic material from the motives of the piano part. an angel serves a small breakfast also contains brass chorales in a style that is highly reminiscent of Messiaen.

Works: Ian Wilson: Messenger (3-4), an angel serves a small breakfast (5-6).

Sources: Brahms: Lullaby, Op. 49, No. 4 (3-4); Ian Wilson: Limena (5-6).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Johnson, Timothy A. "Chromatic Quotations of Diatonic Tunes in Songs of Charles Ives." Music Theory Spectrum 18 (Fall 1996): 236-61.

Ives quoted many diatonic melodies in his songs, which were then transformed chromatically. A process of intervallic alteration created contrasting diatonic links, offered more intervallic material for exploitation, and used a process called "refracted diatonicism." Ives exploits the connections between the various diatonic areas through the use of the tritone.

Works: Ives: The Innate (239-43, 257), The Camp-Meeting (244-45, 256), At the River (245-47, 256, 257), Nov. 2, 1920 (249-51, 256), Hymn (250-53, 255, 258), Old Home Day (256-60).

Sources: Asahel Nettleton or John Wyeth (attr.): Nettleton (240-43); William Bradbury: Woodworth (244-45); Robert Lowry: The Beautiful River (245-47); John Stafford Smith: The Star-Spangled Banner (249-51); William Howard Doane: More Love to Thee (250-53); William Steffe (attrib.): The Battle Hymn of the Republic (257-60).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Jones, Andrew. Plunderphonics, 'Pataphysics, and Pop Mechanics: An Introduction to musique actuelle. Wembley, Middlesex, England: SAF Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Jones, Nicholas. "Preliminary Workings: The Precompositional Process in Maxwell Davies's Third Symphony." Tempo, no. 204 (April 1998): 14-22.

The sketchbooks for Peter Maxwell Davies's Symphony No. 3 can be used to reconstruct the composer's precompositional workings. These sketchbooks illustrate the composer's use of sieving, pitch and durational matrices, and magic squares. The initial operation used is that of sieving, in which the pitch content of the borrowed material is reduced by selecting the portion to be used and omitting repeated pitches from the sieved set. A pitch matrix is a square in which each pitch of the sieved set is placed, much like a twelve-tone row matrix, horizontally across the top of the square. However, the set is also written vertically down the first column of the matrix. The square is then completed through transposition of each row in accordance with the first pitch of that row from the sieved set. To form the durational matrix, each note in the pitch matrix is numbered horizontally across each row, working left to right. Magic squares are mathematically generated squares which can correspond to celestial bodies; for example, Davies uses the Magic Square of Mercury in the Symphony No. 3. Each pitch from the pitch/durational matrix is transferred to the magic square according to its number. Davies subjects his borrowed material, a plainchant, to these manipulations to generate compositional material. Through abstract procedures, Davies creates a new musical work based on borrowed material, but without that material being evident.

Works: Davies: Symphony No. 3. (14-22).

Sources: Anonymous: Sancte Michael Archangele, defende nos in praelio (16, 18).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Jung, Hans Rudolf. "Weimar: Münchhausen, Ballett von Rainer Kunad uraufgeführt." Musik und Gesellschaft 31 (1981): 239-40.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Just, Martin. "Recomposition und Zitat in Stravinskijs Circus Polka." In Altes im Neuen: Festschrift Theodor Göllner zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Bernd Edelmann and Manfred Hermann Schmid, 359-76. Tutzing: Schneider, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kagel, Mauricio. Anlässlich der Schallplattenaufnahme von 'Ludwig van.' Bonn: Inter Nationes, 1970.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kämper, Dietrich. "Dante im Musiktheater des 20. Jahrhunderts: Luigi Dallapiccolas Bühnenwerk Ulisse." Deutsches Dante-Jahrbuch 76 (2001): 89-101.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Karbusicky, Vladimir. Gustav Mahler und seine Umwelt. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Karnauhova, Veronika Aleksandrovna. "Prozrenija Maksa Regera." Muzykal'naâ academia 1 (2004): 185-87.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kassabian, Anahid. Hearing Film: Tracking Identifications in Contemporary Hollywood Film Music. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Film theory must include music as a "condition of identification," how film music is received and interpreted by the audience, taking into account the impact of the intertextual reference between different films which borrow the same music, as well as the emotional impact of less recognizable music on the listener. Film audiences develop "socio-historically specific musical languages," where all music becomes referential, especially through the use of quotation, allusion, and leitmotif. Musical quotation has become a staple form of contemporary film scores through "compilation," the use of a series of pre-recorded music tracks rather than a newly-composed film score, because previously recorded and distributed music may carry with it strong ties to time period, genre, or location. The concepts of "assimilating," describing borrowings that are closely aligned with dominant ideologies, and "affiliating," for uses that broaden the range of acceptable connections between the text and music, contribute to understanding how the identification of preexisting music by the audience member serves to form notions of cultural identities or stereotypes as part of character and or plot development within film.

Works: Charles Wolcott: score to Blackboard Jungle (50); Carmine Coppola: score to Apocalypse Now (50); Charles Strouse: score to Bonnie and Clyde (51); Dick Hyman: score to Moonstruck (51).

Sources: Max C. Freedman and Jimmy DeKnight: Rock Around the Clock (50); Wagner: "Ride of the Valkyres" from Die Walküre (50); Traditional: Foggy Mountain Breakdown (51); Puccini: "Che gelida manina" from La Boheme (51).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Katz, Mark. "Music in 1s and 0s: The Art and Politics of Digital Sampling." Chapter 7 in Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, 137-57. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.

Digital sampling is a specific type of musical borrowing in which one recorded sound is incorporated into a new recorded sound. Sampling, unlike other types of musical borrowing, is able to manipulate the recorded sounds of specific performances. Sampling is a transformative art, rather than a practice of technological quotation. New works, such as Fatboy Slim's Praise You, which samples Camille Yarbrough's Take Yo' Praise, raise questions about creativity, originality, gender, race, and class. An accompanying CD provides recordings of several mentioned works.

Works: Eric B. and Rakim: Lyrics of Fury (137); Philip King (composer), Sinéad O'Connor (performer): I Am Stretched on Your Grave (137); Robert Hunter and Jerry Garcia (songwriters), Sublime (performers): Scarlet Begonias (137); George Michael: Waiting for that Day (137); Paul Lansky: Notjustmoreidlechatter (141-145); Fatboy Slim: Praise You (145-151); Public Enemy: Fight the Power (151-156).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (137, 152, 154): Camille Yarbrough: Take Yo' Praise (145-151); Trouble Funk: Pump Me Up (151, 157).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Katz, Mark. “The Turntable as Weapon.” Chapter 6 in Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, 114-36. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

[+] Kaufmann, Harald. "Figur in Weberns erster Bagatelle." In Neue Wege der musikalische Analyse: Acht Beiträge von Lars Ulrich Abraham, Jürg Bour, Carl Dahlhaus, harald Kaufmann und Rudolf Stephan, ed. Lars Ulrich Abraham, 69-72. Berlin: Verlag Merseburger, 1967.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kay, Norman. "Shostakovich's 15th Symphony." Tempo, no. 100 (Spring 1972): 36-40.

Shostakovich achieves his life-long goal of writing a truly classical symphonic allegro in his Fifteenth Symphony. The work as a whole is characterized by economy: a quotation from Rossini's William Tell Overture forms the basis for all motives in the first movement. It is significant that Shostakovich chooses a model far removed from Viennese classicism from which to build this movement. The second movement quotes twice from the Eleventh Symphony, and the third introduces the infamous D-S-C-H motive. The final movement quotes Wagner's "Fate Motive" from Der Ring des Nibelungen as well as the rhythm of Siegfried's "Funeral March" from Gotterdämmerung. The quotation of the "Fate Motive" may be a back-handed comment on "poster-coloured" optimism, but becomes more personal when juxtaposed with the D-S-C-H motive. This progression from the Rossinian light-heartedness of the first movement to the gravity of the last exemplifies Shostakovich's affinity for tragedy.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Randal Tucker

[+] Kearns, William K. "Horatio Parker 1863-1919: A Study of His Life and Music." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1965.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kearns, William K. Horatio Parker, 1863-1919: His Life, Music, and Ideas. Composers of North America, No. 6. Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kelly, Kevin O. "The Songs of Charles Ives and the Cultural Contexts of Death." Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1988.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kennedy, Michael. Richard Strauss. London: Dent, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kennedy, Michael. Strauss Tone Poems. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1984.

Strauss's tone poems contain a variety of quotations from preexistent sources. There is a separate list of self-quotations in Ein Heldenleben on pp. 46-47.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Keppler, Philip Jr. "Some Comments on Musical Quotation." The Musical Quarterly 42 (October 1956): 473-85.

Allusions to well-known tunes or passages may (1) deliver a concealed comment (as in a theatrical "aside") and (2) depend on the listener's knowledge of the source if the comment is to be effective or even noted. Several categories can be differentiated: incidental thematic quotation, topical thematic reference (to tunes such as the Marseillaise and to less familiar tunes), and quotation of vocal works in which the text is of significance. Commentarial quotation is distinguished from self-quotation (here with reference to Mahler, Rossini, and Beethoven) since in the latter knowledge of the source is of no significance. Commentarial quotation is a predominantly Romantic phenomenon and fits in with the desire to be exclusive and the tendency to refer to things outside the work of art.

Works: Elgar: Enigma Variations (473); Saint-Saëns: Carnival of Animals (473), Danse Macabre (474); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (474); Schumann: Die beiden Grenadieren (474); Weber: Jubilee Overture (474), Battle Symphony (474); Brahms: Song of Triumph (474), Academic Festival Overture (474); Mendelssohn: Reformation Symphony (474); Wagner: Kaisermarsch (474); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (474); Liszt: Totentanz (474), Dante Symphony (474); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death (474); Rachmaninoff: Isle of the Dead (474), Variations on a Theme by Paganini (474); Schelling: A Victory Ball (475); Wagner: Parsifal (476), Die Meistersinger (477), "Wesendonck" Songs (477), Siegfried Idyll (478); Puccini: Il Tabarro (479); Mozart: Don Giovanni (480), The Marriage of Figaro (480); Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (481), Capriccio (482); Sterndale Bennett: Études Symphoniques, Op. 13 (483).

Sources: Mendelssohn: Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (473); Berlioz: Dance of the Sylphs (473); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (474); Arne: God Save the King (474); Luther: Ein feste Burg; Anonymous: Gaudeamus Igitur (474), Dies Irae (474); Rossini: "Una voce poco fa" from Barber of Seville (475), "Di tanti palpiti" from Tancredi (475-76); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (477-78); Strauss: Death and Transfiguration (480); Martín: Una Cosa Rara (480); Sarti: I Due Litiganti (480); Marschner: The Templar and the Jewess (483).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Kermode, Mark. "Twisting the Knife." In Celluloid Jukebox: Popular Music and the Movies Since the 50s, ed. Jonathan Romney and Adrian Wootton, 8-21. London: British Film Institute, 1995.

Popular music in film can serve to inspire and enliven directors and accompany, counterpoint, boost, or ironically comment upon their visual work. Popular music can create an instant period location, establishing time and place with just a few choice chords, haunting vocal phrases, or distinctive drumbeats. More than any other art form, popular music is a disposable, transient product that reflects, mimics, and occasionally shapes the American zeitgeist through film music. American popular music can serve as a film's memory, tapping into a nostalgic past or fixing the film firmly in the present. In the film score of Richard Brooks's Blackboard Jungle, which borrowed Bill Haley and the Comets' Rock Around the Clock, and Frank Tashlin's score for The Girl Can't Help It, which included music from Gene Vincent and the Blue Caps, Eddie Cochran, Julie London, Fats Domino, and Little Richard, Brooks and Tashlin were successful in capturing the essence of the 1950s teenage experience by incorporating the emerging genre of Rock and Roll. Contemporary popular music has also been used to help tell the story. Dennis Hopper's Easy Rider used Steppenwolf's Born to be Wild to epitomize the new breed of youth rebellion in the 1970s. John Badham's Saturday Night Fever featured the Bee Gees, Spike Lee's Do the Right Thing included rap and blues artists, and Cameron Crowe's Singles showcased Seattle 1990s grunge bands, all utilizing contemporary artists to place the film in the "now." John Carpenter's sound track to Christine, based on Stephen King's novel, references the nostalgic 1950s through the radio of the 1958 Plymouth Fury. American films based on the Vietnam War rely heavily on the political sentiments expressed via 1970s Rock and Roll; Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now opens ominously with The Door's The End, while Mark Rydell's For the Boys has Bette Midler on screen singing The Beatles' In My Life as her son is killed in battle. Film scores often develop a symbiotic relationship between pop music and film, where the music borrowed for a film is re-released as a marketing scheme for the movie.

Works: Richard Brooks: score to Blackboard Jungle (9); Bobby Troup: songs for The Girl Can't Help It (9); Dennis Hopper: score to Easy Rider (12); Barry Gibb, Maurice Gibb, Robin Gibb, and David Shire: songs for Saturday Night Fever (12); Spike Lee: score to Do the Right Thing (12); Cameron Crowe, et al.: score to Singles (12); Mike Nichols: score to The Graduate (12); Michelangelo Antonioni: score to Blowup (12), Zabriskie Point (12); John Carpenter: score to Christine (13); Carmine Coppola: score to Apocalypse Now (16); Philip Kaufman: score to The Wanderers (16); Dave Grusin and Diane Warren: score to For the Boys (17).

Sources: Max C. Freedman and Jimmy DeKnight: Rock Around the Clock as performed by Bill Haley and the Comets (9); Mars Bonfire (Dennis Edmonton): Born to be Wild as performed by Steppenwolf (12); Paul Simon: Mrs. Robinson (12); Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel: Scarborough Fair (12); Jeff Beck, Chris Dreja, Jimmy Page, and Keith Relf [The Yardbirds]: Stroll On (12); David Gilmour, Nick Mason, Roger Waters, Richard Wright [Pink Floyd]: Come in Number 51, Your Time is Up (12); Traditional: Sugar Babes as performed by The Youngbloods (12); Jerry Garcia and Robert Hunter [The Grateful Dead]: Dark Star (12); The Doors: The End (16); Bob Crewe and Bob Gaudio: Walk Like a Man as performed by the Four Seasons (16); Lee Feldman, Jerry Goldstein, and Richard Gottehrer: My Boyfriend's Back as performed by The Angels (16); Dion DiMucci and Ernie Maresca: Runaround Sue,The Wanderer (16); Bob Berryhill, Jim Fuller, and Ron Wilson [The Surfaris]: Wipe Out (16); Acker Bilk and Robert Mellin: Stranger on the Shore as performed by Mel Martin (16); John Lennon and Paul McCartney: In My Life (17).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Kibby, Marj, and Karl Neuenfeldt. "Sound, Cinema and Aboriginality." In Screen Scores: Studies in Contemporary Australian Film Music, ed. Rebecca Cole, 66-77. Sydney: Australian Film Television and Radio School, 1998.

The didjeridu is misleadingly used on the soundtrack of Burke and Wills (1986) to suggest an Aboriginal presence, by borrowing the distinct timbre of the instrument but discarding the free rhythmical form of aboriginal music. The timbre of the didjeridu, electronically synthesized and symmetrically organized in meter, is used in film scores aimed at western audiences to signify a single element of Australian Aboriginal culture as complex histories of "otherness," networks of beliefs, and the relationships between peoples and lands. Borrowing the distinct timbre and register of the didjeridu in Australian cultural representations provides for white Australians and Western cinematic audiences a spurious notion of Australian Aboriginal musics, which are primarily vocal musics accompanied by drum and whistle.

Works: Peter Sculthorpe: score to Burke and Wills (66); Guy Gross: score to Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (69); J. Peter Robinson: music for Encino Man (69); Martin Armiger, William Motzing, and Tommy Tycho: music for Young Einstein (72); Ira Newborn: score to Ace Ventura, Pet Detective (72); Bill Conti: score to The Right Stuff (73).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Kiesewetter, Peter. "Meyerbeer-Paraphrasen." In Meilensteine eines Komponistenlebens, ed. G. Speer and H.J. Winterhoff, 49-55. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1977.

An analysis of Günter Bialas's Meyerbeer-Paraphrasen for orchestra (1970) demonstrates the composer's technique and his ability to infuse it with twentieth-century ideas. References are made to melodic, harmonic, and structural material from Meyerbeer's opera Le Prophète within a tightly organized six-part formal scheme. Bialas intended his piece to be understood as a concert fantasy about the historical kind of paraphrase, a "skeptical apotheosis" of the nineteenth-century model.

Works: Günter Bialas: Meyerbeer-Paraphrasen.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] King, Alec Hyatt. "Mountains, Music, and Musicians." The Musical Quarterly 31 (October 1945): 395-419.

When nature became a source of inspiration in literature in the nineteenth century, composers began to write musical works using the mountains as a theme. This was accomplished either with a programmatic title or with the use of a folk tune. Different versions of the Ranz des Vaches, a type of improvisatory tune played on the alphorn to call the cattle home at the end of the day, were quoted by many composers and served as a model for others desiring to evoke an alpine scene. In addition to the many pieces cited within the text and listed below, a list of works by lesser-known composers using the mountains as inspiration or setting is given at the conclusion of the article.

Works: Beethoven: Symphony No. 6, fifth movement (403), Six Variations facile pour le clavecin ou Harpe (Sur un air Suisse) (403); Berlioz: "Scene aux champs" from Symphonie fantastique (402); Grétry: Overture to Guillaume Tell (400); d'Indy: Symphonie Cévenole (413-14); Liszt: "Vallée d'Obermann" (409), "Improvisata sur le ranz des Vaches de Ferdinand Huber" (409), "Nocturne sur le chant montagnard d'Ernest Knop" (409), and "Rondeau sur le Ranz des Chèvres de Ferdinand Huber" (409) from Album d'un voyageur, and Grande Fantaisie sur la Tyrolienne de l'opera "La Fiancée" (transcription of Auber) (409); Mendelssohn: Two early unpublished symphonies (408); Meyerbeer: Song on the Appenzell Ranz des Vaches (400); Rossini: Overture to William Tell (400); Schumann: Manfred (406); Richard Strauss: Don Quixote (415); Wagner: Act III of Tristan und Isolde (411); Webbe: Song on the Appenzell Ranz des Vaches (400); Weigl: Song on the Appenzell Ranz des Vaches (400).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Kirchmeyer, Helmut. "Vom Sinn und Unsinn musikliterarischer Schlagwortzitate: Eine Studie zum Thema 'Demagogie der Informationen.'" Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 122 (1961): 490-96.

This article discusses the deep symbolic ramifications of musical quotations and leitmotivs. According to Kirchmeyer, quotations and leitmotivs possess demagogical powers or properties. He feels that composers of the German school such as Mahler, Schoenberg, and particularly Wagner were highly aware of these demagogical powers and properties, and consequently exploited them through the use of quotations and/or leitmotivs in their compositions. Kirchmeyer discusses the way in which these three German composers strengthen the symbolic meanings of their works through the use of quotations and leitmotivs.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Comparison of Sources." In Charles E. Ives, The Pond, 8. Hillsdale, N.Y.: Boelke-Bomart, 1973.

The final version of The Pond ends with a brief reference to "Taps." But two earler drafts features longer, more complete quotations, shown in examples. Kirkpatrick suggests that, in shortening the quotation in his revision, "Ives apparently decided to be more reticent or cryptic."

Works: Ives: The Pond

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Critical Commentary." In Charles E. Ives, Trio for Violin, Violoncello, and Piano, edited by John Kirkpatrick. New York: Peer International, [1984].

The second movement is a medley of popular tunes and fraternity songs. The finale reworks Ives's The All Enduring, composed for the Yale Glee Club. The finale closes with Toplady ("Rock of Ages"), and a theme heard earlier in the movement may be a cryptic variant of that hymn tune.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Ives as Prophet." In South Florida's Historic Ives Festival 1974-1976, edited by F. Warren O'Reilly, 61-63. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami at Coral Gables, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Ives, Charles E(dward)." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1980. Revised as "Ives, Charles (Edward)," with additions to the work-list by Paul C. Echols, in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. A Temporary Mimeographed Catalogue of the Music Manuscripts and Related Materials of Charles Edward Ives 1874-1954. New Haven: Library of the Yale School of Music, 1960; reprint, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. Liner notes to recording of Charles Ives: Five Violin Sonatas, by Daniel Stepner, violin, and John Kirkpatrick, piano. Tinton Falls, N.J.: Musical Heritage Society MHS 824501, 1982.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. Notes to the songs, in the recording Charles Ives: The 100th Anniversary. New York: Columbia M4 32504, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Klement, Udo. "Oratorium Das Friedensfest; oder; die Teilhabe von Günter Kochan." Musik und Gesellschaft 31 (April 1981): 213-16.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Klüppelholz, Werner. "Ohne das Wesentliche der Ideen unkenntlich zu nachen: Zu Kagels Variationen ohne Fuge." In Die neue Musik und die Tradition, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann, 114-29. Mainz: Schott, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Klüppelholz, Werner. "Variationen ohne Fuge für grosses Orchester über Variationen und Fuge über ein Thema von Handel fur Klavier op. 24 von Johannes Brahms (1861/1862)." In Mauricio Kagel 1970-1980, 74-100. Köln: DuMont, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Klusen, Ernst. "Gustav Mahler und das böhmisch-mährische Volkslied." In: Bericht über den Internationalen Musikwissenschaftlichen Kongress Kassel 1962, ed. Georg Reichert and Martin Just, 246-51. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Knapp, Alexander. "The Jewishness of Bloch: Subconscious or Conscious?" Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 97 (1970-71): 99-112.

Bloch turned to his Jewish identity for inspiration in part because the latent hostility toward Jews in his native Geneva left him ostracized from that city's musical life. His incorporation of Jewish materials in his music ranges from direct quotations, which are consciously intended, to materials associated with Jewish music but not directly quoted from any particular source, which are less consciously recalled. The latter include Jewish cantillation modes, less specifically Jewish exotic scales allowing for melodic skips of an augmented second or fourth, and rhapsodic, quasi-improvised passages.

Works: Bloch: Baal Shem Suite, Abodah, Suite Hébraïque,Israel Symphony,Avodath Hakodesh, Schelomo, Voice in the Wilderness.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Knapp, Raymond. "Music, Electricity, and the 'Sweet Mystery of Life' in Young Frankenstein." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 105-18. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Music and electricity have become specific accretions to the Frankenstein story over time, with American popular music serving as a subset of music in Mel Brooks's Young Frankenstein. The film plays like an operetta by focusing on personal stories and songs with special personal significance to the characters, staying away from the larger issues of human appropriation of the divine powers of electricity and music. Pre-existing songs used in the film offer both thematic verbal content as well as immediate jokes, whether or not the audience is aware of thematic conventions in which the film is engaging, although the broader humorous effect of the songs often obscures the appropriateness of the musical choice.

Works: James Whale (director): Sound track to Bride of Frankenstein (110); Mel Brooks (director): Sound track to Young Frankenstein.

Sources: Victor Herbert: Dream Melody (107-08, 112-13, 116); Irving Berlin: Puttin' on the Ritz (108, 113-15); Battle Hymn of the Republic (108, 113, 115); Schubert: Ave Maria (110-11); Wagner: Lohengrin (115).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Knaus, Herwig. "Die Kärntner Volksweise aus Alban Bergs Violinkonzert." Musikerziehung 23 (January 1969-70): 117-18.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kneif, Tibor. "Collage oder Naturalismus?: Anmerkungen zu Mahlers 'Nachtmusik I.'" Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 134 (1973): 623-28.

Mahler's innovations in instrumentation required the use of nonmusical instruments in a collage technique, characterized by sounds in free, non-metric patterns that are set against the remaining instruments. 'Nachtmusik I' of the Seventh Symphony employs a cowbell as a nonprogrammatic layer of the texture. Although this style resembles that of Ives, Mahler had no Ivesian connection. However, he undoubtedly borrowed this style from selected textures in Beethoven's Leonore Overture and Meyerbeer's Le Prophète, but he did not use direct quotations.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Kneif, Tibor. "Zur Semantik des musikalischen Zitats." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 134 (1973): 3-9.

A consideration of hermeneutics compounds Lissa's list of methods of citation by proposing the necessity of composer intent in order to defend a possible quotation. The character of the citation is defined by the connection between the composer and the listener, not between the composer and the quoted material. Reasons for parody are found in Bach and Schubert examples, "contrast citation" in Debussy, Beethoven, and Bartók examples, and self quotation in Wagner, Strauss, and Mozart examples. Contemporary composers, such as Cage and Stockhausen, show their affinity for the character of earlier works through citation, even while they vocally reject such styles.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Kneipel, Eberhard. "Wir klären Fachbegriffe Zitat/Collage." Musik in der Schule 35, no. 4 (1984): 100-4.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Knight, Ellen. "The Evolution of Loeffler's Music for Four Stringed Instruments." American Music 2 (Fall 1984): 66-83.

Music for Four Stringed Instruments was first composed in August, 1917, as a tribute to Victor Chapman, the first American aviator killed in World War I and the son of a friend of the composer. Before its publication in 1923, it underwent several revisions, and in publishing the work Loeffler withheld the written program and dedication to Chapman's memory that accompanied the 1919 premiere performance. The revisions emphasize the thematic role of the plainchant melody Resurrexi in the first movement. This chant also appears in the second movement, but there the central role is played by Victimae paschali. The programmatic, episodic third movement also employs Resurrexi, but the climactic statement is of a motive from a plainchant antiphon used in the funeral service. The pervasiveness of the Resurrexi music suggests a spiritual interpretation: an affirmation of spiritual victory over earthly sorrow.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Knights, Vanessa. "Queer Pleasures: The Bolero, Camp, and Almodóvar." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 91-104. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Pedro Almodóvar's use of sentimental boleros and Latin popular musical heritage in his films may have contributed to the renaissance of the bolero song genre in late twentieth-century Spain. He used boleros through a process of bricolage, choosing pre-existing songs to indicate of mood, aid narration, and create commentary, often depicting the bolero as camp or queer. Further, due to semiotic shifters in Spanish, bolero lyrics have multiple meanings which alter depending on the gender identifications of singers and listeners. This reinforces a blurring of boundaries between masculine and feminine as well as a homoerotic articulation of desire through the use of boleros in Almodóvar's films.

Works: Pedro Almodóvar (director): Sound track to Entre tinieblas (Dark Habits) (93, 96-98), Sound track to La ley del deseo (Law of Desire) (93, 98-101), Sound track to Tacones lejanos (High Heels) (93, 100-103), Sound track to Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios (Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown) (94), Sound track to La flor de mi secreto (The Flower of My Secret) (94-95); Sound track to Carne trémula (Live Flesh) (95-96).

Sources: Catalino Curet Alonso and La Lupe: Puro teatro (94); Lola Beltrán: Soy infeliz (94); Vargas: En el ultimo trago (95), Somos (95-96); Bola de Nieve: Déjame recordar (99); Jacques Brel: Ne me quitte pas (100); Jean Cocteau: La Voix humaine (100); Agustín Lara: Piensa en mí (100-102); Luz Casal: Un año de amor (102-103).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Kolodin, Irving. "Berio, Rochberg, and the Musical Quote." Saturday Review 2 (February 8, 1975): 36, 38.

Luciano Berio's well-justified and innovative use of the third movement of Mahler's Second Symphony in the middle movement of his Sinfonia has given rise to other uses of borrowed music which are neither innovative or justified. Many more recent pieces using the technique of collage, like George Rochberg's Music for a Magic Theater, are not destined to survive because they do not represent a significant contribution by the composer.

Works: Mozart: Don Giovanni (36); Beethoven: Diabelli Variations (36); Berio: Sinfonia (36); Ian Hamilton: Alastor (38); Offenbach: Tales of Hoffmann (36); Rochberg: Music for a Magic Theater (38); Richard Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (36); Stravinsky: Le Baiser de la Fée (38), Jeux de Cartes (38), Pulcinella (38); Tippett: Symphony No. 3 (38); Wagner: Die Meistersinger (36).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Korman, Clifford. “Criss Cross: Motivic Construction in Composition and Improvisation.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 10 (1999): 103-26.

Jazz analysts have frequently pointed to Thelonious Monk's Criss Cross as an exemplar of motivic development and coherence in jazz literature. Full transcriptions of Monk's four recordings of Criss Cross, previously unavailable in analytical literature, confirm and elaborate on this claim. Monk's melody is composed entirely of three measure-long motives and variants of those motives. His improvisations incorporate these motives at their respective places in the original melody. In both the main statement and solo sections of two recordings from 1963 and 1971, Monk augments the motives rhythmically, changes the timings of some eighth-note passages, enriches the accompaniment in the left hand, and adjusts the lengths of concluding notes. Monk's solos occasionally deviate from motivic coherence, especially in two recordings from 1951. Deviations most often occur, however, when previous solos by members of Monk's band focus more on harmonic and scalar improvisation than motivic improvisation. Milt Jackson and Sahib Shibab, both on the two 1951 recordings, use a vocabulary that consists of bebop and quotation. In contrast, Charlie Rouse, on the 1963 and 1971 recordings, maintains motivic coherence in his improvisations with Monk's theme.

Works: Thelonious Monk: Criss Cross as recorded in 1951, 1963, and 1971.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Kosovsky, Robert. "Bernard Herrmann's Radio Music for the Columbia Workshop." Ph.D. diss., City University of New York, 2000.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kowalke, Kim H. "For Those We Love: Hindemith, Whitman, and 'An American Requiem.'" Journal of the American Musicological Society 50 (Spring 1997): 133-74.

Hindemith, upon becoming a citizen of the United States, began working on what is considered his only nationalistic, American piece: When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd: A Requiem "For Those We Love." Like many other American composers living during World War II, Hindemith was drawn to the poetry of Walt Whitman as the essence of American nationalism. Within this composition, however, there are allusions to the Germanic tradition that Hindemith had left. There are many similarities between Hindemith's Whitman Requiem and Brahms's Ein deutsches Requiem, such as elaborate choral fugues, funeral marches, an orchestral prelude that uses an extended pedal point in the bass, almost identical orchestration, tempo indications, and motivic material. Other than the allusion to Brahms, Hindemith uses only two other musical borrowings within the Requiem. The first is an offstage trumpet playing "Taps" during a militaristic march. The last borrowing is found in the eighth movement, entitled "For Those We Love." Previous scholarship has only found parallels in the Whitman text with the text of the popular Episcopal hymn "For Those We Love." However, by looking deeper into the history of this hymn text, one finds it used in another hymnal but set to "Yigdal," a traditional Jewish melody sung either before or after the service proper on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, which is note-for-note the same as the tune used by Hindemith in the eighth movement of the Requiem. Hindemith takes the quotation one step further by using many of the same rhythmic values, the same key, and the same shift to the major mode for the final cadence as the traditional Jewish melody.

Works: Hindemith: When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd: A Requiem "For Those We Love" (133-74); Gaza, traditional Jewish melody from The Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America 1940 (148-56).

Sources: Brahms: Ein deutsches Requiem (142-45); Yigdal (155-61).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Kraemer, Uwe. "Das Zitat bei Igor Strawinsky." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 131 (1970): 135-41.

Lists many folk songs from which Stravinsky quotes in his music. Stravinsky claimed that he was not always conscious of the sources from which he quoted, but there is convincing evidence that his compositional process was deliberate.

Works: Stravinsky: L'Oiseau du feu (135), Petrouchka (135), Le Sacre du Printemps (136), Les Noces (138), Jeu de Cartes (138), Circus Polka (139), Greeting Prelude (139), Four Norwegian Impressions (Moods) (140).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Kramer, Lawrence. “Cultural Politics and Musical Form: The Case of Charles Ives.” In Classical Music and Postmodern Knowledge, 174-200. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Beneath the radical heterogeneity of Ives’s style runs a strong undercurrent of moral ambivalence which reinforces the regressive hierarchies—especially those of gender, race, and class—inherent in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America. By placing certain tunes, such as Protestant hymns, at the top of this hierarchy, Ives musically articulates his nostalgia for his idealized America, where traits such as white-ness, rural-ness, and masculinity dominate social order. In multi-movement works especially, Ives performs his ambivalence using three strategies. First, “Interplay” pits representations of heterogeneity against those of homogenizing idealism within a programmatic context. Second, “Excess” occurs in up-tempo second movements framed by soft, static music that contains and negates the hectic energy and suggests a transcendental truth. Finally, “Hierarchy” resolves the previous movements by privileging a single, often ideologically weighted, musical gesture, affording hegemonic status to white, rural Protestant culture. The recognition of this hierarchical structure leads to a more thorough interpretation of Ives’s music, its cultural context, and the composer’s ideals.

Works: Ives: String Quartet No. 2 (178-79, 187-91), Orchestral Set No. 1: Three Places in New England (182), Majority (185-87), Orchestral Set No. 2 (189-92), Song of Myself (191), Symphony No. 4 (192-94), Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord, Mass., 1840-60 (194-98).

Sources: David T. Shaw: Columbia, Gem of the Ocean (178); George Frederick Root: Battle Cry of Freedom (182); Henry Clay Work: Marching Through Georgia (182); Stephen Foster: Old Black Joe (182); Lowell Mason: Watchman, Tell Us of the Night (188); Joseph P. Webster: In the Sweet Bye and Bye (191-92); Lowell Mason: Bethany (194).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone, Daniel Rogers, David G. Rugger

[+] Kramer, Lawrence. “Music and the Politics of Memory: Charles Ives’s A Symphony: New England Holidays.Journal of the Society for American Music 2 (November 2008): 459-75.

The relationship between Ives’s musical forms and his political beliefs manifests itself in his music, where Ives created progressive sonic backgrounds to house his regressive views of America in the form of American tunes (quoted or otherwise). Ives identified America as New England before the Civil War: a prominently rural, white and Protestant community. His main challenge in creating a true American music was to incorporate tunes of Americana in a musically authentic way. The music needed not to sound American, but intrinsically be American. Ives utilized two compositional techniques to accomplish his aims. The first is the creation of a sparse “acoustic horizon” in which various pieces can be quoted, altered, or layered. The second is a cyclical form that is created when the end of the piece recalls the beginning, though not necessarily the beginning melody. These two methods of composition create the world that Ives thought was destroyed by urban modernity, the old-fashioned America he idealized so much.

Works: Ives: Thanksgiving and Forefathers’ Day (466) and Washington’s Birthday (470) from A Symphony: New England Holidays.

Sources: Ives: Prelude and Postlude for a Thanksgiving Service (466); Edwin Pearce Christy: Goodnight Ladies (470).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux, Cynthia Dretel, Nathan Landes

[+] Krämer, Ulrich. "Quotation and Self-Borrowing in the Music of Alban Berg." Journal of Musicological Research 12 (1992): 53-82.

Despite Adorno's interpretation of Berg's quotation practice as deliberately disjunct, Berg's quotations are painstakingly incorporated into the surrounding musical context, as demonstrated by an analysis of his use of the Carinthian folk song in his Violin Concerto. Berg's quotations fall into four categories: (1) Quotations from Schoenberg, especially Schoenberg's early works; (2) thematic references to works from different stylistic spheres which Berg incorporates into his own idiom; (3) quotations in Wozzeck and Lulu that function as ironic commentary on the stage action; (4) quotations that form an integral part of the surrounding motivic network. The folk-song quotation in the Violin Concerto is an example of the last type. Berg's self-borrowings are largely from a collection of early sonata fragments, dating from 1908 to 1909, and are also of the fourth category. The quotations may work simultaneously on a variety of levels: as the sort of technical problem Berg requires as a creative stimulus; as representative of Berg's desire to retrieve musical ideas important to the evolution of his musical language; and as reminiscences of his period of study with Schoenberg. There is detailed discussion of these self-borrowings as they appear in Wozzeck and the String Quartet, Op. 3. The article's appendix offers a detailed list of Berg's works in which borrowings have been identified and the sources of the borrowings.

Works: Berg: Four Songs, Op. 2, String Quartet, Op. 3, Wozzeck, Chamber Concerto, Lyric Suite,Lulu, Violin Concerto.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Krasnow, Carolyn. "Fear and Loathing in the 1970s: Race, Sexuality and Disco." Stanford Humanities Review 3, no. 2 (Fall 1993): 37-45.

In the late 1960s rock began to appropriate values more closely resembling the classical tradition, such as virtuosity, creativity, and originality. One of the complaints leveled against newly emergent disco by proponents of rock was disco's perpetual use of pre-recorded music as the basis of new dance tracks. Reusing existing music was seen as an affront to rock's newly won creativity and individuality and represented a collective approach to music found frequently in African-American musical traditions. Because of its use of musical borrowing, therefore, disco represented a challenge to white hegemony in the production of popular culture.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Kravitt, Edward F. "Mahler's Dirges for his Death: February 24, 1901." The Musical Quarterly 64 (July 1978): 329-53.

Mahler's Kindertotenlieder, written in the aftermath of the nearly fatal hemorrhage of February 24, 1901, may be considered dirges for his own death. The work is thus autobiographical to an important extent. Several musical connections between the Kindertotenlieder cycle and other of Mahler's works are noted. The phrase at mm. 12-15 in "Nun will die Sonn' so hell aufgehn" is used in the Funeral March movement of the Fifth Symphony. The melodic idea at the beginning of "Nun seh' ich wohl" is reshaped to become the principal idea of the Adagietto of the Fifth Symphony and of the song "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen." Connections exist between the cycle and the Sixth Symphony as well. Important musical relationships exist between the first and last songs of the cycle (p. 345).

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3 (330-31), Symphony No. 5 (348), Symphony No. 6 (348, 353).

Sources: Mahler: Kindertotenlieder.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Krellmann, Hanspeter. "Mit Collage und Kurzwelle: Mauricio Kagels und Karlheinz Stockhausens Beiträge zum Beethoven-Jahr." Fono forum 15 (September 1970): 608-9.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Krenek, Ernst. "Parvula Corona Musicalis." Bach 2 (October 1971): 18-31.

A testimony and dedication precedes the facsimiles of Krenek's Parvula Corona Musicales (1950), notes to each movement, and the derived twelve-tone rows with which he worked. The work was prompted by the idea of creating a musical symbol of a wreath to be placed at the monument of Bach, the master. The work also derives twelve-tone series from Bach's Art of the Fugue, three of Beethoven's last quartets, and Wagner's Tristan.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Kropfinger, Klaus. "Bemerkungen zu Schönbergs Händel-Bearbeitungen." In Bericht über den 2. Kongress der Internationalen Schönberg Gesellschaft: Die Wiener Schule in der Musikgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, ed. Rudolf Stephan and Sigrid Wiesmann. Wien: Elisabeth Lafite, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kube, Michael. "Paul Hindemiths Jazz-Rezeption: Stationen einer Episode." Musiktheorie 10 (1995): 63-72.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kugelberg, Johan, ed. Born in the Bronx: A Visual Record of the Early Days of Hip Hop. New York: Rizzoli, 2007.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Kühn, Clemens. "Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Photoptosis; Ein Blick auf das Zitat in der Kunst der Gegenwart." Musik und Bildung 6 (February 1974): 109-15.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kühn, Clemens. Das Zitat in der Musik der Gegenwart: Mit Ausblicken auf bildende Kunst und Literatur. Hamburg: Verlag der Musikalienhandlung Karl Dieter Wagner, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kühn, Clemens. Die Orchesterwerke Bernd Alois Zimmermanns: Ein Beitrag zur Musikgeschichte nach 1945. Hamburg: Verlag der Musikalienhandlung Karl Dieter Wagner, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kulisiewicz, Aleksander. “Polish Camp Songs, 1939-1945.” Modern Language Studies 16 (Winter 1986): 3-9.

Song parodies written in Nazi concentration camps between 1939 and 1945 generally featured two distinct types of newly created lyrics. The first type tended to be pessimistic, but could also include themes of resistance and rebellion, and writers sometimes added poetic phrases to tunes that reminded them of the beauty of their native tongue and music. The second category showcased darker, more macabre subject matter. Despite featuring lyrics describing the horrors of camp life, the transformation of the subject matter provided a way for the writers to gain control over their situation by turning daily horrors into something humorous in order to enliven their spirits. Several songs also feature pre-existing melodies drawn from classical opera arias, hymns, carols, and popular genres such as foxtrots, waltzes, and tangos.

Works: Anonymous: Kolysanke dla synka w kremato-rium (3); Anonymous: Tango truponoszow (3); Anonymous: Dicke Luft (3); Anonymous: Judische Todessang (3); Anonymous: March to the Crematorium (4); E. Polak: How tenderly the wind caresses the birch tree (6).

Sources: Anonymous: Wojtusia z popielnika iskiereczka mruga (4); Beethoven: Germania (7).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Lacasse, Serge. "Intertextuality and Hypertextuality in Recorded Popular Music." In The Musical Work: Reality or Invention?, ed. Michael Talbot, 35-58. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000.

In his book Palimpsestes: la littérature au second degree, Gérard Genette addresses intertextual and hypertextual relationships between texts utilizing a theoretical framework that could be enlightening if applied to recorded popular music. Genette defines intertextuality as the "actual presence of a text within another." Thus, the techniques of quotation and allusion fall into this category. Genette goes on to define hypertextuality as the modeling of a new text (the hypertext) on a previous text (the hypotext). Parody, which is defined as the alteration of subject matter while retaining style characteristics, and its converse travesty, in which the subject matter is retained but the style is altered, fall under this category. Also, included in the category of hypertextuality are pastiche, covering, copy, translation, instrumental cover, and various types of remixes. An additional distinction in the categorization of intertextual relationships is the differentiation between borrowings with a "sameness of spelling" or autosonic borrowing (e.g., sampling) and those with a "sameness of sounding" or allosonic borrowings (e.g., a performed allusion or quotation).

Works: John Bonham, Puff Daddy (Sean Combs), Mark Curry, Jimmy Page, and Robert Plant: Come With Me (39-40); Kurt Cobain, Nirvana, and Weird Al Yancovic: Smells Like Nirvana (41-42); Noel Gallagher: Wonderwall as performed by Mike Flowers (42); Arthur 'Big Boy' Crudup: That's All Right as performed by Elvis Presley (46).

Sources: John Bonham, Jimmy Page, and Robert Plant [Led Zeppelin]: Kashmir (40); Kurt Cobain and Nirvana: Smells Like Teen Spirit (41-42); Noel Gallagher [Oasis]: Wonderwall (42); Arthur 'Big Boy' Crudup: That's All Right (46).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Lacasse, Serge. "La musique pop incestueuse: Une introduction à al transphonographie." Circuit: Musiques Contemporaines 18 (2008): 11-26.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

[+] Larson, Randall D. "Reused Music." In Music from the House of Hammer: Music in the Hammer Horror Films 1950-1980, 15-16. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, 1996.

Musical self-borrowing was a popular method of scoring in America's Universal Pictures, which during the 1940s and 1950s often scored entire films (Erle C. Kenton: House of Dracula, Jack Arnold: Revenge of the Creature) with little more than tracked cues from their music library. Nevertheless, Hammer only sporadically reused their music tracks; fewer than a dozen Hammer films contain credited reused cues. Choosing to reuse music often arose from deadline pressures and budgetary pressures.

Works: Humphrey Searle: score to The Abominable Snowman of the Himalayas (15); Benjamin Frankel: score to The Curse of the Werewolf (15).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Larson, Steve. "Dave McKenna's Performance of 'Have You Met Miss Jones?'" American Music 11 (Fall 1993): 283-315.

Jazz pianist Dave McKenna's recording of Rodgers and Hart's Have You Met Miss Jones? reveals clever improvisational strategies, procedures, and devices. For instance, throughout the multiple improvised choruses McKenna slowly expands in register, creating a sense of large-scale unity. In one instance, McKenna also borrows melodic material from the song How to Handle a Woman by Lerner and Loewe. McKenna also uses a "polymetric riff" and when returning to the "head," his restatement of the melody recollects salient features from the improvisation. McKenna's insertions of fragments of the melody within his improvised choruses reveal that in this case, the performer does not improvise simply over harmonic changes, but also keeps the original tune in mind.

Works: Rodgers/Hart: Have You Met Miss Jones? as performed by Dave McKenna.

Sources: Rodgers/Hart: Have You Met Miss Jones?; Lerner/Loewe: How to Handle a Woman (293).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Lawn, Richard, and Jeffrey Hellmer. "Rhythm Changes: The Classic Jazz Model." In Jazz Theory and Practice, 203-19. Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing, 1993.

Jazz performers and composers adopted the chord structure of George Gershwin's 1930 song I Got Rhythm both as a useful improvisational vehicle and as supporting harmony for newly composed melodies. Gershwin's chord structure, known as "the Rhythm Changes," was subjected to a variety of harmonic alterations by subsequent users, including adding chords between two original chords, changing minor chords into major, and substituting new chords for selected originals. The resulting variety of versions of "the Rhythm Changes" is so great that there is no "standard" version used by a large number of jazz performers or arrangers. Sonny Rollins's Oleo, and J. J. Johnson's Turnpike (both included here in notated versions) are two frequently played examples of the many new melodies composed to "the Rhythm Changes." They include extensive alterations to Gershwin's original chords. A partial list of other compositions based on "the Rhythm Changes" is included, as well as a list of recordings of these compositions.

Works: Johnson: Turnpike (216-17); Rollins: Oleo (217-18).

Sources: Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (203-19).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Lebermann, Walter. "Apokryph, Plagiat, Korruptei oder Falsifikat?" Die Musikforschung 20 (October/December 1967): 413-25.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Lee, Jung Ah. "Polystylism and 'A Paganini' for Violin Solo by Alfred Schnittke." DMA diss., Boston University, 2009.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Leeson, Daniel N. "The Enigma Enigma." International Journal of Musicology 7 (1998): 241-57.

Many attempts have been made to identify the origin of Elgar's "Enigma" theme. However, such study of melodic affinity is futile. Melodic similarities can be found among many different pieces, most of which bear no relationship with each other. To prove this point, a computer was utilized to identify the relationship of material between compositions. The first study was that of Mozart's Requiem in D Minor, K. 626, to determine the amount of melodic affinity between the movements by Mozart and those by Süssmayr. This method was then employed for the purposes of identifying similarities with the "Enigma" theme. The compositions employed in this study were Elgar's Variations on an Original Theme for Orchestra, Enigma, his overture Alassio (In the South), and the slow movement from Mozart's Symphony No. 38 in D, K. 504 (Prague). As expected, many affinities were discovered between the three works. Thus, the study of melodic affinity is not conclusive, or even probable, when it cannot be coupled with documentary evidence.

Works: Elgar: Variations on an Original Theme for Orchestra, Enigma (241-44, 251-57).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Leikin, Anatole. "Chopin's A-Minor Prelude and Its Symbolic Language." International Journal of Musicology 6 (1997): 149-62.

Even though Chopin denounced and laughed at any attempts to relate his works to programmatic narratives, his notion of absolute music is betrayed by borrowed melodies and topical gestures that may be found in his works. The Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No 2, is an ideal subject for hermeneutic or semiotic interpretation due to its juxtaposition of funereal and religious elements. The musical texture is permeated with references to the Dies Irae chant. Chorale and funeral march topics also appear in the score. The structural troping of these elements leads one to believe that death was on the mind of the composer. The sharp decline in Chopin's health while composing these preludes gives further credence to a programmatic interpretation. Interestingly, Alexander Scriabin borrowed elements from this work for his second Prelude of Op. 74, which also alludes to his own failing health.

Works: Chopin: Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No. 2 (149-59); Scriabin: Prelude, Op. 74, No. 2 (159-62).

