Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] Adams, Kyle. “What Did Danger Mouse Do? The Grey Album and Musical Composition in Configurable Culture.” Music Theory Spectrum 37 (Spring 2015): 7-24.

Index Classifications: 2000s, Popular

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. “Blues Lives: Promise and Perils of Musical Copyright.” Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 27 (2010): 574-619.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

[+] Baker, Catherine. “Wild Dances and Dying Wolves: Simulation, Essentialization, and National Identity at the Eurovision Song Contest.” Popular Communication 6 (2008): 173–89.

Through the simulation and essentialization of recognizable folk-musical traits, several Eastern European nations competing at the Eurovision Song Contest in the early 2000s were successfully able to represent, misrepresent, or brand the ethnic folk traditions of their home nation. The Eastern European countries that consistently won the contest between 2001 and 2007 played upon Western stereotypes of the East by incorporating stylized national music, instruments, and ethnic musical characteristics into their song entries. In doing so, they created a distinctively alternative sound to the modern musical styles (such as pop, rock, or disco) featured in the Western countries’ entries. In particular, the Ukrainian singer songwriter Ruslana exemplifies this kind of simulation and essentialization, with her winning entry Wild Dances making use of various traditional instruments, folk-inspired performance practices, and stylistic allusions to Hutsul traditional music that she collected during her ethnographic field work in the Carpathian Mountain region. Her entry is both an example of simulation, as she is presenting a commercialized and stylized version of traditional folk music, and an example of essentialization because her entry only represents a small demographic within Ukraine. Other winning entries, such as Željko Joksimovi’s Lane Moje, also incorporate ethnic folk elements and folk musical tropes.

Works: Ruslana: Wild Dances (175-77, 180, 184); Željko Joksimović: Lane Moje (178), Lejla (178), Call Me (178); Boris Novković: Vukovi umiru sami (179-80).

Sources: Damir Lipošek, Vedran Božić, and Husein Hasanefendić: Moja domovina (179-80).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Cohen, Judah M. "Hip-Hop Judaica: The Politics of Representin' Heebster Heritage." Popular Music 28 (Winter 2009): 1-18.

Musical artists within the Jewish American "hipster" scene (ca. 1986-2006) drew on conventions from rap and hip-hop as a means of negotiating a new Jewish identity. Of the many strategies to draw on the conventions of rap, one common tactic was parody. For instance, parody artist Shlock Rock parodied Aerosmith and Run DMC's Walk This Way (1986) and created Wash This Way, now a song about the Jewish hand-washing ritual. Despite the different lyrics, Shlock Rock's parody borrows vocal inflection, instrumentation, and even attitude. Although humor and parody were common reasons to incorporate rap and hip-hop into Jewish music, the Yeshiva-educated duo Black Hattitude used rap to promote a political and controversial program. Drawing on the stylings of rap, the duo included spoken tracks, took polemical points of view, and sampled artists such as Led Zeppelin. Such music provided a site in which young Jews could simultaneously negotiate a new Jewish identity and preserve and transmit their culture through such change.

Works: Lenny Solomon and Etan Goldman (songwriters), Shlock Rock (performers): Bless On It/Boogie in the Shul [Synagogue] (5), Wash This Way (5); Black Hattitude, R.E.L.I.G.I.O.N (7); Etan G (Etan Goldman): South Side of the Synagogue (8).

Sources: Newcleus: Jam On It/Boogie in the Club (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Aerosmith (performers): Walk This Way (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Run DMC (performers): Walk This Way (5); Led Zeppelin (Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Bonham, and John Paul Jones) and Willie Dixon: Whole Lotta Love (7, endnote 11); Peter Gabriel: Sledgehammer (7, endnote 11); Lenny Solomon (songwriter), Shlock Rock (performers): Yo Yo Yo Yarmulke (8), Recognize the Miracles (8).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Fallas, John. "Into the New Century: Recent Holloway and the Poetics of Quotation." Tempo 61, no. 242 (October 2007): 2-10.