Sources: Dies Irae (149-62); Chopin: Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No. 2 (159-62).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Randy Goldberg

[+] Lerner, Neil. "Copland's Music of Wide Open Spaces: Surveying the Pastoral Trope in Hollywood." The Musical Quarterly 85 (Fall 2001): 477-515.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

[+] Lessem, Alan. "Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and Neo-Classicism: The Issues Reexamined." The Musical Quarterly 68 (Winter 1982): 527-42.

Despite clear similarities in the evolution of the Neoclassical styles of Schoenberg and Stravinsky, comparisons often prove more insightful when used to highlight their differences. Both composers felt a strong need to reconcile current compositional trends with those of the past, and attempted this partially through borrowing from the established classical tradition, as seen in Stravinsky's use of established forms in non-conventional ways. Stravinsky's tendency to use existing music as musical material to be manipulated is evident in the third movement of his Piano Sonata, which is clearly based on Beethoven's Sonata in F Major, Op. 54. While there is a clear relationship between these pieces, Stravinsky's use of the material completely reconceives Beethoven's ideas of form and harmony, a trait common to many of Stravinsky's recompositions.

Works: Stravinsky: Piano Sonata (541), Octet for Winds (541-42).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F Major, Op. 54 (541).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sherri Winks

[+] Levin, Gregory. "An Analysis of Movements III and IX from Le Marteau sans maitre by Pierre Boulez." Ph.D. diss., Brandeis University, 1975.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Levin, Henry. "Gershwin, Handy and the Blues." Clavier 9 (October 1970): 10-20.

Two of the principal motives in Rhapsody in Blue are direct borrowings from two of W. C. Handy's compositions, "Beale Street Blues" and "St. Louis Blues." Gershwin also employs a three-against-four accent cycle that is a prominent feature of Handy's style. A sidebar disproves the persistent rumor that the E major main theme of Rhapsody in Blue was inspired by Gershwin's hearing of the "Chimes of Erie" at St. Peter's Cathedral in Erie, Pennsylvania; the chimes were installed at St. Peter's four years after the publication of Rhapsody in Blue.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Lewin, David. "A Transformational Basis for Form and Prolongation in Debussy's 'Feux d'artifice.'" In Musical Form and Transformations: Four Analytic Essays, 97-159. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

A detailed analysis of Debussy's "Feux d'artifice," the last of his twenty-four Préludes for piano, reveals a network of musical ideas and transformational relations that shape the overall form and character of the piece. A melodic fragment of the French national anthem "La Marseillaise" appears during the coda. The most obvious role of this quotation on the surface level is to evoke a spirit of French nationalism, which seems especially appropriate considering the immediate prewar period when Debussy composed this music. Yet on a deeper level of structure, the quotation of "La Marseillaise" achieves greater significance in that its headnote represents the culmination of a large-scale ascending chromatic progression initiated at the second reprise (from m. 82).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Lindlar, Heinrich. "Musikalische Zitate: Diakritisches zu Schostakowitsch und Strawinsky." In Bericht über das Internationale Dimitri-Schostakowitsch-Symposion Köln 1985, ed. Klaus Wolfgang Niemüller, Vsevolod Zaderackij,and Manuel Gervink, 34 5-354. Kölner Beitrage zur Musikforschung 150. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Lissa, Zofia. "Ästhetische Funktionen des musikalischen Zitats." Die Musikforschung 19 (October/December 1966): 364-78.

One finds quotation in almost every epoch. Quotation must be distinguished from parody technique, contrafactum, variation, transcription, phantasy on known themes, paraphrase, pasticcio, metamorphosis, and stylization. Some thirteen criteria for quotation are listed (pp. 365-67). Four aesthetic functions of quotation are discussed with numerous examples of each: (1) a quotation may serve as the symbol for a well-defined expressive character; (2) a quotation may be used not so much as a symbol but rather as a means of expressing the content of a programmatic work (quotation as commentary); (3) a quotation may serve as an allusion or reference which will be more or less understood by the listener; and (4) a quotation may express parody, irony, or grotesquerie. The significance of quotation must be considered in relation to the genre in which it appears, such as pure instrumental music, vocal music, opera and ballet, music for film, and Jazz.

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger (368); Britten: Albert Herring (368); Bax: Tintagel (368); Berg: Lyrischen Suite (368); Mendelssohn: Reformation Symphony (369); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (369); Prokofiev: Aleksander Newski (369); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 12 (369); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (369); Liszt: Dante Symphony (369), Totentanz (369); Rachmaninoff: Die Todesinsel (369); Dallapiccola: Canti di prigionia (369); Miaskowski: Symphony No. 6 (369); Schubert: Der Tod und Das Mädchen (369); Strauss: Ein Heldenleben (370), Don Juan (370), Tod und Verklärung (370), Don Quixote (370), Also Sprach Zarathustra (370), Til Eulenspiegel (370); Offenbach: Orpheus (371); Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (372).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Lissa, Zofia. "Historical Awareness of Music and Its Role in Present-Day Musical Culture." International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 4 (June 1973): 17-32.

The presence of history and of the past is very powerful in the music of today and is made evident in quotations. Quotations can function as associative symbols, as a means of representing past times, as symbols of fear, as reminiscences of specific ideas, or as parodies. Examples of each of these functions are given (see p. 26). Collage technique is also discussed with reference to works by Zygmunt Krause, Luciano Berio, Arvo Pärt, Enrique Raxach, Vittorio Galmetti, and Charles Ives. In the end, Lissa comes down hard on collage technique, wondering if it perhaps indicates an inability on the part of the composer to speak with an individual voice and stating that collage technique also devalues art by placing the quotation of artworks on the same level as street noises.

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger (26); Britten: Albert Herring (26); Berg: Lyric Suite (26); Tchaikovsky: The Queen of Spades (26); Liszt: Dante Symphony (26); Dallapiccola: Canti di Prigionia (26); Strauss: Heldenleben (26), Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (26); Mussorgsky: Klassiker (26); Hindemith: Nusch-Nuschi (26); de Falla: The Three Cornered Hat (26); Stravinsky: Pulcinella (26); Krause: Recital (28); Berio: Sinfonia (29); Pärt: Collage sur Bach (29); Raxach: Inside Outside (29); Galmetti: L'opera abandonnata (29); Ives: Symphony No. 4 (29), Concord Sonata (29).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Litwin, Stefan. "Politische Musik kontra musikalische Politik: Arnold Schönbergs Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte op. 41." In Stil oder Gedanke?: Zur Schönberg-Rezeption in Amerika und Europa, 24-33. Saarbrucken: Pfau, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Logan, Adeline Marie. "American National Music in the Compositions of Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, University of Washington, 1943.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Long, Michael. Beautiful Monsters: Imagining the Classic in Musical Media. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Musicology is in need of generalist methodologies and perspectives for fragments, clichés, and non-sequiturs of classical music that occur in twentieth-century media and culture. Such music is related to the “vernacular imagination,” the shared phenomenon of twentieth-century American (and occasionally European) media audiences in which an artist’s imaginative priorities intersect with the past and with memory. Musicologists can adapt the notion of register, a tool used to locate a work culturally, to study this music in a way that traces the development and intersection of its fluctuating meanings, emphasizing audience reception of an expressive mass media rather than arguing for the absolute value of a musical object.

Works: Barry Manilow: Could it Be Magic (17); Kiss: Great Expectations (17); Billy Joel: This Night (18); DMX: What’s My Name? (34-40); Busta Rhymes: Gimme Some More (34, 38-40); Alan Crosland (director) and Louis Silvers (composer): score to The Jazz Singer (51-55, 73-81, 86, 177); Otto Preminger (director) and David Raksin (composer): score to Laura (42, 44-47, 52, 58-59, 76, 163); Irving Rapper (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Now, Voyager (59-60); Victor Fleming (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Gone with the Wind (69-70); Gregory La Cava (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Symphony of Six Million (86-101); Jefferson Airplane: White Rabbit (122-24); The Doors: Light My Fire (124); Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven (126-27); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (129-39, 149-51); The Swingle Singers: Aria (135-37); Lawrence Kasdan (director) and Meg Kasdan (composer): soundtrack to The Big Chill (152-56); Alfred Hitchcock (director) and Bernard Herrmann (composer): score to Psycho (171-73); Robert Z. Leonard (director): soundtrack to Strange Interlude (181-83); James Whale (director) and Franz Waxman (composer): score to Bride of Frankenstein (190-95); Stephen Herek (director) and Michael Kamen (composer): score to Mr. Holland’s Opus (196-202); William Hanna and Joseph Barbera (directors) and Scott Bradley (music editor): score to Tom and Jerry, no. 29, The Cat Concerto (197-98); Friz Freleng (director): score to Merrie Melodies, episode Rhapsody Rabbit (197, 205); Carlos Santana and Dave Matthews: Love of My Life (214-16); Albert Lewin (director): The Picture of Dorian Gray (216-21); Queen: Bohemian Rhapsody (222-35); Penelope Spheeris (director): soundtrack to Wayne’s World (222-23, 231-32).

Sources: Chopin: Prelude in C minor, Op. 28, No. 20 (17); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (18); Richard Addinsell: Warsaw Concerto (34-35, 41); Bernard Herrmann: score to Psycho (34, 38-40); Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture (51-58), Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (59-63); Handel, “Ombra mai fu” from Serse (69-70); Ravel: Bolero (123-24); Johann Sebastian Bach, Air from Suite in D Major, BWV 1068 (133-34), Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140 (133-34, 136-37); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (152-56); George Antheil: Symphony No. 4; Dukas: The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (190); Gottfried Huppertz: score to Metropolis (194-95); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (198, 204-6); The Toys: Lover’s Concerto (196, 202-9, 213); The Supremes: I Hear a Symphony (196, 202-4, 213); Brahms: Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90 (214-16); Chopin: Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28, No. 24 (217-21); Queen: Bohemian Rhapsody (222-23); Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (227); Richard Strauss: Ariadne auf Naxos (227-31).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Losada, Catherine. “Between Modernism and Postmodernism: Strands of Continuity in Collage Compositions by Rochberg, Berio, and Zimmermann.” Music Theory Spectrum 31 (Spring 2009): 57-100.

Many questions about musical collages still remain to be answered, especially with regard to the relationships between the seemingly disparate elements on their musical surface. Analysis shows that seemingly disparate features in Luciano Berio’s Sinfonia, George Rochberg’s Music for the Magic Theater, and Bernd Alois Zimmermann’s Musique pour les Soupers du Roi Ubu, are actually governed by a multitude of associations that create unconventional structures and relationships. Chromatic saturation within pitch (not pitch-class) space in the Sinfonia provides the motivation for relating disparate passages in this collage, while aggregate completion and the saturation of certain motivic units connects seemingly disparate passages in the Music for the Magic Theater. Finally, the lack of aggregate completion and several inconclusive gap-fill processes lead to a lack of closure in Musique pour les Soupers du Roi Ubu, which is used in tandem with other musical features to provide dramatic meaning. Analyses of these three musical collages should not ignore contrasts in musical language, but instead should embrace them as fundamental building blocks, emphasizing the associations and relationships between seemingly disparate elements which make up the work’s structure. Organic unity should not be attempted to be “proven” in these works, but the idea of total disjunction of the musical surfaces of these collages is an illusion.

Works: Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (64-81); George Rochberg: Music for the Magic Theater (81-87); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Musique pour les Soupers du Roi Ubu (87-94).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (64-66, 69); Mozart: Divertimento in B-flat Major, K. 287 (81-86); Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique (87-90); Wagner: Die Walküre (87-90).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Losada, Catherine. “The Process of Modulation in Musical Collage.” Music Analysis 27 (2008): 295-336.

Musical collages are distinguished from other forms of musical borrowing because of the excessive amount and diversity of quoted material, as well as the degree to which the quoted material retains its individuality. Techniques for analyzing musical collages are few, and the process of modulation in musical collage still remains to be examined. The term “modulation” refers to the shift between distinct harmonic domains, the recurrence of a main or dominant sound world, and sharp contrasts and the efforts to reconcile these contrasts. There are several modulatory techniques of collages. Overlap is a technique that traverses the spectrum in terms of varying degrees of subtlety and can function on different conceptual levels. Types of overlap include pitch convergence, which encompasses pitch connections at different levels of abstraction, and textural dispersal/emergence, which is produced when two quotations sound simultaneously and are subjected to a process of fragmentation. In chromatic insertion, chromatic passages fulfill a modulatory function, filling in the intervening tonal space between surrounding passages of quotations. Finally, rhythmic plasticity denotes the ways in which the rhythmic profile of the music is manipulated in order gradually to introduce or to lead away from a quotation.

Works: Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (298-99, 302-4, 310-15, 326-27); George Rochberg: Music for the Magic Theater (299-300, 304-310, 318-27); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Musique pour les Soupers du Roi Ubu (300-301, 305-307, 317-18, 326-27).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (298-99, 302-4, 310-12, 321-24); Mozart: Divertimento in B-flat Major, K. 287 (300-301, 307); Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique (301, 304-5, 317-18); Wagner: Die Walküre (301, 304-305, 317-18).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Lowe-Dugmore, Rachel. "Delius and Elgar: A Postscript." Studies in Music 8 (1974): 92-100.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Lowe-Dugmore, Rachel. "Frederick Delius and Norway." Studies in Music 6 (1972): 27-41.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Ludwig, Wolfgang. "Untersuchungen zum musikalischen Schaffen von Frank Zappa: Ein musiksoziologische und -analytische Studie zur Bestimmung eines musikalischen Stils." Ph.D. diss., Freie Universität Berlin, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Lumby, Catherine. "Music and Camp: Popular Music Performance in Priscilla and Muriel's Wedding." In Screen Scores: Studies in Contemporary Australian Film Music, ed. Rebecca Cole, 78-88. Sydney: Australian Film Television and Radio School, 1998.

ABBA's music is used to negotiate the formation of gay identity in Muriel's Wedding. ABBA's "Dancing Queen" becomes the theme for the main character as she struggles to establish her unique persona in a small town. Muriel is marked by her friends as having outdated taste in music for listening to ABBA while at the same time making her more sympathetic to an urban audience that placed value on retro style and music. Through the use of 1970s popular music, Muriel's Wedding and The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert established a sense of camp, rather than kitsch, creating the identification with gay counter-culture. Alicia Bridges's "I Love the Nightlife" is used in Priscilla to portray both the town's backwater status and the theatrical nature of the drag queen performance, highlighting the tension between the main characters' identification with gay culture and the unyielding conservative culture of the small town.

Works: Peter Allen and Peter Best: music for Muriel's Wedding (79); Guy Gross: score to The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (83).

Sources: Benny Andersson, Stig Anderson, Bjorn Ulvaeus: Dancing Queen (79); Benny Andersson, Bjorn Ulvaeus: Fernando (83); Benny Andersson, Stig Anderson, Bjorn Ulvaeus: Waterloo (83), I Do, I Do (86); Alicia Bridges: I Love the Nightlife (81); Ken Hirsch and Ron Miller: I've Never Been to Me, as performed by Charlene (85); Henri Belolo, Jacques Morali, and Victor Willis: Go West (85); Dino Fekaris and Freddy Perren: I Will Survive as performed by Gloria Gaynor (87).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Lusk, Franklin L. "An Analytical Study of the Music and Text of Ralph Vaughan Williams' On Wenlock Edge." D.M.A. diss., Indiana University, 1975.

One reference to borrowing is present: the second song of On Wenlock Edge, "From Far; From Eve and Morning," recalls "The Infinite Shining Moment" from Songs of Travel with its widespread common chords.

Works: Vaughan Williams: On Wenlock Edge (36).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] MacKay, John. "'Les jeux sont faits': Ensemble Strategies and Historical 'Borrowing' in the Music of Bengt Hambraeus." Ex Tempore: A Journal of Compositional and Theoretical Research in Music 10 (Summer 2000): 12-67.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Magee, Jeffrey. "'Everybody Step': Irving Berlin, Jazz, and Broadway in the 1920s." Journal of the American Musicological Society 59 (Fall 2006): 697-732.

In the early 1920s, when public familiarity and associations with jazz were amorphous and inconsistent, Irving Berlin cultivated a sense that his theatrical music defined jazz. In addition to textual and musical references to ragtime or blues characteristics, Berlin used quotations of his own music, which had already gained ragtime associations, to reinforce this idea. One notable example is Berlin's quotation of his earlier songs Alexander's Ragtime Band, Everybody's Doing It Now, and The Syncopated Walk in his 1921 Everybody Step. Berlin's self-borrowing ranged from nearly exact quotation of a full phrase of both music and lyrics to more subtle use of one- or two-measure units of rhythms, fills, or pick-ups that were nevertheless recognizable as being drawn from his earlier pieces. The earlier songs' associations with jazz implied that Berlin's newer music also fit into the genre. To further build upon this personal jazz lineage, Berlin borrowed from Everybody Step in later works.

Works: Irving Berlin: Everybody Step (698-10), The Syncopated Vamp (706, 708), Pack Up Your Sins and Go to The Devil (710-12).

Sources: Irving Berlin: Alexander's Ragtime Band (706-07, 709-10), Everybody's Doing It Now (706, 708-09), The Syncopated Walk (706-09), Everybody Step (710-13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Magee, Jeffrey. "Irving Berlin's 'Blue Skies': Ethnic Affiliations and Musical Transformations." Musical Quarterly 84 (Winter 2000): 537-80.

Applying the technique of a "song profile," or the compositional and performance history of a tune that reveals socially constructed meanings, to Irving Berlin's Blue Skies reveals several borrowings that suggest reinterpretation. Many of Berlin's songs reflect a Jewish tradition, incorporating modal mixture and chromatic inflection. Although this tradition is not uniquely Jewish, listeners interpreted as such in Manhattan in Berlin's day. Looking at the tune history of Blue Skies demonstrates the shift from its Jewish origins in the 1920s to subsequent revisions that change its ethnic associations. A performer such as Belle Baker, for example, who sang the song in Betsy, attempted to identify directly with Jewish culture, whereas Al Jolson, who played straightforward and jazzy renditions in The Jazz Singer, gave the song, in addition to its Jewish characteristics, jazz overtones. Benny Goodman and Mary Lou Williams employed allusion; Bing Crosby crooned a slow, balladic version and marketed it toward a broader, Caucasian, middle-class audience. Through contrafact, Thelonius Monk virtually disguised the source in In Walked Bud, while Ella Fitzgerald used scat. Willie Nelson and Pete Seeger reinterpreted the song further to represent an American folk song. Above all, the transcendent power of the tune proves the "assimilative power of Jewish culture" and effectively reinforces its roots.

Works: Rodgers and Hart: Betsy (552-57); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer (557-59), Fletcher Henderson and Benny Goodman (559-63); Mary Lou Williams: Trumpet No End, arrangement for Duke Ellington (560-62); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Bing Crosby (563-65); Thelonius Monk: In Walked Bud (566-69); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Ella Fitzgerald (569-70), Willie Nelson (570-71), Pete Seeger (571-72).

Sources: Berlin: Blue Skies (537-38, 540-44, 547, 549-52, 572-73).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Magers, Roy Vernon. "Aspects of Form in the Symphonies of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1975.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Magers, Roy Vernon. "Charles Ives's Optimism: or, The Program's Progress." In Music in American Society 1776-1976, ed. George McCue, pp. 73-86. New Brunswick, N. J.: Transaction Books, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Magrill, Samuel Morse. "The Principle of Variation: A Study in the Selection of Differences with Examples from Dallapiccola, J. S. Bach, and Brahms." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Mallet, Franck. "Orient-Occident: De l'emprunt á l'intégration." Cité musiques: Journal de la Cité de la Musique 29 (Summer 2000): 6-7.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mann, William. Richard Strauss: A Critical Study of the Operas. London: Cassell, 1964.

Among Strauss's fifteen operas, there are a large number of quotations, stylistic allusions, and melodic derivatives, most of which have a programmatic intent. The musical borrowings are cited but are not included on separate lists.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Marcus, Jason. "Don't Stop That Funky Beat: The Essentiality of Digital Sampling to Rap Music." COMM-ENT: Hastings Journal of Communications and Entertainment Law 13, no. 4 (Summer 1991): 767-90.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Mark, Christopher. "Britten's Quatre Chansons Françaises." Soundings 10 (Summer 1983): 23-35.

Britten's Quatre Chansons Françaises, written in 1928, show four possible sources of influences: Frank Bridge, Britten's composition teacher; works whose scores Britten owned; broadcasts, recordings, and concerts; and orchestration books. Britten may have used Bridge as a model for some of the harmonies and orchestration in the first song "Les Nuits de Juin," but this is difficult to trace. Of the works he knew in score, those that seem to have had the most influence are Wagner's Tristan und Isolde and Siegfried and Ravel's Introduction and Allegro.Tristan serves as a model for the end of the song cycle where the similarities are key (B Major/C-flat Major), and the spacing of the strings in the final chord, which is repeated three times as in Tristan. Also, the soprano ends on the same note (F-sharp/G-flat); the utilization of suspensions is similar; and the "Tristan chord" is blatantly quoted in the third song "L'Enfance." The influence of Ravel, along with that of Debussy, may have been acquired through broadcasts as well as scores. This French influence appears in the vocal writing; the use of non-functional progressions of seventh and ninth chords; an oscillating triplet figure in "Les Nuits de Juin"; a melodic line constructed from a chain of 025 trichords in the final song "Chanson d'Automne"; and modal inflection such as is found in the second song "Sagesse." Finally, Cecil Forsyth's book Orchestration appears to have influenced not only the orchestration but also various instructions written in the parts.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Markewich, Reese. The New Expanded Bibliography of Jazz Compositions Based on the Chord Progressions of Standard Tunes. New York, N.Y.: Reese Markewich, 1974.

Many modern jazz and popular compositions have been written based on the chord progressions of standard popular songs and other jazz compositions. They provide a fresh approach, both melodically and harmonically, to familiar material, and serve jazz musicians in jam sessions as an acceptable common denominator of chord progressions known to all. In addition to brief introductory comments, this book lists groups of compositions (more than one hundred compositions are included) that share the same chord progressions. Compositions based on the twelve-bar blues harmonic scheme and George Gershwin's song I Got Rhythm are not included.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Marks, Martin. "Music, Drama, Warner Brothers: The Cases of Casablanca and The Maltese Falcon." Michigan Quarterly Review 35, no. 1 (Winter 1996): 112-42.

Music in film can serve to strengthen the plot and emotional intensity if it is made an essential part of the narrative. In the case of Casablanca, Max Steiner scores approximately forty-five minutes of music that makes an indelible mark on the film's narrative through borrowing the French national anthem, La Marseillaise, the German national anthem, Deutschland über alles,As Time Goes By, and Watch on the Rhine, scoring them repeatedly in various ways to show sympathy for the star-crossed lovers. Adolph Deutsch's score for the Maltese Falcon contains fifty minutes of composed music that does not contain borrowed tunes, lending itself to a less noticeable role in the film's narrative. Steiner borrowed La Marseillaise to symbolize the French, and by extension, the Allied resistance to Nazi oppression. Deutschland über alles and Watch on the Rhine were used to symbolize the Nazi German menace. As Time Goes By is scored unobtrusively with background music throughout the score as a theme song, enhancing the unity of the film and imbuing the narrative with a strong sense of nostalgia.

Works: Max Steiner: score to Casablanca (118); Adolph Deutsch: score to The Maltese Falcon (128).

Sources: Joseph Haydn (tune), Hoffman and Fallersleben (poem): Deutschland über alles (119); Herman Hupfeld: As Time Goes By (121); Karl Wilhelm: Watch on the Rhine (121).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Marmande, Francis. "Le Travail de la 'citation': Espace rupture." Jazz Magazine 194 (November 1971): 16-19.

The enormous variety of borrowing (citation) in free jazz cannot be adequately described by our current rigid and limited terminology. The rhetoric and ideology present in outmoded descriptions of borrowing that use language and assumptions advanced by Philippe Carles and Jean-Louis Comolli obligate us to intervene and create a new system for writing about borrowing. We must do away with mythical and mystical language of inspiration and creation, as well as the inflexible idea that jazz emerged solely from the condition of Black Americans. Furthermore, distinctions between types of borrowing are useless if divorced from the texts--"text" in this case being a flexible term that refers not just to our traditional ideas of notated music, but to any heard performance. If we separate term and text, we slide back towards old unconstructive accusations of copying and plagiarism. The new terminology should incorporate the many types of borrowing that occur, including collage, mélange, collision, juxtaposition, reminiscence, and self-borrowing, as well as the performance conditions and the reason for the use of a particular source.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Marschner, Bo. "Stravinsky's Le baiser de la fée and Its Meaning." Dansk årbog for musikforskning 8 (1977): 51-83.

Despite Stravinsky's protestations to the contrary, it is possible to find meaning in his music, especially in Le baiser de la fée. As the work borrows from Tchaikovsky and makes reference to Richard Wagner a great deal, meaning can be found by examining Le baiser de la fée's borrowing and incorporations. The ballet's climax uses the half-diminished seventh chord, which is identical to the "Curse structure" of Wagner's Ring and the "Tristan structure" in Tristan und Isolde. Incidentally, this particular chord is also found in many of the Tchaikovsky works from which Stravinsky borrows. This structure is used abundantly throughout Le baiser de la fée, by both avoiding it and eventually capitulating. This is one example of a "symbol" that can be traced throughout the work and that can be said to carry "meaning."

Works: Stravinsky: Le baiser de la fée (51-83).

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Soir d'Hiver (62), Tant Triste, Tant Douce (62), Polka peu dansante (63), Ah, qui brûla d'amour (63, 68); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (64, 70, 71); Tchaikovsky: Humoreske (71-73, 81-82), Reverie du Soir (72, 81), Berceuse de la Tempête (75-76); Wagner: Das Rheingold (76).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Marshall, Dennis. "Charles Ives's Quotations: Manner or Substance?" Perspectives of New Music 6 (Spring/Summer 1968): 45-56. Reprinted in Perspectives on American Composers, ed. Benjamin Boretz and Edward T. Cone, 13-24. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

The common assumption that Ives's use of borrowed material is primarily programmatic is not valid. Ives himself differentiated between "mannered" quotation, or the use of "local musical sources merely for surface effect," and the creation of meaning, substance, and compositional structure in a work through various types of quotation, paraphrase, and motivic and structural development related to borrowed material. The juxtaposition of sacred hymns with ragtime in the second and fourth movements of Ives's First Piano Sonata provides an example. Ives used both the formal and melodic organization of three hymns, I Hear Thy Welcome Voice, Bringing in the Sheaves, and Happy Day, as a basis for the ragtime movements. The simultaneous use of both sacred and secular music may be a result of Ives's Transcendentalist philosophy, which prompted him to draw on the entire range of music he knew. But Ives also selected his sources for quotation according to the motivic relationships present in the borrowed material. For example, the hymn tune Missionary Chant plays an important role in the Second Piano Sonata ("Concord") because of its melodic similarity to the opening motive from Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. In The Fourth of July, Ives uses the patriotic song The Red, White, and Blue throughout, a procedure that is comparable to the chorale preludes of J. S. Bach.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 1 (46-53), Orchestral Set No. 2 (46), Piano Sonata No. 2, "Concord, Mass., 1840-60" (54), The Fourth of July (54-56).

Sources: Ives: Set of Four Ragtime Pieces (46); Hartsough: "I Hear Thy Welcome Voice" (46-47, 49-50); Minor: "Bringing in the Sheaves" (46, 48, 50-53); Rimbault: "Happy Day" (46, 49-53); Zeuner: "Missionary Chant" (54); David T. Shaw: "The Red, White and Blue" (55-56); William Steffe?: "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" (55-56).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Marshall, Wayne. “Giving up Hip-Hop’s Firstborn: A Quest for the Real after the Death of Sampling.” Callaloo 29 (Summer 2006): 868-92.

By examining the criticism and liner notes written by The Roots’ drummer Questlove (Ahmir Thompson), the notion that sampling is what determines authenticity in hip-hop can be questioned. Though Questlove frequently admits that sampling is highly important to hip-hop, he notes that many of the earliest and some of the most successful hip-hop recordings use studio instrumentalists performing “samples” of hit breaks and grooves. He also notes the ability of producers to sample is severely limited by the amount of money required to license many well-known samples. When performing and recording with The Roots, Questlove has sought to recreate the sound and rhythmic character of sampled drums through various studio techniques and playing in a funk-based, relatively invariable fashion. Examples of this can be found on “Dynamite” and “Double Trouble” from Illadelph Halflife. The Roots have also utilized beatboxers Scratch and Rahzel, who can imitate the sounds of samples and record scratching in their beatboxing. Such efforts to mimic sampled sounds on “traditional” instruments demonstrate both the importance of sampling for hip-hop and the desire to explore other avenues of music making while staying true to hip-hop’s essence.

Works: De La Soul: Transmitting Live from Mars (868); Biz Markie: Alone Again (868); Afrika Bambaataa: Planet Rock (874); Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (874); Sugar Hill Gang: Rapper’s Delight (874); Yes: Owner of a Lonely Heart (876); Common: Like Water for Chocolate (876); The Roots: Concerto of the Desperado (880).

Sources: Jim McGuinn and Gene Clark (songwriters) and The Turtles (performers): You Showed Me (868); Gilbert O’Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (868); Kraftwerk: Trans-Europe Express (874); Funk Inc.: Kool is Back (876); Lionel Bart: Theme from From Russia with Love (880).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Marti, Christoph. "Zur Kompositionstechnik von Igor Strawinsky. Das 'Petit concert' aus der Histoire du soldat." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 38 (May 1981): 93-109.

The musical material of Stravinsky's "Petit concert" from the Histoire du soldat consists only of quotations from the remaining movements of the piece. The beginning vertically combines two motives from the "Music to Scene 1" that are developed according to parameters inherent in the musical material, especially the major second or ninth. Stravinsky derived it from the space between the g and a strings of the violin that in the story is the actual reason for the "Petit concert." This development leads to new ideas that, once they are firmly established, turn out to be quotations themselves. Stravinsky quotes from movements with about the same tempo and uses consistent rhythmic patterns in order to achieve an optimal integration.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Matthews, David. "First Performances: Britten's Third Quartet." Tempo, no. 125 (June 1978): 21-24.

Britten's Third Quartet uses material from Death in Venice, his last opera. Like Mahler with his late works and Aschenbach in the opera, Britten's inspiration "returned only under the shadow of death," and a preoccupation with life, death, peace, and beauty may be observed in the quartet. The final movement, "Passacaglia," subtitled "La Serenissima," is prefaced by five quotations from Death in Venice. The first quotation is the Barcarolle, which, in the opera, is "a transformation of the chorus's repeated calls of 'Serenissima'"; the final quotation is the love motive from the end of Act I (Aschenbach's confession of love for Tadzio, "I love you"). E Major, associated in Death in Venice with Aschenbach's quest for ideal beauty, is also used for the Passacaglia.

Works: Britten: String Quartet No. 3.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Maultsby, Portia K. “The Use and Performance of Hymnody, Spirituals, and Gospels in the Black Church.” Hymnology Annual: An International Forum on the Hymn and Worship 2 (1992): 11-26.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mavrodin, Alice. "Variations, Fugue, and Envoi on a Theme of Handel." Trans. Tempo, no. 133/134 (September 1980): 61-67.

Igor Markevitch's Variazioni e fuge su un tema di Haendel, his final composition, synthesizes his personal language with the canon of pianistic tradition and the tradition of variations. Markevitch deliberately separates the core body of his variations from both the unaltered presentation of the borrowed theme and from the coda. Throughout the variations, he suggests the use both of the piano as a heroic instrument in itself and as a miniature orchestra. Although Markevitch's Variazioni e fuge su un tema di Haendel is both the climax and the end of his compositional oeuvre, it serves as an appropriate segue to his later editorial work.

Works: Igor Markevitch: Variazioni e fuge su un tema di Haendel (61).

Sources: Handel: Keyboard Suite No. 5 in E Major (61).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Maxson, William L. "A Study of Modality and Folk Song in the Choral Music of Ralph Vaughan Williams." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1957.

English folk songs and the modality inherent in them influenced Vaughan Williams's choral works in the areas of rhythm, tempo, meter, modality, melody, harmony, ornamentation, tonality, texture and form. Chapters IV ("Music Based on a Folk Song Idiom") and V ("Choral Works Based Directly on Folk Songs") contain information on Vaughan Williams's use of borrowed materials.

Works: Vaughan Williams: Fantasia on the "Old 104th" Psalm Tune (40), The Dark-Eyed Sailor (50), The Spring Time of the Year (51), Just as the Tide was Flowing (52), The Lover's Ghost (53), Wassail Song (54), A Sea Symphony (63).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Mayer, Harry. "Het citaat in de Nederlandse muziek." Mens en Melodie 25 (December 1970): 131-34.

[On Schat and Andriessen among others.]

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mayer-Serra, Otto. "Falla's Musical Nationalism." The Musical Quarterly 29 (January 1943): 1-17.

Falla is distinguished for having brought Spanish music into the 20th century through his move away from the romantic-impressionistic tradition, in which folk elements are merely stylized, to a neo-classic musical language in which folk elements serve as the basis for composition. Falla's innovations include developments in rhythm, harmony and form. Each of these, "internal rhythm," "Harmonic resonance," and modification of classical schemes, is discussed in reference to his Harpsichord Concerto, which treats a 15th-century Castilian folksong, De los alamos vengo.

Works: Falla: Harpsichord Concerto.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Mayer-Serra, Otto. "Silvestre Revueltas and Musical Nationalism in Mexico." The Musical Quarterly 27 (April 1941): 123-45.

Revueltas never used actual folk melodies in his music, but he evoked regional tunes such as the Tarascan son and the Michoacan corrido by modeling his melodies on their characteristic features, thus creating a Mexican nationalist music.

Works: Revueltas: Caminos (131-32), Cuauhnahuac (130), Janitzio (129-30, 133), The Wave (132-33).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Mayo, John. "Coming to Terms with the Past: Beckwith's Keyboard Practice." In Taking a Stand: Essays in Honour of John Beckwith, ed. Timothy J. McGee, 94-109. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Because of the relationship between borrowed music and compositional structure in Beckwith's Keyboard Practice (1979), an analysis of these components may illuminate the composer's intended meaning, as well as provide an analytical model for other referential compositions. Keyboard Practice, a set of variations which involves four performers who play on ten different keyboard instruments, employs quotations from an anonymous Alman, a movement from an Ordre by François Couperin, Liszt's Au bord d'une source, and Charles L. Johnson's Cum Bac' Rag. On the surface, these borrowings reflect Beckwith's view of the history of keyboard literature. The variety of instruments involved may also be read as an examination of a variety of keyboard timbres. Beckwith also comments on each borrowed composition through musical interruptions which disrupt the quotations. The 12-tone row upon which the piece is based may also be considered a reflection on the borrowed material, as it is derived from the first ten notes of the Alman, and sections of the row serve as cadential figures in reference to the other pre-existent music.

Works: Beckwith: Keyboard Practice (94-109).

Sources: Fitzwilliam Virginal Book: anonymous Alman (97-105); François Couperin: [Unidentified] Ordre (97-105); Liszt: Au bord d'une source (97-105); Charles L. Johnson: Cum Bac' Rag (98-105).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Randy Goldberg

[+] Mays, Kenneth Robert. "The Use of Hymn Tunes in the Works of Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1961.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Mazo, Margarita. "Stravinsky's Les Noces and Russian Folk Wedding Ritual." Journal of the American Musicological Society 43 (Spring 1990): 99-142.

Although Stravinsky frequently emphasizes his familiarity with the sources of folk songs and the influence of folk music upon his works, he claims to have quoted only one folk tune (Ne veselaia da kampan'itsa) in his ballet Les Noces. What characterizes Les Noces as typically Russian is not the quotation of this song, however, but the use of melodic idioms, called popevki.Popevki playing an important role in Stravinsky's ballet are listed in the appendix of the essay. According to Stravinsky, Les Noces is also a product of the Russian church, which is shown with a passage entirely derived from the Fifth Tone (glas) of the Znamennyi Chant. The main point of the article is, however, that Stravinsky's ballet is strongly influenced by the Russian folk weddings in terms of "poly-layered texture," the function of rhythmic and melodic ostinato, the recurrences of certain melodic phrases, as well as conceptual and structural ideas.

Works: Kastalsky: Kartiny narodnykh prazdnovanii na Rusi (Scenes of Folk Festivals in Old Russia) (112-14); Stravinsky: Les Noces.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Mazulo, Mark. “Remembering Pop: David Lynch and the Sound of the ‘60s.” American Music 23 (Winter 2005): 493-513.

David Lynch uses compilation scores comprising American popular songs to establish individual sound signatures in his films. He is especially attracted to pop songs released during his adolescence that make use of distinctive vocals or mixing, which create a certain peculiarity with the naiveté of a song’s message, sincerity, and compositional elements. Lynch capitalizes on the dualistic nature of these songs by deploying them as historically unproblematic and desired objects of nostalgia, in some instances using them in violent, psychologically deviant, horrifying, and self-consciously staged scenes as passageways to strangeness and the uncanny. Such a use allows audiences to reimagine the history of these songs and the culture that created and consumed them and represents a new employment of the compilation score consistent with his aesthetic of the “ridiculous sublime.” In Mulholland Drive, the pop song I’ve Told Every Little Star represents the film’s theme of duality. In Lost Highway, the use of Lou Reed’s cover of This Magic Moment rather than the well-known pop versions matches the soundscape of the film and is metacommentary on the reception of American popular song. In Twin Peaks, a newly-composed pop song disrupts the security of reality, and in Blue Velvet, pop music complicates multiple layers of diegesis, performance, and reality.

Works: David Lynch (director): soundtrack to Lost Highway (494, 502-3), soundtrack to Eraserhead (494, 499), soundtrack to Blue Velvet (507-9); David Lynch (director) and Angelo Badalamenti (composer): soundtrack to Mulholland Drive (494, 494-501), soundtrack to Twin Peaks (494, 503-6).

Sources: Bill Post and Doree Post: Sixteen Reasons (Why I Love You) (500); Oscar Hammerstein II and Jerome Kern: I’ve Told Ev’ry Little Star (500-501); Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman (songwriters) and The Drifters (performers): This Magic Moment (500-502); Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman (songwriters) and Lou Reed (performer): This Magic Moment (502-3); Bobby Vinton: Blue Velvet (507-8); Roy Orbison: In Dreams (508-9).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] McBrier, Vivian Flagg. R. Nathaniel Dett: His Life and Works (1882-1943). Washington: The Associated Publishers, 1976.

R. Nathaniel Dett believed that African-American folk songs were well suited to development into high art forms, and that such development could inspire racial pride and personal dignity. He was particularly predisposed to the use of spirituals as the basis of choral compositions. His treatment of the source material included use of the entire song or only the smallest fragment; expansion, contraction, variation, and inversion of the melodic ideas; rhythmic diminution and augmentation; textual mutations and repetitions; and antiphonal and contrapuntal treatments.

Works: Dett: Listen to the Lambs (36-38), The Ordering of Moses (82-84, 143, 144), O Hear the Lambs A-Crying (134,135), Gently, Lord, O Gently Lead Us (136), Let Us Cheer The Weary Travler (137-139).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] McCandless, William Edgar. "Cantus Firmus Techniques in Selected Instrumental Compositions, 1910-1960." Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] mcclung, bruce d. "Life after George: The Genesis of Lady in the Dark's Circus Dream." Kurt Weill Newsletter 14, no. 2 (Fall 1996): 4-8.

Kurt Weill originally conceived the third dream sequence in Lady in the Dark as a minstrel show, but lyricist Ira Gershwin preferred Gilbert and Sullivan as a model, particularly Trial by Jury. Early drafts and the final version include many parallels and echoes in the text. Weill joined in by borrowing the Mikado's entrance song from The Mikado for the entrance of the jury.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] McDonald, Matthew. "Death and the Donkey: Schubert at Random in Au Hasard, Balthazar." The Musical Quarterly 90 (Fall/Winter 2007): 446-68.

The musical context of pre-existing pieces used in film scores may help one derive meaning from a score. While film director Robert Bresson completely rejected non-diegetic film music at the end of his career, Au Hasard, Balthazar represents the culmination of his admired treatment of rhythm and form in film music. He avoids postmodern irony present in films such as 2001: A Space Odyssey, choosing instead to merge the aural and visual to the point that they are dependent on each other. Fragments of the Andantino from Schubert's Piano Sonata in A Major, D. 959 are arranged in a way that adds meaning to the film. It is essential for viewers to pay attention to the meaning of these fragments both as they function within the film and according to their original function, as the images and sounds in the film transform one another.

Works: Robert Bresson (director): Sound track to Au Hasard, Balthazar.

Sources: Schubert: Piano Sonata in A Major, D. 959.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] McFarland, Mark. "Debussy and Stravinsky: Another Look into Their Musical Relationship." Cahiers Debussy, no. 24 (2000): 79-112.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] McGinness, John. “Has Modernist Criticism Failed Charles Ives?” Music Theory Spectrum 28 (Spring 2006): 99-109.

To secure Ives’s compositional reputation against modernist criticism, revisionist scholars have adapted the untenable position that Charles Ives was a modernist composer. Such characterizations attempt to situate his music within Western European tradition and refute the categorization of Ives as an experimentalist. Two critical processes, the idea of experimentalism and the use of musical analysis, are important to understanding how Ives’ reputation was created. In post-1974 Ives scholarship, music analysis is often used as a determinant of aesthetic value. It is frequently employed to “prove” that Ives’s music is systematic and logical, and by extension is skilled and therefore valuable. This motivation also lies behind scholarship which demonstrates how Ives’s music is more “traditional” and how it relates to European art music. For example, some scholars have tried to show how Ives’s uses of musical borrowings fit into a European tradition. Such traditionalist studies seek to redefine the term “experimentalism” as it was originally conceived in the 1930s by Cowell—a type of music which deliberately sought to break with European tradition—to a term that signifies compositional uniqueness. The motivations of such analyses, which have attempted to place Ives’s musical reputation within a context of “skill and value,” should be examined. Perhaps Ives’s music, aspects of which (such as his uses of pre-existing music) intentionally undermine conventions, should not be subject to formalist analysis and scholars should instead examine the validity of evaluating Ives through a modernist lens rather than characterize his music as modernist.

Works: Ives: Tone Roads No. 1 (104), Study No. 5 (104), The Cage (104), Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (105-6).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kate Altizer, Chelsea Hamm, Amanda Jensen

[+] McGuinness, Rosamund. "Mahler und Brahms: Gedanken zu 'Reminiszenzen' in Mahlers Sinfonien." Melos/Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 3 (May/June 1977): 215-24.

In the wake of the Brahms/Wagner debate of the mid-nineteenth century, Mahler alludes in his music to Brahms both thematically and structurally. Due to his quotation of other composers, Mahler has often been criticized for lack of originality. Mahler took inspiration from Brahms and transformed it in his own music. Examples of this are seen in Mahler's First and Second Symphonies and their allusions to Brahms's First and Second Symphonies.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (216, 219-21), Symphony No. 1 (218-19), Symphony No. 4 (222), Symphony No. 6 (222-23), Symphony No. 7 (222-23).

Sources: Brahms: Ein deutsches Requiem, Op. 45 (216, 220-21), Symphony No. 2 (217-19), Nänie, Op. 82 (220), Symphony No. 1 (221-22), Symphony No. 3 (222-23).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] McLean, Florence Anne. "Rachmaninov's 'Corelli-Variations': New Directions." D.M.A. document, University of British Columbia, 1990.

Rachmaninov's Corelli Variations illustrates his new compositional tendencies: economy of means, sparse texture, well-balanced structure, string-inspired figurations, elements of American jazz, and the avoidance of Romantic richness. Some of these elements are also present in the Paganini Rhapsody. Along with this main idea, the composer's borrowings in the two pieces are examined mainly in the discussion of string-influenced variations. For instance, in the Corelli Variations, the cadenza in the Intermezzo shares gypsy-style figurations with Kreisler?s La Gitane (m. 7). In the coda, the soaring melodic contour is inspired by that in the transcription of the coda of Corelli's La Folia (mm. 1-3) by Albert Spalding, Rachmaninov's friend. In the Paganini Rhapsody, the skips in triplet figuration in Var. 23 have a parallel with those in Paganini's La Clochette (mm. 76-92).

Works: Rachmaninov: Variations on a Theme of Corelli (32-34), Rhapsody for Piano and Orchestra on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43 (52).

Sources: Paganini: Praeludium and Allegro (32); Kreisler: La Gitane (33); Albert Spalding: transcription of Corelli?s La Folia (34); Paganini: La Clochette (52).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] McLeod, Kembrew. "Confessions of an Intellectual (Property): Danger Mouse, Mickey Mouse, Sonny Bono, and My Long and Winding Path as a Copyright Activist-Academic." Popular Music and Society 28 (February 2005): 79-93.

The electronic collage aesthetic, which originated with musique concrète and tape works such as John Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 5 and Bill Buchanan and Dickie Goodman's The Flying Saucer, finds its modern incarnation in Danger Mouse's The Grey Album, a mash-up of Jay-Z's The Black Album and The Beatles' White Album. The current mash-up phenomenon is made possible by file-sharing software and readily available mixing programs. The Grey Album presents a legal quagmire because the samples were used without permission of EMI, prompting cease-and-desist letters to all those who circulated the album. Current laws only permit covers of songs, and sampling without permission is prohibited. Until copyright laws catch up with the collage aesthetic, the limited legality of fair use rights has the potential to stifle creativity and the free exchange of ideas.

Works: Danger Mouse (Brian Burton): The Grey Album (79-81); Freelance Hellraiser (Roy Kerr): A Stroke of Genie-us (82, 86-87); Soulwax: Smells Like Teen Booty (82, 84); Alan Copeland: Mission: Impossible Theme/Norwegian Wood (85); Negativland: U2 (88); Illegal Art: Sonny Bono is Dead (91), Deconstructing Beck (91).

Sources: The Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr): The White Album [The Beatles] (79-81); Jay-Z: The Black Album (79-81); Kurt Cobain, Dave Grohl, and Krist Novoselic (songwriters), Nirvana (performers): Smells Like Teen Spirit (82, 84); Rob Fusair, Falonte Moore, and Beyoncé Knowles (songwriters), Destiny?s Child (performers): Bootylicious (82, 84); Eminem: Without Me (84-85); Kevin Rowland, Big Jim Paterson, and Billy Adams (songwriters), Dexy's Midnight Runners (performers): Come On Eileen (84-85); U2: I Still Haven?t Found What I?m Looking For (88).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] McLeod, Ken. "'A Fifth of Beethoven': Disco, Classical Music, and the Politics of Inclusion." American Music 24 (Autumn 2006): 347-363.

For a short time in the 1970s, disco provided a place in which various cultures could coexist on the dance floor, and such diversity is reflected in the music, such as in Walter Murphy's A Fifth of Beethoven and David Shire's A Night on Disco Mountain. Murphy's A Fifth of Beethoven is primarily based on the first theme area of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 and opens with a quotation from the opening of the first movement. This opening motive is set against a 4/4 disco pattern of electric bass, acoustic drum set, and clavinet playing composed material. Recalling the French horn bridge to the second theme area, Murphy alternates C and Eb whole notes, marking the beginning of the B section, but, rather than following sonata form, Murphy keeps A Fifth of Beethoven firmly in C minor throughout. By not modulating and by using static harmonies and a persistent rhythmic drive, A Fifth of Beethoven exemplifies the "inclusive homogeneity" that was a marker of disco style. Shire's A Night on Disco Mountain, like its Mussorgsky source, employs a wide range of sources for its orchestration, including a wah-wah electric guitar. The combination of sounds serves as a reflection of the diversity on the disco dance floor. While this was a short-lived phenomenon, disco borrowings of classical music served to exemplify the pluralism of disco.