Among the various works in his oeuvre, composer Robin Holloway has both affirmed and denied certain instances of musical borrowing, yet Holloway may use more instances of borrowing then he openly acknowledges. For example, he often uses melodic tags, which are short quotations. When melodic tags share similarities, Holloway can play upon the similarities to make the tags more ambiguous. This technique, which can alter meaning, is called "punning." Another technique, "suppressed vocalization," involves setting poetry to melodic lines and then transferring the melodic lines, without words, to instruments. As listeners we are often unaware of such transferences and can only become aware of them if Holloway admits to using the procedure. These two techniques should also be considered in light of Holloway's narrative and extramusical subjects. For instance, the loose narrative base of William Langland's poem Piers Plowman, an allegory of the world as a working field, in the Fourth Concerto for Orchestra led to Holloway's quotation of Eric Coates's song Calling All Workers. Although quotations of Sheherazade and Daphnis et Chloé in the Fourth Concerto do not share themes with Langland's poem, they are favored works of the concerto's commissioner, Michael Tilson Thomas. Investigating relationships such as these, along with Holloway's various borrowing techniques, will help uncover the multiple layers of and connections between his works.

Works: Robin Holloway: Second Concerto for Orchestra (2-5), Fourth Concerto for Orchestra (2, 6-9), Symphony (3-7).

Sources: Hubert Parry: Jerusalem (3-4); Eduardo di Capua: O sole mio (3); Renato Rascel: Arrivederci Roma (3); Sibelius: Symphony No. 4 in A Minor (3); Mahler: Symphony No. 9 in D Major (3-4); Ravel: Daphnis et Chloé (3-4); Richard Strauss: Salome (3-4), Elektra (3-4); Elgar: "Nimrod," Enigma Variations (3-4); Scriabin: Poem of Ecstasy (3-4); Debussy: Jeux (3-4), La Mer (3-4); Schoenberg: String Quartet No. 1 in D Minor, Op. 7 (3-4); Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (3-4); Robin Holloway: First Concerto for Orchestra (5), En Blanc et Noir (6); Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade (6); Eric Coates, Calling All Workers (6).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Laura B. Dallman

[+] Gunkel, David J. "Rethinking the Digital Remix: Mash-Ups and the Metaphysics of Sound Recording." Popular Music and Society 31 (October 2008): 489-510.

The popularity of the mash-up, a product of what Wired magazine has termed "cut and paste culture," can be evaluated with regard to Plato's Phaedrus. The idea of writing as a method of fixing an original performance maps onto recording technology and its practice of fixing an aural event in a recording. The mash-up manipulates a recording, undermines its originality and authority, manufactures copies from copies, and combines seemingly incompatible components. For example, Danger Mouse's Grey Album mashes the vocal track of Jay-Z's Black Album with instrumental samples from the Beatles' White Album. The mash-up also appears consistent with Theodor Adorno's assertion that most popular music is easily replicated and substitutable. Mash-ups delight in all of the elements deemed negative by Plato, such as plagiarism, inauthenticity, and repetition.

Works: Danger Mouse (Brian Burton): The Grey Album (490, 498, 502); Mark Vidler: Ray of Gob (491, 497-99).

Sources: The Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr): The White Album [The Beatles] (490, 498); Jay-Z: The Black Album (490, 498); Madonna: Ray of Light (497-99); Sex Pistols: Pretty Vacant (497-99), God Save the Queen (497-499).

Index Classifications: 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Haspels, Jan Jaap. "Bruiklenen." Van speelklok tot pierement 59 (June 2006): 8-12.

Index Classifications: 2000s

[+] Heile, Björn. "Uri Caine's Mahler: Jazz, Tradition, and Identity." Twentieth-Century Music 4 (September 2007): 229-55.

Jazz pianist Uri Caine quotes extensively from symphonic and vocal works by composers in the classical or art music tradition. On his albums Dark Flame (2003) and Urlicht/Primal Light (1997), Caine's borrowing from Mahler takes a variety of forms, ranging from quotation of a full piece to selective quotation of important and sequential melodic fragments in order to mimic the structure of Mahler's original in a more condensed form. Mahler is a particularly appropriate source for the jazz artist's borrowing, as the earlier composer's use of "folk" materials provides a model for Caine's own appropriation of musical material to explore Jewish identity. Caine's use of Mahler's music is not simply a matter of performance, or of arrangement for different voices; rather, Caine's borrowing is a reflection upon Mahler, history, and subjectivity. Even so, Caine's borrowing within a jazz context raises valuable questions about the validity of the frequently assumed dichotomy between composition and improvisation.

Works: Uri Caine: Dark Flame (230-31, 237-38, 241, 248, 250-52), Urlicht/Primal Light (230-31, 233, 237-39, 241-42, 248-52).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (237, 238), Symphony No. 1 (237, 242, 247), Symphony No. 2 (238, 250), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (238, 241), Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (238, 250), Das Lied von der Erde (239, 241, 248), Fünf Rückertlieder (241); Anonymous, Frère Jacques (237).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Hillman, Roger. “The Great Eclecticism of the Filmmaker Werner Herzog.” In Unsettling Scores: German Film, Music, and Ideology, 136-50. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Unlike many New German filmmakers, director Werner Herzog is not concerned about the historical baggage of twentieth-century Germany but is rather focused on forging new territory for the cinematic image. Similarly, he ignores the reception history of the Western art music he uses, in particular Germanic music. Herzog resists interpretation of his musical choices, despite the variety of music he employs, as well as his diverse treatment of that music. Music is used quite differently in the films Woyzeck (to underscore the transcendence of society), Fitzcarraldo (to enhance artifice and unreality and to underscore Herzog’s self-generated mythos in cinematic history), and Lessons of Darkness (to be a universal, rather than Germanic, herald of death and destruction). In each film, Herzog selects pre-existing music to enhance dramatic and narrative elements specific to the film, but does not engage the historic memory of the music itself.

Works: Werner Herzog (director): Nosferatu (148-49), Woyzeck (139-40), Fitzcarraldo (140-46), Lessons of Darkness (146-50).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in E-flat Major, Op. 81a (139); Richard Strauss: Death and Transfiguration (141); Bellini: I Puritani (141, 145-46); Verdi: Un ballo in maschera (141), Requiem (147, 150), Ernani (141-46); Wagner: Die Walküre (141), Parsifal (147-48), Das Rheingold (147-49), Götterdämmerung (147); Grieg: Peer Gynt (147, 149); Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (147, 149); Pärt: Stabat Mater (147); Prokofiev: Sonata for Two Violins, Op. 56 (147); Schubert: Notturno in E-flat Major, Op. 148 (147).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Lacasse, Serge. "La musique pop incestueuse: Une introduction à al transphonographie." Circuit: Musiques Contemporaines 18 (2008): 11-26.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

[+] Long, Michael. Beautiful Monsters: Imagining the Classic in Musical Media. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Musicology is in need of generalist methodologies and perspectives for fragments, clichés, and non-sequiturs of classical music that occur in twentieth-century media and culture. Such music is related to the “vernacular imagination,” the shared phenomenon of twentieth-century American (and occasionally European) media audiences in which an artist’s imaginative priorities intersect with the past and with memory. Musicologists can adapt the notion of register, a tool used to locate a work culturally, to study this music in a way that traces the development and intersection of its fluctuating meanings, emphasizing audience reception of an expressive mass media rather than arguing for the absolute value of a musical object.

Works: Barry Manilow: Could it Be Magic (17); Kiss: Great Expectations (17); Billy Joel: This Night (18); DMX: What’s My Name? (34-40); Busta Rhymes: Gimme Some More (34, 38-40); Alan Crosland (director) and Louis Silvers (composer): score to The Jazz Singer (51-55, 73-81, 86, 177); Otto Preminger (director) and David Raksin (composer): score to Laura (42, 44-47, 52, 58-59, 76, 163); Irving Rapper (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Now, Voyager (59-60); Victor Fleming (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Gone with the Wind (69-70); Gregory La Cava (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Symphony of Six Million (86-101); Jefferson Airplane: White Rabbit (122-24); The Doors: Light My Fire (124); Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven (126-27); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (129-39, 149-51); The Swingle Singers: Aria (135-37); Lawrence Kasdan (director) and Meg Kasdan (composer): soundtrack to The Big Chill (152-56); Alfred Hitchcock (director) and Bernard Herrmann (composer): score to Psycho (171-73); Robert Z. Leonard (director): soundtrack to Strange Interlude (181-83); James Whale (director) and Franz Waxman (composer): score to Bride of Frankenstein (190-95); Stephen Herek (director) and Michael Kamen (composer): score to Mr. Holland’s Opus (196-202); William Hanna and Joseph Barbera (directors) and Scott Bradley (music editor): score to Tom and Jerry, no. 29, The Cat Concerto (197-98); Friz Freleng (director): score to Merrie Melodies, episode Rhapsody Rabbit (197, 205); Carlos Santana and Dave Matthews: Love of My Life (214-16); Albert Lewin (director): The Picture of Dorian Gray (216-21); Queen: Bohemian Rhapsody (222-35); Penelope Spheeris (director): soundtrack to Wayne’s World (222-23, 231-32).