Works: Walter Murphy: A Fifth of Beethoven (349-57, 260-61); David Shire: A Night on Disco Mountain (349-51, 357-58, 360-61).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (351-56); Mussorgsky: Night on Bald Mountain (349-51, 357-58, 360-61).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] McLeod, Ken. "Bohemian Rhapsodies: Operatic Influences on Rock Music." Popular Music 20 (May 2001): 189-203.

Although opera and rock music are seemingly situated on different sides of a cultural, stylistic, and aesthetic divide, rock and pop songs of the 1970s and later have occasionally appropriated some style characteristics from opera. Although many rock works are considered "rock operas" and some classical works were written by rock musicians, none of these works owes much to the stylistic norms of the other genre. On the other hand, a work like Queen's Bohemian Rhapsody (from the 1974 album A Night at the Opera) does incorporate many operatic characteristics, such as a cappella vocals, lamenting ballads, sarcastic recitatives, distorted operatic phraseology, underworld motifs, and so forth. These characteristics are not instances of direct borrowing of any operatic source, but are rather more general features of the style, integrated and exaggerated as a parody. Punk rock artists in the 1980s like Nina Hagen, Klaus Nomi, and Malcolm McLaren incorporated opera more directly, with more reverence for the genre, and with the intention of promoting female and homosexual voices. Hagen incorporated expressionist operatic influences and coloratura technique into her music. Nomi appropriated entire operatic arias into his eclectic music, including Handel's aria "Total Eclipse" from Samson, not as a parody but rather with a camp aesthetic. McLaren created dance-rock versions of grand opera, including "Un bel dì" from Madama Butterfly and the "The Flower Duet" from Délibe's Lakmé.

Works: Freddie Mercury (songwriter), Queen (performers): Bohemian Rhapsody (192-194); Nina Hagen: New York, New York (196); Kristian Hoffman (songwriter), Klaus Nomi (performer): Total Eclipse (197-98); Purcell (composer), Klaus Nomi (arranger/performer): The Cold Song (197); Saint-Saëns (composer), Klaus Nomi (arranger/performer): Samson and Delilah (Aria) (197); Malcolm McLaren: Madame Butterfly (198-99).

Sources: David Bowie: Fashion (196); Purcell: King Arthur (197); Saint-Saëns: Samson et Dalila (197); Handel: Samson (197-98); Puccini: Madama Butterfly (198-99); Délibe: Lakmé (199).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] McQuinn, Julie. “Listening Again to Barber’s Adagio for Strings as Film Music.” American Music 27 (Winter 2009): 461-99.

Scholars cannot assume that Samuel Barber’s Adagio for Strings has a stable meaning in film and must examine the multiplicity of meanings and ambiguities created by its use in film. In four films the Adagio transgresses boundaries of filmic diegesis and narrative into ambiguous meanings and spaces. The audience is required to contend with the Adagio in Oliver Stone’s Platoon because it stands out not only from the brutality of the film but also from the composed score and the diegesis of the movie. André Téchiné’s Les roseaux sauvages uses the Adagio with subtlety and restraint at dramatic moments of external rupture among characters, and the piece also functions as an indication of the internal world of the characters, or metadiegesis. In George Miller’s Lorenzo’s Oil the Adagio is one piece among many borrowed classical compositions used in the film, and it is the only one that represents hopelessness and deep anguish. The soundscape established in David Lynch’s The Elephant Man, composed of both underscoring by John Morris and diegetic sound, is violent, and the single instance of the Adagio in the film occurs during the ending sequence involving the diseased protagonist’s resignation and suicide. The Adagio is a mindscreen reflecting the metadiegesis of the protagonist and its connection to forces in the universe beyond human control.

Works: Oliver Stone (director): soundtrack to Platoon (461, 464-74, 493); David Lynch (director): soundtrack to The Elephant Man (461, 464-65, 480-81, 486-93); Jean-Pierre Jeunet (director): soundtrack to Amélie (464); Liam Lynch (director): soundtrack to Tenacious D (464); Andy Ackerman (director): soundtrack to Seinfeld (464-65); André Téchiné (director): soundtrack to Les roseaux sauvages (464-66, 474-80, 493); George Miller (director): soundtrack to Lorenzo’s Oil (465, 480-86, 492-93).

Sources: Samuel Barber: Adagio for Strings, Op. 11.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Meckna, Michael. "Sacred and Secular America: Virgil Thomson's Symphony on a Hymn Tune." American Music 8 (Winter 1990): 465-76.

Virgil Thomson's Symphony on a Hymn Tune is based upon at least two hymn tunes: How Firm a Foundation and Jesus Loves Me. Thomson highlights the similarities of the two tunes and at the finale, they coalesce into For He's a Jolly Good Fellow. Thomson juxtaposed the clear A-major tonality of the hymns with newly composed passages in E-flat major, highlighting a dissonant tritone relationship. This procedure conveys a musical clash that symbolizes "dark forces at work in the New World."

Works: Thomson: Symphony on a Hymn Tune.

Sources: Bradbury: Jesus Loves Me (467-68, 470-73); Traditional: How Firm a Foundation (467-69, 471-73), For He's a Jolly Good Fellow (467, 473-74).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Médicis, François de. "Tristan dans La Mer: Le crépuscule wagnérien noyé dans le zénith debussyste?" Acta Musicologica 79 (2007): 195-251.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Meintjes, Louise. "Paul Simon's Graceland, South Africa, and the Mediation of Musical Meaning." Ethnomusicology 34 (1990): 37-73.

Paul Simon's Graceland is an excellent example of both artistic and stylistic collaboration. Simon and Ladysmith Black Mambazo navigate through traditional South African and American popular styles in a constantly changing compositional process. Three songs from this album, "Gumboots," "The Boy in the Bubble," and "That Was Your Mother," are particularly interesting because they are cover versions of African popular songs. Simon credits the authors of the first two songs, but neglects to do so for the third. The differences in crediting represent the complex issues of collaboration on an international scale.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Messing, Scott. Neoclassicism in Music: From the Genesis of the Concept through the Schoenberg/Stravinsky Polemic. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Metz, Günther. "Das Webern-Zitat in Hindemiths Pittsburgh Symphony." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 42 (July 1985): 200-12.

In the 3rd movement (Ostinato) of Hindemith's Pittsburgh Symphony, an abrupt tempo/character change occurs, which eventually arrives at a più tranquillo. At this point, there is a quotation from Webern's Symphony, Op. 21. Hindemith makes several alterations: a nearly doubled metronome marking, an octave (higher) displacement, dynamics, and instrumentation. The intervals themselves are also often reversed or omitted.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Metzer, David. "'We Boys': Childhood in the Music of Charles Ives." 19th-Century Music 21 (Summer 1997): 77-95.

The desire to return to one's childhood or the adult's recollection of a lost youth figure prominently as themes in the music and texts of Charles Ives. The composer's view of an innocent childhood fit into a larger American cultural trend in the first decades of the twentieth century as realized through nostalgic or sentimental ballads and regression fantasies acted out in literature and film of that time. By distorting borrowed melodies, Ives heightens distance between past and present, increasing the sense of nostalgia. The tune The Old Oaken Bucket is deeply embedded in Tom Sails Away, and its original lyrics also depict memories of childhood. The fragmented and sometimes cloudy quotations of The Beautiful River during the third movement of Ives's Fourth Violin Sonata suggest an impossible union between the boys and men of the hymn's lyrics. The melody of The Beautiful River materializes throughout the movement, but Ives prevents the melody from emerging in its entirety, thus suggesting the vagueness of memory and the distance between generations.

Works: Charles Ives: Tom Sails Away (81-87), Violin Sonata No. 4 (87-91).

Sources: George M. Cohan: Over There (84, 87); David T. Shaw, Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (84, 87); Samuel Woodworth and George Kiallmark: The Old Oaken Bucket (Araby's Daughter) (84-87); Anonymous: Taps; George Ives: Fugue in B-flat Major (87); Robert Lowry: The Beautiful River (88-89).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Danielle Nelson, Amanda Sewell, Alexis Witt

[+] Metzer, David. "Musical Decay: Luciano Berio's 'Rendering' and John Cage's 'Europera 5.'" Journal of the Royal Musical Association 125 (2000): 93-114.

In Luciano Berio's Rendering and John Cage's Europera 5, creation of new music through the "restoration" and "reproduction" of old materials offers more than just a way of holding onto the past. Both compositions examine the decay and loss intrinsic to past materials which makes that past less accessible. In Rendering, based on Schubert's sketches toward a tenth symphony, Berio incorporates his own music with sections of Schubert's unfinished symphony, sometimes filling in the gaps in Schubert's sketches, while at other times dismantling and reconfiguring the material to make it sound incomplete. Berio restores Schubert's symphony not in the traditional sense, but rather to a fragmented state which suggests the deterioration of the past. Europera 5 similarly pieces together fragments of past operas to suggest that the concept of opera has deteriorated. Cage's nostalgia mediates a sense of loss through presentation of these fragments as disjointed, antique, and irrecoverable.

Works: Berio: Rendering (95-103, 108-113), Chemins (96), Sinfonia (96, 113); Cage: Europera 5 (95, 103-113), Europera 1 &2 (103-104).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (96, 113) Schubert: Symphony No. 10 (96-103, 108-113); Cage: Truckera (104).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Brent C. Reidy

[+] Metzer, David. "Sampling and Thievery." Chapter 5 in Quotation and Cultural Meaning in Twentieth-Century Music, 160-87. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Sampling constitutes a form of creative theft that should be seen within the history of musical borrowing. Sampling is mainly associated with digital technology beginning around 1980, and it is used in two main ways: to sample performance sounds, such as a cymbal crash, or to sample more extended sounds. One group that exemplifies creative theft is Negativland. who sampled the lead singer of U2 singing I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For and turned the singer into a whining voice. The artist Scanner travels the airwaves sampling personal phone calls. John Oswald sampled Michael Jackson's voice in BAD to create Oswald's own DAB. Oswald removed all markers of Jackson's voice until it no longer sounded like the artist, and, in so doing, used Jackson's own medium against him. This new form of musical borrowing, creative theft, is appropriate for our media-saturated environment.

Works: Puff Daddy and Faith Evans: I'll Be Missing You (160); Wyclef Jean: We Trying to Stay Alive (160); Janet Jackson: Got 'til it's Gone (160); Negativland: U2 (162, 166-67, 169-70); John Oswald: Plexure (171), Plunderphonic (177), DAB (178-81); Scanner: Sulphur (175); Tape-Beatles: Music with Sound (181-83).

Sources: Sting (songwriter), The Police (performers): Every Breath You Take (160); Bee Gees (Barry Gibb, Robin Gibb, and Maurice Gibb): Stayin' Alive (160); Joni Mitchell: Big Yellow Taxi (160, 163-64); U2: I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For (167); Buck Ram (songwriter), Dolly Parton (performer): The Great Pretender (177); Michael Jackson: BAD (178-81).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Metzer, David. "Shadow Play: The Spiritual in Duke Ellington's 'Black and Tan Fantasy.'" Black Music Research Journal 17, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 137-58.

The inclusion of an African-American spiritual in Ellington's Black and Tan Fantasy follows the ideas set forth by many writers during the Harlem Renaissance. Ellington takes the Renaissance ideals a step further by integrating the spiritual with blues, urban jazz, call-and-response, and even a quotation of Chopin's funeral march. Bubber Miley, cornetist and co-composer in the Ellington band, bases the opening motive of the fantasy on a spiritual he heard his mother singing while he was a child. However, the spiritual is not truly African-American in its origins. A friend of Miley pointed out that the spiritual is derived from "The Holy City," a sacred song in the style of a spiritual but by the white composer Stephen Adams. This white sacred tune is transformed through Miley's performance practice of bending the pitches, growling, and vocal ya-yas. These issues moved the spiritual away from Du Bois's ideas of the "sorrow song" with lush, pleasant, and Europeanized harmonies and toward Hurston's ideas of the spiritual, which strives for the unrefined sounds of the "real Negro singer." Black and Tan Fantasy was not the only jazz composition to draw upon "The Holy City." King Oliver and His Creole Jazz Band incorporated the sacred work into a twelve-bar blues, and Johnny Dodds responds to the text and music of "The Holy City" in his composition "Weary City."

Works: Ellington/Miley: Black and Tan Fantasy (137-58); Oliver: Chimes Blues (151); Dodds: Weary City (151-53).

Sources: Adams: The Holy City (137-58); Chopin: Piano Sonata No. 2 in B flat Minor (140).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Metzer, David. "The Promise of the Past: Rochberg, Berio, and Stockhausen." In Quotation and Cultural Meaning in Twentieth-Century Music, 108-59. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Composers who rejected serialism used quotation in their collage works as a source of promise and new possibilities. Rochberg seeks to use the music of the past in the form of ars combinatoria in Music for the Magic Theater, thus renewing both the past and present. Berio tries to create a bond between the past, present and a utopian future in the third movement of Sinfonia. In Hymnen, Stockhausen uses the medium of electroacoustic music in order to encompass global dimensions and develop a "sonic purity." By creating links between elements where none had previously existed, each composer responds differently to the use of quotation in the quest for utopia.

Works: Berio: Sinfonia (109-13, 128-39); Rochberg: Music for the Magic Theater (110-28), Third Symphony (125-28); Stockhausen: Hymnen (110-13, 139-59).

Sources: Mozart: Adagio from Divertimento No. 15, K. 287 (121-25); Mahler: Symphony No. 9 in D Major (123-25), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (Titan) (126), Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (Resurrection) (126, 129-39); Varèse: Déserts (123); Beethoven: String Quartet No. 13 in B-flat Major, Op. 130 (124-25), Missa Solemnis (126), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 55 (126-28), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (126), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (126); Schütz: Saul, was verfolgst du mich (126); J. S. Bach: Chorale Prelude on Durch Adams Fall, BWV 637 (126); Ives: The Unanswered Question (126-27); Richard Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier (136); Boulez: Don (136-38); Webern: Cantata, Op. 31 (137).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Metzer, David. “Black and White: Quotations in Duke Ellington’s ‘Black and Tan Fantasy.’” Chapter 2 in Quotation and Cultural Meaning in Twentieth-Century Music, 47-68. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Metzer, David. Quotation and Cultural Meaning in the Twentieth-Century Music. New Perspectives in Music History and Criticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

See annotations for individual chapters.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Meyer, Felix. "Adaptation--Transformation--Rekomposition: Zu einigen Liedbearbeitungen von Charles Ives." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 60, no. 2 (2003): 115-35.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Meyer, Felix. "The Art of Speaking Extravagantly": Eine vergleichende Studie der "Concord Sonata" und der "Essays Before a Sonata" von Charles Ives. Berne and Stuttgart: Paul Haupt, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Meyer, John A. "Beethoven and Bartók--A Structural Parallel." The Music Review 31 (November 1970): 315-21.

Bartók owed and admitted a direct allegiance to Beethoven, especially in the area of progressive form as a technique of composition. The second movement of Beethoven's G Major Piano Concerto is a model for the second movements of Bartók's Second and Third Piano Concertos in two main ways: (1) the principle of opposition between two rivals rather than integration of two partners is seen in sections of dialogue alternating between solo instrument and orchestra accentuated by differences in texture, thematic material, and the treatment of thematic material; and (2) piano and orchestra seem to follow completely logical development independent of each other, but the separate thematic complexes have the same basic roots. Mention is made of the relation between the third movement of Beethoven's Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132, and Bartók's Third Piano Concerto, suggested to be a last tribute to his three great masters: Beethoven in forms and methods of construction, Debussy in the impressionism of the night music, and Bach in the polyphonic episodes of the finale.

Works: Bartók: Piano Concerto No. 2, Piano Concerto No. 3; Franck: Symphonic Variations (320), Quintet in F Minor for Piano and Strings (320).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Micznik, Vera. "Meaning in Gustav Mahler's Music: A Historical and Analytical Study Focusing on the Ninth Symphony." Ph.D. diss., State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Middleton, Jason, and Roger Beebe. "The Racial Politics of Hybridity and 'Neo-Eclecticism' in Contemporary Popular Music." Popular Music 21 (May 2002): 159-72.

Producers of popular music at the turn of the twenty-first century developed hybrid music forms which combine rock music with styles and sounds of its competitors, particularly hip-hop. For example, groups such as Limp Bizkit graft the sound of record scratching and rapping into a rock band context, although record scratching is used as a sound in and of itself rather than in the service of sampling or other hip-hop musical devices. Additionally, music videos of these hybrid groups integrate visual components of both rock and rap videos. These groups assert their authenticity through textual, aural, and visual signifiers of a low socioeconomic status, which supposedly signals an allegiance with blacks.

Works: Limp Bizkit: Nookie (163, 167); Eminem: Guilty Conscience (163-64); Kid Rock: Cowboy (164-65); Dexter Holland (songwriter), The Offspring (performers): Pretty Fly (For a White Guy) (165-66).

Sources: N.W.A.: Straight Outta Compton (164-65).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Middleton, Richard. "Work-in(g)-Practice: Configurations of the Popular Music Intertext." In The Musical Work: Reality or Invention?, ed. Michael Talbot, 59-87. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000.

Popular music, as practice, differs from classical music, as a repertoire of iconic objects, in that the former places less emphasis on authorial attribution, involves greater collaboration between musicians, has blurred the distinction between "performance" and "composition," and overall features widespread use of borrowing procedures. "Intertextuality" is the best term that encompasses the borrowing practices of popular music. "Remixes" are one type of borrowing procedure, in which old songs are digitally re-worked in a new context. Bill Laswell creates remixes of the music of Miles Davis and Bob Marley. In the Davis remix, Laswell streamlines 38 minutes of music into fifteen, clarifies the instrumentation and textures through digital technology, reorders seamlessly connected sections, and highlights the similarities between all included source materials. Through his creative process, Laswell emerges more as a composer of something new, rather than a "remixer" of something old. In addition, the artist presents a remix of Marley's songs, but removes all of his prominent vocals. The result is not reggae, but rather a new "ambient gospel" genre. In part, these modern borrowing procedures in popular music have precedent in Western music history and are part of a long-established vernacular tradition. Other influences in popular music practice include multi-voiced repetition, best characterized as African-American "Signifyin(g)," which opposes the traditional Western concept of the singular "composer's voice." A semiotic dialogical theory can address these issues in popular music intertextuality. A final issue to consider is the opposition that emerges between intertextual musical performance and popular music recording, which preserves a specific version of a given song at its moment in time and highlights solo individualism. Remixes and cover songs highlight this tension; to accommodate this, one's analytical model must account for an "originating moment," the version of a song that is to be the measure for all others that re-create it.

Works: Bill Laswell: Panthalassa: The Remixes (62-67), Dreams of Freedom: Ambient Translations of Bob Marley in Dub (62, 67-71); Bob Marley: One Love (People Get Ready) (71); Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (79-80); Richard Ashcroft [Verve]: Bittersweet Symphony (82); Paul Anka: My Way as performed by Elvis Presley (82-83), Sid Vicious (83).

Sources: Joe Zawinul: In a Silent Way as performed by Miles Davis (63-67), Miles Davis: Shhh/Peaceful (63-67), It's About That Time (63-67); Bob Marley: One Love (People Get Ready) (67-69), Exodus (69-71); Curtis Mayfield: People Get Ready (71); Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers [Chic]: Good Times (79); John Deacon [Queen]: Another One Bites the Dust (79-80); Debbie Harry and Chris Stein [Blondie]: Rapture (79-80); Grandmaster Flash: Birthday Party (79); Sugarhill Gang: 8th Wonder (79); Spoonie Gee (Gabriel Jackson): Monster Jam (79); Mick Jagger and Keith Richards [Rolling Stones]: The Last Time (82); Paul Anka: My Way as performed by Frank Sinatra (82-83).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Mihajlov, Mihail. "Esteticeskij fenomen Poceluja fei [The aesthetic phenomenon of Le Baiser de la Fée]." Sovetskaja muzyka 8 (August 1982): 95-102.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Milewski, Barbara, and Bret Werb. “From ‘Madagaskar’ to Sachsenhausen: Singing about ‘Race’ in a Nazi Camp.” Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry 16 (November 2003): 269-78.

Inmates in concentration camps often provided new lyrics to well-known melodies, and in several cases the new lyrics parodied the subject matter of the original piece. Aleksander Kulisiewicz’s lyrics to Heil, Sachsenhausen offer a satiric narrative of the Sachsenhausen camp experience, mocking the Nazi racial purity laws with lyrics in both Polish and German. Through his parody of Mieczyslaw Miksne’s Madagaskar, Kulisiewicz also compares the Germany’s treatment of Poles to Poland’s treatment of the Jews. It is apparent that Kulisiewicz, who only heard Madagaskar for the first time in the camp, was unaware that Miksne, through his satirical song, expressed a desire to go to Madagascar because he believed that the natives would be more civilized that the Poles who planned to send the Jews there. The psychological effects of the parody can still be noted, however, as Kulisiewicz’s lyrics also mock an oppressor.

Works: Aleksander Kulisiewicz: Heil, Sachsenhausen (270), Jüdischer Todessang (278).

Sources: Mieczysław Miksne: Madagaskar (270).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Miller, Carl. "Meditations on Benjamin Britten's Nocturnal." Guitar Review 42 (Fall 1977): 15-16.

The Nocturnal after John Dowland, Op. 70, for solo guitar can be described as a set of variations on Come Heavy Sleep, a song for voice and lute from John Dowland's First Book of Songs (London, 1597). The "theme" appears at the end, rather than the beginning of the composition. The composition is in nine sections, the final section of which is a transcription of the Dowland song. The eight preceding variations consist of "bits and pieces" of the song, subjected to various techniques such as abbreviation, transposition, inversion, and other forms of manipulation. All of the variations are somber in character; the overall effect of the composition is macabre, sparse and anxious, with the exception of the final section, which is calm and peaceful.

Works: Britten: Nocturnal after John Dowland (15-16).

Sources: Dowland: Come Heavy Sleep (15-16).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Miller, Leta E. "Lou Harrison and the Aesthetics of Revision, Alteration, and Self-Borrowing." Twentieth-Century Music 2 (March 2005): 79-107.

Lou Harrison's later style is defined in part by his propensity to revise, rework, and borrow from his own compositions. In Harrison's Suite for Symphonic Strings (1960), the first piece in which borrowed from himself, he incorporated works that were written both before and after his most significant stylistic shift, resulting in the juxtaposition of strikingly contrasting styles. Such polystylism even carried over to works that did not borrow any pre-existing music, such as in his Symphony on G. Self-borrowing allowed the composer to restrict his compositional options and focus on novel reworkings and new combinations. The resulting polystylism was a direct result of Harrison's revisions and self-borrowings and became a hallmark of the composer's style.

Works: Lou Harrison: Suite for Symphonic Strings (86-91), Third Symphony (94-100).

Sources: Lou Harrison: Double Fugue (87-88, 90), Triphony (87-88, 91), Fugue for David Tudor (87), Almanac of the Seasons (87), Nocturne (87, 91, 93), Chorale for Spring (88-89), Largo ostinato (94, 96-98, 100-102), Reel to Henry Cowell (96), Waltz for Hinrichsen (96), Estampie for Summerfield (96), Political Primer (96).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Mitchell, Donald. "An Afterword on Britten's 'Pagodas': The Balinese Sources." Tempo, no. 152 (March 1985): 7-11.

The Prince of the Pagodas is based both on transcriptions that Britten made during his trip to Bali in 1956 and on "Kapi Radja," which he came to know from a recording. Unbeknownst to Britten, "Kapi Radja" was itself based on Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Mitchell, Donald. "What Do We Know about Britten Now?" In The Britten Companion, ed. Christopher Palmer, 21-45. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

The influences of Schoenberg, Mahler, Shostakovich, and far Eastern music are among those influences on which perspectives have changed since 1952. Schoenberg provided the influence, much more apparent after 1952, of serial principles, although not of serial techniques, on Britten, evident in such works as The Turn of the Screw, Cantata Academica, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Song and Proverbs of William Blake, Death in Venice, and Owen Wingrave. Mahler's influence, particularly of Das Lied von der Erde, is emphasized in the orchestral song-cycle Our Hunting Fathers. Shostakovich is acknowledged as an influence on Russian Funeral, the Piano Concerto, Op. 13, and Our Hunting Fathers. These three composers, however, are viewed mainly as influences on Britten's compositional principles (Schoenberg, as "a way of thinking"; Mahler, through "shared technical principles"; and Shostakovich, by satire and parody) rather than on his style, although stylistic similarities are present as well. The influence of the music of the Far East first appeared in the ballet The Prince of the Pagodas and the first church parable, Curlew River. The ballet evokes the sound of a Balinese gamelan, while Curlew River is based on the Japanese Noh play Sumidagawa. Britten's earliest opera Paul Bunyan enhibits similarities to Balinese music as well, which may have been suggested while Britten was in New York through his familiarity with the ethnomusicologist Colin McPhee and McPhee's two-piano transcriptions of Balinese music, Balinese Ceremonial Music.

Works: Britten: Sinfonietta, Op. 1 (25), The Turn of the Screw (26), Cantata Academica (26), A Midsummer Night's Dream (26), Songs and Proverbs of William Blake (26), Death in Venice (26, 30, 36, 43, 35), Owen Wingrave (26), Paul Bunyan (28-30, 41-44), Sinfonia da Requiem (31), Our Hunting Fathers (31, 35-36), Russian Funeral (34), Piano Concerto, Op. 13 (34), Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge (38), The Prince of the Pagodas (39, 42), Curlew River (39).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Mitchell, Donald. Gustav Mahler: The Wunderhorn Years: Chronicles and Commentaries. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Miyakawa, Felicia M. “Turntablature: Notation, Legitimization, and the Art of the Hip-Hop DJ.” American Music 25 (Spring 2007): 81-105.

Hip-hop DJs take previously recorded material in the form of vinyl LPs and reorganize and alter the recorded sounds to create new music. As DJ techniques and routines have grown increasingly complex, DJs such as DJ A-Trak and DJ Radar and others such as filmmaker John Carluccio have created methods of notating DJs’ musical and technical choices. By examining three forms of scratch notation developed by hip-hop DJs (including the widely-used Turntablist Transcription Methodology, or TTM), various uses for notation can be shown, ranging from idiosyncratic memory-aid to symbolic justification for “art” and “work” status. These uses are linked to those practiced throughout the history of Western art music.

Works: Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (90-91); DJ Radar: Antimatter (94), Concerto for Turntable (96-97).

Sources: DJ Babu: Super Duck Breaks (88); DJ Q-Bert: Toasted Marshmallow Feet Breaks (88); Chic: Good Times (91); Queen: Another One Bites the Dust (91).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Monson, Ingrid. "Doubleness and Jazz Improvisation: Irony, Parody, and Ethnomusicology." Critical Inquiry 20 (Winter 1994): 283-313.

Jazz musicians--particularly African-American musicians--draw upon many sources of knowledge from multiple traditions, and their borrowings are characterized by a sophisticated familiarity with practices from traditions to which they may not traditionally have been thought to belong, as well as a virtuosic and playful tendency to transform the materials they borrow to ironic effect. John Coltrane's position within the world of improvised African-American music did not prevent him from appreciating certain elements of European-American musical theater song in My Favorite Things as sung by Mary Martin. Furthermore, his transformed version of Martin's simple delivery of the Rodgers and Hammerstein tune demonstrates a confidence that African-American musical aesthetics could improve European-American music. Roland Kirk's Rip, Rig, and Panic countered assumptions that he would be unfamiliar with Western art music by citing multiple influences from Edgard Varèse, but did so in an irreverent way that implies multiple meanings and motivations. Not all borrowings must be intercultural or even inter-generic: Jaki Byard's Bass-ment Blues makes ironic references to other styles within the jazz tradition. Intermusical relationships can be ambiguous and still communicate: intention does not necessarily need to line up perfectly with perception. A listener has some liberty to interpret a communicative gesture, although each side should be working with a certain amount of shared knowledge and experience.

Works: Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II (songwriters), John Coltrane (performer): My Favorite Things (292-99); Roland Kirk: Rip, Rig, and Panic (300-302); Jaki Byard: Bass-ment Blues (302-5); Ralph Peterson, Jr.: Princess (306-8).

Sources: Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II (songwriters), Mary Martin (performer): My Favorite Things (292-99); Edgard Varèse: Poème électronique (300), Ionisation (300).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Monson, Ingrid. "Intermusicality." In Saying Something: Jazz Improvisation and Interaction, 97-132. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

In Jazz, quotations of, transformations of, or allusions to existing music are part of a tradition of irony and signifying in African-American music. Most of these quotations, transformations, and allusions are found within improvisations. Allusions to other pieces can function as homage, irony, criticism, or artistic improvement on the original. The success of quotations and allusions depends on the listener's familiarity with the repertoire in question.

Works: Roland Kirk, Rip, Rig, and Panic (121-23).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Moore, Christopher Lee. "Music in France and the Popular Front (1934-1938): Politics, Aesthetics and Reception." PhD diss., McGill University, 2007.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Morehouse, Christopher. "Ivesian Borrowing, Imagery, and Place in Eric Stokes's The Continental Harp and Band Report: An American Miscellany (1975)." DMA diss., University of Cincinnati, 2005.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Morgan, Robert P. "Charles Ives und die europäische Tradition." In Bericht über das Internationale Symposion "Charles Ives und die amerikanische Musiktradition bis zur Gegenwart," Köln 1988, ed. Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller, Manuel Gervink, and Paul Terse, 17-36. Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung 164. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse Verlag, 1990. Republished in an expanded English version as "Charles Ives and the European Tradition," in Ives Studies, ed. Philip Lambert, 3-26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Ives's music reflects the musical situation of its time as well as the music of his contemporaries. He was the earliest composer to engage the musical legacy of previous centuries, tonality and form, as an issue unto itself. His closest predecessor was Mahler, with whom he shared an interest in combining the very simple or even banal with the extremely complex, and an interest in using popular materials that are transformed, deformed, and fragmented in their application. Among his contemporaries, Ives most resembles Schoenberg in his willingness to conclude works in an atmosphere of tonal uncertainty, but he rejects Schoenberg's evolutionary vision, which sees atonality as an historical necessity, representing an impermeable barrier between the old and the new. Ives explores the issue of tonality as a dead language, not by excluding tonality from his music, but by including tonal fragments, or "ruins," in an atonal context. Detailed analysis of the song "The Things Our Fathers Loved" demonstrates how Ives used tonal melodies recollected from his youth explicitly in order to associate tonality itself with a lost past.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Morgan, Robert P. "Ives and Mahler: Mutual Responses at the End of an Era." 19th-Century Music 2 (July 1978): 72-81.

Despite the apparent differences in their styles, there are general similarities between Ives's music and Mahler's, such as tonal and diatonic conservatism, use of physical space in musical conception, handling of permeable form, and manipulation of borrowed material. Ives tends toward direct quotation, whereas Mahler usually recreates standard types, but their similarity lies in maintaining the recognizability of borrowed material while placing it in completely new contexts.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1 (75, 78), Symphony No. 3 (75); Ives: Symphony No. 4, "Hawthorne" from Concord Sonata,The Celestial Railroad, Violin Sonata No. 4 (78-79).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Morton, Jeffrey Thomas. "Considering In Heinrich's Shoes by Edwin London: Recomposition as an Experiment in Dramaturgy." DMA diss., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Morton, Lawrence. "Footnotes to Stravinsky Studies: Le Sacre du printemps." Tempo, no. 128 (March 1979): 9-16.

In his Memories and Commentaries (with Robert Craft), Stravinsky asserted having borrowed only one folk tune from a Lithuanian anthology for his opening bassoon melody of The Rite of Spring. An investigation of this Lithuanian source (Anton Juszkiewicz, Litauische Volks-Weisen, Cracow, 1900) reveals that Stravinsky, consciously or unconsciously, used many more folksongs (or significant sections thereof). The pitches usually correspond exactly, whereas rhythms are changed and grace-notes added. In all the examples cited, Stravinsky transposed the original and sometimes only raised or lowered a single note.

Works: Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring.

Sources: Anton Juszkiewicz, Litauische Volks-Weisen: Nos. 34, 113, 142, 157, 249, 271, 314, 359, 539, 641, 787, and 1785.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Morton, Lawrence. "Stravinsky and Tchaikovsky: Le Baiser de la Fée." The Musical Quarterly 48 (July 1962): 313-26.

Stravinsky's ballet Le Baiser de la Fée is based upon thematic material borrowed from Tchaikovsky and upon music written in the manner of Tchaikovsky. Fourteen works by Tchaikovsky served as major sources of material while several others were possible sources referred to in passing in the music. The search for sources is often difficult because of the nature of the piece; even Stravinsky cannot always tell what music was by Tchaikovsky and what music was by him but written in the manner of Tchaikovsky. In the end, the ballet is more Stravinsky's than it is Tchaikovsky's.

Works: Stravinsky: Le Baiser de la Fée.

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Berceuse de la tempête, Op. 54, No. 10 (315-16), Soir d'hiver, Op. 54, No. 7 (316-17), Humoresque, Op. 10, No. 2 (317-18), Rêverie du soir, Op. 19, No. 1 (318-19), Le Paysan joue à l'accordéon, Op. 39, No. 12 (319), Au village, Op. 40 (319-20), Natha-Valse, Op. 51, No. 4 (319), Tant triste, tant douce, Op. 6, No. 1 (320), Symphony No. 5 (320-22), Scherzo humoristique, Op. 19, No. 2 (322), Feuillet d'album, Op. 19, No. 3 (322), Sleeping Beauty (323), Serenada, Op. 63, No. 6 (323), Polka peu dansante, Op. 51, No. 2 (323-24), Ah! qui brûla d'amour, Op. 6, No. 6 (324).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Moses, Oral L. "The Nineteenth-Century Spiritual Text: A Source for Modern Gospel." In Feel the Spirit: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Afro-American Music, ed. George R. Keck and Sherrill V. Martin, 49-60. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988.

African-American spirituals are one important textual source for contemporary gospel music. Gospel music addresses similar themes of hardship, struggle, and perseverance, all of which are prevalent in spiritual texts. At least three different twentieth-century gospel versions of the spiritual The Old Ship of Zion have been recorded by performers such as Wings Over Jordan and Modern Gospel. Although gospel performers sometimes change or omit words of a spiritual in gospel arrangements, the importance of the text and its ability to express the oral tradition of African American music remain in the foreground. An appendix lists examples of the various ways in which spiritual texts are borrowed for gospel songs, including chorus only, borrowed incipit, substitution of words, and chorus and stanza borrowed.

Works: Anonymous: Oh, Get Away, Jordan (51-52); Wings Over Jordan (performer): Old Ship of Zion (54-55); Thomas A. Dorsey: Old Ship of Zion (54-55); Modern Gospel (performers): Old Ship of Zion (54-55).

Sources: Anonymous: Oh, Give Way, Jordan (50-51); Anybody Here (52); Jacob?s Ladder (52-53); Keep Your Lamps Trimmed and Burning (52-53); Rise and Shine (52-53); Old Ship of Zion (54-55).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Mosher, Harold F. Jr. "The Lyrics of American Pop Music: A New Poetry." In American Popular Music: Readings from the Popular Press, ed. Timothy Scheurer. Vol. 2, The Age of Rock, 144-50. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University, 1990.

Mimetic songs are a trend in popular music, and the lyrics of these songs follow in the tradition of classical poetry. These songs have meanings, expressed "by simple implication, ambiguity, irony, symbolism, surrealistic devices, or by dramatic means." Paul Simon's songs provide rich examples of meaning, and they draw upon multiple voices, often one newly-composed and one borrowed from pre-existing material. A dramatic opposition and multiple meanings are created between two voices in both Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night and Scarborough Fair/Canticle. Humor and satire is found in At the Zoo.Mrs. Robinson offers a satirical or ironic view of the suburban housewife and includes a mocking reference to Jesus Loves Me This I Know.

Works: Paul Simon: America (146-47), Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night (147), Scarborough Fair/Canticle (147-48), At the Zoo (148), Mrs. Robinson (148-49), A Hazy Shade of Winter (149).

Sources: Franz Gruber: Silent Night (147); Traditional: Scarborough Fair (147); William B. Bradbury: Jesus Loves Me This I Know (149).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Moulin, Jane Freeman. "What's Mine is Yours?: Cultural Borrowing in a Pacific Context." Contemporary Pacific 8 (Spring 1996): 128-53.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mueller, Richard Elmer. "Imitation and Stylization in the Balinese Music of Colin McPhee." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mueller, Richard. "Bali, Tabuh-Tabuhan, and Colin McPhee's Method of Intercultural Composition." Journal of Musicological Research 10 (March 1991): 127-75; 11 (May 1991): 67-92.

In composing Tabuh-Tabuhan, Colin McPhee aimed to integrate Balinese music into the Western symphonic idiom such that it would appeal to Western audiences without losing its distinctiveness. By using authentic Balinese series of notes such as the pèlog and the jejogan incorporated with other motives (ganderangan and rindik), McPhee created a structure unique to both Balinese and Western traditions. McPhee also wanted to "re-create" Balinese music for a Western audience who could not hear this music performed on its original instruments. To this end, he incorporated the overtones of the different-sized gongs of the gamelan instruments into the orchestral texture, achieving the sounds he heard without their original creators.

Works: Colin McPhee: Tabuh-Tabuhan (127-75, 67-92).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Mumper, D. Robert. "The First Piano Sonata of Charles Ives." D.M.A. document, Indiana University, 1971.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Murphy, John P. "Jazz Improvisation: The Joy of Influence." The Black Perspective in Music 18, no. 1 (1990): 7-19.

One of the central questions in jazz research is the relationship of a specific jazz musician to his or her jazz predecessors. Much of jazz can be analyzed with Henry Louis Gates's concept of "Signifyin(g)." Meaning in jazz is found in the relationship of each piece to the rest of the jazz repertoire, and in this respect clearly reflects the viability of Harold Bloom's theory of the anxiety of influence for jazz studies. But the influence of predecessors is felt joyfully rather than anxiously in jazz improvisation, and musical quotations in jazz tend to reflect homage.

Works: Joe Henderson: If (10-15); Freddie Hubbard: Bird Like (10-17).

Sources: Charlie Parker: Buzzy (10-17).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Myers, Betty Dustin. "The Orchestral Music of Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1951.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Nadeau, Roland. "The Crisis of Tonality: What is Avant-Garde?" Music Educators Journal 47, no. 7 (March 1981): 37-41.

The idea of the avant-garde has been misinterpreted as the music of the atonalists and experimentalists. These styles of music actually became the standard of Western art music in the early twentieth century because of the support found in academia. The composers still writing in the tonal idiom and looking back to the past for support should be seen more as the avant-garde. These composers, such as Stravinsky, Copland, Prokofiev, Milhaud, and Bernstein were creating new music firmly founded in the tonal traditions of the 1700s and 1800s. The future of tonal music, although impossible to predict, may be rooted in assimilation and dissemination of non-Western music. Though composers like Chavez, Bartók, Villa-Lobos, and Messiaen have borrowed from non-Western music sources in their compositions, the total integration of other musical traditions has yet to be accomplished.

Works: Liebermann: Concerto for Jazzband and Orchestra (40); Stockhausen: Gruppen (41); Tippett: The Knot Garden (41); Stockhausen: Hymnen (41); Rochberg: String Quartet No. 3 (41); Bernstein: Mass (41); Berio: Sinfonia (41).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 2, Resurrection (41).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Nectoux, Jean-Michel. "Works Renounced, Themes Rediscovered: Eléments pour une thématique fauréenne." 19th-Century Music 2 (March 1979): 231-44.

In his late works, Fauré returns to themes of his earlier works. These ideas can be placed in distinct groups such that each forms a sort of musical chain of references. There are three main groups or chains: (1) the Lydia Group which originates in an early song of the same title; (2) the Soir Group which originates in the song of 1894; and (3) the Ulysse Group which is named after the character in the opera Penelope. Nectoux traces these referential chains as the various ideas return in later works and in different guises. Numerous works are mentioned and discussed. The self-borrowings are not evidence of a lack of melodic inspiration since the ideas are always transformed and re-worked. Rather, these references to his earlier works in the late works are "similar in function to the memories of his youth with which his last letters are full"; they relate to the Romantic representation of memory. The chains of references also reveal a unique continuity in his work. "Fauré's output is highly unified."

Works: Fauré: La Bonne Chanson (232), Prométhée (232), Sonata for Violin, Op. 13 (232), Piano Quartet, Op. 15 (232), Elégie (232), Chanson d'Ève (236), Violin Concerto, Op. 14 (237), Symphony in F (or Orchestral Suite), Op. 20 (237), Symphony in D Minor, Op. 40 (237).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Nelson, Mark D. "Beyond Mimesis: Transcendentalism and Processes of Analogy in Charles Ives' The Fourth of July." Perspectives of New Music 22 (Fall/Winter 1983-Spring/Summer 1984): 353-84.

Ives's Fourth of July is characterized by polymeter, polytonality, dense textures, and quotations from popular and folk tunes. It is a fully integrated work whose multiple layerings and quotations had deep philosophical implications for the composer. Ives, the Transcendentalist, was able to perceive a unity among superficial and discordant events. In this work, he creates analogies to four types of events: acoustical (music of parades, church services, and so on); natural phenomena (violin glissando passage representing smoke); psychological phenomena; and non-programmatic musical unity.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sergio Bezerra

[+] Nelson, Robert U. "Stravinsky's Concept of Variations." In Stravinsky: A New Appraisal of His Work, ed. Paul Henry Lang, 61-73. New York: W. W. Norton, 1963.

Despite Stravinsky's claim that his goal was to remain faithful to "the theme as a melody," the degree of relationship to the original melody varies widely in his variation works. While the melody itself is generally recognizable, his treatment of other musical elements is nearly unlimited in its freedom and flexibility. Though his variation works are dominated by free variation techniques, there are examples of clear influence from variation practices dating from the sixteenth century through the nineteenth century. Stravinsky's use of variations frequently creates sharp contrasts of mood within a piece, while maintaining cohesion through the use of repetitive figuration and ostinato figures. Considered as a group, Stravinsky's variations are clearly linked to the traditions of the past while making use of progressive compositional techniques.

Works: Stravinsky: Pulcinella (61), Octet for Wind Instruments (61-63, 64, 69, 70, 71), Concerto for Two Pianos (61-63, 68-69, 70, 71), Jeu de cartes (61-63, 65-66, 71-72), Danses concertantes (61-62, 63, 65, 66-67, 70-71, 72), Sonata for Two Pianos (61-62, 63, 65, 68, 70-71, 72), Ebony Concerto (61-62, 63, 65, 66-67, 72), Septet (61-62, 63, 64-65, 70, 72).

Sources: Haydn: Variations in F minor, Hob. XVII:6 (63); Byrd: John come kisse me now (64); Scheidt: Christe, qui lux es et dies (64); J. S. Bach: Von Himmel hoch, da komm' ich her, BWV 606 (65), Christ, der du bist der helle Tag, BWV 766 (67); Ebner: Variations on an Air (69); Beethoven: Thirty-Three Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli,Op. 120 (71); Schumann: 12 Etudes Symphoniques, Op. 13 (71).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sherri Winks

[+] Nelson, Robert U. The Technique of Variation: A Study of the Instrumental Variation from Antonio de Cabézon to Max Reger. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1948; 2nd ed., 1962.

Variations, which often use borrowed material, fall into the following seven historical categories: (1) Renaissance and Baroque variations on secular songs, dances, and arias; (2) Renaissance and Baroque variations on plainchant and chorales; (3) the Baroque basso ostinato variation; (4) the ornamental variation of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; (5) the nineteenth-century character variation; (6) the nineteenth-century basso ostinato variation; and (7) the free variation of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Variations also fall into two basic plans, structural and free. Variations in categories (1) through (6) above followed the older structural plan, in which basic relationships of parts, sections, and phrases in the theme were preserved in the variations. By the early twentieth century, variations were constructed in two ways: following the structural plan and following the newer free plan, in which basic relationships of sections and phrases in the theme were disregarded. Generally, the most conspicuous elements of themes most emphatically demand change. Rhythm is the most conspicuous element, and thus must be varied the most. The melodic subject is second most conspicuous. The harmonico-structural frame is least conspicuous, was historically generally retained, and therefore may be considered as the substance of the theme. All variations are committed to the task of securing unity within a manifold. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there was a growing trend toward the use of original themes. Renaissance and Baroque themes were frequently borrowed from dances and secular songs. In the ornamental variation, borrowed themes continued to include the dance piece and the popular song and also included the operatic excerpt. In the nineteenth-century character variation, neither the secular song nor the operatic aria were important sources of borrowed themes. Instead, composers used instrumental works (such as suites and sonatas) and instrumentally conceived themes from members of their own circles. Despite the trend toward the use of original themes, borrowed themes, including folk songs, still persisted in the free variation.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Newlin, Dika. "Arnold Schoenberg's Debt to Mahler." Chord and Discord 2 (1948): 21-26.

Many features of Schoenberg's music cannot be understood without Mahler. Schoenberg, however, usually goes beyond his predecessor. The clarity of each voice in the orchestral texture is clearly based on Mahler and the concept of beginning a piece tonally and ending atonally is derived from Mahler's way of starting a work in one key and finishing it in another.

Works: Schoenberg: String Quartet No. 2, Gurre-Lieder.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Newlin, Dika. "Later Works of Ernest Bloch." The Musical Quarterly 33 (October 1947): 443-59.

Newlin surveys selected Bloch works from 1921 to 1947. Jewish characteristics, such as melodies incorporating the augmented second, appear not only in explicitly Jewish works, but also in works without overt programmatic significance, such as the Violin Concerto. The America symphony, which eschews Jewish characteristics, quotes extensively from various American musics, but "the stringing together of so many unrelated ideas" has interfered with Bloch's inspiration. The Avodath Hakodesh effectively combines "universal with 'racial' traits," including a lengthy quotation from liturgical chant.

Works: Bloch: Avodath Hakodesh (Sacred Service), America, an Epic Rhapsody in Three Movements.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Newlin, Dika. "Music for the Flickering Image: American Film Scores." Music Educators Journal 64, no. 114 (September 1977): 24-35.

Film music serves many purposes in supporting the visual media by setting the mood, location, or time-period, suggesting a principal ethnic group, reinforcing action, offering contrary information, and drawing attention away from undesirable visual images. Film scores borrow from well-known pre-existing music to suggest location, time, and ethnic groups. In John Cromwell's Of Human Bondage, the music switches from "La Marseillaise" to "British Grenadiers" to signal the main character's change in location. Film score composers allude stylistically to ethnic folk music idioms to suggest a particular group of people. These idioms are often spuriously employed through the repetitious use of a particular convention, such as a pentatonic scale, gongs, and temple bells to signify Chinese traditional music, or heavy drumbeats and chanting for Native American music. Film music composers often model compositions on stylistic conventions of a given period in Western art music. Max Steiner's score for The Informer, set in Ireland during the 1920s, borrowed the Irish traditional tune, "The Minstrel Boy," Miklos Rozsa's score for Ivanhoe reflects the film's setting through the music of French troubadours, and Elmer Bernstein's score for The Ten Commandments draws on the unique timbre of the ram's horn during the Exodus scene. Bernard Herrmann's score for The 7th Voyage of Sinbad did not directly borrow the corresponding ethnic idiomatic music, but implied its use through the borrowing of Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade. Early American film scores were often modeled on or borrowed directly from late nineteenth-century European composers, as Joseph Carl Breil's score for the 1915 Birth of a Nation used Richard Wagner's "The Ride of the Valkyries." Aaron Copland and Virgil Thomson influenced the move towards sparse orchestration in later American film score composers by incorporating American folksongs. Jazz and popular music became frequent sources of borrowing in the 1940s, as did rock music from the 1950s through the 1970s in films as in Rock Around the Clock,Don't Knock the Rock, and The Twist.American Graffiti used rock music as background for stories of the turbulence and uncertainty of the period. Film score composers are now employing both rich symphonic scoring along with the "musical potpourri" of the silent film era.

Works: Max Steiner: score to Of Human Bondage (27), score to The Informer (28); Miklos Rozsa: score to Ivanhoe (28); Bernard Herrmann: score to The 7th Voyage of Sinbad (28); George Lucas, et al.: score to American Graffiti (32).

Sources: Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade (28); Richard Wagner: "Ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre (29); Jimmy DeKnight and Max Freedman: Rock Around the Clock as performed by Bill Haley and the Comets (32).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Newman, Philip Edward. "The Songs of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1967.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Newsom, Jon. "'A Sound Idea': Music for Animated Films." The Quarterly Journal of the Library of Congress (Summer 1984): 279-308.

The use and adaptation of existing music in animated films involved more than mere selective quotation. While small segments and entire movements of "classical" pieces from the 18th to the early 20th centuries were sometimes animated, composers were most often required to be adept at altering the formal structure of an existing work to accommodate the requirements of the animated film. In the lighter, more eclectic style of animated shorts, scores like those by Scott Bradley exhibit characteristics of Stravinsky, including octatonicism, tonally disjunct melody figurations, and orchestration. In major animated films such as those of Disney, Tchaikovsky's ballet music was similarly adapted. Significantly, the forms in which these existing works were used represented the first exposure to these pieces for many spectators of these animated films.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Nicholls, David. American Experimental Music, 1890-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Nicholson, Sara. "Keep Going: The Use of Classical Music Samples in Mono's 'Hello Cleveland!'" ECHO: A Music-Centered Journal 4 (Spring 2002) [http://www.echo.ucla.edu/volume4-issue1/nicholson/nicholson1.html].

The duo Mono's 1997 album Formica Blues samples a variety of sources. For instance, the tenth track of the album, Hello Cleveland, samples works from Berio, Webern, Schoenberg, and Berg, which are combined with Mono's composed ambient setting. Depending on the listener, one would hear this track in two different ways. To a listener unfamiliar with classical music or with these particular source pieces, it might sound like a collection of undifferentiated "classical" sources. But to one more familiar with classical music and the tradition of borrowing, the song is full of potential meaning. However, when Mono provides the listener with such an abundance of sources, the knowing listener is left with a similar result as the unknowing listener: no single, unified narrative.

Works: Mono [Martin Virgo and Siobhan de Maré]: Formica Blues, Hello Cleveland.

Sources: Burt Bacharach: Walk on By; John Barry: Ipcress File; Miles Davis and Gil Evans: The Pan Piper; Berg: Lulu Suite; Schoenberg: Five Orchestral Pieces, Op. 16; Berio: Sinfonia; Webern: Six Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 6.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Nicolosi, Robert J. "T. S. Eliot and Music: An Introduction." The Musical Quarterly 66 (April 1980): 192-204.

Eliot's literary quotations are drawn from many sources and are invested with personal meaning. This situation is also to be found in the music of Ives, Stravinsky, Copland, Crumb, Rochberg and others. Specific examples, such as Ives's reference to the beginning of Beethoven's Fifth in his Concord Sonata (the "Alcotts" movement), Stravinsky's allusions to Bach, Pergolesi and others in his neo-classic music, and Berg's Tristan quotation in the Lyric Suite, are mentioned. The significance of music to Eliot's poetry is discussed. A parallel between the poetry of Eliot and the music of Stravinsky is drawn.

Works: Ives: Concord Sonata (194); Berg: Lyric Suite (194).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Nieuwstadt, Jacques van. "Charles Ives: realisme en pragmatisme (I): Muzikale citaten" and "Charles Ives: realisme en pragmatisme (II): Vernieuwende nostalgie." Mens en Melodie 46 (November-December 1991): 601-5 and 47 (January 1992): 13-17.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Nisbett, Robert F. "Louis Gruenberg's American Idiom." American Music (Spring 1985): 25-41.

Louis Gruenberg frequently borrowed musical characteristics from American jazz, spirituals, and folk songs. Often, he combined the melodic and rhythmic traits of his sources with procedures associated with art-music. For instance, Gruenberg combines imitative technique with ragtime rhythms in the "Fox-Trot" of his suite entitled Jazzberries. Likewise, he integrated Negro spirituals into his violin concerto. The composer's non-literal use of borrowed idioms differentiated him from his contemporaries, namely Aaron Copland and Roy Harris. Gruenberg's finest attribute is his keenly developed variation technique, displayed in the treatments of borrowed motives in Jazz-Suite, Violin Concerto, and other works.

Works: Gruenberg: Four Indiscretions, Op. 20 (26), The Daniel Jazz, Op. 21 (26, 31-34), Animals and Insects, Op. 22 (26), The Creation, Op. 21 (26-27), Jazzberries, Op. 25 (26, 34-36), Jazzettes, Op. 26 (26), Jazz-Suite, Op. 28 (26, 36-38), Emperor Jones, Op. 36 (26, 28), Americana Suite, Op. 48 (26, 28), Violin Sonata No. 2, Op. 18 (28), Six Jazz Epigrams, Op. 30b (28-30), Polychromatics, Op. 16 (30), Concerto for Violin, Op. 47 (38-40).

Sources: Negro Spirituals: I'm A-Rollin (27), Steal Away to Jesus (27), Oh! Holy Lord (38), Reign Massa Jesus (38); Traditional: Arkansas Traveler (38), She'll Be Coming 'round the Mountain (38).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Noé, Günther von. "Das musikalische Zitat." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 124 (1963): 134-37.

Quotation must be understood as a subdivision of the larger field of borrowing, which is a principal component of composition and can be categorized in terms such as conscious vs. unconscious and legitimate vs. illegitimate. Whereas legal and ethical views of quotation have been historically variable, purely musical criteria employed by musicians have emerged to evaluate quotation practices. Quotation is distinguished from thematic reworking and plagiarism by virtue of its specifically extramusical function, intended to be heard by the listener. Quotation may be employed (1) to evoke time, place, or circumstance, (2) as musical wit, (3) as the basis for parody or caricature, or (4) as the basis for exposition of serious content.

Works: Debussy: La bôite à joujouz (136); Busoni: Arlecchino (136); Mozart: Piano Rondo in A minor, K. 511 (136); Berg: Lyric Suite (136).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Alexander J. Fisher, David Lieberman

[+] Northcott, Bayan. "Peter Maxwell Davies." Music and Musicians 17, no. 8 (April 1969): 36-40, 80-82.

Peter Maxwell Davies's range of borrowings includes plainchant, English carols, elements from Monteverdi's Vespers, and Taverner's In Nomine. Davies's treatment of his borrowed material can be a simple setting, as in movements I, IV, and VI of the Seven In Nomine, in which the settings by Taverner, Bull, and Blitheman are heard unadorned, or in a contrapuntal treatment, as in the second movement of this set of In Nomine when he presents Taverner's melody in retrograde. Alma Redemptoris Mater, a wind sextet, based on the Dunstable motet, uses a cantus firmus-style presentation of melodic material. Davies also uses a motet in Antechrist, but allows it to be destroyed through glissandi, jazz-like allusions, and other ironic techniques. He uses a similar technique in his Purcell realizations, interpreting Purcell's works as foxtrots. The String Quartet takes ideas from the Monteverdi Vespers and presents the cantus firmus in measured time with generated melismas occurring above the melody.

Works: Davies: Seven In Nomine (36-37, 40), Alma Redemptoris Mater (39), Five Motets (39), String Quartet (39), Leopardi Fragments (39-40), Sinfonia (39), Veni Sancte Spiritus (39-40), Shakespeare Music (40), Antechrist (40), Fantasia on a Ground and Two Pavans (82).

Sources: Plainsong (36); English carols (36); Monteverdi: 1610 Vespers (36, 39); Taverner: In Nomine (36-37); Bull: In Nomine (36); Blitheman: In Nomine; Dunstable: Alma Redemptoris Mater (39); Stravinsky: Agon (40).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Nulman, Macy. Concepts of Jewish Music and Prayer. New York: Cantorial Council of American, Yeshiva University, 1985.

The works listed below are examples of classical pieces that make use of Hebrew themes.

Works: Ravel: Deux Mélodies Hebraiques (31); Beethoven: String Quartet, Op. 131 (31); Bruch: Kol Nidrei, Op. 47 (32); Schoenberg: Kol Nidre, Op. 39 (32).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] O'Connell, Kevin. “Messiaen’s ‘Liebestod’ and the Uses of Paraphrase.” The Musical Times 50 (Summer 2009): 19-26.

The central movement of Messiaen’s La nativité du Seigneur, titled “Les enfants de Dieu,” contains a previously undiscovered paraphrase of the “Liebestod” from Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde. Musically, certain melodic dyads and most of the harmonic progressions of the “Liebestod” are incorporated into “Les enfants”; furthermore, both share similar uses of harmonies and particular rhythmic gestures. Other surface features also support the idea of a “Liebestod” paraphrase, such as their shared key signature. This incorporation of pre-existing musical material is best described as a Lisztian paraphrase, as the passage still sounds more like Messiaen than Wagner, though its structure is clearly based on that of the “Liebestod.” With regards to meaning, the chorale-like “Liebestod” paraphrase seems to represent the verse from Galatians: “And God sent into their hearts the spirit of his Son, who cried, Father, Father,” a reading also supported by Messiaen’s preface to the work. Thus Tristan and Isolde, as children of God, will fulfill their love in death, as Christ’s love for humankind was fulfilled. Instead of a completely programmatic musical depiction of the nativity, Messiaen invokes its full redemptive powers, which is only explicit if the reference to the “Liebestod” is made apparent.

Works: Messiaen: “Les enfants de Dieu” from La nativité du Seigneur (19-25).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (19-23, 25).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Offergeld, Robert. "More on the Gottschalk-Ives Connection." Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter 15 (May 1986): 1-2 and 13.

In response to H. Wiley Hitchcock's "Ivesiana: The Gottschalk Connection" (I.S.A.M. Newsletter 15, November 1985), a more thorough treatment of the quotation in Ives's Psalm 90 from Gottschalk's The Last Hope is offered. A hymn setting of Gottschalk's The Last Hope was made in 1866 by the Gottschalk-enthusiast Hubert Platt Main. Alternately titled Gottschalk or Mercy, the hymn is often credited to Edwin Pond Parker and mistakenly dated to 1880. Main's use of The Last Hope, a Gottschalk signature-piece, as a hymn may have been motivated by an infamous incident in 1866 involving Gottschalk and the honor of two young women in San Francisco. In this context, the hymn Gottschalk serves as a confession for the unrepentant pianist. Both George and Charles Ives knew the hymn, and the quotation in Psalm 90 most likely refers directly to it and not to Gottschalk's piece.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Orga, Ates. "Falla and Spanish Tradition." Music and Musicians16 (August 1968): 24-29.

Falla represents both the culmination of Spanish nationalism and the instigation of Spanish modernism. His works are divided into four periods: to 1907, student years and the emergence of national feelings; 1907-1914, Paris influences; 1914-1919, climax of nationalistic tendencies; and 1920-1946, move away from nationalism to new forms based on the Spanish classical tradition. In the first two periods, represented by works such as El amor brujo and the Three-Cornered Hat, Falla demonstrated the possibilities for incorporating Andalusian folk music, of whose Byzantine, Moorish, and gypsy influences he made an extensive study. In the last period, his preoccupation with the realization of the national spirit gave way to a more severe classical idiom, represented by works such as El retablo de Maese Pedro and the Harpsichord Concerto, which incorporated music from the Spanish Renaissance.

Works: Falla: El amor brujo (26-27), Three-Cornered Hat (27-28), Nights in the Gardens of Spain (28-29), El retablo de Maese Pedro (28), Harpsichord Concerto (28), L'Atlantida (28-29).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Orledge, Robert. "Satie and America." American Music 18 (Spring 2000): 78-102.

Instances of musical borrowing are identified within a study of Erik Satie's relationship with America and its music. Five works from 1900 through 1905 exhibit ragtime stylistic traits, and in Parade (1917), Irving Berlin's That Mysterious Rag is used as a rhythmic model. Borrowing also occurs in Musique d'Ameublement (1923), which uses a phrase resembling Sing a Song of Sixpence, the English nursery rhyme. This musical reference might have been Satie's method of indicating that his commission was easy to fulfill.

Works: Satie: Prélude de La Mort de Monsieur Mouche (80-82), La Diva de l'Empire (81), Le Piccadilly (81), Légende Californienne (82), Parade (84-85), Musique d'Ameublement (92-93).

Sources: Sing a Song of Sixpence (92-93); Berlin: That Mysterious Rag (84-85).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Orledge, Robert. Gabriel Fauré. London: Eulenburg Books, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Osmond-Smith, David. "Berio and the Art of Commentary." The Musical Times 116 (October 1975): 871-72.

While Berio based his Recital I on selected fragments of Cathy Berberian's repertory, the Chemins are modeled on the Sequenzas for solo instruments, thus on complete self-sufficient works. The composer expanded the instrumental texture in order to create "sonic aggregates" that could obscure the original structure completely. The resulting piece in turn could become the basis for further extensions: Chemins IIb-IIc and Chemins III are based on Chemins II and thus ultimately on Sequenza VI. "Each new layer creates a new, though related surface, and each older layer assumes a new function as soon as it is covered" (Berio).

Works: Berio: Chemins I, Chemins II, Chemins IIb, Chemins IIc, Chemins III, Chemins IV, Sinfonia, third movement, Recital I.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Osmond-Smith, David. "From Myth to Music: Levi-Strauss's Mythologiques and Berio's Sinfonia." The Musical Quarterly 67 (April 1981): 230-60.

The first and fifth movements of Luciano Berio's Sinfonia set fragments of Le cru et le cuit, Levi-Strauss's analysis of South American Indian myths, and the third movement is a commentary on the third movement of Gustav Mahler's Second Symphony "Resurrection"). None of the other quotations in the third movement are treated. The outer movements are unified with the central one by the fact that in his analysis, Levi-Strauss attempted to forge groups of the myths he studied into structures analogous to those of Western classical music.

Works: Berio: Sinfonia.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Osthoff, Wolfgang. "Eine neue Quelle zu Palestrinazitat und Palestrinasatz in Pfitzners Musikalischer Legende." In Renaissance-Studien. Helmuth Osthoff zum 80. Geburtstag, ed. Ludwig Finscher, 185-209. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1979.

It has long been unclear how much Hans Pfitzner borrowed from Palestrina in his opera (1917) named after this 16th-century composer. Only two borrowings have been identified, whereas four others have remained doubtful. In 1973, the Bayrische Staatsbibliothek received Pfitzner's copy of Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli. This manuscript proves that Pfitzner studied this work much more carefully than scholars hitherto have believed. It includes many marked passages with square brackets and Osthoff shows that these passages were intended to be used in the opera. Pfitzner, however, not only quoted from the Missa Papae Marcelli. In the sketches of his opera, he designated the melody in Act I on "patrem omnipotentem" (sung by the chorus of the angels) as a cantus firmus. Osthoff identifies it as a quotation from the Missa Aspice Domine (a parody mass) and not from the Missa Papae Marcelli as Albert Fleury claimed before. The markings also indicate that Pfitzner borrowed not only melodic and harmonic passages but also techniques, such as falsobordone, parallel tenths in outer parts, and sixteenth-century stereotyped figures including the cambiata and typical cadences. According to Osthoff, the technique of inserting small isolated elements into a new composition is significant for the structural thinking of twentieth-century composers.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Osthoff, Wolfgang. "Hans Pfitzner's 'Rose vom Liebesgarten': Gustav Mahler und die Wiener Schule." In Festschrift Martin Ruhnke zum 65. Geburtstag, 265-93. Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Institute für Musikwissenschaft der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Osthoff, Wolfgang. "Pfitzner-Goethe-Italien: Die Wurzeln des Silla-Liedchens im Palestrina." In Analecta Musicologica 17, 194-211. Studien zur italienisch-deutschen Musikgeschichte 11.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Oswald, John. "Plunderphonics, or Audio Piracy as a Compositional Prerogative." 1990. Available from http://www.halcyon.com/robinja/mythos/Plunderphonics. (Accessed 16 November 2002).

Legal rights over recorded sound materials involve many difficult issues. Although many artists have been incriminated for use of another's pitch and rhythmic materials, there is more difficulty concerning borrowing of timbres and less quantifiable musical elements within copyright laws. In fact, artists who use technology to create their works often use pitch and rhythm elements less than timbral elements. The oral tradition of popular music compounds this issue. Traditionally, plagiarism has been determined by the written notes on a page, but purely recorded musical works have no written component. This makes the case of copyright violation more difficult. Unique uses of instruments either associated with particular nationalities, such as the Trinidadian steel drum, or created from traditionally non-musical objects, such as a blade of grass cupped in one hands, also compound copyright issues. Does one's unique appropriation of such instruments give the person the rights over those sounds? Within American and Canadian copyright law, borrowing for pedagogical, illustrative, critical, and parody purposes qualifies as legal fair use. As long as the "economic viability" of the source work is maintained, there is no violation of copyright law. Moreover, borrowing of works in the public domain has no legal repercussions. Whether considered legal or not, all popular and folk music exists as public domain entities.

Works: Charles Ives: Symphony No. 3; George Harrison: My Sweet Lord; Jim Tenney: Collage 1.

Sources: Ronnie Mack: He's so Fine; Carl Perkins: Blue Suede Shoes.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Oswald, John. "Plunderphonics, or Audio Piracy as a Compositional Prerogative." Musicworks 34 (Spring 1986): 5-8.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Ould, Barry Peter. "Oh I Can't Sit Down: Version for One Piano Six Hands (From Grainger's Transcription)." The Grainger Journal 5 (November 1983): 10-14.

Between 1944 and 1951, Percy Grainger made a number of arrangements of George Gershwin's works. In addition to his Fantasy on Themes from Gershwin's Porgy and Bess and the songs The Man I Love and Love Walked In, Grainger set two other songs from Porgy and Bess independently: "Oh, I Can't Sit Down" and "Oh, Lord I'm On My Way." Grainger's Oh, I Can't Sit Down is scored for three pianists at one piano and it appears that the third part is in fact a written-out improvisation which was added to the song as it appears in his Fantasy for Two Pianos. Based on this evidence, it does not appear that Grainger ever intended to publish this arrangement. As with his Bridge on the River Kwai Marches, this setting was probably intended as yet another of his "at-home" experiments.

Works: Grainger: Porgy and Bess Fantasy, The Man I Love, Love Walked In, Oh, Lord I'm On My Way, Oh, I Can't Sit Down, Bridge on the River Kwai Marches.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] Pahissa, Jaime. Manuel de Falla: His Life and Works. Translated by Jean Wagstaff. London: Museum Press, 1954.

Falla's friend Pahissa provides an account of the development of the composer's musical life through a series of anecdotal descriptions of their encounters. Each of Falla's most significant works receives an independent, if brief, descriptive analysis, in which Falla's change from an evocative Spanish idiom to a more severe, abstract universal idiom is noted. The use of folksong quotations (which are mentioned without documentation) changes in accord with style changes. In earlier works, folksongs and folk sounds are used for their picturesque qualities. In the later works, they are subjected to classical developmental techniques.

Works: Falla: Four Spanish Pieces (50-53), Seven Popular Songs (76-79), El amor brujo (87-91), Nights in the Gardens of Spain (93-96), The Three-Cornered Hat (98-104), Hommage pour le tombeau de Debussy (112-13), El retablo de maese Pedro (126-29), Harpsichord Concerto (137-38), Homenajes (145-47).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Palmer, Christopher. "Prokofiev, Eisenstein and Ivan." The Musical Times 132 (April 1991): 179-81.

The 1941 film Ivan was produced and directed by Sergei Eisenstein in Moscow, Russia, based on the life of Ivan the Terrible. The film's score, by Sergei Prokofiev, borrows heavily from Russian folk and ecclesiastical idioms to convey nationalistic sentiments. The Russian folk songs "Russian Sea" and "Song of the Beaver" are used and both a "round dance" and an ardent love song are modeled on the folk idiom. Humming of a liturgical chant results in a "devil's parody." Close modeling on the works of Rimsky-Korsakov are evident through the thematic material in his first opera, The Maid of Pskov, a narrative of Ivan the Terrible, and the similarities of folk idiom use in Act III of The Snow Maiden, where the woodland festivities begin with a "round dance" and "Song of the Beaver." Prokofiev may or may not have intentionally borrowed from the folk traditions or from Rimsky-Korsakov, but the fact that the score is so saturated with Russian folk and ecclesiastical idioms shows how conversant he was with his own musical heritage.

Works: Sergei Prokofiev: score for Ivan (179-81).

Sources: Russian traditional song: Russian Sea,Song of the Beaver (179); Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov: The Maid of Pskov,The Snow Maiden,The Tsar's Bride (179).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Pamer, Fritz Egon. "Gustav Mahlers Lieder." Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 16 (1929): 116-38; 17 (1930): 105-27.

This study is an excerpt from Pamer's Ph.D. dissertation (Vienna, 1922). In the first part, the author lists original folksongs Mahler reworked in his own songs (122-23) and discusses their melodic features (136-38). In the second part, Pamer discusses the influence of Mahler's early musical impressions (especially folksongs, military fanfares and marches) on his songs in terms of rhythm, meter and tempo changes, thematic construction, harmony, and tonality. On pp. 125-27 he mentions the re-use of some songs in Mahler's symphonies, giving a very rudimentary interpretation. The musical examples of this second part are mostly taken primarily from Mahler's works and seldom from the material that influenced him.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Pamer, Fritz Egon. "Gustav Mahlers Lieder: eine stilkritische Studie." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1922.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Park, Sue-Jean. “The Concept of Fantasie in Two Versions of the Carmen Fantasie: Sarasate and Waxman.” DMA diss., The University of Texas at Austin, 2006.

Pablo de Sarasate and Franz Waxman both composed fantasies for violin based on Bizet’s Carmen. Despite the similarities in thematic content and sectional structure, when compared directly against each other, Sarasate’s fantasy can be seen as highlighting the themes from the opera, while Waxman’s version focuses on the technical skill of the violinist. As both a genre and a style, the fantasy underwent a number of changes from its Baroque origins to the nineteenth century. As the genre developed, composers made fantasies increasingly virtuosic and added idiomatic passages that displayed technical prowess. Carmen proved to be an attractive subject for a violin fantasy because its many lyrical vocal melodies transferred easily to the violin. Sarasate and Waxman use many of the same themes from Carmen for their fantasies, but they ornament these melodies differently. Sarasate’s borrowing of melodies is more direct, as he maintains phrase structure and rhythmic values, while Waxman manipulates the melodies by changing rhythmic durations and adding interpolations. Unlike the Sarasate fantasy, each section of Waxman’s fantasy ends with a violin cadenza. Although Waxman borrowed many of the same techniques that Sarasate used, as a whole, the Waxman fantasy is more demanding of the player.

Works: Pablo de Sarasate: Carmen Fantasy (2, 5, 21, 25, 30-63); Franz Waxman: Carmen Fantasie (2, 5, 21, 25, 54-63).

Sources: Bizet: Carmen (1-3, 22-63).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Partsch, Erich Wolfgang. "Dimensionen des Errinerns: Musikalische Zitattechnik bei Richard Strauss." Musicologica austriaca 5 (1985): 101-20.

[Focus on Ariadne auf Naxos, Die schweigsame Frau, and Capriccio.]

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Patterson, David W. "Music, Structure and Metaphor in Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey." American Music 22 (Fall 2004): 444-74.

Stanley Kubrick sampled over 400 recordings to create the score to 2001: A Space Odyssey, replacing original music by Alex North. While the soundtrack of pre-existing music would become quite popular, some denounced it for being arbitrary and cheaply exploiting classical music. Until recently, these issues have kept the music from being discussed as a musical score. Reading the entire soundtrack as a unit allows it to be understood as a chronological progression of harmonic languages that create unity throughout the film, which emphasizes structure and proportion both visually and aurally. Aural cues also underscore certain themes; for example, the opening of Also Sprach Zarathustra represents birth and becoming. Despite the patchwork form of the soundtrack, borrowed atonal and tonal harmonic streams are effectively utilized to create a score that intersects with the film's narrative.

Works: Stanley Kubrick (director): Sound track to 2001: A Space Odyssey.

Sources: György Ligeti: Atmosphères (448-50, 456-57), Requiem (452-53, 456-57), Lux Aeterna (456-57), Aventures (467-69); Richard Strauss: Also Sprach Zarathustra (450-52, 455-56); Johann Strauss: The Blue Danube Waltz (453-56); Aram Khachaturian: Gayane (458-61); Mildred Hill: Happy Birthday (461-62); Harry Dacre: Daisy Bell (463-67).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Perkins, Laurence. "The Sonatas for Violin and Piano by Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, Eastman School of Music, 1961.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Perle, George. "The Secret Programme of the Lyric Suite." The Musical Times 118 (August 1977): 629-32; and (September 1977): 709-13, 809-13.

The discovery of a miniature score of Alban Berg's Lyric Suite annotated by the composer for Hanna Fuchs-Robettin confirms that a secret program existed for this composition. A detailed description of the annotated score indicates the personal significance of the compositional practices and musical language of the work, including use of musical quotations from Wagner's Tristan und Isolde, from Zemlinsky's Lyric Symphony (also text-related), and from Berg's own Wozzeck to convey the program. This discovery suggests that there is personal significance in Berg's compositional techniques in other works and raises questions concerning the unfinished third act of Lulu and the authenticity of source materials formerly considered reliable.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Perle, George. The Operas of Alban Berg. Vol. 2, Lulu. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

The drama Lulu is the culmination of Berg's musical style. The great significance of the composer's personal life for the opera and other compositions is evident in his use of quotation. This takes the form of self-quotation (Wozzeck is quoted in Lulu) and of borrowing from other composers. The Lyric Suite quotes Zemlinsky's Lyric Symphony and Wagner's Tristan and Isolde, and the Violin Concerto quotes a Bach chorale and a Carinthian folksong. When borrowings are text-related, the unstated text is highly significant. Quotations are used to convey a program or for dramatic purposes.

Works: Berg: Lyric Suite (13-18, 256), Lulu (29, 256), Violin Concerto (255-57), Wozzeck (256).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Perlove, Nina Margaret. "Ethereal Fluidity: The Late Flute Works of Aaron Copland." DMA diss., University of Cincinnati, 2003.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Pimat, Manfred. "Beweisprobleme der (angeblich) unbewußten Entlehnung in der Musik." PhD diss., University of Kiel, 2001.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Pirie, Peter J. "Crippled Splendour: Elgar and Mahler." The Musical Times 97 (February 1956): 70-71.

Both Elgar and Mahler make use of march rhythms and military music (fanfares). The Finales of the two first symphonies are comparable is some respects. Elgar's Second Symphony includes a very Mahleresque passage. The end of Elgar's Falstaff is compared to the end of Mahler's Ninth Symphony. Both composers are viewed as expressing the "foreboding of terror which hangs over most of the art of the years 1900-14."

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Pirie, Peter J. "Debussy and English Music." The Musical Times 108 (July 1967): 599-601.

Debussy has had different influences on different English composers. The pointillistic chords of Delius's In a Summer Garden are a French influence. Vaughan Williams's On Wenlock Edge is similar to Ravel's String Quartet, and his Pastoral Symphony will be seen as similar when placed alongside any work of Debussy's. Arnold Bax parodied Vaughan Williams in his Country Tune.

Works: Bax: Country Tune (601); Delius: In a Summer Garden (600); Vaughan Williams: On Wenlock Edge (600); Pastoral Symphony (600).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Pisani, Michael V. "'I'm an Indian Too': Creating Native American Identities in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Music." In The Exotic in Western Music, ed. Jonathan Bellmann, 218-57. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Plasketes, George M. "The King Is Gone but Not Forgotten: Songs Responding to the Life, Death and Myth of Elvis Presley in the 1980s." Studies in Popular Culture 12, no. 1 (1988): 58-74.

In the 1980s, over one thousand songs have been written about Elvis Presley as an act of homage, parody, critique, commentary or interpretation, all of which use quotations from, references to, or imitations of his songs. These songs can be classified into four broad categories: deification, vilification, iconization, and demythification. The category of deification includes songs that juxtapose imagery of God or Jesus Christ with imagery associated with Elvis. The second category, vilification, includes songs that comment musically or lyrically on feeling betrayed by Elvis's drug use and subsequent demise. Iconization involves the stories, souvenirs, and songs of Elvis becoming associated as glorified, sacred, and permanent icons. Demythification involves songs and other media that comment on the commercialization of Elvis or counter popular Elvis myths.

Works: Paul Simon: Graceland (59, 62); Wall of Voodoo: Elvis Brought Dora a Cadillac (60); Mr. Bonus (Peter Holsapple): Elvis What Happened? (60, 65); Beatmistress/Diego [Death Ride]: Elvis Christ (60); Adrenalin O.D.: Velvet Elvis (60); Dead Milkmen: Going to Graceland (60, 70); Vandals: Elvis Decanter (61, 67); Mojo Nixon and Skip Roper: Elvis is Everywhere (61), Twilights Last Gleaming (61); Frank Zappa: Elvis Has Just Left the Building (61); Warren Zevon: Jesus Mentioned (61-62); Billy Joel: Allentown (62-63); John Hiatt: Riding with the King (62); John Fogarty: Big Train (From Memphis) (63); Elvis Costello: Brilliant Mistake (64); Robbie Robertson: American Roulette (64); Paul Westerberg [The Replacements]: Bastards of Young (64); Bono (Paul Hewson) and U2: Elvis Presley and America (64); Neil Young: My My, Hey Hey (Out of the Blue) (65); Bruce Springsteen: Johnny Bye Bye (66); Chris Barrows and Dorsey Martin [Pink Lincolns]: Velvet Elvis (67); Scott Kempner: Listening to Elvis as performed by Syd Straw (68); Exene Cervenka and John Doe [X]: Back 2 the Base (68); Forgotten Rebels: Elvis is Dead (69); Pink Slip Daddy: Elvis Zombie (70); Sons of Ishmael: Elvis Incorporated (70); Elvis Hitler: Disgraceland (70); Peter Holsapple [dB]: Rendezvous (70).

Sources: Chuck Berry: Bye Bye Johnny (66); Otis Blackwell: Don't Be Cruel as performed by Elvis Prelsey (68); Lou Handman and Roy Turk: Are You Lonesome Tonight? as performed by Elvis Prelsey (68); Paul Simon: Graceland (70).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Plasketes, George. "Cross Cultural Sessions: World Music Missionaries in American Popular Music." Studies in Popular Culture 18, no. 1 (October 1995): 49-61.

While the popularity of "World Music" is growing, many have criticized collaborations between Western and non-Western artists, such as Paul Simon's Graceland, as being exploitive of non-Western traditional music. However, these cross-cultural germinations actually serve as cultural bridges leading to greater levels of understanding. In the 1960s and 1970s many Western artists, particularly jazz musicians, attempted to achieve a synthesis between Western musical traditions and the music of Eastern, African, and South American cultures. By the late 1980s "World Music" was a staple of the record store, and artists such as Peter Gabriel, David Byrne, and Paul Simon were incorporating elements of non-Western music into their work. More recently, artists like Ry Cooder, Henry Kaiser, and David Lindley have sought out collaborations with non-Western musicians to create a blending of disparate music traditions. Cooder's A Meeting by the River blends elements and performance techniques of Hindustani music with the American musical idiom of Delta blues, and his Talking Timbuktu seeks to blend Delta blues with traditional West African music. Kaiser and Lindley traveled to Madagascar and Norway to create albums steeped in these traditions. Rather than being thought of as appropriations, the work of Cooder, Kaiser, and Lindley should be seen as collaborations that attempt to preserve the integrity of non-Western sources while blending them with distinctly Western idioms.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Plasketes, George. "The Long Ryder: From Studio Sessions and Solo Artist to Score and Soundtrack Specialist: Ry Cooder's Musicological Quest." Popular Music and Society 22, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 49-65.

Ry Cooder's apprenticeship as a soundtrack specialist began in the 1960s in Southern California, where he was active in the blues and folk circles. Known primarily as a recording artist, Cooder is particularly adept at providing atmosphere for rural, Southwest, and Deep South settings; the three-inch, sawed-off sherry bottle neck he uses on slide guitar provides a rich tone that evokes the scorching heat and background dust of the American south. His music has been borrowed for several films depicting the rural South, and Cooder himself has compiled soundtracks for various feature length films and documentaries. Cooder's music first appeared in Blue Collar, directed by Paul Schrader, which borrowed Cooder's blues-based "Hard Working Man" in 1978 to depict auto workers' struggles with management and their unions. Later that year Cooder's 1970 song "Available Space" was used in Goin' South, directed by Jack Nicholson. Cocktail features Cooder's cover of "All Shook Up," and Steel Magnolias borrows Cooder's "I Got Mine" and Hank Williams's "Jambalaya" to convey a Cajun culture. Roger Donaldson's Cadillac Man makes use of Cooder's "The Tattler," as well as The Bee Gees's "Stayin' Alive," and Percy Mayfield's "Hit the Road Jack" to underscore Robin Williams's character's redemption.

Works: Jack Nitzsche and Ry Cooder: score to Blue Collar (57); Roger Donaldson: score to Goin' South (57); J. Peter Robinson, Jim Weidman, et al.: score to Cocktail (60); Georges Delerue: score to Steel Magnolias (61).

Sources: Ry Cooder: Hard Working Man (57), Available Space (57); Traditional: I Got Mine as performed by Ry Cooder (61); Ry Cooder: The Tattler (61); Hank Williams: Jambalaya (61); Otis Blackwell: All Shook Up as performed by Ry Cooder (60); Barry Gibb, Maurice Gibb, and Barry Gibb: Stayin' Alive (61); Percy Mayfield: Hit the Road Jack (61).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Polnauer, Joseph. "Paralipomena zu Berg und Webern." Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 24 (May/June 1969): 292-96.

In the first of two sections, Polnauer traces the alteration of a four-note motive through the second act of Wozzeck, arriving at a motive from Bruckner's D Minor Mass, which Polnauer claims is a clear quotation. Berg was a lifelong lover of Bruckner's music, quoting here from a religious work of Bruckner's for the Bible scene of Wozzeck. Also mentioned is the use of a folksong in Berg's Violin Concerto.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Porcello, Thomas. "The Ethics of Digital Audio-Sampling: Engineers' Discourse." Popular Music 10 (January 1991): 69-84.

The ability of the digital sampler to mimic, reproduce, extract, and manipulate musical material has led to substantial discourse in issues of intellectual property and fair use. A series of interviews with studio engineers reveals a general, broad consensus regarding various aspects of sampling, such as payment to musicians, legal issues, and the threat to studio musicians, despite the disagreements about pragmatic aspects of actual use of sampling technology. The engineers interviewed all agreed that certain uses of sampling, such as the wholesale lifting of an entire phrase common in rap songs, are unethical and that sampling should not be "a technological free-for-all." Largely, the controversy centers around the question first raised by the Dadaist movement: can one actually own a sound? Where does one make the distinction between the material of a work and the work as a created, artistic whole? These questions have become even more difficult to answer after Foucault, who views all categories of authorship as spurious. Each engineer cited a "code of the West" that has evolved in the recording industry through general consensus, explaining that controversy occurs when someone is found to violate this unwritten code. Furthermore, since there is money to be made and saved though the use of digital sampling, its use ultimately serves to reinforce the asymmetrical power balance of the recording industry.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Porter, Andrew. "Musical Events: Something Borrowed, Something New." The New Yorker, 18 November 1983, 186.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Poulenc, Francis and Stéphane Audel. My Friends and Myself. Translated by James Harding. London: Dennis Dobson, 1978.

The lives and works of Poulenc and his friends were enriched through close contact between artists, poets, and musicians. Satie's music, especially Parade, fertilized that of Stravinsky. Falla rediscovered Spain in music through Debussy (whose "Soirée dans Grenade" from Estampes he quoted) and Pedrell (whose volumes of folk music influenced him).

Works: Falla: El amor brujo (90), El retablo de Maese Pedro (90), Homenaje, for guitar (92); Stravinsky: Sonata for Two Pianos (67).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Poulenc, Francis. Diary of My Songs. Translated by Winifred Radford. London: Victor Gollancz, 1985.

Poulenc's songs should be performed according to the instructions given in this diary. In composing them he was influenced by Liszt, Mussorgsky, Stravinsky, and Edith Piaf. He borrowed melodies from Mussorgsky, the lied-chanson style from Edith Piaf, and the tempo and harmonic progression from Stravinsky's Serenade in A for piano. From his own earlier works he borrowed themes, key, tempo, orchestration, and harmonic style.

Works: Poulenc: Tel jour, telle nuit (35), La Grenouillière (51), Chansons villageoises (71), Le Disparu (85), La Fraicheur et le feu (99), Dialogues des Carmelites (101), Nuage (107).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Poulenc, Francis. Emmanuel Chabrier. Paris: R. Julliard, 1954.

The neglected master Chabrier represents what is best in French music since 1880. His music foreshadowed innovations of the twentieth century and influenced musicians such as Ravel, Debussy, Stravinsky, and Poulenc himself. Specific examples of musical borrowing from Chabrier show use of themes, prosody, and harmonies. His orchestration influenced Debussy and Ravel. Chabrier also borrowed from others (Offenbach and Wagner) and from himself.

Works: Chabrier: Briseis (28), Donnez-vous la peine de vous asseoir (30), Gwendoline (28), Souvenir de Munich (56); Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande (50); Satie: Sarabandes (55); Ravel: A la manière de Chabrier (27).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Poulenc, Francis. Entretiens avec Claude Rostand. Paris: R. Julliard, 1954.

For Francis Poulenc, his compositions were like offspring whose different characters owed much to his varied experiences and influences. One important aspect of their character was the musical borrowing they contained. Poulenc quoted folk songs and military bugle calls and modeled pieces on compositions by Tchaikovsky, Mozart, Haydn, and Saint-Saëns. He used musical borrowing to proffer friendship, to make political statements, and as a form of emulation.

Works: Poulenc: Les Biches (55), Les Animaux modèles (58-59), Concert champêtre (78), Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra (83), Concerto for Piano (133), Les Mamelles de Tirésias (101), Stabat Mater (101), Trio for Piano, Oboe, and Bassoon (121).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Powrie, Phil, and Robynn Stilwell, eds. Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

See abstracts for individual chapters by Claudia Gorbman, Mike Cormack, Lars Franke, Ann Davies, Jeongwon Joe, Kristi A. Brown, Vanessa Knights, Raymond Knapp, Ronald Rodman, Phil Powrie, Robynn Stilwell, and Timothy Warner.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Powrie, Phil. "The Fabulous Destiny of the Accordion in French Cinema." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 137-51. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

The accordion in French cinema is a marker both of the past (including utopian longings for it) and of Frenchness. Three periods of French films that use accordion music exist, and Yann Tiersen's award-winning score for Le Fabuleux destin d'Amélie Poulain (Amélie), composed mostly of music from Tiersen's own pre-existing albums, offers a glimpse at a possible future period. While Amélie was criticized as a film for presenting a sanitized version of the area in France it depicts, Tiersen's music works against the clean-cut culture. The soundtrack establishes an imaginary sonic architecture built from melancholic retrospection through layers of Tiersen's minimalistic, pre-existing music. The use of Tiersen's accordion music rather than traditional tunes avoids citation of stereotyped music and allows accordion music to be reinvigorated.

Works: Jean-Pierre Jeunet (director), Yann Tiersen (composer): Sound track to Le Fabuleux destin d'Amélie Poulain (Amélie) (146-51).

Sources: Yann Tiersen: La Valse des monstres (146), La Rue des cascades (146), Le Phare (146), L'Absente (147).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Prato, Paolo. “Selling Italy by the Sound: Cross-Cultural Interchanges through Cover Records.” Popular Music 26 (October 2007): 441-62.

Despite a current lack of English-speaking musicians covering Italian songs, in prior decades (especially the 1960s) there was much covering of Italian music by non-Italians and non-Italian music by Italians. Many of these covers would maintain the music of the original song while changing the lyrics, either through approximate translation or a complete re-writing of the meaning of the original text. This brought about musical modernity for Italian canzone. A theory of “coverability” suggests that songs written in the classical and pre-rock veins are most easily covered because they provide recognizable structure and melody and are based in notation. In contrast, rock and roll is based in orality and performance, and songs like Hendrix’s Voodoo Chile and Led Zeppelin’s Whole Lotta Love, which are defined by particular recordings, resist replication. The “cultural imperialism thesis” of Francesco Alberoni applies to these covers: songs from the USA and the UK are the most likely to be hits (and thus likely to be covered) in other countries, followed by those of other European countries, down to those countries whose songs are unlikely to be covered.

Works: I Dik Dik: Senza luce (442), Sognando California (442); The Rokes: Che colpa abbiamo noi (442); Patty Pravo: Ragazzo triste (443); Bing Crosby, Richard Tucker, and Gracie Fields: Come Back to Sorrento (452); Elvis Presley: It’s Now or Never (452), Viva Las Vegas (452); Al Hoffman, Leo Corday, and Leon Carr (songwriters) and Dean Martin (performer): There’s No Tomorrow (452); Lou Monte: Don’t Say Forever (452); Vic Damone and Frank Sinatra: I Have But One Heart (452); Stevie Wonder: Il sole è di tutti (457).

Sources: Procol Harum: Whiter Shade of Pale (442); Bob Lind: Cheryl’s Going Home (442); John Phillips and Michelle Phillips (songwriters) and The Mamas &The Papas (performers): California Dreamin’ (442); Sonny and Cher: But You’re Mine (443); Ernesto de Curtis: Torna a Surriento (452); Eduardo di Capua and Alfredo Mazzucchi: ’O sole mio (452); Teodoro Cottrau: Santa Lucia (452); Salvatore Gambardella: O’ marinariello (452); Stevie Wonder: A Place in the Sun (457).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Priestley, Brian. “Charlie Parker and Popular Music.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 14 (2009): 83-99.

The reception history of Charlie Parker as a thoroughly original artist overlooks the influence of popular music on the altoist's recordings and performances. An exaggerated focus on technique over context in jazz performance pedagogy ignores this crucial historical element of Parker's musical development. Parker's colleagues and bandmates provide anecdotal evidence that he not only knew popular tunes, but played and practiced them frequently. Schenkerian analysis demonstrates that some of Parker's compositions correspond strongly to popular tunes both melodically and harmonically. This applies even to Parker's use of altered and extended harmonies, which can be found in many popular tunes that predate Parker's career.

Works: Sam H. Stept (composer) and Charlie Parker (performer): I'm Painting the Town Red (86); Charlie Parker: Ballade (87), Confirmation (87-89), My Little Suede Shoes (89-91); George Gershwin (composer) and Charlie Parker (performer): Embraceable You (92); Charlie Parker: Koko (93-96).

Sources: Sam H. Stept: I'm Painting the Town Red (86); Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler: As Long as I Live (87); Herb Magidson and Allie Wrubel: (I’m Afraid) The Masquerade is Over (87-89); Henri Giraud: Pedro Gomez (90), Le petit cireur noir (90); Zequinha de Abreu: Tico-Tico (90); George Gershwin: Embraceable You (92); Sam Coslow: A Table in a Corner (92); Ray Noble: Cherokee (93-96).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Priestley, Brian. “The Stardust File.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 10 (1999): 151-62.

Hoagy Carmichael’s Stardust did not start out as a slow song, but instead an instrumental piece with a fast tempo. The song shares a number of unusual melodic fragments with Bix Beiderbecke’s interpretation of Singin’ the Blues and Louis Armstrong’s Dardanella. The three-note pickup to the chorus later associated with the words “Sometimes I...” is also found in the choruses to popular songs Poor Butterfly and Rose Room. Carmichael first recorded the piece in 1927. The band Mills’s Merry Makers, led by Irving Mills, recorded the first slow version less than a year later. Carmichael, however, credited the tempo change to Isham Jones’s later recording, on which Carmichael was the pianist. Carmichael wrote lyrics to Stardust even before it was recorded for the first time as an instrumental work, but Mitchell Parish, a staff writer for Mills, wrote the lyrics that Bing Crosby sang in the 1931 release of the first version with voice. Crosby and Louis Armstrong are among a handful of artists who have recorded multiple versions of Stardust, indicating its endurance as a jazz standard.

Works: Hoagy Carmichael: Stardust (151-53); Hoagy Carmichael: Stardust as performed by Mills’s Merry Makers (153-54), Isham Jones (154-55), Bing Crosby (156-57), Louis Armstrong (157-58), and Benny Goodman (159).

Sources: J. Russel Robinson, Con Conrad, Sam M. Lewis, and Joe Young (composers) and Bix Beiderbecke (performer): Singin’ the Blues (152); Felix Bernard, Johnny S. Black, and Fred Fisher (composers) and Louis Armstrong (performer): Dardanella (152); Raymond Hubbell: Poor Butterfly (152); Art Hickman: Rose Room (152).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Pruslin, Stephen. "'One If by Land, Two If by Sea': Maxwell Davies the Symphonist." Tempo, no. 153 (June 1985): 2-6.

Over the course of his first three symphonies, Davies explores the same system of minor thirds and tritones that governs the first movement of Tchaikovsky's Fourth Symphony. While the symphonies of this "triptych" may be related to each other by this key scheme (F-Ab-B-D), they represent different compositional and aesthetic concerns of Davies. His first two symphonies, evoking respectively landscape and seascape, draw upon the aesthetics and ideals of other composers, including Sibelius, Beethoven, and Debussy. For the First Symphony, the scherzo of Sibelius's Fifth Symphony served as a model. For the more formally strict Second Symphony, Davies draws upon the harmonic and stylistic idiom of Debussy's La Mer. In each of the four movements of his Third Symphony, Davies articulates the same architectural outline, in which he borrows Renaissance spatial concepts and proportions and reworks them abstractly in time. The finale of this symphony, as with the slow final movement of the First Symphony, represents a response to the Mahler symphonic tradition.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Pruslin, Stephen. "Maxwell Davies's Second Taverner Fantasia." Tempo, no. 73 (Summer 1965): 2-11.

Peter Maxwell Davies's instrumental piece Second Fantasia on John Taverner's In Nomine demonstrates the ways in which Davies and Mahler think alike. In works of both composers, the borrowed material, which is the surface of the work, contradicts the full meaning of the work. Only in context with the rest of the piece can the significance of the borrowing be understood, and this technique creates an irony associated with the borrowing. Davies often passes the borrowed idea through filters, rendering it changed, even grotesque. In the Fantasia, Davies borrows Taverner's cantus firmus and distorts it in various ways. In the first movement, for example, he states it in the oboe with reasonable clarity, but in the scherzo it is distorted through excessive vibrato by a solo violin. This is comparable to processes in Mahler's Ninth Symphony. After an extended examination of the harmonic and tonal processes to which the borrowed material is subjected, one can see Davies's ironic dual-level process at work.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Pruslin, Stephen. "Returns and Departures: Recent Maxwell Davies." Tempo, no. 113 (June 1975): 22-28.