Sources: Chopin: Prelude in C minor, Op. 28, No. 20 (17); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (18); Richard Addinsell: Warsaw Concerto (34-35, 41); Bernard Herrmann: score to Psycho (34, 38-40); Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture (51-58), Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (59-63); Handel, “Ombra mai fu” from Serse (69-70); Ravel: Bolero (123-24); Johann Sebastian Bach, Air from Suite in D Major, BWV 1068 (133-34), Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140 (133-34, 136-37); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (152-56); George Antheil: Symphony No. 4; Dukas: The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (190); Gottfried Huppertz: score to Metropolis (194-95); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (198, 204-6); The Toys: Lover’s Concerto (196, 202-9, 213); The Supremes: I Hear a Symphony (196, 202-4, 213); Brahms: Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90 (214-16); Chopin: Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28, No. 24 (217-21); Queen: Bohemian Rhapsody (222-23); Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (227); Richard Strauss: Ariadne auf Naxos (227-31).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Marshall, Wayne. “Giving up Hip-Hop’s Firstborn: A Quest for the Real after the Death of Sampling.” Callaloo 29 (Summer 2006): 868-92.

By examining the criticism and liner notes written by The Roots’ drummer Questlove (Ahmir Thompson), the notion that sampling is what determines authenticity in hip-hop can be questioned. Though Questlove frequently admits that sampling is highly important to hip-hop, he notes that many of the earliest and some of the most successful hip-hop recordings use studio instrumentalists performing “samples” of hit breaks and grooves. He also notes the ability of producers to sample is severely limited by the amount of money required to license many well-known samples. When performing and recording with The Roots, Questlove has sought to recreate the sound and rhythmic character of sampled drums through various studio techniques and playing in a funk-based, relatively invariable fashion. Examples of this can be found on “Dynamite” and “Double Trouble” from Illadelph Halflife. The Roots have also utilized beatboxers Scratch and Rahzel, who can imitate the sounds of samples and record scratching in their beatboxing. Such efforts to mimic sampled sounds on “traditional” instruments demonstrate both the importance of sampling for hip-hop and the desire to explore other avenues of music making while staying true to hip-hop’s essence.

Works: De La Soul: Transmitting Live from Mars (868); Biz Markie: Alone Again (868); Afrika Bambaataa: Planet Rock (874); Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (874); Sugar Hill Gang: Rapper’s Delight (874); Yes: Owner of a Lonely Heart (876); Common: Like Water for Chocolate (876); The Roots: Concerto of the Desperado (880).

Sources: Jim McGuinn and Gene Clark (songwriters) and The Turtles (performers): You Showed Me (868); Gilbert O’Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (868); Kraftwerk: Trans-Europe Express (874); Funk Inc.: Kool is Back (876); Lionel Bart: Theme from From Russia with Love (880).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Mazulo, Mark. “Remembering Pop: David Lynch and the Sound of the ‘60s.” American Music 23 (Winter 2005): 493-513.

David Lynch uses compilation scores comprising American popular songs to establish individual sound signatures in his films. He is especially attracted to pop songs released during his adolescence that make use of distinctive vocals or mixing, which create a certain peculiarity with the naiveté of a song’s message, sincerity, and compositional elements. Lynch capitalizes on the dualistic nature of these songs by deploying them as historically unproblematic and desired objects of nostalgia, in some instances using them in violent, psychologically deviant, horrifying, and self-consciously staged scenes as passageways to strangeness and the uncanny. Such a use allows audiences to reimagine the history of these songs and the culture that created and consumed them and represents a new employment of the compilation score consistent with his aesthetic of the “ridiculous sublime.” In Mulholland Drive, the pop song I’ve Told Every Little Star represents the film’s theme of duality. In Lost Highway, the use of Lou Reed’s cover of This Magic Moment rather than the well-known pop versions matches the soundscape of the film and is metacommentary on the reception of American popular song. In Twin Peaks, a newly-composed pop song disrupts the security of reality, and in Blue Velvet, pop music complicates multiple layers of diegesis, performance, and reality.