The formal and spiritual continuity of Davies's style is demonstrated through examination of two works, Worldes Blis and Stone Litany, in relation to their earlier counterparts, Taverner 2 and Revelation and Fall.Worldes Blis, which is based upon the same In Nomine setting by Taverner as Taverner 2, parallels the surface form of Taverner 2 to its halfway point and then "masks" the material from the second half. Discussed in terms of emotional content, Stone Litany provides a cold, hard look at the same image discussed by Revelation and Fall.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Puca, Antonella. “Steve Reich and Hebrew Cantillation.” The Musical Quarterly 81 (Winter 1997): 537-55.

The influence of Hebrew cantillation, the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services, can be traced in Steve Reich’s music from the mid-1970s to the early-1990s. After Reich studied cantillation, the sound aspects of spoken language, such as intonation, timbre, melodic cadences, and metric accentuation, became the defining elements of musical structure in many of his compositions. In Eight Lines (1979), there are long melodic lines which were constructed according to a procedure of “motivic addition” similar to that of Hebrew cantillation. In Tehillim (1981), Reich uses Psalms in Hebrew as the poetic source for his musical settings. Furthermore, the rhythmic structure of the work is based on the structure of the words: a pattern of two and three beats, which Reich preserved metrically and in the vocal line of this work. Different Trains incorporates taped speech fragments of Holocaust survivors. The intonation and pitch level of the original speech fragments determine the harmonic framework of the composition, including its tonal shifts to different harmonic planes. The Cave incorporates techniques of the previous three compositions. Speech samples become the basis of this composition, and its music reflects these samples’ melodic and rhythmic profiles. These text-setting techniques restore the union between the “sound” aspect of speech and the semantic meaning of the words, a direct result of the influence of Hebrew cantillation.

Works: Steve Reich: Eight Lines (543-45), Tehillim (545-48), Different Trains (548-50), The Cave (550-51).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Puffett, Derrick. "Webern's Wrong Key-Signature." Tempo, no. 199 (January 1997): 21-26.

Closer scrutiny of the lieder of Anton Webern can reveal the influence of Hugo Wolf. This is true not only of style, but also in the borrowing of actual musical content. This can be pitch specific, for example in "Aufblick," Webern uses a notational "perversion" of B flat-B double flat-A flat, which is identical to Wolf in "Lebe wohl," or they can be less referential, such as an ascending third followed by a descending semitone in Wolf's "Frage und Antwort." Another borrowing type includes specific chromatic chord progressions as in Webern's "Heimgang in der Frühe" and Wolf's "Das verlassene Mägdlein." Wolf's influence on Webern is widely known, which only affirms the possibility of borrowing from the elder composer. This is further strengthened by the fact that all references to Wolf's lieder are to those contained in the Mörike-Liederbuch.

Works: Webern: Aufblick (21, 22), Fromm (23-24), Heimgang in der Frühe (24-25), Sommerabend (25).

Sources: Wolf: Lebe wohl (21-22), Frage und Antwort (22), Gesang Weylas (23-24), Das Verlassene Mägdlein (24-25), Um Mitternacht (25).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Quinn, Peter. "Out with the Old and In with the New: Arvo Pärt's 'Credo.'" Tempo, no. 211 (January 2000): 16-20.

Arvo Part's best known works were written after the adoption of his tintinnabuli style in 1976, but his experimental works of the 1960s prefigure his new style. While Pärt wrote a number of twelve-tone compositions in the 1960s, in 1964 he began to utilize borrowed music, particularly the music of J. S. Bach. For instance, Pärt's Credo (1968) was his last work to use serial procedures and collage techniques; he borrows J. S. Bach's Prelude No. 1 in C Major, BWV 846/1, and juxtaposes it with a twelve-tone row built on the circle of fifths. These two disparate styles are tied together through a common fundamental structure. The ways in which Pärt renders his borrowed material serve as a preview of how the composer would reconcile disparate material in his later works.

Works: Arvo Pärt: Credo (16-20).

Sources: J. S. Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1, Prelude No. 1 in C Major, BWV 846/1 (17-20).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Raab, Hans-Heinrich. "Explosionen und Cantus, II. Sinfonie von Wilfried Krätzschmar." Musik und Gesellschaft 31 (February 1981): 73-76.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Raab, Hans-Heinrich. "Zur Spezifik des Collage-Begriffs in der Musik." In 150 Jahre Musikwissenschaft an der Humbolt-Universität zu Berlin, ed. Helmut Klein, in collaboration with Günter Hellriegel, Gisela Kostow, and Gudrun Kramer, 119-21. Gesellschaft- und Sprachwissenschaftliche Reihe 24. Berlin: Redaktion Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humbolt Universität, 1980.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Raad, Virginia. "Musical Quotations in Claude Debussy." The American Music Teacher 17 (January 1968): 22-23, 34. The National Association of Teachers of Singing Bulletin 24 (February 1968): 33, 39.

This article lists many works by Debussy and the sources of their quotations, but provides no musical examples or measure numbers and offers no insights into the whys and hows of Debussy's musical borrowing.

Works: Debussy: Hommage à S. Pickwick, Esq. P.P.M.P.C. (22), Feux d'artifice (22), Berceuse héroique (22), Caprices en blanc et noir (22), Pierrot (22), La terrasse des audiences au clair de lune (22), "Jardins sous la pluie" from Estampes (22), Rondes de printemps (22), "Jimbo's Lullaby" from Children's Corner (22), La boite à joujoux (22), Les cloches (23), "Gigue" from Images (23), "Golliwog's Cake Walk" from Children's Corner (23, 34), Le petit nègre (34), Marche ecossaise (34).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Rabinowitz, Peter J. "Fictional Music: Toward a Theory of Listening." In Theories of Reading, Looking, and Listening (Bucknell Review 26, no. 1), ed. Harry R. Garvin, 193-208. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1981.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Radice, Mark A. "Bartók's Parodies of Beethoven: The Relationships Between opp. 131, 132 and 133 and Bartók's Sixth String Quartet and Third Piano Concerto." The Music Review 42 (August/November1981): 252-60.

Bartók's compositional model was Beethoven. Similarities between the two composers may be seen in form, contrapuntal writing, use of introductions and epilogues, and thematic and motivic material. The symmetrical structure of Bartók's Second Piano Concerto is compared to the form of Beethoven's String Quartet in C# Minor, Op. 131. The forms of the second movement of Bartók's Third Piano Concerto and the concerto as a whole are related to both the Second Piano Concerto and Op. 131. The second movement is also related to Beethoven's String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132, where striking similarities occur in scoring, rhythm, texture, and dynamics. Beethoven's Grosse Fuge for String Quartet, Op. 133, serves as a model for Bartók's Sixth String Quartet with parallels of meter, dynamics, articulation, use of rests, and compositional procedures. It is clear that Bartók deliberately used many of Beethoven's compositional techniqes.

Works: Bartók: Piano Concerto No. 2 (254), Piano Concerto No. 3 (254-55), String Quartet No. 6 (255-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Ramaut, Beatrice. "Deux mises en scène d'une conscience de la tradition: Opera di Berio (1969) et Accanto de Lachenmann." Revue de musicologie 79 (1993): 109-41.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rangell, Andrew Reed. "The Violin-Piano Sonatas of Charles Ives: An Analytical Discussion." Ph.D. dissertation, The Juilliard School, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rathert, Wolfgang. "Charles Ives, Symphonie Nr. 4, 1911-1916." Neuland 3 (1982-83): 226-41.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rathert, Wolfgang. Charles Ives. Erträge der Forschung, 267. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rathert, Wolfgang. The Seen and Unseen: Studien zum Werk von Charles Ives. Berliner musikwissenschaftliche Arbeiten, 38. Munich: Musikverlag Emil Katzbichler, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rectanus, Hans. "'Ich erkenne dich, Josquin, du herrlicher...:' Bemerkungen zu thematischen Verwandtschaften zwischen Josquin, Palestrina und Pfitzner." In Renaissance-Studien: Helmuth Osthoff zum 80. Geburtstag, ed. Ludwig Finscher, 211-22. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1979.

In his opera Palestrina, Hans Pfitzner uses three themes from Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli. While two of them (from the "Kyrie" and from the "Christe") are simple quotations, the one from the "Sanctus" is developed further until it exactly represents the characteristic scale motive from Josquin's well known instrumental piece La Bernardina, which Pfitzner, however, most probably did not know. This development covers the final section of the dramatically important "inspiration scene" from Act I. Rectanus explains the correspondence with a mysterious relationship between the composers concerned, with what he calls an unio mystica or Sternenfreundschaft.

Works: Palestrina: Missa Papae Marcelli,Missa Benedicta es (212-13); Pfitzner: Palestrina; Ghiselin-Verbonnet: L'Alfonsina (216-17); Josquin: Mi Larés vous (216-17); Monteverdi: Raggi, D'ovè il mio ben (216-17).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Rectanus, Hans. "Ein wiederentdecktes Weihnachtslied Hans Pfitzners aus dem Jahre 1902: In Mitten der Nacht." Mitteilungen der Hans-Pfitzner-Gesellschaft 63 (2003): 82-95.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rectanus, Hans. "Leitmotivik und Form in den musikdramatischen Werken Hans Pfitzners." Ph.D. diss., University of Frankfurt, [??]. Also published in Literarahistorisch-musikwissenschafliche Abhandlungen 18. Wurzburg: Triltisch, 1967.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Redlich, Hans Ferdinand. "The Creative Achievement of Gustav Mahler." The Musical Times 101 (July 1960): 418-21.

This article locates Mahler's music historically and analyzes its expression. While the incorporation of his own songs into the symphonies could function as "signposts for the intellectual appreciation of the hidden programme," the handling of deliberately trivial melodies symbolizes "experiences of despair or of heartlacerating self-irony." The parody of Frère Jacques in the First and a melody of a Viennese military cortège in the Fifth Symphony belong to the latter category.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 5, Symphony No. 8.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Redlich, Hans Ferdinand. "The Significance of Britten's Operatic Style." Music Survey 2 (Spring 1950): 240-45.

Britten's operas and operatic style are considered to have developed from the models of Berg (Wozzeck), Stravinsky (Oedipus Rex), Hindemith (Das Nusch-Nuschi), Brecht-Weill (Die Dreigroschenoper), Pfitzner, Busoni, R. Strauss, and Verdi, while his eclecticism is compared to that of Monteverdi, Mozart, and Wagner. A specific example of Britten's modelling is that of a leitmotif from Albert Herring (Prelude to Act II, Scene 2), which may have been suggested by a passage from Act III of Verdi's Falstaff. Britten subjects his motif to variations, one of which serves as a model for his song Canticle I, and thus provides a link between Britten's operatic and lyrical styles.

Works: Britten: Albert Herring (241-42), Canticle I (243).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Redlich, Hans Ferdinand. Bruckner and Mahler. Rev. 2nd ed. London: Dent; New York: Farrar, Strauss and Cudahy, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Reilly, Robert R. "The Recovery of Modern Music: George Rochberg in Conversation." Tempo, no. 219 (February 2002): 8-12.

In an interview, Rochberg discusses his move toward serialism after World War II and his eventual return to the tonal idiom after the death of his son in the mid-1960s. Even though he was writing in the serial tradition after World War II, his music did not sound like that of other serial composers because he kept his sight on what he called "hard Romanticism," which Rochberg defines as an unattainable romantic notion that forces the music to open to the chaos of atonality. He eventually became disillusioned with serial techniques because it was only possible to manipulate the music in one way. Rochberg could find no true cadences or musical pauses for drama and expressive purposes. Starting with Contra Mortem et Tempus, Rochberg begin moving towards tonal music with the use of collage. He finally found his compositional style in String Quartet No. 3, which is rooted in both tonality and atonality. This piece, although not using collage technique, is formed through the music of previous eras that creates a sense of looking back to understand the future.

Works: Rochberg: Contra Mortem et Tempus (10), Music for the Magic Theater (10), Caprice Variations (10), String Quartet No. 3 (10-12).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Reise, Jay. "Rochberg the Progressive." Perspectives of New Music 19 (Fall/Winter 1980-Spring/Summer 1981): 395-407.

Rochberg, who began as an atonal composer, has reincorporated tonality into his style as a reaction against the limitation of expression in atonal music. His Third String Quartet juxtaposes sections of atonal music with sections that strongly suggest the styles of Beethoven and Mahler, without using direct quotation. For example, the quartet's finale resembles the finale of Mahler's Ninth Symphony in hamony, mood, use of pedal point, and melodic figures to the point where one can see the two passages as belonging to the same piece. Motivic unification is used to unite historical with modern styles. Rochberg uses the styles of Beethoven and Mahler because of their expressive connotations and incorporates them into a new context. This way of using the music of the past is not reactionary, but progressive.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld, Sergio Bezerra

[+] Renner, Hans, and Klaus Schweizer. Reclams Konzertführer Orchestermusik. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Rexroth, Dieter. "Mahler und Schönberg." In: Gustav Mahler. Sinfonie und Wirklichkeit, ed. Otto Kolleritsch, 68-80. Graz: Universal Edition, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Reynolds, Christopher. "Porgy and Bess: 'An American Wozzeck.'" Journal of the Society for American Music 1 (February 2007): 1-28.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Reynolds, Patrick Allen. "Triumph: A Paraphrase on Music from The Mask of Time by Michael Tippett." DMA document, University of Cincinnati, College-Conservatory of Music, 1997.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rhoades, Larry L. "Theme and Variation in Twentieth Century Organ Literature: Analyses of Variations by Alain, Barber, Distler, Dupré, Duruflé and Sowerby." Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Richardson, Neal. "Musical Borrowing in Selected Works by Peter Maxwell Davies and George Rochberg." Master's thesis, Baylor University, 1994.

During the 1960s, Peter Maxwell Davies and George Rochberg made extensive use of an integrated compositional approach characterized by the juxtaposition of existing music (especially Baroque and pre-Baroque) with newly-composed music (frequently atonal in style). Two representative works are Davies's Second Fantasia on John Taverner's In Nomine, whose pitch organization relates directly to the "In nomine" portion of the "Benedictus" from Taverner's Missa Gloria tibi Trinitas, and Rochberg's Nach Bach, which synthesizes quotations from J. S. Bach's Partita in E minor, BWV 830, with newly-composed music that borrows pitch organization and motivic, formal, and gestural characteristics from the Bach. A comparative analysis of these works and their use of existing music enriches an understanding of the complex ways that musical borrowing, such as fifteenth-century cantus firmus techniques, parody technique, quodlibet, allusion, and collage, can be manifested.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Richter, Gert. "Bach- und Händelzitate in unserer neuen Musik." In Johann Sebastian Bach und Georg Friedrich Händel: zwei führende musikalische Repräsentanten der Aufklärungsepoche; Bericht über das Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium der 24. Händelfestspiele der DDR / Halle (Saale) 9-10 June 1976, ed. Walther SiegmundSchultze, 88-91. Halle: Herstellung, DFH Halle, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rienäcker, Gerd. "Zu einigen Aspekten der Bach-Rezeption im sozialistischen Musikschaffen." In Bericht über dieWissenschaftliche Konferenz zum III. Internationalen Bach -Fest der DDR / Leipzig, 19-19 September 1975, ed. Werner Felix, Winfried Hoffman, and others, 315-325. Leipzig: Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Riezler, Walter. Hans Pfitzner und die deutsche Bühne. Munich: R. Piper, 1917. See p. 55 and 65.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rijavec, Andrej. "Oswald von Wolkenstein Do fraig amors als Kantate des slowenischen Komponisten Jakob Jaz aus dem Jahre 1968." In Mittelalter-Rezeption, II. Gesammelte Vorträge des 2. Salzburger Symposions. Die Rezeption des Mittelalters in Literatur, Bildender Kunst und Musik des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, ed Jürgen Kühnel, Hans-Dieter Mück, Ursula Müller, and Ulrich Müller, 247-60. Göppingen: Kümmerle, 1982.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rinehart, John McLain. "Ives' Compositional Idioms: An Investigation of Selected Short Compositions as Microcosms of His Musical Language." Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1970.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Ringer, Alexander L. "'Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen': Allusion und Zitat in der musikalischen Erzählung Gustav Mahlers." In Das musikalische Kunstwerk: Geschichte, Ästhetik, Theorie: Festschrift Carl Dahlhaus zum 60. Guburtstag, ed. Hermann Danuser et al., 589-602. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 1988.

Musical allusions as an aesthetic principle (and not "creative impotence," as some critics sought to present it) were a part of Mahler's artistic creation from the beginning. At least at the start of his career, Mahler could count on the familiarity of his Viennese audience with certain musical ideas, no less than with numerous quotations from works of Schiller, Goethe, or the Antiquity, which belonged to the standard education of central-European bourgoisie. The first song from his cycle Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen is based on a citation from Schubert's Mainacht, a song often performed in the circle of Mahler's friends. The poetic images in Mahler's text are also similar to those of Schubert's poet, Hölty. In the same song there is a second connection, to Marschner's "Romanze vom bleichen Mann" from the opera Vampyr. The third song is permeated by motives from the Ring, especially from Götterdämmerung. Allusions to motives are made at appropriate points in the text; for example, the phrase "nicht bei Tage, nicht bei Nacht, wenn ich schlief" ("not by day, not by night when I was asleep") is set to the descending chromatic line of the "Sleep" motive from the Ring. In the final song, apart from Wagner, Mahler quotes Schubert's Wegweiser and, most obviously, a lengthy excerpt from Donizetti's opera Don Sebastian in which a character witnesses his own funeral. The latter, a march theme Mahler remembered from performances heard ten years before, alludes to the mood of his character at the end of the cycle. The orchestral postlude consists of a twice repeated progression, a stepwise ascending minor third, common to all three of Mahler's models, Schubert, Wagner, and Donizetti.

Works: Gustav Mahler: Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, Das klagende Lied.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Mirna Polzovic

[+] Ringer, Alexander L. "The Art of the Third Guess: Beethoven to Becker to Bartók." The Musical Quarterly 52 (July 1966): 304-12.

Beethoven composed two separate sketches (Paris and Vienna) on Goethe's Erlkönig. Some aspects of these settings, such as repeated notes in the treble part, the drone in the bass, and the harmonic movement to mediant-related major keys for the middle section are remarkably similar to Schubert's Wanderer and Erlkönig. Near the end of the nineteenth century, Reinhold Becker took the transcription done by Gustav Nottebohm of the Vienna sketch as the basis for a "complete version," in an attempt at what Paul H. Lang calls "the art of the second guess." Bartók then orchestrated this arrangement in a work which was unknown to Bartók scholars until the discovery of the score at the University of Illinois Music Library. Bartók made no attempt to correct any of Becker's mistakes or changes from Beethoven's setting, except for a few harmonic changes, but his orchestration provided new sophisticated treatments of rhythm, color, and dynamics not found in the arrangement or the original.

Works: Bartók: Erlkönig (308-11); Becker: Erlkönig (307-08); Beethoven: Erlkönig.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Ringer, Alexander L. "The Music of George Rochberg." The Musical Quarterly 52 (October 1966): 409-30.

Rochberg's references to earlier compositions are discussed in the course of this general overview of his music. Numerous examples of quotation and self-quotation in his works are mentioned. His musical collages employ materials from a variety of works by others and by himself. In Rochberg's Contra Mortem et Tempus (1965), for instance, the allusions include those to Boulez, Berio, Varèse, Berg, Ives, and himself. With the composition of Music for the Magic Theater (1965), Rochberg has gained full independence from the past by so fully absorbing the music of the tradition that the music is no longer a burden on the present but instead points the way to the future.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Robinson, Lisa Brooks. "Mahler and Postmodern Intertextuality." Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1994.

[On compositions of the 1960s to 1980s that are modeled on or quote Mahler.]

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rochberg, George. "Metamorphosis of a 20th-Century Composer." Music Journal (March 1976): 12.

In a brief interview, George Rochberg discusses his move away from serial techniques in the 1960s in hopes to create a more evenly mixed tonal/atonal tradition. With pieces like Music for Magic Theater, he relied upon the music of his peers as the foundation of the piece. His String Quartet No. 3, however, only evokes the music of past composers through the harmonic and motivic movement, which is interspersed between atonal sections of music.

Works: Rochberg: Music for Magic Theater, String Quartet No. 3.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Rodda, Richard E. "Genesis of a Symphony: Tippett's Symphony No. 3." The Music Review 39 (May 1978): 110-16.

Michael Tippett's compositional process is revealed through a discussion of the writing of his Symphony No. 3. Tippett perceives four distinct stages in this process: conception, where ideas are often inspired by other music or sounds; gestation, a period of mental development of the piece; development of form, both large and small, at which time some actual composing may begin; and the final stage, which is the writing of the score. In his Third Symphony, Tippett takes the idea of a vocal finale from Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and includes three quotations from Beethoven's final movement. The finale of Tippett's symphony is related in subject matter to Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde, and the musical style is based loosely on the blues as sung by Bessie Smith in St. Louis Blues with Louis Armstrong.

Works: Tippett: Symphony No. 3.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Rodman, Ronald. "The Popular Song as Leitmotif in 1990s Film." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 119-36. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

The study of film music is often focused on the classical film score, which derives from late nineteenth-century opera and musical theater, including features such as the use of symphony orchestras, functional tonality, the leitmotif, and a newly composed score. However, the practice of the compilation score has been around from the earliest days of film, and by the end of the twentieth century, the popular music score was being used in a postmodern manner, decentering the role of the unique musical work and drawing upon the style and celebrity of a musical work, exemplified by Pulp Fiction and Trainspotting. In Pulp Fiction, the musical style of borrowed popular music rather than a singular theme is used as a leitmotif, and in Trainspotting, celebrity and irony are used as a leitmotif through the social codes (the mode of Social Practice). Full lists of borrowed music for the films are included in tables.

Works: Quentin Tarantino (director): Sound track to Pulp Fiction (121, 123-30); Danny Boyle (director): Sound track to Trainspotting (121, 130-35).

Sources: Dick Dale and the Deltones (performers): Misirlou (126); Kool and the Gang: Jungle Boogie (126); John Hurley and Ronnie Wilkins (songwriters), Dusty Springfield (performer): Son of a Preacher Man (126); Neil Diamond (composer), Urge Overkill (performer): Girl, You'll Be a Woman Soon (126); Lew DeWitt (composer), Statler Brothers (performers): Flowers on the Wall (126); Gerald Sanders, Jesse Sanders, Norman Sanders, and Leonard Delaney (songwriters), The Tornadoes (performers): Bustin' Surfboards (126); Dennis Rose and Earnest Furrow (songwriters), The Centurians (performers): Bullwinkle, Part II (126); Sam Eddy, Dean Sorensen, and Paul Sorensen (songwriters), The Revels (performers): Comanche (126); Bob Bogle, Nole Edwards, and Don Wilson (songwriters), The Lively Ones (performers): Surf Rider (126); Bizet: Carmen (131); Iggy Pop and David Bowie (songwriters), Iggy Pop (performer): Lust for Life (133), Nightclubbing (134).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Roman, Zoltan. "Mahler's Songs and Their Influence on His Symphonic Thought." Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1970.

Chapter V of Roman's dissertation presents an examination of Mahler's songs in symphonies from the point of view of their constituent poetical as well as musical-echnical elements. As in the genre of the song itself, Mahler also sought for new means of expression in the symphony. Still in the tradition of Beethoven, he expands "the grand design of symphonic music" by the incorporation of a hitherto unexplored resource: the song. The result of his search for an ultimate "symbiosis of symphonic and vocal music" can be described as follows: (1) Mahler's music--even in his apparently purely instrumental symphonies--has to be viewed in connection with his interest in literature. (2) The new possibilities created by Mahler's expansion of the genre are reflected in the works of the following generation.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 4, Das Lied von der Erde.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Roman, Zoltan. "The Folk Element in Mahler's Songs." Canadian Association of University Schools of Music 8 (Autumn 1978): 67-84.

Mahler's songs to texts from Des Knaben Wunderhorn are influenced by folk music. Those most clearly related to folk or popular songs may be divided into two groups: (1) songs that show a direct resemblance to existing songs, and (2) songs with general characteristics of a popular genre such as dance songs and soldier songs. The melodies are classified by style (diatonic, chromatic, mixed); intervallic motion (triadic, conjunct, disjunct, mixed); and rhythm (predominantly dotted, primarily smooth, mixed). Mahler follows the stylistic traditions of the nineteenth-century Lied: the simplicity and "volkstümliche character" of many of the Wunderhorn songs is similar to Schubert; the harmonic language is much like Schumann; and the nature of the accompaniment is related to Brahms. While these songs clearly reflect the influences of his predecessors and of Romantic historicism, they also show Mahler's "absorption" and "adaptation" of material which foreshadows the "total stylistic assimilation of folk music" by twentieth-century composers.

Works: Mahler: "Revelge," "Wo die schönen Trompeten blasen," "Es sungen drei Engel einen süssen Gesang," "Wir geniessen die himmlischen Freuden," "Ich ging mit Lust durch einen grünen Wald," "Rheinlegendchen," "Lied des Verfolgten im Turm" ("Die Gedanken sind frei"), "Der Tamboursg'sell," "Zu Strassburg auf der Schanz," "Verlorene Müh'," "Hans und Grethe," "Nicht wiedersehen!," "Scheiden und Meiden," "Der Schildwache Nachtlied," and "Trost im Unglück" from Des Knaben Wunderhorn.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Rorem, Ned. "Cries in the Dark." Opera News 53 (21 January 1989): 9-13.

Though products of one Zeitgeist, Schoenberg's Erwartung and Bartók's Bluebeard's Castle differ in compositional method, sonority, and texture. The influences of Ravel, Debussy, and Richard Strauss are heard in Bartók's opera, which in turn, influenced other composers. Stravinsky borrowed liberally from Bartók, using the latter's Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta in his Symphony in Three Movements, and the First String Quartet in Jocasta's air from Oedipus Rex.

Works: Stravinsky: Symphony in Three Movements (11), Oedipus Rex (11).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Rosar, William H. “The Dies Irae in Citizen Kane: Musical Hermeneutics Applied to Film Music.” In Film Music: Critical Approaches, ed. K. J. Donnelly, 103-16. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001.

Rachmaninoff used the Dies Irae chant to create a five-note motif in Isle of the Dead, and the motif crafted by Bernard Herrmann for the title character in Citizen Kane is strikingly similar to that of Rachmaninoff. Two possible explanations for this semblance exist: the motif of Herrmann resembles that of Rachmaninoff because it is modeled on the Isle of the Dead, or the resemblance exists because the two motifs are modeled on a common source, the Dies Irae. When applying musical hermeneutics to film, it is necessary to consider the musical associations composers may make when viewing films as they prepare to compose a score. The application of musical hermeneutics to the Kane motif suggests that Herrmann modeled it on the motif of Rachmaninoff because when Herrmann first saw cinematic images of Xanadu he was reminded of the painting by Arnold Böcklin, The Island of the Dead, which had inspired Rachmaninoff’s symphonic poem. That Herrmann never attributes this motif to Rachmaninoff could be explained by his general silence on the issue of musical borrowing in his music or by the process of cryptomnesia, in which an artist or writer unintentionally borrows from a work he or she has forgotten.

Works: Orson Welles (director) and Bernard Herrmann (composer): score to Citizen Kane (104-13); Rachmaninoff: Isle of the Dead (104-13).

Sources: Anonymous: Dies Irae (104-13); Rachmaninoff: Isle of the Dead (104-13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Rosar, William. "Music for the Monsters: Universal Pictures' Horror Film Scores of the Thirties." The Quarterly Journal of the Library of Congress 40 (Fall 1983): 390-421.

The main title of the original Dracula (1930) consists of an abbreviated version of scene 2 from Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake. Whether conscious or not, the composer Heinz Roemheld was carrying on into sound pictures a convention from silent films, in which Tchaikovsky's piece was used as a misterioso. Original pieces from the 18th and 19th centuries were often employed in the scores of these "B movies," as producers naively believed this would bring sophistication and class to their films, the quality of which was admittedly substandard. The harmonic language peculiar to pieces such as Stravinsky's Firebird and Petroushka and the whole-tone scale in particular have become characteristic of horror film music since the early 1930s.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Rose, Tricia. "Orality and Technology: Rap Music and Afro-American Cultural Resistance." Popular Music and Society 13, no. 4 (Spring 1989): 35-44.

Rap is often conceptualized as developing from the oral orientation of the African-American tradition but is rather a complex combination of orality and post-modern technology. The concept of rap as a "post-literate" oral tradition that is a natural outgrowth of oral Afro-American traditional forms is overly simplistic and romanticized. Rap lyrics, which are strongly identified with the rappers that wrote them, display the strong sense of authorship at work in the rap community, which stands in stark contrast to the concepts of orality. However, rap artists' use of sampling reveals the influence of the oral Afro-American tradition in which authorial authority is achieved not in creating a story but rather in its retelling, as texts are considered community property. By sampling, rap artists recontextualize pre-existing material, essentially using sampling technology as "de- and re-construction devices." Sampling, largely regarded as theft by the mass culture, consequently creates a type of resistance against that culture. The re-use of copyrighted material without permission can be read as undermining the legal and capital market authorities.

Works: Kool Moe Dee (Mohandas Dewese) and Teddy Riley: How Ya Like Me Now! (41); Eric B. (Eric Barrier) and Rakim (William Griffin Jr.): Paid in Full (42-43).

Sources: Jimmy Forrest: Night Train as performed by James Brown (41); Franne Golde, Dennis Lambert and Duane Hitchings: Don't Look Any Further as performed by Dennis Edward (42-43).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1994.

In a broader investigation of rap music and contemporary Black American culture, sampling is discussed (pp. 73-80 and 88-93). Rappers utilize sampling technology not as a shortcut to copy pre-existing music but rather as a means to achieve unique creative objectives. Often, the sonic qualities sought after by rap artists and producers can only be created through sampling, not through live performance or digital synthesized sound such as drum machines. The way in which digital samples are used by rap DJs is in line with what Walter Ong has identified in oral traditions as "narrative originality." According to Ong, narrative originality is achieved not through the creation of new material but through the "reshuffling" of the pre-existing material. However, in addition to this, use of sampling technology by rap artists can also be seen to constitute a means of composition. Samples in a rap song generate meaning through complex intertextual references, as does the process of "versioning," the reworking of an entire song so that it takes on new meaning in a new context. The use of sampling and versioning has generated conflict with existing copyright laws, and rap artists are often accused of stealing musical material. This problem arises partially because current copyright laws originated in the nineteenth century and were originally intended to protect musical scores. Sampling technology allows access to sounds that were previously "uncopiable" and therefore unprotected.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Roseberry, Eric. "A Note on the Chords in Act II of A Midsummer Night's Dream." Tempo, nos. 66-67 (Autumn-Winter 1963): 36-37.

The four chords Britten used in Act II of A Midsummer Night's Dream are remarkably similar to those used in the setting of "Sonnet to Sleep" (Keats) in the Serenade, the differences being a reversal of the first two chords, re-spacing, and re-scoring. Both works are concerned with the subject of sleep, thus lending added weight to the possibility of self-borrowing. However, upon Roseberry's inquiry, he and Britten discovered that the similarity was completely subconscious. The chords in the opera were developed in a conscious effort to use all twelve tones in a four-chord theme to be used for dramatic and structural purposes, while those in the Serenade came, according to Britten, "as a kind of harmonic overtone to the cello phrase."

Works: Britten: A Midsummer Night's Dream, "Sonnet to Sleep" from the Serenade.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Roseberry, Eric. "Britten's Purcell Realizations and Folksong Arrangements." Tempo, no. 57 (Spring 1961): 7-28.

The Britten and Imogen Holst performing edition of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas, five songs from Orpheus Britannicus, and a realization of The Blessed Virgin's Expostulation show Britten's eclectic disposition as a composer. Britten's arrangements an improvement of those of Edward J. Dent (1925) and Cummings (1887), due to Britten's attention to more modern treatments of dissonance and less willingness to hold himself to "textbook" voice-leading principles. Britten felt that Purcell had given a framework that could incorporate almost any realization, but holds himself to "the rules of the game." Britten's ten Irish folksongs settings show the composer's similar pull to use more modern harmonic ideas in older music. The accompaniments often avoid cadences, and are "harmonically elusive."

Works: Britten/Purcell: Dido and Aeneas, (8, 13-24) Orpheus Britannicus, (8-10), The Blessed Virgin's Expostulation (10-13), Ten Irish Folksongs (24-28).

Sources: Purcell: Dido and Aeneas, (8, 13-24); Thomas Moore: Irish Melodies (24-28).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Rosen, Lee Cyril. "The Violin Sonatas of Charles Ives and the Hymn." B.M. thesis, University of Illinois, 1965.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rosenstiel, Leonie. The Life and Works of Lili Boulanger. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1978.

The second half of this book focuses on the works of Lili Boulanger and provides detailed stylistic analyses of individual compositions. Within these stylistic analyses, a number of quotations from works by other composers are identified. In several cases, Rosenstiel discusses why these quotations may have been used. Examples of other composers borrowing compositional gestures from Boulanger are also pointed out.

Works: Boulanger: Nocturne (139), Le Retour (154), Pour les Funérailles d'un Soldat (156), Clairières dans le Ciel (172, 189), Dans l'Immense Tristesse (191); Fauré: "Diane" from Horizon chimérique (175); Honegger: Le Roi David (191); Ravel: La Valse (195), Concerto for the Left Hand (195).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Rosenzweig, Alfred. "Les adaptations de Lulli et de Couperin par Richard Strauss." La Revue Musicale 8 (April 1926): 33-47.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Rubin, David. "Transformations of the Dies Irae in Rachmaninov's Second Symphony." The Music Review 23 (May 1962): 132-36.

The opening notes of the medieval Dies irae, dies illa has been used frequently by composers to allude, seriously or jocularly, to death. Rachmaninoff was especially fascinated with the Dies Irae, especially its first seven notes, and employed the chant most consistently and most strikingly. Rachmaninoff achieves a subtle architecture in his Second Symphony largely through the cyclic use of the Dies Irae, which undergoes a variety of transformations in construction and mood. Musical examples are provided to illustrate Rubin's outline of the transformations.

Works: Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (132); Khatchaturian: Symphony No. 2 (132); Liszt: Totentanz (132); Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (132); Miaskovsky: Symphony No. 6 (132); Rachmaninoff: Isle of the Dead (132), Piano Concerto No. 4 (132), Piano Sonata No. 1 (132), Piano Sonata No. 2 (133), Symphonic Dance No. 1 (133), Symphony No. 1 (132), Symphony No. 2 (133), Symphony No. 3 (133); Respighi: Brasilian Impressions (132); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (132); Tchaikovsky: Orchestral Suite No. 3 (132).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Rublowsky, John. "Gershwin and Ives: The Triumph of the Popular Spirit." In Music in America, ed. John Rublowsky, 146-55. New York: Macmillan, 1967.

Following Dvorák's lead, Gershwin and Ives both evoked the popular spirit of American music. They validated borrowing from the American folk tradition and indigenous jazz. Gershwin transformed old musical clichés with a slight twist of originality. In Rhapsody in Blue he borrowed from Liszt in terms of form and style, borrowed from jazz the way Liszt borrowed from Hungarian gypsy music in his rhapsodies, and borrowed from Tchaikovsky, especially in the slow movement. Ives borrowed from popular dance hall tunes, hymns and patriotic anthems, brass band marches, country dances, and songs. Like Gershwin, he borrowed from the jazz idiom; also like Gershwin he fused his borrowings from American popular and folk traditions with his borrowings from the traditions and styles of European art music.

Works: Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (150-152), Cuban Overture (152-53), Porgy and Bess (153-55); Ives: Song for the Harvest Season (159), Second Piano Sonata ("Concord") (162, 164-65).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Ruf, Wolfgang. "Zimmermann und Jarry: Zur Musique pour les soupers du Roi Ubu." In Zwischen den Generationen, ed. Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller, Wulf Konold, and Manuel Gervink, 205-20. Regensburg: Bosse, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Runciman, John F. "Noises, Smells and Colours." The Musical Quarterly 1 (April 1915): 149-61.

Scriabin's Prometheus borrows from Beethoven and Chopin. The design for the work is Beethoven's, while the themes are "Chopinesque." This brief reference is couched in a discussion of aesthetics in Stravinsky, Schoenberg, and Scriabin. Scriabin is called "one of the most generous borrowers time has brought forth." The music of these composers is compared with the art of Kandinsky and the literature of Pound.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Russell, Craig H. "The Idiom of Simon and Image of Dylan: When Do Stars Cast Shadows?" In Music in Performance and Society: Essays in Honor of Roland Jackson, ed. Malcolm Cole and John Koegel, 589-97. Warren, Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1997.

Little research has been done on Paul Simon's earliest years of songwriting and recording (pre-1963), as the songs have been dismissed by the songwriter himself as teen fluff and many early recordings are unavailable. Simon's style changed decisively in 1963 and 1964 because of his maturing as a songwriter, but also and maybe more importantly because of Bob Dylan's overwhelming influence in the folk-rock scene of the 1960s. Dylan paved the way for songwriters to express concerns about serious cultural and political issues. Simon could not help but be influenced by Dylan's songs that showed his consciousness of civil rights and other social issues. Simon claimed to have been inspired to write his first "serious" tune, He Was My Brother, as a eulogy to his friend, Andrew Goodman, who had been murdered in 1964. However, it is clear from the songs themselves as well as other evidence, that Dylan's influence was the primary factor in transforming Simon from a more frivolous singer/songwriter into a more mature songwriter in the 1960s.

Works: Paul Simon: He Was My Brother (595); Traditional: Peggy-O as performed by Paul Simon (596); Bob Dylan: The Times They Are A-Changin' (596); Paul Simon: A Church is Burning (596), On the Side of a Hill (596-97), A Simple Desultory Philippic, or How I was Robert McNamara'd into Submission (596-97).

Sources: Bob Dylan: Oxford Town (595), The Death of Emmett Till (595), The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll (595), Only a Pawn in Their Game (595-96); Traditional: Pretty Peggy-O as peformed by Bob Dylan (596); Bob Dylan: The Times They Are A-Changin' (596), With God on Our Side (597), Subterranean Homesick Blues (597), It's Alright Ma, I'm Only Bleeding (597), I Shall Be Free (597), Rainy Day Women No. 12 &35 (597), Highway 61 Revisited (597).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Ryder, Georgia A. "Harlem Renaissance Ideals in the Music of Robert Nathaniel Dett." In Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays, ed. Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., 55-70. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Although Dett never associated with the leaders of the Harlem Renaissance, he shared their belief that African-American folk music should be utilized in the development of classical compositions. Like some of the leaders of the Renaissance, Dett was ambivalent toward this folk music, particularly the spiritual, in its purer forms. Debate centered around the value of the pure folk idiom, and also around how it should be used in the development of high art. Dett's two extended choral compositions are based on spirituals. The Chariot Jubilee is based on Swing Low, Sweet Chariot, and The Ordering of Moses draws its subject, thematic material, and organizational devices from Go Down, Moses.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Saary, Margareta. Verfremdung von Zitaten als Basis früher musikalischer Kreativität. Hugo Wolfs Stilmittel in einem Frühwerk Anton Weberns. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Sadoff, Roger H. “The Role of the Music Editor and the ‘Temp Track’ as Blueprint for the Score, Source Music, and Scourse Music of Films.” Popular Music 25 (2006): 165-83.

The analysis of film scores must consider not only the finished score but also the various layers of the construction process, including the so-called “temp track,” a temporary soundtrack often comprising cues from existing films or other pre-existing music. The temp track maps the topography of the future score and its relation to the film, and along with its precursor, the compilation score, it is limited in its ability to synchronize with the film by its use of units of pre-existing phrase structures and forms. Despite its limitations and the artistic misgivings of many composers, it is often extremely influential upon the final score. Music editors are thus increasingly powerful and significant in the establishment and perpetuation of musical filmic conventions, acting as surrogate composers.

Works: Antoine Fuqua (director) and Roy Prendergast (music editor): temp track to Tears of the Sun (170-74); Antoine Fuqua (director) and Hans Zimmer (composer): score to Tears of the Sun (172-73); Jonathan Demme (director) and Suzana Peric (music editor): temp track to Philadelphia (176-79); Jonathan Demme (director) and Howard Shore (composer): score to Philadelphia (176-79).

Sources: Alan Silvestri: score to What Lies Beneath (171-72, 174); Bruce Springsteen: Streets of Philadelphia (176-79).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Sambeth, Heinrich Maria. "Die gregorianischen Melodien in den Werken Franz Liszts mit besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Kirchenmusik-Reformpläne." Musica sacra 55 (1925): 255-65.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Sanjek, David. "'Don't Have to DJ No More': Sampling and the 'Autonomous' Creator." In The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature, ed. Martha Woodmansee and Peter Jaszi, 343-60. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.

The practice of sampling has democratized music production because instrumental dexterity is no longer required in order to produce compositions. The forms of sampling can be broken down into four general areas: sampling recognizable material that calls the listener's attention to its new context; sampling both familiar and arcane sources; a process dubbed "quilt-pop" by Chuck Eddy of the Village Voice, in which a new product is stitched together entirely from samples; and the use of samples to create alternate versions of tracks called "club mixes." Sampling falls into a gray area between the Postmodern aesthetic and the Romantic notion of the autonomous creator. The Copyright Act of 1976 fails to address questions of authorship and ownership which arise in sampling procedures and needs to be amended accordingly.

Works: Public Enemy: Yo! Bum Rush the Show (349), It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back (349), Fear of a Black Planet (349); Grandmaster Flash: Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (350); De La Soul: Transmitting Live from Mars (354); Beastie Boys: Yo Leroy (354); John Oswald: Plunderphonics (358-59).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (349); Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers (songwriters), Chic (performers): Good Times (350); John Deacon (songwriter), Queen (performers): Another One Bites the Dust (350); Deborah Harry and Chris Stein (songwriters), Blondie (performers): Rapture (350); Sugarhill Gang: 8th Wonder (350); Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five: The Birthday Party (350); Spoonie Gee: Monster Jam (350); Jim McGuinn and Gene Clark (songwriters), The Turtles (performers): You Showed Me (354); Jimmy Castor: The Return of Leroy (Part I) (354).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Sautter, Gerhard. "Zur Funktion des Zitats in Mahlers Sinfonik." Ph.D. diss., University of Marburg, n. d.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Saylor, Bruce. "A New Work by George Perle." The Musical Quarterly 61 (July 1975): 471-75.

In Perle's Songs of Praise and Lamentation for chorus and orchestra, the musical borrowings are closely linked to literary references. The work consists of three movements: the first is a setting in Hebrew of Psalm 18, verses 4-15; the second is an a cappella setting of four poems by Rainer Maria Rilke from his Sonnets to Orpheus; and the third sets a poem by John Hollander written for this piece. Perle's style as exemplified in this work rests on his personal theory of twelve-tone modality as well as on the influences of other composers. The work laments the deaths of a number of composers through the use of borrowed music. The borrowings include Gregorian chant, Hebrew chant, and a number of specific works that follow the theme of lamentation. For example, Perle uses Ockeghem's Déploration sur la mort de Binchois, followed by Josquin's La Déploration de Johan Okeghem, followed in turn by Vinders's Lamentatio super morte Josquin de Prés. In the third movement, the roles of poetry and music are woven together most tightly. Hollander's poem refers to past poets as Perle's music refers to composers.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Saylor, Bruce. "Looking Backwards: Reflections on Nostalgia in the Musical Avant-Garde." Centerpoint: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 1 (Spring 1975): 3-7.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schaefers, Anton. "Gustav Mahlers Instrumentation." Ph.D. diss., University of Bonn, 1933.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schäfer, Thomas. "Musik über Musik." Musica 48 (November-December 1994): 324-29.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Schatt, Peter W. Exotik in der Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Munich, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Scherzinger, Martin. "Curious Intersections, Uncommon Magic: Steve Reich's It's Gonna Rain." Current Musicology 79 &80 (2005): 207-44.

Scholars have reinforced narrative tropes about Steve Reich's early works at the cost of musical description. Such tropes have discouraged actual description of Reich's techniques of sampling in It's Gonna Rain, and they have obscured Reich's early "structural borrowings" from African music. Scholars often draw connections between Reich's 1968 essay "Music as a Gradual Process" and contemporary aesthetics in art. For instance, when Reich claims that the process and the sounding music "are one and the same thing" this resonates with minimalist aesthetics in art. This aesthetic has become the "myth of minimalism," standing in for actual musical descriptions. In It's Gonna Rain, the process and the sounding music are not equivalent, for, as Reich mentions, when listening to phasing you hear unintended consequences. The many techniques employed in It's Gonna Rain, such as repetition of full statements, phasing, and monophonic sampling, are more analogous to Andy Warhol than to minimalist art. Considering Reich's influence from African music, Reich's "structural borrowing" from African music occurs much earlier in his output than has been acknowledged. Most scholarship only cursorily acknowledges Reich's influence from African music and only after 1971. But Reich's earliest works show the influence of "structural borrowing" from his study of A. M. Jones's transcriptions in Studies in African Music (Oxford University Press, 1959). In works such as Piano Phase or Violin Phase, Reich is borrowing structural features such as a 12/8 meter and non-coinciding downbeats. The principle of non-coinciding downbeats is what led Reich to set the two samples in It's Gonna Rain at different phase relationships. By dismantling the narrative tropes connecting Reich's music to minimalist art and by acknowledging his early study of African music, one comes closer to clarifying his minimalist style.

Works: Steve Reich: It's Gonna Rain (208-11, 213-19, 227, 230, 235-37); Piano Phase (226-27).

Sources: Brother Walter: Recorded sermon; A. M. Jones: African music transcriptions in Studies in African Music (233-36).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Schick, Hartmut. "Musikalische Konstruktion als musikhistorische Reflexion in der Postmoderne: Zum 3. Streichquartett von Alfred Schnittke." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 59, no. 4 (2002): 245-66.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schleuning, Peter. "Deponite potentes de sede! Stosst die Mächtigen vom Thron! Ein Bach-Zitat in Hanns Eislers Musik zur Mutter." In Warum wir von Beethoven erschüttert werden und andere Aufsätze über Musik, ed. Peter Schleuning, 75-94. Frankfurt am main: Verlag Roter Stern, 1978. Italian translation by Fabio Schaub: "Deponite Potentes de sede una citazione da Bach nella Madre di Hanns Eisler." Rivista Italiana di Musicologia 9 (1974): 229-49.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schloss, Joseph. "Elements of Style: Aesthetics of Hip-Hop Composition." In Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop, 135-68. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

Interviews with hip-hop deejays, including Mr. Supreme, Domino, Prince Paul, Samson S., and King Otto, reveal that the practice of sampling relies on the practitioner?s ability to "flip a beat," that is, to recast sound material and its meaning. The new juxtaposition of a sample, the internal characteristics of sampled materials, and the relationship between samples within the structure all contribute to the interpretive context for a new recording. Most hip-hop producers interviewed agree that the quality of manipulation is the most important, rather than the quality of the final sound product. A hip-hop producer must preserve, master, and celebrate the ambiguities inherent in sample-based hip-hop.

Works: De La Soul: Say No Go (147-48); Alicia Keys, Jermaine Dupri, and Joshua Thompson (songwriters), Alicia Keys (performer): Girlfriend (151); Guy Berryman, Jon Buckland, Will Champion, and Chris Martin (songwriters), Yesterday's New Quintet (performers): Daylight (158-59); A Tribe Called Quest: Bonita Applebum (158-59).

Sources: Darly Hall, John Oates, and Janna Allen (songwriters), Hall and Oates (performers): I Can't Go For That (147-48); Ol' Dirty Bastard: Brooklyn Zoo (151); Guy Berryman, Jon Buckland, Will Champion, and Chris Martin (songwriters), RAMP (performers): Daylight (158-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Schloss, Joseph. Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

See annotation for chapter "Elements of Style."

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

[+] Schmelz, Peter J. "What Was 'Shostakovich,' and What Came Next?" The Journal of Musicology 24 (Summer 2007): 297-338.

In the decade following Shostakovich's death, numerous composers wrote musical memorials to him not only as farewell gestures, but also as a way to grapple musically with the continued influence of the best-known of the Soviet composers while navigating the social and cultural developments of "late socialism." Whether in homage or as critiques, these memorials often attempted to recreate Shostakovich's style of composition, either through stylistic allusion or by quoting melodies and motives (the D-S-C-H motive in particular) from Shostakovich's works. These Shostakovich-inspired pieces help define his place in Soviet musical culture at the time of his death by showing how composers viewed him as a man and as the representative of a musical tradition. In DSCH (written six years before Shostakovich's death), Denisov uses the D-S-C-H motive as the foundation for a row and creates a collage juxtaposing his own serial style of composition with quotations from Shostakovich. In an attempt to create a musical dialogue between his music and Shostakovich's, Tishchenko also uses the D-S-C-H motive and quotations in his Symphony No. 5, resulting in a pastiche of some of Shostakovich's best-known works. Schnittke creates a musical lineage reaching back to the sixteenth century, superimposing D-S-C-H and B-A-C-H motives in his Prelude In Memoriam Dmitri Shostakovich. He likewise combines those two motives with quotations from Lasso and Beethoven in his third string quartet.

Works: Edison Denisov: DSCH (305, 308-10); various miniatures from appendix to G. Shneerson's D. Shostakovich: stat'i i materialï (310-13); Mieczysław Weinberg: Symphony No. 12 (314); Boris Tishchenko: Symphony No. 5 (314-18); Alfred Schnittke: Prelude In Memoriam Dmitri Shostakovich (320-322), String Quartet No. 3 (320, 322-27); Valentin Sil'vestrov: Postludium DSCH (329-31).

Sources: Shostakovich: String Quartet No. 8 (309), Symphony No. 8 (315), Symphony No. 10 (315); Orlando di Lasso: Stabat Mater (322-24); Beethoven: Grosse Fugue, Op. 133 (322-24).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Alexis Witt

[+] Schmidt, Heinrich. "Formprobleme und Entwicklungslinien in Gustav Mahlers Symphonien." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1929.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Schmidt, Tracey. "Debussy, Crumb, and Musical Borrowing in An Idyll for the Misbegotten." In George Crumb and the Alchemy of Sound: Essays on His Music, ed. Steven Michael Bruns, Ofer Ben-Amots, and Michael D. Grace, 171-94. Colorado Springs: Colorado College Music Press, 2005.

In George Crumb's Idyll for the Misbegotten, quotations of Claude Debussy's Syrinx serve many functions. Crumb evokes the morbid mythology of Pan and Syrinx through the quotation, which strengthens his program for Idyll.Syrinx is also used as material upon which Idyll elaborates: Crumb explores pitch structure as implicated by Debussy, composes Idyll in an expanded version of the form of Syrinx, bases tonal functions on the prominent A-Eb tritone in Syrinx, and expands Debussy's exploration of flute technique with numerous special effects. All this leads to an intensification of the innovative elements found in the quoted passage.

Works: Crumb: Idyll for the Misbegotten (171-94).

Sources: Debussy: Syrinx (171-94).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Brent C. Reidy

[+] Schmierer, Elisabeth. "Fauré und die Symphonie." In Gabriel Fauré: Werk und Rezeption--Mit Werkverzeichnis und Bibliographie, ed. Peter Jost, 38-52. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Schmitt, Theodor. "Der langsame Symphoniesatz Gustav Mahlers: historisch-vergleichende Studien zu Mahlers Kompositionstechnik." Ph.D. diss., University of Munich, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Schneider, Frank. "Bach als Quelle im Strom der Moderne (Von Schönberg bis zur Gegenwart)." Jahrbuch des Staatlichen Instituts für Musikforschung Preussicher Kulturbesitz (1994): 110-25.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schneider, Herbert. "Die Parodieverfahren Igor Strawinskys." Acta Musicologica 54 (January/December 1982): 280-93.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schoenberg, Arnold. "A Self-Analysis." Musical America 73 (February 1953): 14, 172.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schoenberg, Arnold. "Folkloristic Symphonies." Musical America 67 (February 1947): 7, 370. Also trans. Schoenberg as "Symphonien aus Volksliedern." Stimmen 1 (November 1947): 1-6. English version in Style and Idea, ed. Dika Newlin, 196-203. New York: Philosophical Library, 1950; reprinted in Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg, ed. Leonard Stein, 161-66. London: Faber and Faber, 1975.

Many composers have tried to create art music from folk music. These two types of music should not be combined. In his String Quartet Op. 59, No. 2, Beethoven only treated the borrowed Russian folk melody in a fugato-like manner. A melody that is used in a large-scale formal structure must lend itself to developmental processes. A folk melody is complete in itself. This is beautiful music, unlike artificial "folk" melodies which try to represent the spirit of the people, yet result in trivial condescension. A motive, unlike a folk melody, is incomplete; for example, the opening motive of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 must be elaborated and developed to achieve its true character and to exhaust its expression. When folk song is used in a symphony, because the song is already complete, all composers can do is apply techniques of development, such as repetition, transposition, changes of instrumentation, and sequence.

Works: Beethoven: String Quartet in E Minor, Op. 59, No. 2 (162).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Schoffman, Nachum. "The Songs of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Schubert, Giselher. "Paul Hindemiths musikalische Reaktion auf den Holocaust: Das Zitat einer jüdischen Weise im Flieder-Requiem." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 3 (May-June 1998): 44-48.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schuier, Manfred. "Das Zitat in Pendereckis Lukaspassion." In Musik--Welt von innen. Festschrift für Robert Wagner, ed. Petere Buchheim, [000-000]. Munich: Strumberger, 1980.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schuier, Manfred. "Spuren des Barock im Schaffen von Carl Orff: Zum 85. Geburstag des Komponisten." Musik und Bildung 12 (July-August 1980): 448-52.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schulz, Reinhard. "Das Zitat als Ausweg: Zur Überwindung der Sprachlosigkeit in der Neuen Musik, mit Hinweisen auf Bernd Alois Zimmermanns Musique pour les soupers du roi Ubu." In Festschrift: Rudolf Bockholdt zum 60. Geburtstag, 413-18. Pfaffenhofen: Ludwig, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schumacher, Thomas G. "This Is a Sampling Sport: Digital Sampling, Pop Music, and the Law in Cultural Production." Media, Culture, and Society 17 (April 1995): 253-73.

The invention of digital sampling and its pervasive use in rap music creates problems regarding concepts of authenticity, originality, and ownership that manifest themselves as conflicts with copyright law. The prevailing legal attitude towards sampling considers it to be intellectual thievery as well as simply lacking in artistic merit due to the absence of creative "originality." However, according to the theories of Walter Benjamin, in the age of modern reproduction there exist no originals, only a "plurality of copies." This, in conjunction with the fact that all popular music is a product of technological alteration and production, makes the concept of "authentic music" that exists in a pure, unaltered form an illusion. This illusive concept is widely accepted in western Anglo society and forms the basis of current copyright laws. However, it stands in stark contrast to the practice of "Signifyin(g)" that forms the basis of Black discourse in which meaning largely depends on the "intertextual referencing of previous texts." This institutionalized belief in the illusion of "authentic" and "original" music helps to perpetuate the use of authorial designations to reinforce positions of social power as described by Foucault. In addition, control of capital is affected by this concept as the legal system relies heavily on profitability in making decisions of copyright violation.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Schutte, Sabine. "Nationalhymnen und ihre Verarbeitung. Zur Funktion musikalischer Zitate und Anklänge." In Das Argument, Sonderband 5, Musikalische Analysen, ed. Albrecht Dümling, Hartmut Fladt, Sibylle Haberditzl, W. F. Haug, Dieter Krause, Friedrich Tomberg, and Gerhard Voigt, 208-17. Berlin (East): Argument-Verlag, 1975.

In his Kinderhymne (1950/51), Hanns Eisler borrows from both the German national anthem (Deutschland, Deutschland über alles) and the East-German national anthem (Auferstanden aus Ruinen), which Eisler composed in 1949. According to Schutte, the listener not only should know what pieces the composer is quoting, but also should be aware of their historical background, since both aspects determine the intentions of a composition. The first part of the Kinderhymne alludes to both anthems, of which the melodic similarities in the opening measures prevent a clear distinction. In the course of the composition the origins of the opening measures are revealed: a direct quotation from the East-German anthem is combined with "intended" (obvious although not exact) quotations from the German anthem. By applying this technique, Eisler refers to the German anthem as a tradition that is taken over by East-Germany not in its original from but as a basis to create something new. Schutte compares Eisler's Kinderhymne with Stockhausen's Hymnen (composed 1967), another work including national anthems. In the second "region" (movement), Stockhausen combines the German anthem with fragments of the Horst-Wessel-Lied (the Nazi anthem). Although these quotations are "disturbed" by noise and electronic sounds, they always remain clearly recognizable. According to Schutte, Stockhausen's Hymnen therefore lack any sense of consciousness of tradition, and the fact that he places hymns standing for historical progress on the same level as the Horst-Wessel-Lied characterizes him as a "helplessly unpolitical composer."

Works: Eisler: Kinderhymne; Stockhausen: Hymnen (214-16).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Schwarte, Michael. "Parodie und Entlehnung in Leonard Bernsteins Candide: Bemerkungen zu einem musikgeschichtlichen Gattungs-Chamäleon." In Festscrift Klaus Hortschansky zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Axel Beer and Laurenz Lutteken, 567-80. Tutzing: Schneider, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Schwartz, Charles M. "Elements of Jewish Music in Gershwin's Melody." M.A. thesis, New York University, 1965.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Scott, Hugh Arthur. "Indebtedness in Music." The Musical Quarterly 13 (October 1927): 497-509.

Amid the general discussion of the various forms that indebtedness can take (Handel is most specifically discussed), the article questions composers' frequent use of "familiar phrases": Was Wagner aware that the opening notes or intervals from the prelude to Tristan had already been used by Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, and Liszt? The main interest focuses on various and sundry quotations, merely citing examples by well-known composers, while no real connection between the quotations is apparent.

Works: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2 (504-06), Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique) (503); Wagner: "Anvil" motive from the Ring (504-05); Brahms: Symphony in C Minor (505), Piano Quartet in G Minor (505); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 (Pathétique) (506); Liszt: Dante Symphony (507); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (502, 507); Mozart: Don Giovanni (508); Beethoven: Diabelli Variations (508); Brahms: Unüberwindlich (509); Elgar: "The Music Makers," from Enigma Variations (509); Mackenzie: London Day by Day Suite (509), Dream of Jubal (509); Puccini: Madame Butterfly (509); Richard Strauss: Elektra (498); Bach: Wachet, betet (504), Ich hatte viel Bekümmerniss (504), Uns ist ein Kind geboren (504), St. John Passion (504), St. Matthew Passion (504).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Sharp, Mary Elizabeth. "A Survey of Musical Quotation From 1940-1975." M.M. thesis, University of Louisville, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Shaw, Jennifer Robin. "Schoenberg's Choral Symphony, Die Jakobsleiter, and Other Wartime Fragments." PhD diss., State University of New York, Stony Brook, 2002.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Shinn, Randall. “Ben Johnston’s Fourth String Quartet.” Perspectives of New Music 15 (Spring-Summer 1977): 145-73.

Ben Johnston’s Fourth String Quartet was commissioned by the Fine Arts Quartet and was completed in the summer of 1973. This centric work has only one movement, a theme and variations form on the traditional American hymn Amazing Grace. The fusion of this borrowed material and the heterogeneous composition in its entirety creates a unified effect that seems to be highly influenced by the mature works of Ives. At the beginning of the work the hymn is presented in such a way that, harmonically, fifths and fourths seem to be the only intervals treated as consonant, while all other intervals are handled as non-harmonic tones. The Pythagorean ratios created by these intervals are 3:2 (fifths) and 4:3 (fourths). In the ensuing variations, Johnston introduces several new proportions and applies them to different rhythmic layers and harmonic intervals in a variety of ways. This combination of the old—a form that is anachronistic—and the new—cutting edge compositional techniques based on proportions—creates a unique and fascinating composition that is easier to comprehend than most “modern” music. Furthermore, Johnston’s positive attitude towards the past, as exhibited by his Fourth String Quartet, might be regarded as homage to his mentor, Harry Partch.

Works: Ben Johnston: Fourth String Quartet.

Sources: John Newton and William Cowper: Amazing Grace (149-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Shirley, Wayne. "'The Second of July': A Charles Ives Draft Considered as an Independent Work." In A Celebration of American Music: Words and Music in Honor of H. Wiley Hitchcock, ed. Richard Crawford, R. Allen Lott, and Carol J. Oja, 391-404. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Shreffler, Anne Chatoney. "Phantoms at the Opera: The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano and William Hoffman." Contemporary Music Review 20, pt. 4 (2001): 117-35.

Corigliano's opera is a prime example of camp, using allusion and quotation to present a parody-like interpretation of the history of opera. Hoffman and Corigliano have created an opera within an opera with a mixture of both fictional and historical characters. The fictional characters represent principal buffa characters from various operas by Mozart and Rossini. Corigliano creates a larger allusion to the history of opera by composing in a style that recalls the operas of Mozart, Rossini, and Verdi. At times, he even quotes from specific operas to allude to a Mozartian opera that, though it was never written, would be firmly placed in the grand history of opera between The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni. This quotation of an allusion is placed into a new field of musical borrowing defined in the writings of Jean Baudrillard as simulacrum. Parody, allusion, and quotation are further supported with a cameo appearance of Marilyn Horne in a role that alludes to a previous character she popularized in the 1980s. This camp sensibility adds another dimension to Corigliano's opera as a history of the past opera and a possible future of opera.

Works: Corigliano: The Ghosts of Versailles (117-32).

Sources: Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro (117-18, 121-28); Rossini: The Barber of Seville (117, 121); Verdi: Il Trovatore (119, 121-23).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Shumway, David R. "Rock 'n' Roll Sound Tracks and the Production of Nostalgia." Cinema Journal 38 (Winter 1999): 36-51.

Recent film sound tracks that consist of previously recorded material are used with the assumption that the audience will recognize the style, if not the specific artist or song. The use of such music affects the feeling of youthful nostalgia in the nostalgia film genre. For example, in American Graffiti, music is the most important element of the production of nostalgia, even though it gives an idealized picture of music from the 1950s. American Graffiti also established a new model in which popular music is used without a clear differentiation between diegetic and non-diegetic music.

Works: Works: Mike Nichols (director): Sound track to The Graduate (37-38); Dennis Hopper (director): Sound track to Easy Rider (38-39); George Lucas (director): Sound track to American Graffiti (39-42); Lawrence Kasdan (director): Sound track to The Big Chill (43-44); Emile Ardolino (director): Sound track to Dirty Dancing (45-48); John Sayles (director): Sound track to Baby, It's You (48-49).

Sources: Sources: Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel: Sounds of Silence (37), April Come She Will (37-38), Scarborough Fair/Canticle (37-38); Dennis Edmonton [Mars Bonfire] (songwriter), Steppenwolf (performers): Born to be Wild (38); Hoyt Axton (songwriter), Steppenwolf (performers): The Pusher (38); Chuck Berry: Johnny B. Goode (41); Brian Wilson and Mike Love (songwriters), The Beach Boys (performers): Surfin' Surfari [Surfin' Safari] (41); Arthur Singer, John Medora, and David White: At the Hop (41); Max C. Freedman and James E. Myers [Jimmy De Knight] (songwriters), Bill Haley and the Comets (performers): Rock around the Clock (42); Hoyt Axton (songwriter), Three Dog Night (performers): Joy to the World (43); Brian Wilson and Tony Asher (songwriters), The Beach Boys (performers): Wouldn't It Be Nice? (43); Mick Jagger and Keith Richards (songwriters), The Rolling Stones (performers): You Can't Always Get What You Want (43); Phil Spector, Jeff Barry, and Ellie Greenwich (songwriters), The Ronettes (performers): Be My Baby (45); Bob Crewe and Bob Gaudio (songwriters), The Four Seasons (performers): Big Girls Don't Cry (45); Berry Gordy, Jr. (songwriter), The Contours (performers): Do You Love Me? (45); Maurice Williams (songwriter), Maurice Williams and the Zodiacs (performers): Stay (45); Otis Redding: These Arms of Mine (45), Love Man (45); Gerry Goffin and Carole King (songwriters), The Shirelles (performers): Will You Love Me Tomorrow? (47); Al Kooper: (I Heard Her Say) Wake Me, Shake Me (49); Lou Reed (songwriter), The Velvet Underground (performers): Venus in Furs (49).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Siedentopf, Henning. "Das Motiv B-A-C-H und die Neue Musik. Dargestellt an Werken Regers, Schönbergs und Weberns." Musica 28 (September/October 1974): 420-22.

The aptitude of the B-A-C-H motive for infinite variation (unendliche Variation), its terseness and possibility to appear as part of a twelve-tone row led composers like Reger, Schoenberg, and Webern either to use it as a point of departure for or to integrate it into their composition. They thus refer to Bach, who used the motive himself and who especially in his later works also developed a great variety of forms from similarly limited material.

Works: Reger: Fantasy and Fugue Op. 46 (420-21); Schoenberg: Variations for Orchestra Op. 31 (421), Piano Suite Op. 25 (421), Moses und Aron (421); Webern: Cantata Op. 26 (421), Cantata Op. 29 (421), Quartet for Clarinet, Tenor Saxophone, Piano, and Violin Op. 22 (421), String Quartet Op. 28 (421).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Siegmund-Schultze, Walther. "Das Zitat im zeitgenössischen Musikschaffen: Eine produktiv-schöpferische Traditionslinie?" Musik und Gesellschaft 27 (February 1977): 73-78

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Simms, Bryan R. “The German Apprenticeship of Charles Ives.” American Music 29 (Spring 2011): 139-67.

Ives’s eighteen German songs form an important link between his earlier and later works. The songs demonstrate his wish to conform to prevailing art music trends in Europe while also exhibiting his determination to be original and push inherited musical idioms to the limit. Ives’s German language songs were likely a personal project, influenced by his previous composition of sentimental ballads. His rich harmonic language in these sentimental ballads deviated from the norms of the genre, an approach Ives continued in his German songs by using unorthodox harmonies, forms, and melodies. His German songs may be classified in three categories based on approximate composition date: 1894-1897, 1897-1898, and 1898-1902. Songs from the first group are the most conservative and are most similar to sentimental ballads. Those from the second group use poems that were associated with earlier settings by European composers and thus invite direct comparison with the European masters. Songs from the third group continue the ideas Ives initiated in the second group and use increased dissonance and chromaticism in the service of text expression. A table of all of Ives’s German songs lists reworked and alternate titles, text incipits, authors, and sources.

Works: Ives: Leise zieht (144-47), An Old Flame (149, 155), At Parting (150-55, 158), My Lou Jennine (153-56), Feldeinsamkeit (157-62), Zum Drama “Rosamunde” (159, 163), Du bist wie eine Blume (159-60), Wiegenlied (160), Wie Melodien zieht es mir (160-62), Ich grolle nicht (157-63), Die Lotosblume (160), Mir klingt ein Ton (160-61), Weil’ auf mir (163-64).

Sources: Grieg: Gruß (144-47); Mendelssohn: Gruß (144-47); Robert Franz: Leise zieht durch mein Gemüth (144-46); James Rogers: At Parting (150-53); Schumann: Ich grolle nicht (161); Brahms: Feldeinsamkeit, Op. 86, No. 2 (162-63).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein, Amanda Jensen, Christine Wisch

[+] Sinclair, James B. Liner notes to recording of The Orchestral Music of Charles Ives, by Orchestra New England, conducted by James Sinclair. Westbury, N.Y.: Koch International 3-7025-2, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Sitsky, Larry. Busoni and the Piano. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Busoni's character was full of dualities, including those of musical tastes, careers (composing vs. pianistic), centuries, and hybrid vs. original works. He edited and transcribed copious works by Bach, Liszt, Mozart, and other composers, including Beethoven, Chopin, and Mendelssohn (pp. 177-294). He was attracted to Bach's art of counterpoint and structure, Liszt's piano writing, and Mozart's clarity and conciseness of form. Busoni's transcriptions manifest a synthesis of his past and future as he believed it to be (pp. 295-313). His attitudes toward transcription are tied to his ideas on notation and the "Unity of Music." He regarded transcribing as an independent art; he created totally new sounds on the piano and gave the art of transcribing a new freedom and dignity.

Works: Busoni: arrangement of Bach's Four Duets for Piano (185-86), "interpretation" of Bach's Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue (188-89), collection and completion of Bach's Fantasia, Adagio, and Fugue (189-90), Fantasia after J.S. Bach for Piano (201-204), Prelude, Fugue, and Figured Fugue after J.S. Bach's WTC (204); Liszt-Busoni: Andantino Capriccioso, Etude No. 2 after Paganini's Caprice (216), free arrangement of the Theme and Variations on Paganini's Etude No. 6 (220-224), arrangement of the Spanish Rhapsody for piano and orchestra (228-230); Mozart-Liszt-Busoni: completion of the Figaro Fantasy (235), Don Juan Fantasie (227-28); Busoni: two-piano arrangement of Mozart's Fantasy for mechanical organ (253-55), two-piano transcription of the overture to Mozart's Magic Flute (255-56), piano solo arrangement of the Andantino from Mozart's Piano Concerto, K. 271 (256-57), piano arrangement of the fugue from String Quartet K. 546 (265).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Skeris, Robert A. "Zum Problem der geistlichen Liedkontrafaktur. Überlegungen aus theologisch-hymnologischer Sicht." Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 67 (1983): 25-33.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1900s

[+] Slim, H. Colin. "Stravinsky's Four Star-Spangled Banners and His 1941 Christmas Card." The Musical Quarterly 89 (Summer-Fall 2006): 321-447.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Smalley, Roger. "Some Recent Works of Peter Maxwell Davies." Tempo, no. 84 (Spring 1968): 2-5.

Davies is praised for his use of gesture and for his uninhibited re-use of music of the past, especially that of the medieval period. The existing music that he incorporates becomes increasingly obvious to the ear as his style matures. In his early works, he obscures the borrowed material by fragmentation, serial procedures, and complex canonic techniques. The borrowed material begins to be readily audible with Antechrist. In this work, the 13th-century motet, Deo confitemini, is reorchestrated and stated boldly at the outset. The juxtaposition of it with completely original music of Davies within a single work provides the key to the composer's originality.

Works: Davies: Alma Redemptoris Mater (3), Shakespeare Music (3), St. Michael (3), Ecce Manus Tradentis (3), Taverner Fantasias (3), Antechrist (3), L'Homme Armé (3-4).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Smith, Christopher. "'Broadway the Hard Way': Techniques of Allusion in Music by Frank Zappa." College Music Symposium 35 (1995): 35-60.

The album Broadway the Hard Way is a prime example of Frank Zappa's use of quotation and allusion to generate and alter meaning within his works. Zappa accomplishes this by invoking what he refers to as "Archetypal American Musical Icons." These icons are commonly known, readily recognizable material from American mass culture, such as the theme from The Twilight Zone or The Battle Hymn of the Republic, and carry with them connotations and associations that Zappa then manipulates to expressive ends. The associations carried with "Archetypal American Musical Icons" are deliberately invoked to create a subtext within a song that supplements and generates meaning. Zappa will also often alter a song's original meaning by adding style allusions and quotations to create a new subtext, a procedure referred to as "putting the eyebrows on it." An appendix outlines borrowings and allusions in portions of Rhymin' Man,Promiscuous, and Jesus Thinks You're a Jerk.

Works: Zappa: Dickie's Such an Asshole (40-41), When the Lie's So Big (42), What Kind of Girl? (42), Jesus Thinks You're a Jerk (43-44, 57-58), Rhymin' Man (44-48, 53-54), Promiscuous (49, 55-56).

Sources: William Steffe: Battle Hymn of the Republic (40-44); Marius Constant: Theme from The Twilight Zone (44-48, 53, 57); Lalo Schifrin: Theme from Mission Impossible (44-48, 53); Hava Nagilah (44-48, 54); Hail to the Chief (44-48, 54); La Cucaracha (44-48, 54); Julius Fucík: March of the Gladiators (44-48, 54, 57); Milton Ager: Happy Days are Here Again (44-48, 54); Frère Jacques (53-54); Ennio Morricone: Theme from The Untouchables (53); Berton Averre and Doug Fieger [The Knack]: My Sharona (54); Rock of Ages (57-58); Dixie (57-58); Richard Berry: Louie Louie as peformed by The Kingsmen (58).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Smith, Jeff. “Popular Songs and Comic Allusion in Contemporary Cinema.” In Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music, ed. Pamela Robertson Wojcik and Arthur Knight, 407-30. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

Modern films often use popular songs to generate comic allusions or puns that rely on audience connections to either lyrics or pop culture references. Musical irony’s cinematic history began with “film funners,” took on a less comic tone in Classical Hollywood, and regained its humorous function in New Hollywood. American Graffiti (1973) was influential on Hollywood’s use of popular music for its innovative deployment of popular songs. After American Graffiti, there was a strong economic impetus to use popular music in movies, but this does not reflect how the music is actually used. Musical puns have three primary relationships to comedy: narrative function, the relevant perceptions audiences might have of the music, and bisociative qualities.

Works: Jerry Bruckheimer (director): soundtrack to Con Air (407); George Lucas (director): soundtrack to American Graffiti (410-11, 423); Lawrence Kasdan (director): soundtrack to The Big Chill (417-20); Renny Harlin (director): soundtrack to The Long Kiss Goodnight (419-20); Lana Wachowski (director): soundtrack to Bound (420); Arlene Sanford (director): soundtrack to A Very Brady Sequel (421-22); David Mirkin (director): soundtrack to Romy and Michele’s High School Reunion (421-22); Wes Craven (director): soundtrack to Scream (422); Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (directors): soundtrack to The Big Lebowski (423-24); Paul Thomas Anderson (director): soundtrack to Boogie Nights (423-27).

Sources: Lynyrd Skynyrd: Sweet Home Alabama (407); Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong (songwriters) and Marvin Gaye (performer): I Heard it Through the Grapevine (417-19); The Zombies (songwriters) and Santana (performer): She’s Not There (420); Ronnie Shannon (songwriter) and Aretha Franklin (performer): I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Love You) (420); Homer Banks, Carl Hampton, and Raymond Jackson (songwriters) and Luther Vandross (performer): If Loving You is Wrong (421-22); Blue Öyster Cult: Don’t Fear the Reaper (422); Creedence Clearwater Revival: Lookin’ Out My Back Door (423-24); Gene McDaniels (songwriter) and Roberta Flack (performer): Compared to What (424); Melanie: Brand New Key (425-26); Hot Chocolate: You Sexy Thing (426); Jeff Lynne (songwriter) and ELO (performers): Livin’ Thing (426-27); Randy Newman (songwriter) and Three Dog Night (performers): Mama Told Me Not to Come (427).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Smith, Julia. "Aaron Copland, His Work and Contribution to American Music: A Study of the Development of His Musical Style and an Analysis of the Various Techniques of Writing He Has Employed in His Works." Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1952.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Smith, Warren Storey. "Gustav Mahler (1860-1960) as 'Song-Symphonist': Song is the Basic Element of the Vast Symphonic Structures Mahler created." Musical America 80 (February 1960): 10, 174.

Not only the symphonies with actual voice parts but also many others borrow from Mahler's song cycles. Smith identifies the borrowings and emphasizes not only their importance for the interpretation, but also the key position of their musical material. The song elements appear as the pillars of the whole work.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 4, Symphony No. 5, Symphony No. 6, Symphony No. 7.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Smith, Warren Storey. "Mahler Quotes Mahler." Chord and Discord 2, no. 7 (1954): 7-13.

Most of the songs which Mahler incorporated into his symphonies were originally written with orchestral accompaniment (rather than piano). Unlike Schubert, who used vocal themes as bases for variations in some movements of his instrumental works, Mahler never quoted a song for the specific purpose of writing variations. Instead, the material directly influences the melodic structure and content of the symphonies, particularly the first five, through the literal quotation of entire themes and motives.

Works: Schubert: Wanderer Fantasy; Trout Quintet; Death and the Maiden; String Quartet in D Minor; Octet in F Major (based on the air "Gelagert unter'm hellen Dach der Bäume," from the operette Die Freunde von Salamanka); Fantasy in C Major for violin and piano (based on Sei mir Gegrüsst); Introduction and Variations for piano and flute, Op. 160 (based on Trock'ne Blumen); Mahler: "Ging heut' morgen über's Feld" and "Die zwei blauen Augen von meinem Schatz" from Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen; "Das Himmlische Leben," "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt," "Ablösung in Sommer," "Es sungen drei Engel," "Lob des hohen Verstandes," "Um schlimme Kinder artig zu machen," and "Nicht Wiedersehen" from Lieder aus des Knaben Wunderhorn; "Nun will die Sonn' so hell aufgeh'n" and "Nun seh' ich wohl, warum so dunkle Flammen" from Kindertotenlieder; Symphonies 1-7. [??]

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Smyth, David. "Wagner and Schoenberg: Probing a Case of Musical Influence." Paper read at the Southern Chapter meeting of the AMS, Florida State University, 12 March 1988.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Solomon, Maynard. "Charles Ives: Some Questions of Veracity." Journal of the American Musicological Society 40 (Fall 1987): 443-70.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Sonntag, Brunhilde. "Die Marseillaise als Zitat in der Musik: Ein Beitrag zum Thema 'Musik und Politik.'" In "Nach Frankreich zogen zwei Grenadier": Zeitgeschehen im Spiegel von Musik, ed. Brunnhilde Sonntag, 22-37. Munster: Lit, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Sonntag, Brunhilde. Untersuchungen zur Collagetechnik in der Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse Verlag, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans: A History. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.

[Need annotation for discussions of borrowings within African-American tradition.] Within the context of her comprehensive volume on the musical tradition of black Americans, Southern briefly discusses the use by white Europeans and Americans of specific music and of musical styles of black Americans. She focuses on ragtime (pp. 331-32), jazz (pp. 395-97), and rhythm-and-blues (pp. 498-500).

Works: Debussy: Children's Corner (331-32); Stravinsky: Piano-Rag Music (331-32), Ragtime (331-32), L'Histoire du Soldat (331-32); Satie: Parade (331-32); Hindemith: Piano Suite (1922) (331-32); Carpenter: Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1916) (331-32), Krazy Kat (395-97), Skyscrapers (395-97); Krenek: Johnny spielt auf (395-97); Milhaud: La Création du Monde (395-97); Ravel: Piano Concerto in D (1931) (395-97); Walton: Façade (395-97); Stravinsky: Ebony Concerto for Dance Orchestra (395-97); Copland: Music for the Theater (395-97), Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1927) (395-97); Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (395-97), Concerto in F (1925) (395-97), An American in Paris (395-97).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Spinosa, Frank. "Beethoven and Bartók: A Comparative Study of Motivic Techniques in the Later Beethoven Quartets and the Six String Quartets of Bela Bartók." D.M.A. diss., University of Illinois, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Spottswood, Dick. "The Gouge." Annual Review of Jazz Studies 12 (2002): 135-45.

Trombonist Charlie Green's bluesy solo over a rhythmic vamp in a 1924 recording of W. C. Handy's The Gouge of Armour Avenue has been quoted dozens of times in subsequent recordings, although not usually acknowledged. A few months after this recording session, trombonist Jake Frazier quoted Green's solo in Get Yourself a Monkey and Make Him Strut His Stuff with the Kansas City Five. Kid Ory quoted it again in a 1926 recording with Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five of The King of the Zulu's, and Dicky Wells copied the solo almost exactly in Symphonic Scronch with Lloyd Scott and his orchestra in 1927. Over time, Green's solo has undergone a process of transformation through multiple performers, so that the melody has become a standard term in the jazz vocabulary rather than a specific reference to a particular nameable musical source. The extensive history of quotation of Green's solo fits into larger patterns of borrowing in early jazz recordings; a cornet solo by Joe Oliver on 1923 recordings of Dipper Mouth Blues was also quoted by other musicians. A partial list of later recordings that either quote Green's melody or feature "extended solo cadenzas" or vamps is included.

Sources: Charlie Green: Trombone solo in 1924 Vocalion recording of W. C. Handy's The Gouge of Armour Avenue (136-39).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Starr, Lawrence. "Copland's Style." Perspectives of New Music 19 (Fall-Winter 1980-81): 68-89.

Copland's music defies traditional demarcations of style. Rather than being defined by function, genre, or chronology, Copland's style results from unities of compositional procedure in apparently dissimilar works. The subtle rhythmic, harmonic, and motivic techniques in Piano Variation can also be found in Billy the Kid, which uses compositional complexities to create a simple surface into which quoted cowboy tunes fit perfectly. Copland creates the folksong anew in order to demonstrate the aesthetic distance between the American past and contemporary life. His folk borrowings, like Stravinsky's, thus have the affect of musical commentary of one repertoire upon another.

Works: Copland: Vitebsk (71), Billy the Kid (77-81), El salón México (81-82).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Starr, Lawrence. A Union of Diversities: Style in the Music of Charles Ives. New York: Schirmer Books, 1992.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Stehman, Dan. Roy Harris: An American Musical Pioneer. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1984.

Roy Harris was a prolific borrower of folk songs. Stehman treats Harris's work in chronological order and in divisions by genre, so references to borrowing can be found throughout the book. However, Stehman makes no attempt to differentiate between stylistic allusion, specific quotation, and simple arrangements. Several pieces are treated in more extended discussions, and these include explanations of how the folk songs are borrowed in the works. The Folksong Symphony serves as one of the examples of borrowing, as each of the seven movements draws on one or more folk melodies. This piece for orchestra and chorus involves some extensive manipulations of borrowed tunes, including fragmentation, canon, and fantasia-like effects. Harris's Tenth Symphony also makes use of a folk tune, as the third movement is based on When Johnny Comes Marching Home. Harris's only violin sonata is an example of his ability to use folk materials in an abstract way; the tune I'll Be True to My Love is subjected to development and variations. Stehman also discusses Harris's self-borrowing (187) and his use of folk music in pieces for solo piano (225-26) without going into detail about any one work.

Works: Harris: Folksong Symphony (72-79), Tenth Symphony (124-31), Pere Marquette Symphony (137-44), Violin Sonata (210-11).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Steinbeck, Paul. “Analyzing the Music of the Art Ensemble of Chicago.” Dutch Journal of Music Theory 13 (2008): 56-68.

Analyses of improvised jazz music have focused either on musical-structural or group-interactive elements. For the Art Ensemble of Chicago, an avant-garde jazz collective founded in the late 1960s by Roscoe Mitchell, musical-structural and group-interactive elements are inseparable. Two live recordings demonstrate an interactive framework in which members of the group refer to multiple Art Ensemble compositions to build up to a full-length performance of a single work. Within a single interactive framework, performers freely incorporate bass lines, melodic fragments, timbres, and rhythmic motives associated with these compositions.

Works: Roscoe Mitchell (composer) and The Art Ensemble of Chicago (performers): A Jackson in Your House (60-61); Lester Bowie and Don Moye (composers) and The Art Ensemble of Chicago (performers): Mata Kimasu (61-65).

Sources: Roscoe Mitchell: A Jackson in Your House (60-61), Duffvipels (60), Get in Line (60); Albert Ayler, Bells (61); Lester Bowie and Don Moye: Mata Kimasu (61-65); Roscoe Mitchell: People in Sorrow (63).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Steinitz, Richard John. "George Crumb." The Musical Times 119 (October 1978): 844-47.

This article is designed primarily to introduce the music of Crumb to its English readership on the occasion of Crumb's appearance at the Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival. The author discusses Crumb's use of quotation on two levels: (1) the art of allusion to other works or styles, and (2) actual quotation. Crumb's use of quotation is primarily seen as the inclusion of tonal elements in atonal surroundings to give them new meaning. Steinitz describes these quotations as "in major keys of either several sharps or flats whose comforting warmth contrasts with the hard-edged or bleakly desolate surroundings" (p. 845).

Works: Crumb: Eleven Echoes of Autumn,Black Angels,Voice of the Whale,Makrokosmos I,Makrokosmos II,Night of the Four Moons,Music for a Summer Evening.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Stempel, Larry. "Not Even Varèse Can Be an Orphan." The Musical Quarterly 60 (Summer 1974): 46-61.

Despite Varèse's claims to being entirely independent-minded, an early mélodie not intended for publication, Un grand sommeil noir, shows distinct traces of being composed with forebears in mind. Fauré, Hahn, and Debussy all set texts by Paul Verlaine, and Dirk Foch, Raoul Laparra, and Gustave Sandrew set the text of Un grand sommeil noir, but it was Debussy's L'Ombre et arbres that Varèse used as a model for his setting. Both settings make use of the octatonic scale and of a matrix of a half step followed by a tritone, a pitch set that would also appear in Varèse's Arcana. The final measures of Varèse's mélodie are an exorcism of Debussy from his own style, accomplished by harking back to the end of Act IV of Pelléas et Mélisande.

Works: Varèse: Un grand sommeil noir (53-61), Arcana (56-57).

Sources: Debussy: Ariettes Oubliées (57), L'Ombre et arbres (57-59), Pelléas et Mélisande (61).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. "Zum Thema 'Bruckner und Mahler.'" In Beiträge '79-80. Gustav Mahler Kolloquium 1979: Ein Bericht, ed. Österreichische Gesellschaft für Musik, 76-83. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1981.

Bruckner's influence led twice to a qualitative change in Mahler's career as a composer of symphonies, first in the Second and later in the Ninth Symphony. Stephan discusses correspondences of melody (remarkably similar thematic material), formal concepts (structure of the exposition, false reprise), use of chorale, and dispositions of sound. Stephan even raises the question whether the listener has to keep Bruckner's works in mind in order to understand Mahler adequately.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (Resurrection), Symphony No. 5, Symphony No. 9.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. "Zum Thema 'Musik über Musik.'" In Studia Musicologica: aesthetica, theoretica, historica, ed. Elzbieta Dziebowska, Zofia Helman, Danuto Idaszak, and Adam Neuer, 395-404. Crakow: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzycyne, 1979.

Discusses the methodological change in making "music about music" which was introduced by Stravinsky around 1920. The concept of creating an updated and/or "improved" setting for familiar thematic material is exemplified here by Baroque practice and related to the late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century vogue involving both salon pieces and serious variation sets and fantasies. The musical goal of all such works, that is, the exhibition of artistry through inventive development of recognizable material, finds its inversion in the trend, eventually termed Neo-Classicism, of the twentieth-century. Therein new thematic materials, and even new musical languages, could be introduced by placing them within recognizable, traditional structural frameworks.

Works: Bach: Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis, BWV 579, Organ Pieces on Themes by Corelli, BWV 579, Organ Pieces on Themes by Legrenzi, BWV 574; Brahms: Variations on a Theme by Handel, Variations on a Theme by Haydn; Fortner: Elegies for Piano; Hindemith: Ludus Tonalis, Neues vom Tage; Reger: Prelude and Fugue in G Major for Violin Solo, Op. 117, No. 5, String Trio in A Minor, Op. 77b; Stravinsky: Piano Sonata (1924), Pulcinella.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. Gustav Mahler: IV. Symphonie G-Dur. Munich: W. Fink, 1966.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. Gustav Mahler: Werk und Interpretation. Cologne: Arno Volk, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Sterne, Colin. "The Quotations in Charles Ives's Second Symphony." Music and Letters 52 (January 1971): 39-45.

An analysis of Ives's Second Symphony reveals quotations both from the European Classical tradition and form American tunes. One of the latter, "Down in the cornfield," an excerpt from Stephen Foster's Massa's in de cold ground, appears more often than any other, and Sterne interprets it on four levels. First, it portrays an American landscape; second, it recalls memories of Ives's youth; third, this and all the other American tunes represent Ives setting himself apart from the European tradition and his teacher Horatio Parker in particular, symbolized by the European themes; finally, the text of Massa's in de cold ground tells us of Massa's death, which Sterne interprets as Ives declaring the death of the European symphonic tradition.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Sternfeld, Frederick W. "Some Russian Folksongs in Stravinsky's Petrouchka." Notes 2 (March 1945): 95-107.

Stravinsky's ballet Petrouchka contains authentic Russian folk melodies. Five can be identified based on counterparts in four Russian folk song collections (listed in a bibliography). Ironically, the familiar composers Tchaikovsky, Balakirev, and Rimsky-Korsakov produced less authentic folk song anthologies than did scholars such as Melgunov, Istomin and Diutsch, and Lineva, since the composers were tempted to "improve" on the originals. Stravinsky did not necessarily consult these collections, but these models facilitate understanding and acknowledgment of borrowings. The songs Stravinksy used come from both Christian and pagan traditions. The "Song of the Volochebniki," traditionally sung at Easter, occurs in the first and fourth tableaux and is found in the Rimsky-Korsakov collection. The rare "Song for St. John's Eve," from the Istomin and Diutsch collection, occurs in the first tableau. The fourth tableau also contains "Ia vechor moloda," a popular dance song found in the Rimsky-Korsakov collection, as well as "O Snow Now Thaws" (about soup and love) from the Prokunin-Tchaikovsky collection and "Akh vy sieni, moi sieni" (about a happy bride) from the Swerkoff collection.

Works: Stravinsky: Petrushka.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Brian Phillips, Daniel Bertram

[+] Stevenson, Ronald. "Delius's Sources." Tempo, no. 151 (December 1984): 24-27.

The influence of Chopin on Delius is illustrated by the appearance of a particular dominant 13th chord from Chopin's Waltz in E minor in Delius's Sea Drift. Delius's affinity for added-note harmonies may stem from the richly-spaced dominant 9th and added 6th chords of the E major trio of the same waltz. Wagner's leaping, flexible bass line from the Ride of the Valkyries nfluenced Delius's Messe des Lebens.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Stilwell, Robynn J. “‘I Just Put a Drone under Him . . . ’: Collage and Subversion in the Score of ‘Die Hard.’” Music & Letters 78 (November 1997): 551-80.

Michael Kamen’s score to Die Hard is both an integral part of the complete text and an interpretation of the film. The score focuses on the character of Hans Gruber rather than the hero John McClane, and Kamen’s choices aid in the characterization of Gruber as a sophisticated anti-hero rather than a villain. In a particularly illuminating scene, Kamen further musically distinguishes Gruber from McClane by scoring a speech as a recitative and aria, and the music is sensitive to Alan Rickman’s delivery. Kamen communicates cultural information and further elevates Gruber by the extensive use of borrowed music. Whereas McClane has no musical theme, Kamen assigns quotations and manipulations of the Ode to Joy from Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony to Gruber. The choice of Beethoven was a suggestion from the film’s director, John McTiernan, influenced by Wendy (formerly Walter) Carlos’s score for A Clockwork Orange. Kamen’s uses of Beethoven (and Singin’ in the Rain, also used in A Clockwork Orange) are dramatically and musically distinct from the earlier film. Whereas in A Clockwork Orange the borrowings are largely quotations that frame the violent and transgressive onscreen acts, Kamen’s score manipulates the borrowed melodies as themes appropriate to the dramatic action and cultural suggestions of the film.

Works: John McTiernan (director) and Michael Kamen (composer): score to Die Hard (552, 561-72, 575-80); Stanley Kubrick (director) and Wendy (Walter) Carlos (composer): score to A Clockwork Orange (568-72).

Sources: James Lord Pierpont: Jingle Bells (561-62); Felix Bernard and Dick Smith: Winter Wonderland (561, 563); Sammy Cahn and Jule Styne: Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow! (561); Arthur Freed and Nacio Herb Brown: Singin’ in the Rain (561-63, 568-71); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 (563-71).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Stilwell, Robynn. "Vinyl Communion: The Record as Ritual Object in Girls' Rites-of-Passage Films." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 152-66. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

A recurrent theme in coming-of-age films starring female protagonists is that of feminine interaction with records. The record collector has usually been associated with a masculine stereotype, but in films depicting feminine interactions with records, the inscribed voice of the record expresses the girl's character. A scene depicting a transformational rite in Heavenly Creatures features music that slips between diegetic use of Mario Lanza's Donkey Serenade, the girls' own singing of the song, and a non-diegetic newly composed orchestral version. In The Virgin Suicides, songs from records, while non-diegetic, organize the relationship of a young couple. The record and its music function as a ritual object in the narrative as the girl experiences a coming-of-age transformation.

Works: Terry Zwigoff (director): Sound track to Ghost World (152-53, 158-59); Mark Herman (director): Sound track to Little Voice (159-60); Peter Jackson (director): Sound track to Heavenly Creatures (160-63); Sofia Coppola (director): Sound track to The Virgin Suicides (163-66).

Sources: Skip James: Devil Got My Woman (152); Sammy Cahn and Nicholas Brodszky (songwriters), Mario Lanza (performer): Be My Love (161); Rudolf Friml and Herbert Stothart (composers), Robert Wright and George "Chet" Forrest (lyrics), Mario Lanza (performer): Donkey Serenade (161-62); Ann Wilson and Nancy Wilson (songwriters), Heart (performers): Magic Man (164-65), Crazy On You (165).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Stöck, Gilbert. "Eine österreichische Volksweise und die avancierte Musik der DDR: Zur Zitattechnik in Christfried Schmidts Kammermusik VII 'Epitaph auf einen Bohemien.'" Acta Musicologica 77 (2005): 123-36.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Stockhausen, Karlheinz. Texte zur Musik 1963-1970. Köln: 1971.

[Discusses collage technique in recent music on pp. 224, 266, 277, and passim; citation from Tibor Kneif, "Collage oder Naturalismus?"]

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Stone, Kurt. "Ives's Fourth Symphony: A Review." The Musical Quarterly 52 (January 1966): 1-16.

Stone traces the performance history and historical importance of Ives's Fourth Symphony and describes each movement in detail. Stone attacks what he considers the noncommittal quality of Ives's music, his reluctance to compose using his own thematic ideas, as well as Ives's tendency to build complex and unconventional musical structures from simple and familiar tunes that have no musical relevance to the whole work and no interrelationship among themselves. While the symphony is significant for its historic interest and because in makes an enormous impact on anyone who listens to it, Stone concludes that its many self-contradictions in taste, artistry, and spirit seem too serious and too powerful to permit wholehearted acceptance.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Wendy Jeanne McHenry

[+] Storjohann, Helmut. "Die formalen Eigenarten in den Symphonien Gustav Mahlers." Ph.D. diss., University of Hamburg, 1952.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Straus, Joseph N. "Recompositions by Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and Webern." The Musical Quarterly 72 (July 1986): 301-28.

The practice of recomposition, in which compositions from earlier periods are absorbed and modified in new ones, is evident in many works of the twentieth century. In Stravinsky's Pulcinella, Schoenberg's Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra, and Webern's orchestration of the Ricercare from Bach's The Musical Offering, a post-tonal musical structure is imposed upon a tonal model. In the Schoenberg the first movement is a recomposition of Handel's Concerto Grosso, Op. 6, No. 7; the last three movements are fantasias on material drawn from Handel. Schoenberg's recomposition enhances the motivic structure of the model. "Motivic saturation" is also evident in Schoenberg's orchestration of the Bach Chorale Prelude, Schmücke dich (BMW 654). The Stravinsky is a recomposition of music by Pergolesi and others. Recomposition is also evident in Stravinsky's orchestration of Bach's Canonic Variations on Vom Himmel Hoch. He also recomposed two songs by Wolf and worked on setting selected preludes and fugues of The Well-Tempered Clavier. In general, these twentieth-century recompositions force us to rehear each model as a network of motivic associations.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Straus, Joseph N. "Tristan and Berg's Lyric Suite." In Theory Only 8, no. 3 (October 1984): 33-41.