Works: David Lynch (director): soundtrack to Lost Highway (494, 502-3), soundtrack to Eraserhead (494, 499), soundtrack to Blue Velvet (507-9); David Lynch (director) and Angelo Badalamenti (composer): soundtrack to Mulholland Drive (494, 494-501), soundtrack to Twin Peaks (494, 503-6).

Sources: Bill Post and Doree Post: Sixteen Reasons (Why I Love You) (500); Oscar Hammerstein II and Jerome Kern: I’ve Told Ev’ry Little Star (500-501); Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman (songwriters) and The Drifters (performers): This Magic Moment (500-502); Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman (songwriters) and Lou Reed (performer): This Magic Moment (502-3); Bobby Vinton: Blue Velvet (507-8); Roy Orbison: In Dreams (508-9).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] McLeod, Kembrew. "Confessions of an Intellectual (Property): Danger Mouse, Mickey Mouse, Sonny Bono, and My Long and Winding Path as a Copyright Activist-Academic." Popular Music and Society 28 (February 2005): 79-93.

The electronic collage aesthetic, which originated with musique concrète and tape works such as John Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 5 and Bill Buchanan and Dickie Goodman's The Flying Saucer, finds its modern incarnation in Danger Mouse's The Grey Album, a mash-up of Jay-Z's The Black Album and The Beatles' White Album. The current mash-up phenomenon is made possible by file-sharing software and readily available mixing programs. The Grey Album presents a legal quagmire because the samples were used without permission of EMI, prompting cease-and-desist letters to all those who circulated the album. Current laws only permit covers of songs, and sampling without permission is prohibited. Until copyright laws catch up with the collage aesthetic, the limited legality of fair use rights has the potential to stifle creativity and the free exchange of ideas.

Works: Danger Mouse (Brian Burton): The Grey Album (79-81); Freelance Hellraiser (Roy Kerr): A Stroke of Genie-us (82, 86-87); Soulwax: Smells Like Teen Booty (82, 84); Alan Copeland: Mission: Impossible Theme/Norwegian Wood (85); Negativland: U2 (88); Illegal Art: Sonny Bono is Dead (91), Deconstructing Beck (91).

Sources: The Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr): The White Album [The Beatles] (79-81); Jay-Z: The Black Album (79-81); Kurt Cobain, Dave Grohl, and Krist Novoselic (songwriters), Nirvana (performers): Smells Like Teen Spirit (82, 84); Rob Fusair, Falonte Moore, and Beyoncé Knowles (songwriters), Destiny?s Child (performers): Bootylicious (82, 84); Eminem: Without Me (84-85); Kevin Rowland, Big Jim Paterson, and Billy Adams (songwriters), Dexy's Midnight Runners (performers): Come On Eileen (84-85); U2: I Still Haven?t Found What I?m Looking For (88).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Miyakawa, Felicia M. “Turntablature: Notation, Legitimization, and the Art of the Hip-Hop DJ.” American Music 25 (Spring 2007): 81-105.

Hip-hop DJs take previously recorded material in the form of vinyl LPs and reorganize and alter the recorded sounds to create new music. As DJ techniques and routines have grown increasingly complex, DJs such as DJ A-Trak and DJ Radar and others such as filmmaker John Carluccio have created methods of notating DJs’ musical and technical choices. By examining three forms of scratch notation developed by hip-hop DJs (including the widely-used Turntablist Transcription Methodology, or TTM), various uses for notation can be shown, ranging from idiosyncratic memory-aid to symbolic justification for “art” and “work” status. These uses are linked to those practiced throughout the history of Western art music.

Works: Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (90-91); DJ Radar: Antimatter (94), Concerto for Turntable (96-97).

Sources: DJ Babu: Super Duck Breaks (88); DJ Q-Bert: Toasted Marshmallow Feet Breaks (88); Chic: Good Times (91); Queen: Another One Bites the Dust (91).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Powrie, Phil, and Robynn Stilwell, eds. Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

See abstracts for individual chapters by Claudia Gorbman, Mike Cormack, Lars Franke, Ann Davies, Jeongwon Joe, Kristi A. Brown, Vanessa Knights, Raymond Knapp, Ronald Rodman, Phil Powrie, Robynn Stilwell, and Timothy Warner.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Powrie, Phil. "The Fabulous Destiny of the Accordion in French Cinema." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 137-51. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

The accordion in French cinema is a marker both of the past (including utopian longings for it) and of Frenchness. Three periods of French films that use accordion music exist, and Yann Tiersen's award-winning score for Le Fabuleux destin d'Amélie Poulain (Amélie), composed mostly of music from Tiersen's own pre-existing albums, offers a glimpse at a possible future period. While Amélie was criticized as a film for presenting a sanitized version of the area in France it depicts, Tiersen's music works against the clean-cut culture. The soundtrack establishes an imaginary sonic architecture built from melancholic retrospection through layers of Tiersen's minimalistic, pre-existing music. The use of Tiersen's accordion music rather than traditional tunes avoids citation of stereotyped music and allows accordion music to be reinvigorated.

Works: Jean-Pierre Jeunet (director), Yann Tiersen (composer): Sound track to Le Fabuleux destin d'Amélie Poulain (Amélie) (146-51).

Sources: Yann Tiersen: La Valse des monstres (146), La Rue des cascades (146), Le Phare (146), L'Absente (147).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Sadoff, Roger H. “The Role of the Music Editor and the ‘Temp Track’ as Blueprint for the Score, Source Music, and Scourse Music of Films.” Popular Music 25 (2006): 165-83.

The analysis of film scores must consider not only the finished score but also the various layers of the construction process, including the so-called “temp track,” a temporary soundtrack often comprising cues from existing films or other pre-existing music. The temp track maps the topography of the future score and its relation to the film, and along with its precursor, the compilation score, it is limited in its ability to synchronize with the film by its use of units of pre-existing phrase structures and forms. Despite its limitations and the artistic misgivings of many composers, it is often extremely influential upon the final score. Music editors are thus increasingly powerful and significant in the establishment and perpetuation of musical filmic conventions, acting as surrogate composers.

Works: Antoine Fuqua (director) and Roy Prendergast (music editor): temp track to Tears of the Sun (170-74); Antoine Fuqua (director) and Hans Zimmer (composer): score to Tears of the Sun (172-73); Jonathan Demme (director) and Suzana Peric (music editor): temp track to Philadelphia (176-79); Jonathan Demme (director) and Howard Shore (composer): score to Philadelphia (176-79).

Sources: Alan Silvestri: score to What Lies Beneath (171-72, 174); Bruce Springsteen: Streets of Philadelphia (176-79).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Schloss, Joseph. "Elements of Style: Aesthetics of Hip-Hop Composition." In Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop, 135-68. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

Interviews with hip-hop deejays, including Mr. Supreme, Domino, Prince Paul, Samson S., and King Otto, reveal that the practice of sampling relies on the practitioner?s ability to "flip a beat," that is, to recast sound material and its meaning. The new juxtaposition of a sample, the internal characteristics of sampled materials, and the relationship between samples within the structure all contribute to the interpretive context for a new recording. Most hip-hop producers interviewed agree that the quality of manipulation is the most important, rather than the quality of the final sound product. A hip-hop producer must preserve, master, and celebrate the ambiguities inherent in sample-based hip-hop.

Works: De La Soul: Say No Go (147-48); Alicia Keys, Jermaine Dupri, and Joshua Thompson (songwriters), Alicia Keys (performer): Girlfriend (151); Guy Berryman, Jon Buckland, Will Champion, and Chris Martin (songwriters), Yesterday's New Quintet (performers): Daylight (158-59); A Tribe Called Quest: Bonita Applebum (158-59).

Sources: Darly Hall, John Oates, and Janna Allen (songwriters), Hall and Oates (performers): I Can't Go For That (147-48); Ol' Dirty Bastard: Brooklyn Zoo (151); Guy Berryman, Jon Buckland, Will Champion, and Chris Martin (songwriters), RAMP (performers): Daylight (158-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Schloss, Joseph. Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

See annotation for chapter "Elements of Style."