The Lyric Suite of Alban Berg has several connections to Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. The final movement is strictly serial, yet Berg created borrowings from the music drama through the structure of his row forms. At one point, Berg even quotes the opening bars of the Prelude to Tristan, made possible through the structure of the pitch row. Furthermore, the set-type of the Tristan chord is a subset of one of the two row forms used in this movement. What is remarkable about the borrowings from Tristan is that they relate to the secret program of Berg's work. The names Alban Berg and Hanna Fuchs-Robettin create the pitches A, B flat, B, F (0, 1, 2, 6), a motive whose set type is the same as a Tristan motive, in the first four pitches of the cello, thus creating a correlation throughout the two works and an association between the Tristan myth and Berg's unfulfilled relationship. In Tristan, the cello part is heard in the highest voice in inversion. This motive, a minor sixth followed by three semitones in the opposite direction, creates the set-type (0, 1, 2, 3, 7). Berg's use of serialism thus creates a strong relationship with the past.

Works: Berg: Lyric Suite (33-41).

Sources: Wagner: Prelude to Tristan und Isolde (33-41).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Straus, Joseph N. Remaking the Past: Musical Modernism and the Influence of the Tonal Tradition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Straw, Will. "Authorship." In Key Terms in Popular Music and Culture, ed. Bruce Horner and Thomas Swiss, 199-208. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.

The nature of the music industry makes it difficult to positively isolate the author of a given musical recording. Whom do we include from the list of composers, arrangers, performers, producers, sound engineers, and other figures associated with a recording? The group production systems involved in music and cinema are frequently set against the presumably individual efforts involved in writing or painting, but the latter types engage with a complex system of intertexts and conventions. Similarly, musical performances form connections with prior performances, and in so doing, raise questions about what is original in any given performance. Historically, the relationship between songwriter and song has been a source of anxiety. Since the mid-twentieth century, popular music has addressed this anxiety through increased expectations that singer-songwriters will produce their own music, and that they will build up a body of their own music that represents some sort of coherent identity for that artist (allowing of course for the natural evolution and development of an artist over the span of his or her career). Due to the recognized connections between singer-songwriter and song, cover songs and other forms of borrowing are now understood as deliberate "gestures of affinity" (203) that point to a specific artist.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Stringer, Mary Ann. "Diversity as Style in Poulenc's Chamber Works with Piano." D.M.A. diss., University of Oklahoma, 1986.

Diversity was a prominent feature of Poulenc's view of life and personality and manifested itself in his compositions. One aspect of his compositional process which contributed to such diversity was his habit of borrowing from other composers and from his own works. In the earlier part of his career, Poulenc tended to borrow from others (for example, in the Sextet he quoted Stravinsky and Hindemith) whereas in the late chamber sonatas self-borrowing predominated, particularly from his opera, Dialogues des Carmélites (for example, in the Flute Sonata).

Works: Poulenc: Three Pieces for Piano (7), Sextet (96), Sonata for Flute and Piano (166-67), Sonata for Oboe and Piano (192-93), Sonata for Clarinet and Piano (193).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Stuart, Charles. "Britten 'The Eclectic.'" Music Survey 2 (Spring 1950): 247-50.

Britten's "eclecticism" incorporates elements from Bach, Schubert, Berg, Stravinsky, and Purcell. The opening of Peter Grimes is described as having been "lifted" from one of the Brandenburg Concertos, while in Act II the burgesses' hornpipe and the singing of the rector are considered "sheer Schubert." Britten is compared without elaboration to Berg in terms of harmony, while Stravinsky is evoked in relation to parody in Albert Herring. Purcell's influence is described as "the most fruitful and readily definable" of Britten's manners, but this is not elaborated.

Works: Britten: Peter Grimes (248), Sinfonia da Requiem (249), Beggar's Opera (249), Spring Symphony (249), Albert Herring (249), Saint Nicolas (249), String Quartet No. 2 (249), Violin Concerto (249).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Stuckenschmidt, Hans Heinz. "Debussy or Berg? The Mystery of a Chord Progression." Translated by Piero Weiss. The Musical Quarterly 51 (July 1965): 453-59.

Stuckenschmidt points to two similar (he calls them "identical") passages in the music of Debussy and Berg. Each passage involves five chords in which the top voice moves from G to Eb while the bass moves by fourths and fifths as follows: Bb-Eb-ab-Db-Gb. The passages occur in Debussy's Six épigraphes antiques composed in 1914 (a suite for piano duet; the passage is in the fourth piece, "Pour la danseuse aux crotales") and in Berg's Vier Lieder, Op. 2, completed in 1909 (the passage is in the last song). The Debussy suite incorporates music he had written some fourteen years earlier for Pierre Louy's Chansons de Bilitis, the passage in question, however, is not present in the earlier music. It appears, therefore, that Debussy is referring (probably unconsciously) to Berg. A famous precedent for this sort of reference occurs as an unusual chord in Ravel's Habanera (1895) is repeated literally in Debussy's "Soirée dans Grenade" from Estampes (1903).

Works: Debussy: "Soirée dans Grenade" from Estampes (1903) (459); Scriabin: Piano Sonata No. 6 (456).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Sweeney-Turner, Steve. "Resurrecting the Antichrist: Maxwell Davies and Parody--Dialectics or Deconstruction?" Tempo, no. 191 (December 1994): 14-20.

Peter Maxwell Davies's compositions have often been interpreted through dialectical criticism. Davies seeks a fundamental truth through the juxtaposition of opposing ideas. In the case of Vesalii Icones, this opposition occurs between Davies's use of a plainsong, Ecce manus tradentis, and portions of Pierre de la Rue's Missa L'homme armé. Scholars tend to read this work as an opposition of good and evil resulting in the eventual triumph of evil manifested in the Antichrist. Davies achieves this conflict through stylistic juxtaposition, parody, stripping the music of any decoration or embellishment in a reverse Schenkerian process, and stylistic transformation of material into a foxtrot parody. Yet, this interpretation of the work ultimately rests on the shoulders of Davies's analysis, his "program" given in the liner notes to the recording of Vesalii Icones, and his attitude toward popular music as inherently untruthful. One can also interpret this composition in terms of deconstruction. Deconstruction, unlike dialectics, attempts to eradicate a closed system of interpretation and resists the urge to use the opposing ideology to reinforce the primary belief. In this composition, the opposing forces are rarely stable enough to produce dominance of one over the other. Instead, what Davies has done is to juxtapose several conflicting ideas through "distortion," "ambiguity," "dissolution," and "fragmentation." Davies borrows from a specific repertoire to undermine that repertoire and distort ideas for which it stands, in an attempt to deconstruct those ideas, but what emerges results is an open composition in which multiple interpretations are possible.

Works: Davies: Vesalii Icones (14-20), Missa super L'homme armé (14).

Sources: Plainsong: Ecce manus tradentis (15-16); Pierre de la Rue: Missa L'homme armé (16).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Taruskin, Richard. "Russian Folk Melodies in The Rite of Spring." Journal of the American Musicological Society 33 (Fall 1980): 501-43.

Stravinsky downplayed the extent to which he incorporated Russian folk material in The Rite of Spring in discussions of the work following its composition. Taruskin atributes this to the composer's desire to dissociate himself from the Russian establishment, specifically the "Russian Five," who used folk materials in many of their works. In spite of Stravinsky's claims, Tarushkin demonstrates through an examination of the sketchbook for The Rite of Spring that much of the melodic material consists of reworkings of Russian folk tunes. In addition, many of the harmonic innovations of the work can be seen as derivative from the folk melodies, with the intervallic content used vertically instead of harmonically.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Taruskin, Richard. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through "Mavra." 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

A thorough examination of Stravinsky's early works can show not only his early indebtedness to Russian folklore, folk music, and concert music, but also the degree to which these Russian characteristics influenced his mature works.

When Stravinsky entered the Russian musical scene in 1902 the values and surviving members of the New Russian School were being absorbed into the growing Conservatory establishment (Chapter 1). Stravinsky had strong ties to the old order, especially to the members of the New Russian School within the Belyayev circle. Stravinsky began his relationship with some of these composers when he joined Rimsky-Korsakov's circle in 1902 (his studies with Rimsky-Korsakov would begin in 1905). Works composed in these early years show a strong reliance on models, most notably works by members of the New Russian School who were active in Belyayev's circle. Stravinsky's Piano Sonata in F-sharp minor is both modeled on and quotes from numerous other piano sonatas, some of which were widely known at the time, others of which were written by some of Stravinsky's former teachers and acquaintances. Likewise, his song How the Mushrooms Mobilize for War, written in the style of an opera aria, is modeled on operatic pieces that had been in his father's repertoire as an opera singer (Chapter 2).

Stravinsky's reliance on existing works (both as generic models and for specific quotations) continued as he studied with Rimsky-Korsakov. His Symphony in E-flat Major, Op. 1, is dependent upon symphonic models by Glazunov, Tchaikovsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov (among others). The first work composed entirely under his teacher's guidance, The Faun and the Shepherdess, Op. 2, demonstrates a more pervasive reliance on stylistic or generic models (including non-Russians like Wagner) rather than frequent quotations from specific models (Chapter 3). More general stylistic tendencies in Stravinsky's music can also be traced through longer chains of influence. For example, the use of third relations originated in Schubert and passed through Glinka (or Liszt) to Rimsky-Korsakov to Stravinsky; likewise, more inventive approaches to harmony (such as the prominent use of tritones or octatonicism) as demonstrated by Wagner and Liszt was transferred to Stravinsky via Russians of the previous generations, most notably Rimsky-Korsakov, Musorgsky, Borodin, and Glazunov (Chapter 4).

Stravinsky's next two works, Scherzo fantastique and Fireworks, are both scherzos for orchestra modeled on similar fantastic scherzos written early in the careers of Rimsky-Korsakov, Musorgsky, and Cui; however, they also resemble orchestral works by Debussy and Ravel that Stravinsky knew, at least in terms of orchestration (which, ironically, would have been influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov's style). His early songs use other types of models; Spring (A Song of a Cloister) [Vesná (Monastïrskaya)] is an imitation Russian folk song, while Rosyanka (Khlïstovskaya), on the other hand, explores the possibilities present in the less overtly national model of Russian art songs (Chapter 5). Additionally, these songs also demonstrate the degree to which Stravinsky's friends and fellow Rimsky-Korsakov pupils, especially Maximilian Steinberg and Mikhaíl Gnesin, influenced his developing style (Chapter 6).

After Rimsky-Korsakov's death in 1908, Stravinsky joined Diaghilev and his group, Mir iskusstva, who were associated with a decadent, anti-realist, neonational style (Chapter 7). More specifically, Diaghilev and Mir iskusstva aimed to combine their version of Wagner's Gesamtkunstwerk idea with a return to folk and peasant roots in balletic works for a Parisian audiences (Chapter 8). Stravinsky's music for The Firebird features frequent references to Rimsky-Korsakov's works, both for harmonic and melodic models. Likewise, Stravinsky also drew from older works by other members of the New Russian School as well as folk melodies (Chapter 9).

Stravinsky came into his own with Petrushka. Borrowing again from Russian folklore, Stravinsky delved more deeply into his repertoire of Russian folk songs, including those quoted in works by Rimsky-Korsakov; however, Stravinsky did more to preserve the folk character of these borrowed songs than his teacher, corresponding with an ethnographic trend of collecting and preserving folk songs occurring at that time (Chapter 10). After Petrushka, Stravinsky turned to vocal genres as he experimented with different combinations of cosmopolitan and traditional Russian musical idioms. His Two Poems of Balmont and the cantata Zvezdolikiy are most influenced by Scriabin's modernist musical style, while Schoenberg is the prevailing musical influence on Three Japanese Lyrics (Chapter 11).

The Rite of Spring grew out of Russian artistic and literary trends that sought a return to mankind's collective, pagan roots. As such, The Rite of Spring includes folk songs that are ethnographically correct for the subject matter (ceremonial songs tied to a specific season or time of year). Stravinsky also revisits his now customary technique of borrowing from earlier Russian works, most notably stage works by his teacher, Rimsky-Korsakov. However, both the folk songs and the previously-composed models are more thoroughly transformed and modified than they had been in previous works (Chapter 12). By the time The Rite of Spring premiered in Paris, Stravinsky had severed most of his ties to former friends and colleagues in Russia (Chapter 13). The falling out between Stravinsky and his former supporters in Russia became complete when he joined in Diaghilev's project of "restoring" Musorgsky's original Khovanshchina (Chapter 14).

Stravinsky's style underwent a major change during his "Swiss exile," a change that was primarily effected through the medium of song. Stravinsky wrote many songs during his years in exile, most of which were arranged into collections (such as Pribaoutki, Berceuses du Chat, and Quatre chants russes). These songs relied almost exclusively on Russian peasant sources of occasional songs (such as game songs, lullabies, or sooth-saying songs) rather than sources of folklore or legend. Musically these songs also attempted to depict Russian peasant roots (in a Eurasian or "Turanian" style) through the use of simple melodies, harmonies built on tetrachords, irregular barring, and, most importantly, free text accentuation (Chapter 15). These musical characteristics are further developed in Baika (Renard), in which Stravinsky presents his imagined version of a Turanian style of theater (called skazka). Similarly, L'Histoire du Soldat contains these Turanian musical elements, although they are complicated somewhat by the intrusion of what initially appears to be American jazz idioms (Chapter 16). The Turanian style reached its pinnacle in Stravinsky's next ballet, Svadebka (Les noces). In this highly formalized performance of a Russian peasant wedding, Stravinsky's only models are songs collected by ethnographers and his own previous compositions rather than works by other Russian composers (Chapter 17).

Stravinsky's instrumental works written during his years in exile are not as unified in style as the vocal works, nor do they follow his Turanian trend as overtly or consistently, although demonstrable aspects do remain. Instead, they demonstrate a more cosmopolitan and proto-neoclassical character (Chapter 18). For all that Pulcinella appears to be a thoroughly neoclassical work, it too includes aspects of Stravinsky's Turanian style whenever he departs from his source materials. Thus Stravinsky's next major stylistic shift occurred in Mavra, in which he returned in part to his old practice of borrowing from Russian masters like Tchaikovsky and Glinka. This work represents an attempt to reconnect with Europe and the "old" Russia, but does not entirely abandon Stravinsky's Turanian developments. Instead, Stravinsky quotes and uses as models the aforementioned composers along with Parisian popular tunes (including melodies heard in stylized Russian cabarets and Americanized jazz) while still borrowing from folk sources as well. Thus, Mavra represents an antimodernistic return to diatonic tonality and music for the sake of enjoyment, one that was not well received by his Parisian audiences and which ended his "Russian" stylistic period (Chapter 19). Beginning with the Octuor, Stravinsky would increasingly abandon his previous folkloristic and nationalistic musical qualities in favor of a more "universal" style. However, covert expressions of nationalism would always persist, and his basic stylistic trademarks were formed primarily by his personal development of Russian influences.

Works: Stravinsky: Scherzo for Piano (100-104), The Storm Cloud [Tucha] (104-8), Piano Sonata in F-sharp Minor (113-16, 118-19, 120-37), How the Mushrooms Mobilize for War [Kak gribï na voynu sbiralis'] (138-39, 142-48, 149-62), Symphony in E-flat Major, Op. 1 (172-89, 192-222, 224-33), The Firebird (202-3, 310-12, 459-60, 481-86, 579-617, 620-25, 627-30, 632-33, 635-50), Petrushka (202, 204, 661-64, 670-73, 680-701, 705-13, 715-23, 732-41, 744-70), The Faun and the Shepherdess, Op. 2 (233-54), Scherzo fantastique, Op. 3 (315-16, 318-33, 408-11), Fireworks [Feyerverk], Op. 4 (333-45), Spring (A Song of a Cloister) [Vesná (Monastïrskaya)] (346, 348-56, 382-84), Rosyanka (Khlïstovskaya) (356-64), Pastorale (364-68, 382), Chant funèbre [Pogrebal' naya pesn'] (396, 406), The Nightingale (459, 462-86, 1087-1108, 1202-5), Deux poèmes de Verlaine, Op. 9 (651-52, 654-59), Zvezdolikiy (787, 789, 814-22), Two Poems of Balmont (799-811), Three Japanese Lyrics [Tri stikhotvorenii iz yaponskoy liriki] (822-27, 829-42, 844-45), The Rite of Spring (866-71, 873-88, 890-91, 893-95, 897-900, 904-66), Final Chorus for Khovanshchina on Themes of M. Musorgsky and Authentic Old Believers' (1054-60, 1062-68), Svadebka (Les noces) (1068-69, 1129-30, 1132, 1319-1411, 1417-40), Pribaoutki (1137-38, 1145-49, 1167-72, 1224-29), Kolïbel'nïye (Berceuses du Chat) (1137-39, 1149-50, 1172-72, 1230), Quatre chants russes (1137, 1140, 1150-52, 1160, 1162, 1189-93, 1195-98, 1221-24), Podblyudnïye (Four Russian Peasant Songs) (1136, 1139, 1152-62, 1176, 1178-82, 1211-12, 1215-20), Baika (Renard) (1136, 1139, 1162, 1237-39, 1242-1292, 1594-95), Detskiye pesenki (1137, 1140, 1174-75), Chant des bateliers du Volga (Hymne à la nouvelle Russie) (1184, 1187-88), The Rake's Progress (1233-34), L'Histoire du Soldat (1292-1307, 1310-18, 1483), Ragtime pour onze instruments (1307-1310, 1445, 1456), Three Pieces for String Quartet (1444, 1449, 1452, 1465-73), Valse des Fleurs [Tsvetochnïy val's] (1444, 1447-49), Trois pièces faciles (1444, 1447, 1449, 1451, 1473, 1475), Valse pour les enfants (1444, 1449-51), Cinq pièces faciles (1445, 1449), Étude (1445, 1452, 1455), Three Pieces for Clarinet Solo (1445, 1456, 1483-84), Piano-Rag-Music (1445, 1453, 1475, 1477, 1479-83), Concertino for String Quartet (1446, 1484-85), Symphonies d'instruments à vent (1446, 1451-52, 1459, 1461, 1483, 1486), Pulcinella (1462-65, 1501-5, 1507), Souvenir d'une marche boche (1475-76), Les cinq doigts (1517, 1519), Mavra (1537-39, 1546-73, 1575-85, 1588-1603), Octet (1600-1602, 1606-7), Le baiser de la fée (1610-18), Mass (1618-23), Scherzo à la russe (1632-34), Sonata for Two Pianos (1635-47), Requiem Canticles (1649-52, 1657-74); Maximilian Oseyevich Steinberg: Prélude symphonique, Op. 7 (401-7); Nikolai Nikolayevich Tcherepnin: Narcisse (450, 453-57), Le royaume enchanté [Zacharovannoye tsarstvo], Op. 39 (456-58); Debussy: La boîte à joujoux (771-72), Préludes (771, 773-74), Jeux (773-74), Études for Piano (775), En blanc et noir (775-76).

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Valse-Scherzo, Op. 7 (103), Scherzo humoristique, Op. 19, No. 2 (103), Six Pieces on One Theme, Op. 21 (103), Scherzo à la russe, Op. 1, No. 1 (103), Piano Sonata in C-sharp Minor (103), Piano Sonata in G Major, Op. 37 (115, 117, 125-26), Symphony No. 5 in E Minor (124-25, 211, 216, 219-21), The Enchantress (157, 159-60), Symphony No. 6 in B Minor (Pathétique) (180, 184, 211), Le baiser de la fée (213), Eugene Onegin [Yevgeniy Onegin] (241, 1553-55), The Tempest [Burya] (243, 246), Romeo and Juliet (243, 245), The Nutcracker (629, 632, 720, 722), The Oprichnik (914), The Sleeping Beauty (1615), Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op. 41 (1619, 1620); Glinka: Ruslan und Lyudmila (103, 622, 1331, 1355, 1357. 1458, 1569, 1571), Kamarinskaya (923), A Life for the Tsar (1330, 1355-56, 1535, 1564-67, 1572-73, 1592); Rimsky-Korsakov: The Maid of Pskov [Pskovityanka] (103, 133, 135-36, 606-9), Antar (105, 602), 100 Russian Folk Songs, No. 72 (145, 148), May Night (152, 156), Pan Voyevoda (166-69, 197), Symphony No. 1 (216, 219), Kashchey the Deathless (216, 219, 243-44, 327, 590-91, 739), The Tsar's Bride (241, 243), The Beauty [Krasavitsa], Op.51, No. 4 (242), The Nymph [Ninfa], Op. 56, No. 1 (242), Snow Maiden [Snegurochka] (242, 244, 327, 601, 632, 636-37, 698-99, 707-8, 710, 712, 934-36, 1331), Christmas Eve (242, 311, 314), From Homer, Op. 60 (336-37), Sadko (349, 351, 401, 403, 469-70, 596-98, 602, 622-23, 739, 747, 927, 1217-18, 1331), The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia (359-61, 364, 401, 698-99, 926, 1184, 1331, 1430), Le coq d'or (403, 464-65, 470, 596, 598-99, 601, 622-23, 701, 748, 1104-5), The Nightingale, Captured by the Rose [Plenivshis' rozoy, solovey], Op. 2, No. 2 (468-69), Mlada (614-15, 629-31, 634, 934), Sinfonietta on Russian Themes (627), 100 Russian Folk Songs, No. 79 (628), By the Gate a Pine Tree Was Swaying To and Fro [U vorot sosna raskachalasya] (632), 100 Russian Folk Songs, No. 46 (712), Tsar Saltan (720-21, 914), Overture on Liturgical Themes [Russian Easter Overture], Op. 36 (720-21), Sheherazade (739-45, 747, 751), Ai vo polye lipin'ka (869-70), Nu-ka kumushka, mï pokumimsya (906-9), Na morye utushka kupalasya (912-14), Zvon kolokol v Yevlasheve selye (913); Iosif Wihtol: Piano Sonata, Op. 1 (115); Vasiliy Pavlovich Kalafati: Piano Sonatas, Op. 4 (115); Fyodor Stepanovich Akimenko: Sonates-fantaisies (115); Glazunov: Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor, Op. 74 (115, 119, 125, 127), Piano Sonata in E Minor, Op. 75 (115, 118-19), Symphony No. 6 in C Minor, Op. 58 (175, 178, 187, 194), Symphony No. 8 in E-flat Major, Op. 83 (180, 182, 184, 186, 190-91, 197, 199, 205-6, 209-10, 219), Symphony No. 5 in B-flat Major, Op.55 (202, 204-5, 213, 216-18), Symphony No. 7 in F Major, Op. 77 (202), The Seasons (241-42, 624, 626), Preludiya (Pamyati N. A. Rimskogo-Korsakova) (403), Scènes de Ballet, Op. 52 (624); Scriabin: Piano Sonata No. 3 in F-sharp Minor, Op. 23 (115-16, 129-132), Piano Sonata No. 4 (132, 134), Poème de l'extase (616-19), Piano Sonata No. 5 (617, 622), Prometheus (794-95, 801, 807-9, 811), Piano Sonata No. 7 (808-14, 816-17); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (125), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (1475-76), Twelve Variations on a Russian Dance from Wranitzky's "Das Waldmädchen," WoO71 (1517-18, 1520); Musorgsky: Pride [Spes'] (143-44), Picking Mushrooms [Po gribï] (145-46), Boris Godunov (150-52, 348-49, 476, 740-41, 1218, 1267, 1290, 1438), King Saul (150, 152-53), The Billy Goat [Kozyol] (243, 245), Where Art Thou, Little Star! [Gde tï, zvyozdochka] (349), Khovanshchina (359, 1054-59), The Fair at Sorochintsï (935-36), Marriage (1202-3); Borodin: Prince Igor (145, 150, 157-59, 629, 1290-92), Symphony No. 2 in B Minor (202, 213-16), Arabian Melody (753-54); Balakirev: Collection of Russian Folk Songs, No. 36 (145, 148-49), Symphony No. 1 in C Major (410), Georgian Song [Zhar-ptitsa] (624-25), Volga Boatmen's Song [Ey, ukhnem] (1184-86); Alexander Nikolayevich Serov: Judith (152, 154), The Power of the Fiend (152, 155, 692-95, 697, 701, 706, 1341); Sergey Taneyev: Symphony in C Minor, Op. 12 (186-87, 192, 194-95); Stravinsky: Symphony in E-flat Major, Op. 1 (202, 324-26), Scherzo fantastique, Op. 3 (596, 938), Fireworks, Op. 4 (596, 748-50), Petrushka (771-77, 800-801, 803, 805, 807, 827, 937, 939, 1062, 1065, 1167, 1184, 1406, 1662), Zvezdolikiy (827, 932, 937, 1065, 1100, 1205, 1662), The Firebird (937, 1065, 1338, 1668), The Faun and the Shepherdess (938), The Rite of Spring (1062, 1065, 1093, 1096, 1100, 1270, 1272, 1281-83, 1332, 1386, 1414, 1417, 1451, 1456, 1471), Three Japanese Lyrics (1104), The Nightingale (1171, 1174), Pribaoutki (1280, 1332), Berceuses du Chat (1280), Hymne à la nouvelle Russie (1280), Baika (Renard) (1332, 1347, 1388, 1431), Podblyudnïye (1332), L'Histoire du Soldat (1458), Chant funèbre [Pogrebal' naya pesn'] (1493), Svadebka (Les noces) (1650), The Rake's Progress (1650), Symphonies d'instruments à vent (1650, 1663), Octet (1662); Sibelius: Symphony No. 2 in D Major (216); Ravel: Rapsodie espagnole (310-11, 313, 614-15); Wagner: Die Meistersinger (332); Dukas: L'apprenti sorcier (338-41); Mikhaíl Fabianovich Gnesin: Snowflakes [Snezhinki] (382-84); Maximilian Oseyevich Steinberg: The Gold Star [Zolotaya zvezda] (382-84); Nikolai Nikolayevich Cherepnin: Le royaume enchanté [Zacharovannoye tsarstvo], Op. 39 (459); Debussy: Nuages (472, 474-75), Pelléas et Mélisande (655), La Mer (820); Robert Schumann: Vogel als Prophet (476, 478); Anatoliy Konstantinovich Lyadov: Eight Russian Folk Songs (632, 635); Émile-Alexis-Xavier Spencer: La jambe en Bois (696, 704, 706); E. L. Zverkov: A Wondrous Moon Plays upon the River [Chudnïy mesyats plïvyot nad rekoyu] (696, 704-5); Fyodor Istomin and Sergey Lyapunov: Song for St. John's Eve [Ivanovskaya] (696, 707-9, 867, 1167-68), Pesni russkogo naroda (904-5, 921-22, 926); Schoenberg: Pierrot lunaire (824, 826-28, 830, 834-35); Anton Juszkiewicz: Melodje ludowe litewskie (895-904, 910, 917-18, 935); Izaly Zemtsovsky: Melodika kalendarnïkh pesen (919-23); Levgeniya Linyova: Trudï MEK (921-22, 1059-62, 1068); Vasiliy Pashkevich: St. Petersburg Bazaar [Sankt-peterburgskiy gostinnïy dvor] (924-25, 1330); Pashkevich and Martin y Soler: Fedul and His Children (924-25); Alexander Listopadov: Trudï MEK (1176-78); Dargomïzhsky: The Stone Guest (1202-3, 1570), Rusalka (1568-70, 1573-74); Scott Joplin: The School of Ragtime: Six Exercises for Piano (1307-8); Alexey Titov: Devichnik (or Filatka's Wedding) (1330); Nikolai Uspensky: Obraztsï drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva (1378-82, 1418); D. I. Arakchieyev: Trudï MEK (1414-16); Alexey Verstovsky: Askold's Grave (1434); Satie: Gymnopédies (1451); Domenico Gallo: Trio Sonata No. 1 in G Major (1464), Trio Sonata No. 2 in B-flat Major (1464), Trio Sonata No. 8 in E-flat Major (1464, 1504), Trio Sonata No. 3 in C Minor (1464), Trio Sonata No. 7 in G Minor (1464), Trio Sonata No. 12 in E Major (1465, 1502-3); Pergolesi: Il flaminio (1464), Lo frate 'nnamorato (1464), Adrianna in Siria (1464), Sinfonia for Cello and Basso Continuo (1465); Unico Wilhelm Graf von Wassenaer: Concerti armonici (1464); Alessandro Parisotti: Arie antiche (1464); Carlo Ignazio Monza: Pièces modernes pour le clavecin (1464), Suite No. 3 (1464); Alexis Archangelsky, arr.: Katinka (Bailieff's Chauve-Souris) (1546-47); Daniyil Kashin, arr.: Russkiye narodnïye pesni (1559-60); Alexander Varlamov: White Sail [Beleyet parus odinokiy] (1561-62).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Alexis Witt

[+] Taubman, Howard. "Why Gershwin's Tunes Live on: His Gift was that out of Popular Themes He Could Arrive at Something Memorable." New York Times 102 (28 September 1952): VI-20.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Taylor, Paul Franklyn. "Stylistic Heterogeneity: The Analytical Key to Movements IIa and IIb from the First Piano Sonata by Charles Ives." D.M.A. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Taylor, Timothy Dean. "The Voracious Muse: Contemporary Cross-Cultural Musical Borrowings, Culture, and Postmodernism." Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1993.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Threlfall, Robert. "The Final Problem, and Vaughan Williams' Piano Concerto." The Musical Opinion 98 (February 1975): 237-38.

Arnold Bax figures importantly in Ralph Vaughan Williams's Piano Concerto (1931). The end of its final solo cadenza quotes the Epilogue to the Third Symphony of Bax. The matter is confused by the fact that the quotation is implicitly anticipated in the Concerto's Romanza, composed in 1926, three years before the Bax symphony's composition (1929) and four before its first performance (1930). The fuga of the concerto also foreshadows the Symphony No. 4 in F Minor, dedicated to Bax by Vaughan Williams.

Works: Bax: Symphony No. 3 (237); Vaughan Williams: Piano Concerto (237); Romanza (238); Symphony No. 4 in F Minor (238).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Tibbe, Monika. "Musik in Musik: Collagetechnik und Zitierverfahren." Musica 25 (November/December 1971): 562-63.

Unstylized dances, marches, and songs are conspicious in the music of Charles Ives, giving his symphonies an unruly appearance when compared with their European counterparts. Ives uses collage technique to combine such material (normally considered "foreign" to the symphonic domain) with more "acceptable" symphonic material. Mozart's Don Giovanni, Carl Maria von Weber's Concerto in F Minor for Piano and Orchestra, Beethoven's Missa Solemnis, and Mahler's symphonies reveal different methods of incorporating such functional "music in music." In these cases, however, the quoted music is absorbed into the character of the composition in which it finds itself to a greater extent than it is in the music of Ives, where it maintains its identity and is thus an equal partner. In addition, in Ives's music, the quoted material becomes, through collage technique, a "principle of form."

Works: Beethoven: Missa Solemnis; Berg: Wozzeck; Ives: Holidays Symphony; Mahler: Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 4; Mozart: Don Giovanni; Weber: Concerto in F Minor for piano and orchestra.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Tibbe, Monika. Über die Verwendung von Liedern und Liedelementen in instrumentalen Symphoniesätzen Gustav Mahlers. 2d. ed. Munich: Musikverlag Emil Katzbichler, 1977.

Mahler uses material from his own songs, especially those from his song-cycle Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, in his symphonies in three general ways: (1) as the basis of an entire movement, as in the first movement of his Symphony No. 1 (based on "Ging heut' morgen übers Feld") and the Scherzo movement of his Symphonies No. 2 and No. 3; (2) as episodes with a symphonic movement, especially as "Lindenbaum" relates to the third movement of his Symphony No. 1, second movement of his Symphony No. 2, and the third movement of his Symphony No. 5; (3) as the source of melodic elements, taken over in the symphony through emulation, direct quotation, or motivic transformation. The last section of this monograph provides a contiguous chronology of Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen and the Symphony No. 1.

Works: Mahler: Symphonies Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 5.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] Tick, Judith. "The Origins and Style of Copland's Mood for Piano no. 3, 'Jazzy.'" American Music 20 (Fall 2002): 277-96.

Aaron Copland's use of quotation, harmony, and rhythm in Mood for Piano no. 3, "Jazzy," written before he departed Brooklyn for Paris, reveals important features of his aesthetics. The piece, though obscure, represents Copland's ability to blend popular and classical styles. The opening of the first theme of "Jazzy" resembles openings in Tin Pan Alley hits such as Alexander's Ragtime Band and Oh Joe, With Your Fiddle and Bow, with "slangy lyrics" and ragtime rhythms. The second theme in "Jazzy" quotes the tune My Buddy, popular in the World War I era. Copland paraphrased the tune in "Jazzy" and changed the meter from triple to duple. He retained the chromaticism of the original, found in the melody and the harmony. In addition to these quotations and allusions, Copland may have used Leo Ornstein's Three Moods for Piano as a structural model for "Jazzy." Some of Copland's sonorities resemble Scriabin's "mystic chord." He also uses the chromatic shifts present in the bridge of Zez Confrey's Kitten on the Keys as a basis for his more dramatic chromaticism. Overall, Copland uses parody to satirize popular songs, to use jazz rhythms in a new way, and to borrow modern harmonies and make them accessible.

Works: Copland: Mood for Piano no. 3, "Jazzy" (277-82, 289-93).

Sources: Berlin: Alexander's Ragtime Band (282); Walter Donaldson: Oh, Joe, With Your Fiddle and Bow (You Stole My Heart Away) (282); Gus Kahn and Walter Donaldson: My Buddy (283-89, 292); Ornstein: Three Moods for Piano (290); Confrey: Kitten on the Keys (291).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Tongier, Cheryl Ann. "Pre-existent Music in the Works of Peter Maxwell Davies (Britain)." Ph.D. diss., University of Kansas, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Torres, Elena. “Manuel de Falla y la Sinfonietta de Ernesto Halffter: La historia de un magisterio plenamente asumido.” Cuadernos de música iberoamericana 11 (2006): 141-69.

Since the public premiere of Ernesto Halffter’s Sinfonietta, critics and scholars alike have sought to trace the influence of Halffter’s teacher, Manuel de Falla, on the work, as the piece bears striking similarities to various pieces by Falla. Although Halffter had studied previously with Falla, a thorough examination of correspondence between the two composers shows that despite attempts by Halffter to show the piece to Falla, the latter did not become acquainted with the Sinfonietta until after a first version was premiered. From 1926 to 1927 Halffter received advice from Falla about revisions to the work, but it is unclear what suggestions Falla made. In any case, it is clear that Halffter emulated his teacher in the Sinfonietta. Halffter modeled the work on the music of Falla, particularly on Falla’s Concerto for Harpsichord and El sombrero de tres picos. A comparison of passages from the Sinfonietta with these pieces by Falla shows that Halffter borrowed and reworked melodic outlines, accompanimental textures, ostinato rhythms, cadential chord progressions, rhythmic motives, and meters. Subtle allusions to El sombrero de tres picos can also be found in the Sinfonietta. Due to Halffter’s great familiarity with the music of Falla, the striking resemblances between the Sinfonietta and the music of Falla were undoubtedly intentional.

Works: Ernesto Halffter: Sinfonietta.

Sources: Manuel de Falla: Concerto for Harpsichord (158-62, 165), El retablo de maese Pedro (162-65), El sombrero de tres picos (165-66).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Trebinjac, Sabine. "Une utilisation insolite de la musique de l'Autre." In Pom pom pom pom: Musiques et caetera, 227-241. Neuchâtel: Musée d'Ethnographie, 1997.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Tremblay, Jean-Benoît. "Polystylism and Narrative Potential in the Music of Alfred Schnittke." Ph.D. diss., University of British Columbia, 2007.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Trend, John Brand. "Falla in 'Arabia'." Music and Letters 3 (April 1922): 133-49.

The fundamental distinguishing characteristics of the Andalusian folk tradition are the use of guitar with its unique rhythmic and harmonic possibilities, the use of the cante jondo, especially its la, sol, fa, mi cadential figure, and the use of an internal pedal. Falla, following Debussy's example, imbedded these traits within the fabric of his music to create works which expressed fully the spirit of southern Spain. Falla acknowledged his debt to Debussy by quoting from his piano works in Homenajes.

Works: Falla: Homenajes (149).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Tschulik, Norbert. "Eine Salome-Parodie Anno 1907." Richard Strauss-Blätter 46 (December 2001): 61-67.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Tse, Benita Wan-kuen. "Piano Variations Inspired by Paganini's Twenty-Fourth Caprice." DMA diss., University of Cincinnati, 1992.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Tucker, Mark. "The Genesis of Black, Brown and Beige." Black Music Research Journal 13, no. 2 (Fall 1993): 67-86.

Although Ellington's compositional practices tend to support his statements about composing at the end of a deadline, often composing an entire piece in one night, new research shows that the ideas of Black, Brown, and Beige can actually be found twelve years earlier with Ellington's unproduced opera Boola. The plot of Boola deals with the history of the African-Americans, beginning in Egypt and continuing through Africa and the Deep South until they found their place in present-day Harlem. In Black, Brown, and Beige, Ellington takes the overall diagram of Boola and shrinks the subject matter into a forty-five minute extended work for his band. Ellington also borrows from his own previous compositions in Black, Brown and Beige through quotation and recomposition.

Works: Ellington: Black, Brown and Beige.

Sources: Ellington: Symphony in Black (73-74), Jump for Joy (74-82), East St. Louis Toodle-Oo (82), Riding on a Blue Note (82), Bitches' Ball (82).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Tucker, Robert. "A Historical Examination of the Hymn Tune Ein Feste Burg and Its Treatment in Selected Twentieth-Century Concert Band Literature." Ph.D. diss., Texas Tech University, 2001.

Luther's powerful Ein feste Burg has important historical properties that apply to the analysis of its melody as it appears in twentieth-century band literature. Composers who set the tune were attracted to its religious message as well as the opportunity to reset the melody into a new genre. Warren Benson's The Leaves Are Falling, inspired by a poem from Rainer Maria Rilke, resembles an orchestral tone poem in its instrumentation. Benson composed the piece after the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He parodies Ein feste Burg throughout in order to give the listener a simultaneous sense of austerity, in the presence of the tune, and loss, in its fragmentation. John Zdechlik's Psalm 46 and James Curnow's Rejouissance quote short portions of the tune in variation and save a complete quotation for the end of the piece. Gordon Jacob's Tribute to Canterbury uses the tune to pay homage to the Kings School in Canterbury and likens Luther's struggle to Canterbury's "ability to survive and grow in times of religious turbulence." In his three-movement cyclical setting, Jacob uses the theme as a unifying element and incorporates it into each movement. Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, composed by Elliot Del Borgo, never quotes the entirety of the hymn but rather relies on the familiarity of the first phrase throughout. Del Borgo evokes the spirit of the hymn as a tribute to "comfort against the dark force of death." Vaclav Nelhybel's Festive Adorations uses paraphrase of three hymns, one of which is Ein feste Burg, within a collage setting. Each composer borrows Ein feste Burg because of its strong religious associations, but all use different compositional and expressive means.

Works: Warren Benson: The Leaves Are Falling (55-72); John Zdechlik: Psalm 46 (73-89); Gordon Jacob: Tribute to Canterbury (90-110); Elliot Del Borgo: Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night (111-23); James Curnow: Rejouissance (124-43); Vaclav Nelhybel: Festive Adorations (144-55).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (1, 3-4, 12-26, 49-50).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Ujfalussy, József. "Kodály and Debussy." The New Hungaria Quarterly 23 (Winter 1982): 46-51.

Kodály acknowledged Hungary's musical debt to Debussy in the obituary he wrote for him in the Nyugat. Kodály paid musical tribute to Debussy in certain of his works by adopting modal melodic structures, harmonic turns, and constructural models of specific works of the Frenchman. The deeper significance of Debussy's influence lay beyond these similarities and extended into the nationalistic stance made possible by the non-Germanic methods of Debussy. He inspired Kodály to search for the form and musical language which could reflect his country's folk and historical traditions as distinct from academic Western art music.

Works: Kodály: Seven Piano Pieces (46), Nausikka (48), String Quartet No. 1 (50).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Uvietta, Marco. "'È l'ora della prova': Berio's Finale for Puccini's Turandot." Cambridge Opera Journal 16 (July 2004): 187-238.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Van Houten, Theodore. Silent Cinema in the Netherlands: The Eyl/Van Houten Collection of Film and Cinema Music in the Nederlands Filmmuseum. Buren, The Netherlands: F. Knuf Pubishers, 1992.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "A Musical Autobiography." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 177-94. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Vaughan Williams was influenced by a number of composers as mentors and contemporaries, and mentions many of them in this essay. He had no conscience about musical borrowing--which he calls "cribbing"--and engaged in it quite frequently.

Works: Vaughan Williams: A London Symphony (188), "Satan's Dance" from Job (190), Symphony in F Minor, A Sea Symphony (188, 190).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "Arnold Bax (1883-1953)." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 243-44. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Bax and Vaughan Williams were friends and supported and helped each other musically. In a conversation about borrowed pieces, Bax is said to have noted that all of Vaughan Williams's "best sellers are not his own." An editor's note points out that Vaughan Williams quoted Bax's Third Symphony in his Piano Concerto.

Works: Vaughan Williams: Fantasia on Christmas Carols (244), Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis (244), Piano Concerto (244).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "The Evolution of the Folk-song." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 28-52. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Folk song has evolved as an oral tradition, a tradition known in Vaughan Williams's day to have been remarkably strong and accurate. Elements common or borrowed in folk music have been the norm, because folk music was written not by one composer but by several, and over a considerable period of time.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "The Folk Song Movement." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 234-36. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

The use of folk song by Russian and other nationalist composers is nothing new. The music of the Austro-German tradition is just as similar to Teutonic folk song as that of other traditions is to their folk origins, but because of its dominance of the classical music scene, does not sound folklike to the general audience.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "The Folk-song." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 21-27. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Some have considered musical borrowing and the "cult of archaism" to be wrong on moral grounds, but this is a protest by the establishment which profits by maintenance of the musical status quo.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. Preface to Sir John in Love, by Ralph Vaughan Williams. London: Oxford University Press, [1930].

By using borrowed folk tunes in this opera, Vaughan Williams was intending to flatter his colleague Gustav Holst. As was the practice of Holst, the titles of folk songs used are not generally of programmatic significance.

Works: Vaughan Williams: Sir John in Love.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Velten, Klaus. Schönbergs Instrumentation Bachscher und Brahmsscher Werke als Dokumente seines Traditionsverständnisses. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Vermeulen, Ernst. "Compositions by Louis Andriessen and Peter Schat Incorporating Quotations." Translated by Ian F. Finlay. Sonorum Speculum, no. 35 (Summer 1968): 1-12. In English and German.

A brief survey of the history of borrowing starts from borrowing as an everyday method of composing in the sixteenth century to transcriptions and arrangement of the sixteenth century up to Ives and Stravinsky. Both Ives and Stravinsky are the key composers for the output of Louis Andriessen, the latter for some time, the former for a relatively short time. A discussion of Andriessen's Anachrony I to the memory of Ives and Contra Tempus notes the simultaneous use of different musical languages, orchestral clichés, and hidden quotations and notes Stravinsky's influence in the borrowings from different periods. Despite quotations, Andriessen's works are original, for he orders and processes all the materials in a creative way. A brief discussion of Peter Schat's On Escalation notes the uses of specific quotations, stylistic quotations, and counterfeit stylistic quotations.

Works: Andriessen: Anachrony I (7), Contra Tempus (9); Hindemith: Der Schwanendreher (5); Ives: Concord Sonata (4); Ravel: Bolero (8); Rossini: Le Comte Ory (4), Andremo a Parigi (4); Schat: On Escalation (11).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Viens, Lise. "Stratégies citationelles dans Die Soldaten de Bernd Alois Zimmerman." Canadian University Music Review/Revue de musique des universités canadiennes 17 (1996): 1-19.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Vill, Suzanne. Vermittlungsformen verbalisierter und musikalischer Inhalte in der Musik Gustav Mahlers. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1979.

Vill's book, originally a Ph.D. dissertation (Frankfurt am Main, 1974), emphasizes the texts of songs and their changes as compared to the original. In a second part the author gives programmatic interpretations of the first four symphonies, in which quotations from folk songs and from Mahler's own songs are of major importance, even if the texts are not quoted with the tunes. The meaning given to these tunes by the original words and various statements by Mahler together with formal procedures--including transformation of the quoted material--allow two kinds of conclusions: either they lead to a concrete interpretation or reflect some of the musical ambiguity.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 4.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Vinay, Gianfranco. "Charles Ives e i musicisti europei: anticipazioni e dipendenze." Nuova Revista Musicale Italiana 7 (July-December 1973): 417-29.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Vis, Jurgen. "Debussy and the War--Debussy, Luther, and Jannequin: Remarks on Part II ('Lent. Sombre') of En blanc et en noir." Cahiers Debussy 15 (Summer 1991): 31-50.

Debussy alternates characteristic French and German themes, respectively La Marseillaise and Ein feste Burg, in the middle section of his En blanc et noir. These themes had become symbols of French and German nationalism, and Debussy uses them to portray the grimness of World War I. By using fragments of Martin Luther's chorale as a symbol of German aggression, Debussy subverts Luther's intentions of congregational unity. He disguises Luther's setting through omissions in both the Stollen and the Abgesang sections. Debussy also infuses programmatic features in the work by recalling warlike elements in the music of Clément Janequin's La Guerre, although he does not use quotation in the same manner as Ein feste Burg.

Works: Debussy: En blanc et noir (31-32, 35-42).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (32-35, 39-41); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (32, 35-38, 43); Janequin: La Guerre (45-46).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Vul'fson, Aleksej. "Principy simfoniceskogo razvitija formoobrazovanija v baletah I. F. Stravinskogo [Principles of the Symphonic Development and Form Building in I. F. Stravinsky's Ballets]." Ph.D. diss., Leningrad Conservatory, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Wade, Stephen. "The Route of 'Bonaparte's Retreat': From 'Fiddler Bill' Stepp to Aaron Copland." American Music 18 (Winter 2000): 343-69.

Copland's "Hoe-Down," from the ballet suite Rodeo, holds an esteemed place in American symphonic literature, especially given Copland's tendency to incorporate identifiable tunes into his music. One such tune has its history in an eighteenth-century violin ballad, Bonaparte's Retreat. The title of the tune reflected American adulation of Napoleon as a war hero. A Lakeville, Kentucky fiddler, William Hamilton (Bill) Stepp, changed the tempo of the original tune from slow and stately (meant to symbolize the "retreat") to fast and romping in order to give it the effect of a rousing square dance. He enlivened the melody by adding triplet pickups and changed the function of the drone overtones from evoking bagpipes to displaying pure fiddle techniques. Alan Lomax recorded Stepp's rendition in the 1930s, and Ruth Crawford Seeger subsequently compiled it in Our Singing Country. In turn, Copland used it as part of a collage of folk tunes presented in "Hoe-Down," seeking to capture the American spirit.

Works: Copland: "Hoe-Down" from Rodeo (357-65).