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

[+] Stilwell, Robynn. "Vinyl Communion: The Record as Ritual Object in Girls' Rites-of-Passage Films." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 152-66. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

A recurrent theme in coming-of-age films starring female protagonists is that of feminine interaction with records. The record collector has usually been associated with a masculine stereotype, but in films depicting feminine interactions with records, the inscribed voice of the record expresses the girl's character. A scene depicting a transformational rite in Heavenly Creatures features music that slips between diegetic use of Mario Lanza's Donkey Serenade, the girls' own singing of the song, and a non-diegetic newly composed orchestral version. In The Virgin Suicides, songs from records, while non-diegetic, organize the relationship of a young couple. The record and its music function as a ritual object in the narrative as the girl experiences a coming-of-age transformation.

Works: Terry Zwigoff (director): Sound track to Ghost World (152-53, 158-59); Mark Herman (director): Sound track to Little Voice (159-60); Peter Jackson (director): Sound track to Heavenly Creatures (160-63); Sofia Coppola (director): Sound track to The Virgin Suicides (163-66).

Sources: Skip James: Devil Got My Woman (152); Sammy Cahn and Nicholas Brodszky (songwriters), Mario Lanza (performer): Be My Love (161); Rudolf Friml and Herbert Stothart (composers), Robert Wright and George "Chet" Forrest (lyrics), Mario Lanza (performer): Donkey Serenade (161-62); Ann Wilson and Nancy Wilson (songwriters), Heart (performers): Magic Man (164-65), Crazy On You (165).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Karen R. Anton

[+] Walser, Robert. “The Polka Mass: Music of Postmodern Ethnicity.” American Music 10 (Summer 1992): 183-202.

Since the 1970s, the Polka Mass, a variant of the Catholic Mass that replaces traditional anthems with Polka songs, has been performed in the United States by Polish, German, Slovenian, and Czech congregations. The words and music draw upon familiar melodies and secular traditions to enhance the sacred occasion. This style of mass was created to respond to tensions from immigrant communities who felt like they were losing their ethnic Catholic identities in America. Oftentimes, the composers and arrangers of Polka Masses either replaced the lyrics of well-known polkas, waltzes, or country songs with standard liturgical texts, or parodied secular texts to adapt them for a sacred setting. Some of the parodies involved simple changes, such as changing the word “sun” to “Son” in Let the Son Shine In. Other parodies, however, could reinterpret an original song into one of sacred devotion, as seen in Gene Retka’s Gathered Together. Some Polka Mass writers even drew upon genres and styles such as tango, country, and bebop, which caused controversy in some churches. For example, the use of the tune from the country song, Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain, by Willie Nelson was justified only when Frank Perkovich claimed that the melody was from the Czech tune Place Oci.

Works: Fr. Frank Perkovich: At This Sacrifice (188-90, 193), Let the Son Shine In (186-87, 191), The Church in the Valley (187); Fr. George Balasko: We Offer Bread and Wine (187); Gene Retka: Song for Meditation (187), Gathered Together (192), Lord, Have Mercy; Christ, Have Mercy; Lord, Have Mercy (189-90), Each and Every Day (191, 198-99).

Sources: Hair: Let the Sunshine In (186); Walter Ostanek: The Barking Dog Polka (187); Walt Solek: Julida Polka (187, 192); Hank Thunander: The Tavern in the Valley (187); Willie Nelson: Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain (188-89, 193); Lil’ Wally Jagiello: Johnny’s Knocking (191, 198-99).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Wood, Abigail. “(De)constructing Yiddishland: Solomon and SoCalled’s ‘HipHopKhasene.’” Ethnomusicology Forum 16 (November 2007): 243-70.

Klezmer music, which is generally associated with old-world Eastern-European Judaism and Yiddish culture, manifests itself as a revived repertory in the work of DJ Sophie Solomon and DJ SoCalled (Josh Dolgin). By creating a fusion of klezmer with hip-hop performance and production techniques (including sampling), the duo constructs a contemporary “Hip Hop Khasene,” or hip-hop wedding, musically reenacting one of the ritual components of the wedding on each track of their 2003 album HipHopKhasene. In doing so, Solomon and SoCalled question concepts of musical and cultural authenticity in the face of changing cultural worlds, and create a sonically constructed contemporary Yiddish identity.

Works: Solomon and SoCalled: HipHopKhasene.

Sources: Abe Schwartz: Sadugerer Chusidl (256).

Index Classifications: 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

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