Sources: Bonaparte's Retreat as performed by William Hamilton Stepp (353-57).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Wagner, Gottfried H. "'Lebe im Augenblick--lebe in der Ewigkeit': Kultur und Musik im Konzentrationslager Theresienstadt." Das Orchester: Zeitschrift für Orchester und Rundfunk-Chorwesen 43/9 (1995): 10-14.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Walser, Robert. "Eruptions: Heavy Metal Appropriations of Classical Virtuosity." Popular Music 11 (October 1992): 263-308. Reprinted as Chapter 3 in Robert Walser, Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1993.

Although heavy metal music is typically viewed as removed from the classical tradition, the most influential heavy metal guitarists of the last two decades were in their turn highly influenced by the classical tradition, particularly in expressions of virtuosity. These influences range from straightforward borrowing of classical melodies or harmonic progressions to exploring the values associated with being a classical artist and a virtuoso. The reasons for direct quotation vary. Emerson, Lake and Palmer created a 1972 remake of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition for the purpose of elevating public taste. Rainbow' s hit Difficult to Cure (1981), featuring guitarist Ritchie Blackmore, quotes Beethoven's Ode to Joy with an altered meter and a new introduction, finishing with sounds of laughter. The intent of this example is parody. Perhaps the most subtle form of appropriation lies not in quotation but in adopting values associated with classical music artistry. Yngwie Malmsteen represents not only the height of virtuosity, but also the nineteenth-century concept of the separation between artist and society. Malmsteen is a self-proclaimed "genius" whose style focuses on elitism and experimentation. The most compelling reason to examine the relationship between heavy metal and the classical tradition is heavy metal guitarists' increasing interest in classical models. Electric guitars provide the closest analogy to the virtuosic approaches to the organ, piano, and violin of past centuries.

Works: Emerson, Lake and Palmer, Pictures at an Exhibition (266); Deep Purple / Ritchie Blackmore, Highway Star (268-69); Rainbow / Ritchie Blackmore, Difficult to Cure (270); Edward Van Halen, Eruption (271-77); Ozzy Osbourne / Randy Rhoads, Goodbye to Romance (281).

Sources: Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition; Beethoven, Ode to Joy from Symphony No. 9 in D Minor; Rodolphe Kreutzer, Caprice Study #2 for Violin; Pachelbel, Canon in D.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Walser, Robert. "Rhythm, Rhyme, and Rhetoric in the Music of Public Enemy." Ethnomusicology 39 (Spring-Summer 1995): 193-217.

Arguments levied against the parasitic nature of rap music can be refuted by using Walter Ong's studies of originality in oral culture, as well as the idea of "signifyin(g)" as discussed by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Dick Hebdige. While musical performance skills are not necessary, rap producers demonstrate virtuosity in the selection and positioning of samples. Extensive analysis of the groove (199-203), rhetorical strategies (203-207), and the rhythmic character (208-212) of Public Enemy?s Fight the Power includes transcriptions of several sections of the track. The groove comprises a sample from Trouble Funk, a combination of drum patterns sampled from songs by Sly Stone, Funkadelic, and the Jacksons, and new rhythms created with a drum machine. The polyrhythmic and repetitive character of Fight the Power makes it comparable with West African musical traditions and values.

Works: Public Enemy: Fight the Power (198-207).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Walser, Robert. “The Polka Mass: Music of Postmodern Ethnicity.” American Music 10 (Summer 1992): 183-202.

Since the 1970s, the Polka Mass, a variant of the Catholic Mass that replaces traditional anthems with Polka songs, has been performed in the United States by Polish, German, Slovenian, and Czech congregations. The words and music draw upon familiar melodies and secular traditions to enhance the sacred occasion. This style of mass was created to respond to tensions from immigrant communities who felt like they were losing their ethnic Catholic identities in America. Oftentimes, the composers and arrangers of Polka Masses either replaced the lyrics of well-known polkas, waltzes, or country songs with standard liturgical texts, or parodied secular texts to adapt them for a sacred setting. Some of the parodies involved simple changes, such as changing the word “sun” to “Son” in Let the Son Shine In. Other parodies, however, could reinterpret an original song into one of sacred devotion, as seen in Gene Retka’s Gathered Together. Some Polka Mass writers even drew upon genres and styles such as tango, country, and bebop, which caused controversy in some churches. For example, the use of the tune from the country song, Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain, by Willie Nelson was justified only when Frank Perkovich claimed that the melody was from the Czech tune Place Oci.

Works: Fr. Frank Perkovich: At This Sacrifice (188-90, 193), Let the Son Shine In (186-87, 191), The Church in the Valley (187); Fr. George Balasko: We Offer Bread and Wine (187); Gene Retka: Song for Meditation (187), Gathered Together (192), Lord, Have Mercy; Christ, Have Mercy; Lord, Have Mercy (189-90), Each and Every Day (191, 198-99).

Sources: Hair: Let the Sunshine In (186); Walter Ostanek: The Barking Dog Polka (187); Walt Solek: Julida Polka (187, 192); Hank Thunander: The Tavern in the Valley (187); Willie Nelson: Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain (188-89, 193); Lil’ Wally Jagiello: Johnny’s Knocking (191, 198-99).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Wang, Richard. "Jazz Circa 1945: A Confluence of Styles." The Musical Quarterly 59 (October 1973): 531-46.

Jazz styles and trends tend to radiate outwards from a set of innovative musicians. The emergence of bebop and its distinctions from swing can be demonstrated by a set of Comet recordings created in 1945 by Red Norvo, Teddy Wilson, Slam Stewart, J. C. Heard, Flip Phillips, and, most importantly, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Quotation in jazz is a long-standing tradition with no stigma attached to it as is the case in Western art music. The relationship between the quoting and quoted musicians is important: quotation often acts as a form of tribute or a sign of respect. Sometimes this tribute moves in surprising directions. In the case of these albums, older, more established musicians such as Norvo and Wilson offer such gestures of respect to the creativity of the relatively young Gillespie and Parker. Furthermore, the improvised nature of jazz allows quotation to operate not just between songs or works, but within them: Norvo and Wilson quote motives from solos by Gillespie and Parker within the same set.

Works: Red Norvo: Solo on Slam Slam Blues (541-42); Teddy Wilson: Solo on Slam Slam Blues (541-42).

Sources: Dizzy Gillespie: Solo on Slam Slam Blues (541-42); Charlie Parker: Solo on Slam Slam Blues (541-42).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Wanninger, Forrest Irving. "Dies Irae: Its Use in Non-Liturgical Music from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century." Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1962.

The Dies Irae, a rhymed sequence, was probably written by Thomas of Celano in the thirteenth century. Accepted as part of the Requiem Mass early in the fourteenth century, it was significant in early polyphonic settings of the Requiem. The words continued to be important in later Requiem settings, but the melody found its way into secular music from the beginning of the nineteenth century and with universal appeal, attained a character far removed from its original place in the church service. Background information on each composer and discussions of his usage of the Dies Irae are provided for the following works:

Works: Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique; Liszt: Totentanz; Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre; Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death; Rachmaninoff: [??]; Honegger: La Danse des Morts, Chausson: Printemps triste; Strauss: Till Eulenspiegel; Respighi: Impressioni brasiliane; Vaughan Williams: Tudor Portraits, Schelling: A Victory Ball; Miaskovsky: Symphony No. 6; Tchaikovsky: Orchestral Suite No. 3; Mahler: Symphony No. 2.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Ward, Charles. "Charles Ives: The Relationship Between Aesthetic Theories and Compositional Processes." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Ward, Charles. "The Use of Hymn Tunes as an Expression of 'Substance' and 'Manner' in the Music of Charles E. Ives. 1874-1954." M.M. thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Warner, Timothy. "Narrating Sound: The Pop Video in the Age of the Sampler." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 167-79. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Timber is a pop video made up of audio samples and video clips from a soundtrack to a Greenpeace film on the destruction of the rainforest. Four affective elements are involved in this type of music: sounds/timbres, music (the manipulation and organization of timbres), images showing the source of the timbres, and the rhythm of image editing. Audio samples include a chainsaw, a chattering monkey, and a singing human voice. The images of nature and sounds of industry that are used in the video are treated as musical elements. For example, musically, the sample of the chainsaw functions like an electric guitar riff. The dichotomy involved in Timber commenting on destructive machines yet being made possible by samplers (machines) makes the piece intriguing.

Works: Coldcut and Hexstatic: Timber.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Washburne, Christopher. "The Clave of Jazz: A Caribbean Contribution to the Rhythmic Foundation of an African-American Music." Black Music Research Journal 17, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 57-80.

Scholarship consistently claims African rhythms as the origin of rhythm in early jazz. However, many of the rhythmic cells found in jazz bear more resemblance to Caribbean styles, specifically the son clave,tresillo, and cinquillo found in Cuban music. The Cuban and Haitian immigrants brought their music with them to New Orleans. Many Creole musicians and marching bands borrowed these Caribbean dance rhythms and sounds as a rhythmic foundation for their own music because of their connection with dance. These rhythms then moved into the music of the early jazz pioneers in the rhythmic breaks that occurred in many pieces. The use of these Afro-Cuban rhythms slowly declined as jazz moved away from its dance beginnings. However, these rhythms are continually borrowed in jazz as an homage to past jazz styles and composers.

Works: Da Costa/Edwards/La Rocca/Ragas/Shields/Sbarbaro: Tiger Rag as performed by Louis Armstrong (69-71); Gillespie/Lewis: Two Bass Hit as performed by Miles Davis (71); Barefield/Moten: Toby (71-72); Ellington/Mills/Nemo: Skrontch (71-72); Monk: Rhythm-a-ning (72-73); Clarke/Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (73); Simons/Marks: All of Me (73); Richard M. Jones: Jazzin' Babies Blues as performed by King Oliver (74-75); Caesar/Kahn/Meyer: Crazy Rhythm as performed by Miff Mole (74-75); Barbarin/Russell: Come Back Sweet Papa as performed by Louis Armstrong (75-76).

Sources: Traditional: Son clave,Tresillo, and Cinquillo (57-80).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Watanabe, Hiroshi. "Dentì-juyì-kìi to shite no sakkyoku--Gustav Mahler ni okeru 'Inyì' no kìsatsu [Composition as the repository of tradition--some reflections on quotation in Gustav Mahler's symphonies]." Bigaku 32 (March 1982): 52-66.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Waters, Keith. “Outside Forces: Autumn Leaves in the 1960s.” Current Musicology 71-73 (Spring 2001-2002): 276-302.

“Outside” playing in the 1960s was defined as the melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic influence of newer movements in jazz on more traditional jazz performance. Two groups in the mid-1960s, the Charles Lloyd Quartet and the Miles Davis Quintet, incorporated avant-garde techniques into their improvisations of standard tunes. The pianists for each group, Keith Jarrett and Herbie Hancock, implemented significant harmonic and metrical disruption during their improvisations. Transcriptions of the final chorus-and-a-half for their respective improvisations on Autumn Leaves illustrate a wide variety of such disruptions. Jarrett combines polymeter, accent shift, and chords in conflict with the original harmonic structure at the end of his third chorus; he uses polyrhythms such as triplets in the beginning of the fourth chorus; and he negates the harmonic scheme of the second half of the chorus by transposing chords down by whole step, where the original tune cycled through the descending circle of fifths. At the end of his fifth chorus, Hancock also uses polymeter and accent shift; however, the chorus ends with dissonant chromatic planing instead of highlighting a consonant chord distant from the original harmonic scheme. At the beginning of his sixth chorus, Hancock eliminates any sense of metric identity by playing chords at seemingly arbitrary attack points. Overall, both Jarrett and Hancock use avant-garde techniques to heighten the intensity of the juncture between the second-to-last and last choruses of their improvisations.

Works: Joseph Kosma: Autumn Leaves as performed by Keith Jarrett (285-90) and Herbie Hancock (290-98).

Sources: Joseph Kosma: Autumn Leaves (281-85).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Watkins, Glenn. "Uses of the Past: A Synthesis." In Soundings: Music in the Twentieth Century, 640-60. New York: Schirmer Books, 1988.

Composers of recent years have had mixed feelings about the use of music of the past, and they have borrowed in a variety of ways. Surges of interest in borrowing arose around certain occasions. For example, the 400th anniversary of Gesualdo's birth inspired a number of new works in 1960, and this helped create interest in using the works of Monteverdi and Cavalli in the 1960s and 70s. Others have turned to Bach, including Lukas Foss with his innovative use of Bach's Von Himmel Hoch in his Baroque Variations. Beethoven's bicentennial in 1970 inspired composers including Stockhausen and Ginastera to borrow in various ways. Kagel's "meta-collage" of small quotations from Beethoven's most popular works offers an interesting example. The twentieth century has also seen a movement called New Romanticism, consisting of a return to 19th-century tonality. Rochberg's quotation technique led him to a more general stylistic modeling, whereas Berio's use of Mahler was intended to honor him specifically. Eventually, New Romanticism focused more on stylistic modeling than exact references, and with the addition of jazz and ragtime devices, composers achieved a "polystylistic juxtaposition." Many pieces are mentioned, and the article includes an extensive list of modern works and the works from which they borrow. Those listed below are discussed in more detail.

Works: Stravinsky: Monumentum pro Gesualdo ad CD annum (640); Davies: Tenebrae super Gesualdo (642); Foss: Baroque Variations (643); Kagel: Ludwig van (645); Rochberg: Third String Quartet (647-8); Berio: Sinfonia (648-9); Cage: Cheap Imitation (651).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Watkins, Glenn. Pyramids at the Louvre: Music, Culture, and Collage from Stravinsky to the Postmodernists. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1994.

Collage can be seen as a central force in the various arts of the twentieth century, including music. Collage in music should be considered as more than just a collection of other people's music used in another composer's piece. By expanding the idea of collage to include cultural explosions and reconstitutions, unilateral use of European and American ideas by each other, access to art and ideas of the non-Western world, and the mixture of culture and music theory, a strong transition between Modernism and Postmodernism can be followed. The modernist music of Stravinsky and Debussy at the fin-de-siècle introduced orientalist musical theories and sounds into their own music. This use of orientalism led the way for Primitivism and its various guises throughout the rest of the twentieth century. Collage took a front seat in the music and culture of the twentieth century after World War II. The techniques used in early film played an important role for the emergence of collage in post-war music by giving composers the chance to suggest many past musical styles in quick succession without using long transitions. Composers also continued the tradition of using cultural, literary, and architectural collages in their compositions instead of only creating collage by cutting and pasting from earlier composers.

Works: Debussy: Images (23-26); Stravinsky: Le Rossignol (38-49), Le Sacre du printemps (84-100); Milhaud: La Creation du monde (116-21); Krenek: Jonny spielt auf (150-53); Thomson: Four Saints in Three Acts (153-55); Ellington: Black and Tan Fantasy (187-88); Gershwin: Porgy and Bess (195-202); Stravinsky: David, projected collaboration with Cocteau (238-43, 256-64), Three Pieces for String Quartet (260-64); Schoenberg: Pierrot lunaire (282-84); Stravinsky: Renard (285-87); Debussy: The Children's Corner (297-98); Antheil: Ballet mecanique (327-29); Stravinsky: Agon (360-74); Varese: Ameriques (389-90); Satie: Le feu d'artifice (399); Ives: Flanders Field (400); Britten: War Requiem (405); Rouse: Symphony No. 1 (407-8); Schnittke: Symphony No. 1 (410); Gubaidulina: Offertorium (411-12); Riley: Salome Dances for Peace (414-15); Berio: Sinfonia (416-17), Rendering (417); Berg: Violin Concerto (430-32); Britten: The Prince of the Pagodas (445-46).

Sources: Traditional: America (400), Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (400); Bruckner: Symphony No. 7 (407-8); Lasso: Stabat Mater (411); Beethoven: Grosse Fugue (410); Bach: The Musical Offering (410); Mahler: Symphony No. 2, Resurrection (416).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Weber, Édith. "Le Cantus Firmus 'Ein Feste Burg': Une aventure littéraire et musicale." In Itinéraires du Cantus Firmus, vol. 2, De l'Orient à l'Occident, 117-36. Sorbonne: Presses de l'Université de Paris, 1995.

Ein feste Burg has had many adaptations. The tune came to symbolize the fighting march of the Protestants in the manner of a national anthem, such as La Marseillaise, in its popularity and rousing characteristics. Indeed, Ein feste Burg is associated with the beginning of the Reformation. The repetitive structure of the tune, its simplicity, and its declamation attracted several composers. Though questions arise about the exact date of the piece, as well as Luther's organization of the text, the historical significance of the piece emerges over the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as several composers adapt it in cantus firmus settings. Johann Walter collaborated with Luther to create a two-voice setting of the tune. Johann Kugelmann set the tune with three voices and, like Walter, placed the cantus firmus in the tenor. Martin Agricola also kept the melody in the tenor but added a fourth voice, increasing the imitative possibilities. Other settings in the sixteenth century adapt the four-voice setting and the imitative characteristics, although Lukas Osiander, Rogier Michael, and Sethus Calvisius all place the cantus firmus in the superius. Seventeenth-century settings exhibit more ornamentation, particularly by means of chromaticism, in the treatment of the cantus firmus, evinced by composers such as Bartholomaeus Gesius, David Scheidemann, and Hans Leo Hassler, who sought to increase the expression of the tune. Subsequent adaptations, such as Meyerbeer's spiritual associations in Les Huguenots and Debussy's appropriation of the chorale to represent German aggression in En blanc et noir, resemble emblematic quotations, showing the distance the tune traveled from its original Lutheran functions.

Works: Johann Walter: Ein feste Burg (127-28); Johann Kugelmann: Ein feste Burg (128-29); Martin Agricola ou Sore: Ein feste Burg (129-30); Sigmund Hemmel: Der ganze Psalter Davids (130); Lukas Osiander: Ein feste Burg (131); Rogier Michael: Ein feste Burg (131); Sethus Calvisius: Ein feste Burg (131-32); Bartholomaeus Gesius ou Gese: Ein feste Burg (132); David Scheidemann: Ein feste Burg (132); Melchior Vulpius: Ein feste Burg (133); Hassler: Kirchengesänge, Psalmen und Geistliche Lider (133); Praetorius: Musae Sioniae (134); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (135); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (135); Debussy: Suite pour deux pianos: En blanc et noir (135); Langlais: Suite oecuménique (135).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (117-26).

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Weinstein, Deena. "The History of Rock's Pasts through Rock Covers." In Mapping the Beat: Popular Music and Contemporary Theory, ed. Andrew Herman, John Sloop, and Thomas Swiss, 137-51. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.

Despite its claims of existing in and focusing on the present, rock music has always engaged deep connections with its past. The rock cover song offers us a useful means by which to explore that history, particularly in the way that covers refer not just to "the song itself" (i.e., melody, chords, and lyrics), but to a particular recorded performance of that song. At various stages in rock's history, cover songs have referenced a past which existed at a varying chronological distance. In the early years of the genre in 1950s, it was a very recent past. That past grew increasingly distant over the following decades, with constantly changing meanings for artists and listeners. The motivation behind cover songs in different rock eras included claims to authenticity and displays of virtuosity, as well as the desire to offer parody of or tribute to one's rock forebears.

Works: Georgia Gibbs: Dance with Me Henry (The Wallflower) (139).

Sources: Etta James: The Wallflower (139).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Weiss-Aigner, Günter. Max Reger: Mozart-Variationen. Meisterwerke der Musik 52. Munich: W. Fink, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Whaples, Miriam K. "Mahler and Schubert's A Minor Sonata D. 784." Music and Letters 65 (July 1984): 255-63.

Several allusions to pre-existent works which appear in Mahler's music are noted: a tune by Thomas Koschat in the Fifth Symphony, Beethoven's Violin Sonata Op. 96 in "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt" from the Second Symphony, Schubert's Piano Trio in E-flat Major, D. 929 in Mahler's Third Symphony, the Piano Sonata in G Major, D. 894 in "Lob des hohen Verstanden" from the Wunderhorn Lieder, the D Major Piano Sonata, D. 850 in the finale of the Fourth, and the E-flat Major Piano Sonata, D. 568 in the first movement of the same symphony. A whole group of quotations is drawn from Schubert's Piano Sonata in A Minor, D.784. The allusions to this work are most prevalent in the First and Seventh symphonies. Mahler was well acquainted with this sonata as a performer so that the allusions to it are of biographical (read autobiographical) significance. Mahler's involvement with the Schubert sonata, both as performer and composer, spans some thirty years; the references to it in his own music are identified as largely unconscious. Various other allusions by Mahler both to others and to himself are noted.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3 (256), "Lob des hohen Verstanden," from Wünderhorn Lieder (256), Symphony No. 4 (256), Symphony No. 7 (259), Symphony No. 1 (260), "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt," from Symphony No. 2 (262), Symphony No. 5 (263).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] White, Julian. "National Traditions in the Music of Roberto Gerhard." Tempo, no. 184 (March 1993): 2-13.

The middle period works of Roberto Gerhard utilize the Spanish musical past through borrowing pre-existent material. His attitude toward Spanish music, both art and popular, was instilled in Gerhard by his teacher Felipe Pedrell. Gerhard then transformed this musical material to represent a universal significance. Some works simply demonstrate the influence of folk material in melodic shape and intervallic content, while others employ borrowed folk songs. Gerhard utilized folk material in a substantial number of compositions in folksong settings and other works. Through his study with Arnold Schoenberg, Gerhard was able to incorporate this preexistent material into his newly acquired technique, for example in the Sardanas where he modifies the form and harmonic content of the dance. In works such as Don Quixote and Pandora, his borrowing reveals a symbolic feature that he retains in many other compositions. His opera The Duenna, a Spanish national opera in many respects, utilizes popular and art music traditions. Gerhard also subjected the borrowed material to twelve-tone procedures, for example in the Harpsichord Concerto and Cello Sonata. In his later, more abstract works, this Spanish identity becomes subtler, as in the Concerto for Orchestra and Symphony No. 4.

Works: Gerhard: Seven Haiku (3), Dos Apunts (3), Cantata: L'Alta Naixença del Rei en Jaume (4, 6), Albada, Interludi I Danza (4, 7), Pedrelliana (4), Sardanas (6), Don Quixote (7), Pandora (8), Violin Concerto (8-9), The Duenna (9), Three Impromptus (10), Harpsichord Concerto (11), Cello Sonata (11), Nonet (12), Symphony No. 4 (12-13).

Sources: La Tornada del Pelegri (3); El Mal Rico (3); El Cotiló (4, 6, 13); La Cinta Dauvada (6); El Carbonerot (6); L'Escolta (6); El Bon Caçador (7); Assassi per Amor (7); Chacona de Palació (7); Rosa del Folló (8); El Mestre (8); La Germana Rescatada (8); Ad Mortem Festinamus (8, 10); La Marseillaise (9); Sevillanas del 18 siglo (9); Cançó de Batre (10); Las Tres Hojas (10); Copla de Columpio (10); El Contrabandista (10); Los Pelegrinitos (10, 11); Copla de Corro (11); El Paño (12); Retraídaestá la Infanta (12); Salinas: Cantilena Vulgar (7), Canción Muy Popularizada (7); Alicante: Antón Pirulero (8); Grimau: Tirana del Zarandillo (9).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] White, Julian. “Catalan Folk Sources in ‘Soirées de Barcelone.’” Tempo 198 (October 1996): 11-21, 72.

Roberto Gerhard’s ballet Soirées de Barcelone incorporates a number of Catalan folk songs and folk-like melodies to create a nationalistic ballet that was particularly Catalan (Republican) in sentiment. Many of the folk songs that are paraphrased in the ballet are drawn from Berga, a region of Catalonia. Often the functions of these songs in their original context (many are from the festivities of Saint John’s Eve) or their original texts relate to the dramatic events on stage. Although the referenced songs were likely found in published song books such as the Obra del Cançoner Popular de Catalunya and Cancons Populars Catalanes, many of them would have been known to contemporary audiences and are still recognized in Catalonia. In addition to referencing specific Catalan folk songs, Gerhard also adopted Bartók’s techniques of abstracting folk songs to create accompaniments that contained key elements of Catalan folk song such as modal chromaticism. In adapting the folk songs for orchestra, Gerhard sometimes kept similar instrumentation, as in his paraphrasing of Els Segadors, a rousing patriotic song originally performed by Catalan wind bands, which Gerhard scored for winds and double bass only.

Works: Roberto Gerhard: Soirées de Barcelone.

Sources: Anonymous: Tocata de Gralla (12); Anonymous: De les Nines de Surroca (12-14); Anonymous: Aquestes Muntanyes (12-14); Anonymous: L’hereu Riera (14-15); Anonymous: La filla del marxant (14-16, 18, 20); Anonymous: Sant Ramon (17); Anonymous: La Mare de Déu quan era xiqueta (17-18); Anonymous: Muntanyes del Canigó (18); Anonymous: Els Segadors (18-21); Anonymous: La Fi d’en Toca-son (19); Morera: Nit de Sant Joan (20); Garreta: Juny (20); Anonymous: Balledeta de l’àliga (20); Anonymous: El Romeu I la Romea (21, 72).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Whitesell, Lloyd. "Men with a Past: Music and the 'Anxiety of Influence.'" 19th-Century Music 18 (Fall 1994): 152-67.

Harold Bloom's theory of "anxiety of influence" sees an Oedipal struggle between the poet and his forebears, in which the poet is forced to misread his predecessors, assert priority over them, and clear creative space for himself. Some musicians, including Benjamin Britten and Robert Schumann, have cited the past as a supportive rather than threatening presence. Rather than a metaphor of male aggression, these composers and others like them see artistic creation as a form of "gift," using a metaphor suggested by Lewis Hyde. In this view the individual becomes "vulnerable" and thus feminized under Bloom's model. In Bloom's mythology, the artist is confronted with two obstacles, sexual anxiety (the Sphinx) and creative anxiety (the Cherub). Because Bloom's model has eliminated the female element of the classical Freudian interpretation of the Oedipal triangle, the model that emerges is one in which homosexual desire becomes a strong element. Social homophobia represents a reaction against traditional structures of gender and power; thus, the homoerotic impulse must be channeled into more acceptable avenues of rivalry and violence. At the end of the nineteenth century, changes in the Victorian definition of "femininity" forced men to "remythologize their claims to authority." It is not a coincidence that Bloom formulated his theory in the 1970s, when feminist, gay, and lesbian voices were challenging the cultural definition of masculinity. Bloom's model remains in "mythical space" by failing to take into account other arenas of cultural conflict, such as nationalism, artistic attitude, and personal psychology. In the final analysis, Bloom's theory perpetuates old ideologies and prevents a thorough consideration of the work of art.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Whitesell, Lloyd. "Reckless Form, Uncertain Audiences: Responding to Ives." American Music 12 (Fall 1994): 304-19.

Analyses that attempt to uncover formal unity in Ives misinterpret Ives's own formal aesthetic and devalue the heterogeneity in his music. In "The Things Our Fathers Loved" (1917), quotations from "Dixie," "My Old Kentucky Home," "On the Banks of the Wabash," and other tunes project the sense of a casual design--as in a collage, crazy-quilt, or scrapbook. The tune-fragments complicate the role of the listener, who is asked to follow discontinuities and enjoy the broken surface. Ives referred to Emerson in discussing unity and concluded that formal unity is less important than unity of vision. Alternative modes of listening which do not privilege unity enhance the appreciation of Ives's creative freedom.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Wierzbicki, James. "Sampling and Quotation." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 21 November, 1993. Available from http://pages.sbcglobal.net/jameswierzbicki/borrowing.htm. (Accessed 8 October 2002)

Many popular music groups, especially rap groups, have been sued by other artists and their publishers for using copyrighted music without permission, even though the groups generally took a small section of the piece in question and thus the quotation falls under the fair use clause. However, by looking at quotations more closely, one can find an extramusical meaning to the quoted material. Because of this, many of the quotations should not be seen as plagiarism as long as the composer does not borrow too much from a previous source.

Works: Puccini: Madame Butterfly; Rachmaninoff: Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini; Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15.

Sources: Dees/Orbison: Oh Pretty Woman;The Star-Spangled Banner;Dies Irae; Rossini: William Tell.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Wierzbicki, James. "Sampling and Quotation." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 28 April, 1991. Available from http://pages.sbcglobal.net/jameswierzbicki/borrowing.htm. (Accessed 8 October 2002)

Sampling and quotation in popular music resembles borrowing in Western art music. DJ sampling not only "recycles" music, it also uses specific performances from recordings. This commonly brings in characteristics of timbre and the performer's interpretation from the sampled music that is not found in other forms of musical borrowing. Because of these added factors in sampling, one finds a kind of iconography that the DJs bring into their music that is noticed by the listeners. The idea of extra-musical meaning, albeit through iconography in DJ sampling, is not new. Composers of Western art music have commonly inserted previously composed music into their own compositions for extramusical meanings. These meanings within the borrowing do not hinder the composer's, nor the DJ's, originality in any way.

Works: Berg: Violin Concerto; Wuorinen: Machaut mon chou; Respighi: The Birds; Schubert: String Quartet No. 14 in D Minor; Mahler: Symphony No. 1; Ives: Three Places in New England; Ravel: Bolero; Copland: Symphony No. 3; Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition.

Sources: Brown: Funky Drummer; J.S. Bach: O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort BWV 60; Schubert: Death and the Maiden; Mahler: Songs of a Wayfarer; Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man; Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Wilkes, William Leroy Jr. "Borrowed Music in Mormon Hymnals." Ph.D. diss., University of Southern California, 1957.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Williams, Alan E. "Kurtág, Modernity, Modernisms." Contemporary Music Review 20, nos. 2-3 (2001): 51-69.

Beginning in the mid-1970s, György Kurtág began to reflect a musical past through quotation, many of which refer to his own personal experiences rather than an attempt to convey universal relevance. Kurtág's music can be discussed in relation to Theodor Adorno's idea of "sedimentation" and the concept of subjective memory described by Georg Lukács. The string quartet Officium breve in memoriam Andreae Szervánsky borrows music of Anton Webern, specifically the canonic structure of the sixth movement of Cantata No. 2, and Endre Szervánsky's Serenade for String Orchestra. Kurtág utilizes pre-existent material to evoke an historical awareness of musical material similar to Adorno's concept of sedimentation; that music has an historic relationship to society and may or may not have relevance to that society. For Kurtág, Webern's music recalls the memory of his student years in Paris where he extensively studied this music. Furthermore, Kurtág's Op. 1 string quartet is inextricably connected to the works of Webern. Quotation thus creates a complex web of memory in Kurtág's compositions.

Works: Kurtág: Officium breve in memorium Andreae Szervánsky, Op. 26 (52, 56, 60, 62-66), Játékok (51, 56-57, 62-66).

Sources: Webern: Cantata No. 2 (52, 60, 63); Szervánsky: Serenade for String Orchestra (52, 60, 64-65); Kurtág: Játékok (51, 56-57, 62-66), String Quartet, Op. 1 (63-64).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Williams, J. Kent. "Oscar Peterson and the Art of Paraphrase: The 1965 Recording of Stella by Starlight." In Annual Review of Jazz Studies 9 1997-98, ed. Edward Berger, David Cayer, Henry Martin, and Dan Morgenstern, 25-43. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2000.

André Hodeir was perhaps the first writer to apply the term paraphrase to jazz. He used the term in 1956 to describe a type of improvised melody that lies between two extremes: the unaltered, original melody (called the "head" by jazz musicians) and the ostensibly new melody (called the "chorus phrase") created by the jazz improviser over the harmonic framework of the original melody. In jazz pianist Oscar Peterson's 1965 recording of Victor Young's 1946 song Stella by Starlight, Peterson begins with a version of Young's melody that stays close to the original, but departs from it sufficiently so as to warrant being designated as paraphrase. In the 1960s Peterson continued to begin performances of Stella by Starlight with this same paraphrased version of the song. It thus represents Peterson's "composed" version of the original melody.

Works: Peterson: Stella by Starlight (25-43).

Sources: Young: Stella by Starlight (25-43).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Williams, Justin A. “The Construction of Jazz Rap as High Art in Hip-Hop Music.” The Journal of Musicology 27 (Fall 2010): 435-59.

Due to the elevation of jazz to a “high art” in the mainstream media during the 1980s, members of the hip-hop community interested in projecting such high-art ideologies began to associate themselves with jazz music. “Jazz rap,” which sampled jazz and used “conscious” lyrics in the spirit of bebop’s perceived highbrow nature, was seen as a form of high art within the hip-hop community starting in the early 1990s, and those who wished to justify its high art status argued that it was more authentic than the “lower,” more popular subgenres of rap music. Groups such as De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Digable Planets, and Gang Starr utilize “jazz codes”—sounds, lyrical references, and imagery identified by audiences with jazz—to associate themselves with jazz music.

Works: A Tribe Called Quest: Verses from the Abstract (445), Check the Rhime (445), Jazz (We’ve Got) (445-46); Digable Planets: It’s Good to Be Here (449), Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat) (450-52).

Sources: Bronislaw Kaper (composer) and Lucky Thompson (performer): On Green Dolphin Street (446); Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers: A Chant for Bu (446); The Honeydrippers: Impeach the President (451-52).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Wiora, Walter. "Das produktive Umsingen deutscher Kirchenliedweisen in der Vielfalt europäischer Stile." Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie 2 (1956): 47-63.

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Wishart, James. "Re-composing Schubert." In The Musical Work: Reality or Invention?, ed. Michael Talbot, 205-30. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000.

A variety of compositional approaches are used by twentieth-century composers when they confront the music of their predecessors. Sympathetic completion occurs when a composer reconstructs sketches or completes an unfinished work. "Compulsive orchestrators" rearrange older works into new orchestral versions. "Ultra-pragmatic composers" rework a composition, often in a new genre, to express a more personal vision. Changes are made to suit the new instrumentation, but the essence of the music remains the same. Distancing through quotation occurs when one musical work refers to another. In this new context, the inclusion of the older work adds an underlying subtext. A distance in style is often exaggerated, creating moments of surprise or shock. Taking this idea a step further, composers can also "relish the discomfort factor" by being intentionally indifferent toward a source. An example of distancing through quotation is found in Michael Tippett's The Knot Garden (1970). In the penultimate scene, the character Flora begins singing "Die liebe Farbe" from Schubert's Die schöne Müllerin. Yet she only makes it through half of the first verse before Schubert's music begins to dissolve into Tippett's tonal language. What begins as pure Schubert merges into a hybrid, and then ultimately resigns itself to a modern idiom. Luciano Berio's Rendering (1990) is harder to categorize. Berio begins by realizing the sketches of Schubert's tenth symphony. He then fills the compositional gaps with complex counterpoint and solo colors. Though quite outside of Schubert's style, this filler material is based upon three of Schubert's late works: the Piano Trio in B-flat Major, D 898 (1827), the Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, D 960 (1828) and Winterreise (1827). These juxtapositions of style exaggerate the stylistic difference between the two composers, but they might also create a relationship that we as listeners are not able to stand ("relishing the discomfort factor"). Hans Zender's Schuberts "Winterreise" (1993) falls into two categories. Some of his movements are extremely faithful to Schubert's Lieder, containing only minimal alterations. Other movements undergo several changes: "Auf dem Flusse" has a new prefatory section; "Der stürmische Morgen" includes percussive simulations of a storm; the accompaniment of "Die Leiermann" moves continually farther away from the tonic of B minor, though the melody remains unaltered. With his orchestral style differing greatly from that of Schubert, Zender may be "relishing the discomfort factor." Yet, Zender relates many stages of the song cycle's emotional journey, much like an "ultra-pragmatic" work retains the essence of its source.

Works: Michael Tippett: The Knot Garden (211-14, 226-27); Luciano Berio: Rendering (215-19, 227-29); Hans Zender: Schuberts "Winterreise" (219-26, 229-30).

Sources: Schubert, Die schöne Müllerin, "Die liebe Farbe" (212-14), Symphony No. 10 in D Major (incomplete) (215-19), Piano Trio in B-flat Major, D. 898 (216), Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, D. 960 (216), Winterreise (216, 219-226).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Laura B. Dallman

[+] Woodard, Susan Jeanne. "The Dies Irae as used by Sergei Rachmaninoff: Some Sources, Antecedents, and Applications." D.M.A. diss., Ohio State University, 1984.

Rachmaninoff's frequent usage of the liturgical chant Dies Irae can be categorized as single appearances, textual devices, and transformations. Rachmaninoff was influenced by Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique, Liszt's Totentanz, and Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death, works containing the Dies Irae which he had performed as pianist and conductor. The origins and early development of the chant and settings of the text alone are also traced, noting the important transition of its context from sacred to secular and its literary history. The following works are discussed in detail:

Works: Rachmaninoff: The Isle of the Dead, The Bells, Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Piano Sonatas No. 1, Piano Sonatas No. 2, Suite No. 2 for Two Pianos, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, and several short piano pieces.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Wrobel, William. "Self-Borrowing in the Music of Bernard Herrmann." Journal of Film Music 1 (Fall-Winter 2003): 249-71.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

[+] Yang, Hokyung. "Twelve Variations on Paganini's 24th Caprice: An Analysis." DMA diss., University of Washington, 1994.

Paganini's Caprice, Op. 1, No. 24, has inspired numerous variations, and the popularity of Paganini's theme as the basis of variations should not merely be seen as a competitive effort among composers, but a tribute to the quality of the original theme. In particular, this can be seen through composers' varied approaches to texture, rhythm, meter, modulation, and harmony.

Works: Lutosławski: Variations on a Theme of Paganini (15-16, 32, 35-38, 70, 80); Rachmaninoff: Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43 (17-18, 31, 33,39-48, 70, 77, 83); Boris Blacher: Orchestervariationen über ein Thema von N. Paganini (20, 32-33, 48-51, 53, 74-75, 77-78, 80); Nathan Milstein: Paganiniana (21, 30, 33, 52-55, 65, 83); Eugène Ysaÿe: Paganini Variations, Op. post. (23, 32-33, 59-62, 70-71, 77, 84); David Baker: Ethnic Variations on a Theme of Paganini (23-25, 59, 64-65, 77, 80, 82); Bronslaw Przybylski: Variazioni sopra un tema di Paganini (25, 31, 33, 59, 62-63, 74-75, 77, 80-82); Gregor Piatigorsky: Variations on a Paganini Theme (26, 32-33, 56-57, 65, 70-72, 77, 83); Hans Bottermund: Variations on a Theme of Paganini (27, 30, 56, 58-59, 74, 85); Bryan Hesford: Variation on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 68 (28, 30, 32, 65, 67-68, 72-73, 77); Kenneth Wilson: Variations on a Theme of Paganini for Four B flat Clarinets (28-29, 33, 35, 65-67, 72-73, 85); Keith Cole: Excursions: Variations on a Theme of Paganini (29, 32, 33, 65-66, 74, 77).

Sources: 24 Caprices, Op. 1 (1, 12-13, 30-31, 33, 39-40, 43-49, 56-57, 59, 63, 65, 70, 77, 80, 83, 85); Sequence Dies Irae (39-40, 43, 46-48).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Yasser, Joseph. "Dies Irae: The Famous Medieval Chant." Musical Courier (6 October 1927): 6, 39.

One main reason for the Dies Irae sequence's acquired fame as a leitmotif of death is its "catchy" and easily recognizable melody. Brief discussions of works using the chant note the setting and models. The polyphonic treatment illustrated by Asola and Pitoni's Requiems is traced in Liszt's Totentanz. The dance-like rhythmic treatment in Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique is applied by Saint-Saëns in his Danse Macabre. Tchaikovsky, the first Russian composer to use the Dies Irae, uses a contrapuntal device, applied before in Totentanz and later in Rachmaninoff's Toteninsel. Other works mentioned are Glazunov's Moyen Age, Miaskovsky's Sixth Symphony, Schelling's Impressions from an Artist's Life, Loeffler's Ode for One Who Fell in Battle, and Simond's unpublished Elaboration for organ.

Works: Asola: Requiem (6); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (6); Glazunov: Moyen Age, Op. 79 (6); Liszt: Totentanz (6); Loeffler: Ode for One Who Fell in Battle (39); Miaskovsky: Symphony No. 6 (6); Pitoni: Requiem (6); Rachmaninoff: Toteninsel (6); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (6); Schelling: Impressions from an Artist's Life (39); Simonds: Elaboration of Dies Irae for Organ (unpublished) (39); Tchaikovsky Modern Greek Song, Op. 16, No. 6 (In Dark Hell).

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Yasser, Joseph. "The Opening Theme of Rachmaninoff's Third Piano Concerto and Its Liturgical Prototype." The Musical Quarterly 55 (July 1969): 313-28.

This article explores the dynamics of unconscious quotation. The main theme of Rachmaninoff's Third Piano Concerto is based upon a chant of the Russian Orthodox church. Rachmaninoff probably heard the chant during a visit to the Kievan-Petchersk Lavra in 1893. The concerto was composed in 1909. Thus it took some sixteen years for the tune to be unconsciously regenerated as the theme for his concerto. Of special interest is Rachmaninoff's reply to a letter sent to him by Yasser which demonstrates that Rachmaninoff was not conscious of the relationship between his theme and the chant. Rachmaninoff did, however, acknowledge the influence of liturgical and folk music on his music.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Youens, Susan. "Metamorphoses of a Melody: Schubert's Wiegenlied, D. 498, in Twentieth-Century Opera." The Opera Quarterly 2, no.2 (Summer 1984): 35-48.

Schubert's Wiegenlied in A-flat major, D. 498, set to an anonymous poem, became the musical material for borrowing in two twentieth-century operas: "Töne, töne, süsse Stimme" in Richard Strauss's Ariadne auf Naxos, op. 60, and "Gently, little boat, across the ocean float" in Igor Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress. Both Strauss and Stravinsky quoted the first measure of Schubert's lullaby. The quotation can be seen as a "double reminiscence": three lullabies and two mythological operas. The borrowings include musical, poetic, and dramatic elements. The anonymous poem of Schubert's Wiegenlied implies that the child is perhaps dead, but his mother's love remains with him and protects him even after death; and he will receive a rose when he "wakes." This theme has close association with the texts of Strauss's and Stravinsky's lullabies, as both deal with death, transformation, immortality and the love of a woman who embodies utmost fidelity. Strauss not only borrowed the melody from Schubert, he also borrowed the Schubertian harmonic style. Stravinsky's borrowing is more remote. Neither Strauss nor Stravinsky ever mentioned these borrowings.

Works: Strauss: Ariadne auf Naxos, "Töne, töne, süsse Stimme" (35-41); Stravinsky: The Rake's Progress, "Gently, little boat, across the ocean float" (41-47).

Sources: Schubert: Wiegenlied in A-flat Major, D. 498 (35-47).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Young, Percy M. "Works Based in the Theme BACH." Appendix 2 in The Bachs: 1500-1850. London: J. M. Dent &Sons Ltd., 1970.

An appendix of 21 works based on B-A-C-H.

Works: Albrechtsberger: Fugue for Organ; J. C. Bach: Fugue für das Pianoforte oder die Orgel komponiert von Christian Bach uber die Buchstaben seines Namens; J. S. Bach: Contrapunctus XI and XIX from Die Kunst der Fuge; Fantasy and Fugue (formerly attributed to J. S. Bach [??]); Berblan: Chaconne on Bach, Op. 10; Beethoven: Sketches for an Overture on BACH; Bellermann: Prelude and Fugue on BACH for Organ, Op. 8; Bräutigam: Johann Sebastian Bach; Casella: Two Ricercari on the Name BACH, Op. 46; Eisler: Prelude and Fugue on BACH (study on a twelve-tone row), Op. 46; D'Indy: "Beuron," No. 11 from Tableaux de voyage, Op. 33; Karg-Elert: "Basso Ostinato" from Madrigale, 10 schlichte Weisen, Passacaglia and Fugue on BACH, Op. 150; Krebs: Fugue on BACH for Organ; Liszt: Phantasy and Fugue on BACH for Organ; Pepping: Three Fugues on BACH for Piano; Reger: Phantasy and Fugue for Organ on BACH, Op. 46; Rimsky-Korsakov: Fugue, Op. 17, No. 6; Schumann: Six Fugues on the Name BACH for Organ or Piano with Pedal; Sorge: Three Fugues; Wellesz: Partita in honorem J.S. Bach 1965.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Yu, Siu-wah. "Two Practices Confused in One Composition: Tan Dun's 'Symphony 1997: Heaven, Earth, Man.'" In Locating East Asia in Western Art Music, ed. Yayoi Uno Everett and Frederick Lau. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Zacher, Gerd. "Materialsammlung. Zu Dieter Schnebels Choralvorspielen." In Dieter Schnebel. Musik-Konzepte, ed. Heinz-Klaus Metzger and Rainer Riehn, no. 16, 12-22. Munich: Edition Text + Kritik, 1980.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Zak III, Albin J. "Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix: Juxtaposition and Transformation 'All along the Watchtower.'" Journal of the American Musicological Society 57 (Fall 2004): 599-644.

Jimi Hendrix's recording of Bob Dylan's All along the Watchtower transforms Dylan's reserved and detached delivery into a dramatic and spectacular performance driven by intensification of Dylan's melodies and by a greater focus on unified structure that emphasizes the character of the ballad's narrator. Hendrix's version is the product of the peak of studio technology in its time, while Dylan's focuses on a simple capture of the singer's delivery. Both versions, and indeed both singers, are united by blues influences, although Hendrix intensifies Dylan's harmonic content and structure. Hendrix's remake is one sign of the more general affinities that he felt with Dylan over the course of their careers. Together, the two albums demonstrate much of the range of expression covered by rock artists in the late 1960s.

Works: Bob Dylan (songwriter), Jimi Hendrix (performer): All along the Watchtower.

Sources: Bob Dylan (songwriter and performer): All along the Watchtower.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Zobel, Mark Alan. "'Music Close to the Soil and Deeply Felt': The Use of American Hymn Tunes in Charles Ives's Third Symphony." PhD diss., University of Colorado, Boulder, 2005.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Zobel, Mark. The Third Symphony of Charles Ives. Hillsdale, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 2009.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Zon, Bennett. "Mahler's Liszt and the Hermeneutics of Chant." Studia musicological Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 46 (2005): 383-402.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Zuck, Barbara A. A History of Musical Americanism. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1980.

Two types of musical Americanism can be identified: conceptual Americanism, or the active commitment to American musical culture; and compositional Americanism, which is the borrowing of native musical materials for concert music. The history of compositional Americanism begins with Anthony Philip Heinrich (1781-1861), reaching its peak during the Depression era with Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, and William Schuman, among others. Aesthetic issues and historical contexts motivating the use of American folksong in art music include the influence of Gebrauchsmusik (Chap. 4), Marxism and leftist politics among American artists (Chap. 5), the growing scholarly interest in American folksong (Chap. 6), the support of the Works Progress Administration (Chap. 7), and the rise of patriotism associated with World War II (Chap. 8). References to pieces that borrow and their specific tunes can be found throughout the book. Musical borrowings are discussed in more detail for Marc Blitzstein's The Cradle Will Rock (1937), Roy Harris's Third Symphony (1939), and Aaron Copland's Appalachian Spring (1943-44).

Works: Anthony Philip Heinrich: Pushmatka: A Venerable Chief of a Western Tribe of Indians (28-29), The Hickory, or Last Ideas in America (29); George Frederick Bristow: The Pioneer ("Arcadian"), Op. 49 (32): Louis Moreau Gottschalk: The Union (39), Le Banjo (39), The Last Hope (39), La Bamboula (39); Edward MacDowell: Second (Indian) Suite (59-60); Daniel Gregory Mason: String Quartet on Negro Themes (70); Henry Gilbert: Comedy Overture on Negro Themes (75, 77), Negro Rhapsody 'Shout' (77), The Dance in Place Congo (77-78); William Grant Still: