Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] [Unsigned]. Wandernde Melodien. Eine musikalische Studie. Leipzig: C. G. Roder, 1868. 2nd ed., Berlin: Brachvogel &Ranfl, 1889; reprint, Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications, 1965.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "From J. C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright, and Cultural Context." North Carolina Law Review 84 (January 2006): 547-645.

Current copyright laws do not adequately support the forms of musical borrowing prevalent in hip-hop. The use of pre-existing recordings in hip-hop samples simultaneously violates the protected rights of both the existing musical composition and the recording of that musical composition. Sampling continues to be viewed as theft rather than a source of innovation within music. Aesthetic values prevalent in hip-hop, such as oral tradition, textual emphasis, repetition, polyrhythm, and borrowing, need to be situated in a broader context of musical aesthetics and, consequently, legal treatment of borrowing practices. Treating hip-hop as theft or plagiarism robs it of its rightful place within the historical context of musical borrowing in many different kinds of music. Modifications to current copyright laws, such as payment structures and differentiation of different types of sampling, are necessary to address the legality of hip-hop sampling.

Works: Irving Gordon (songwriter), Natalie Cole (performer): Unforgettable (562); Beastie Boys: Pass the Mic (570-72); N.W.A.: 100 Miles and Runnin' (574-76); Biz Markie: Alone Again (580-81); Handel: Israel in Egypt (601-603, 610).

Sources: James Newton: Choir (570-72); George Clinton (songwriter), Funkadelic (performers): Get off Your Ass and Jam (574-76); Gilbert O'Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (580-81); Dionigi Erba: Magnificat (601-603, 610).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "The Freedom to Copy: Copyright, Creation, and Context." U. C. Davis Law Review 41 (December 2007): 477-559.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Borren, Charles van den. "De quelques aspects de la parodie musicale." Bulletin de la Classe des Beaux-Arts 20 (1938): 146-63.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Brixel, Eugen. “Original Band Compositions vs. Transcriptions: A European View.” Journal of the World Association for Symphonic Bands and Ensembles 4 (1997): 5-22.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "The Uses of Existing Music: Musical Borrowing as a Field." Notes 50 (March 1994): 851-70.

Although musical borrowing has been an area of study for over a century, it has never been considered as a field that extends over the whole of music history. A study of borrowing in this way may help to answer analytical, interpretative, and historical questions. Analytical tools developed to study borrowing in one musical era can give insight into music of other eras as well. A typology of the uses of existing music in new compositions would comprise several distinctions: (1) the relationship of the new work to the borrowed piece, (2) the elements of the existing work that are borrowed, (3) the structural relationship of borrowed material to the new work, (4) the alteration of the borrowed material, (5) the musical function of the borrowed material, and (6) the associative or extramusical meaning of the borrowed material.

Index Classifications: General

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Carroll, Charles Michael. "Musical Borrowing--Grand Larceny or Great Art?" College Music Symposium 18 (Spring 1978): 11-18.

The exclusive right of the artist to the benefits that accrue from his or her intellectual property is a characteristic of modern culture. Borrowing is a common phenomenon, and exists in three types: (1) self-borrowing, or use of themes from one piece in another; (2) borrowing which is done as an obvious tribute or burlesque of the original, and (3) unacknowledged borrowing. Modern sensitivities consider this latter type of borrowing to be outright theft. The eighteenth century acknowledged but did not condemn this type of borrowing.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Cone, Edward T. The Composer's Voice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

In examining the composition and performance of musical works, the question of persona is raised: whose persona does the music represent--that of the composer, the performer, or (in the case of vocal music) the character portrayed by the performer? With respect to musical borrowing, the relevant question is: whose voice or persona is speaking in the borrowed material, the original composer's or the borrower's? In the case of self-borrowing by a vocal composer, it is the composer's own voice, rather than that of the poet whose text he or she originally set, that speaks through the borrowed material (p. 41). In an instrumental transcription of a vocal work, the vocal melody retains its original textual associations, thereby preserving the original composer's voice despite the removal of the text (pp. 76-78). When the situation is reversed, as in a popular vocal arrangement of an instrumental classic, the original composer's persona is still felt, as is the case with arrangements of Chopin and Tchaikovsky melodies (p. 45). Concerning the transcription of an existing instrumental work for a new instrumental combination, the integrity of the transcription (its preservation of the original composer's voice) rests on its use of a restricted choice of instrumentation (p. 108). Lastly, folk-tune or anthem borrowings can seem ridiculous if they are too obvious, where the original composer's voice completely overpowers the borrower's persona, disrupting the new piece. Puccini's use of The Star-Spangled Banner in Madama Butterfly is a prime example of this (p. 162).

Works: Brahms: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano left hand); Busoni: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano); Liszt: Liebestraum No. 3, Sonnets of Petrarch; Puccini: Madama Butterfly ; Webern: Ricercar a 6 voci by J. S. Bach (arr. for orchestra).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Edward D. Latham

[+] Cudworth, Charles. "Ye Olde Spuriosity Shoppe." Notes 12 ([Month] 1954): (I) 25-40, (II) 533-53.

Index Classifications: General, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Dale, S. S. "Musical Quotations." The Musical Opinion 96 (September 1973): 623-27.

Dale lists works (from Beethoven till present) that include quotations. They can be grouped into pieces (1) quoting Dies Irae, (2) quoting Beethoven, (3) by Wagner quoting other works, (4) by Borodin, Elgar, and Ives quoting other works, (5) in which Schumann was quoting, and (6) by other composers. The principle of quoting is clearly separate from parody, the stylistic imitation of an other composer, which is not included in this essay.

Works: Borodin: The Valiant Knights (626); Elgar: The Music Makers (626); Ives: An Elegy for Stephen Foster (626).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Edson, Jean Slater. Organ-Preludes: An Index to Compositions on Hymn Tunes, Chorales, Plainsong Melodies, Gregorian Tunes, and Carols. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1970.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Engländer, Richard. "Das musikalische Plagiat als ästhetisches Problem." Sonderdruck aus Archiv für Urheber- Film- und Theaterrecht 3 (1930): 33-44

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Escal, Françoise. Le compositeur et ses modèles. Paris: Presse Universitaires de France, 1984.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Falck, Robert. "Parody and Contrafactum: A Terminological Clarification." The Musical Quarterly 65 (1979): 1-21.

The term "parody" has a venerable history, going back to Quintilian's Institutio oratoria where it is defined, in Book VI, as an alteration of the text with the intent to alter its meaning. Beginning in Germany in the late seventeenth century, "parody" was generally applied to the alteration or substitution of a song text, usually from a secular to a sacred sense. French usage of the term, beginning with Henri Estienne (1531-1588), began to carry with it musical implications. This broader French definition was also used to draw attention to the original musical models. Generally speaking, the prepositions "post" and "super" were more commonly applied to the use of a musical, as opposed to a textual, model.

The term "contrafactum" originates in post-Classical Latin and has as its nearest English cognate the word "counterfeit." The word is found as a rubric in the Reformation-era Pfullinger Liederhandschrift. Kurt Hennig, in his 1909 book on these songs, uses the term "contrafactum" to describe the recasting of a secular poem as a sacred one. Friedrich Gennrich, writing a decade later, expanded the word to mean "conscious use of any model," and from this point the meaning has broadened to a general category, of which parody, travesty, and the like are sub-categories.

Index Classifications: General

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Federhofer, Hellmut. "Das Ende der musikalischen Parodie?" Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft 15 (1970): 96-106.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Fellerer, Karl Gustav. "Zur Grundlage hermeneutischer Musikbetrachtung." In Beiträge zur musikalischen Hermeneutik, ed. Carl Dahlhaus, 27-31. Regensburg: Bosse, 1975.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Flothuis, Marius. "Einige Betrachtungen über den Humor in der Musik." Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 38 (December 1983): 688-95.

Among several devices mentioned in this article which have been used for humorous effect in music is quotation. Various means of achieving humor through quotation are by paradox, pun, parody, and exploiting the historical significance of the music quoted, all of which assume previous knowledge on the part of the listeners of the music being referred to.

Works: Beethoven: Es war einmal ein König, der hatt' einen grossen Floh (693); Chabrier: Souvenirs de Munich (692); Debussy: "Golliwog's Cake Walk," from Children's Corner (691); Falla: The Three-Cornered Hat (692); Saint-Saëns: Le Carnaval des Animaux (690); Satie: Sonatine bureaucratique (695).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Flothuis, Marius. "From Quotation to Plagiarism." Chap. in Notes on Notes: Selected Essays. Translated by Sylvia Broere-Moore. Buren: Kuf, 1974.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Frei, Walter. "Gedanken zum Gegebenen des Cantus firmus." Musik und Kirche 32, no. 5 (September/October 1962): 212-18.

Frei traces a history of the cantus firmus from its beginnings in the ninth century through the early seventeenth century, adding a comparison of its contemporary application. The cantus firmus in sacred compositions of the early Middle Ages expresses belief in the absolute. Only through submission to its laws does man become free to participate in the essential. In secular motets, the tenor still stands for the primacy of the sacred reference, which increasingly loses its importance in the Renaissance (secular tenors) and experiences a short revival in the form of the German chorale. Contemporary composers may resort to sacred cantus firmi for two reasons, either a false escape from religious and musical insecurity or an expression of the consciousness of what we have lost.

Index Classifications: General

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Frith, Simon, ed. Music and Copyright. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993.

[Addresses sampling and other recent borrowing issues.]

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Gennrich, Friedrich. Die Kontrafaktur im Liedschaffen des Mittelalters. Summa Musicae Medii Aevi, ed. Friedrich Gennrich, no. 12. Langen bei Frankfurt: n.p., 1965.

Index Classifications: General, Monophony to 1300, Polyphony to 1300

[+] Giger, Andreas. "A Bibliography on Musical Borrowing." Notes 50 (March 1994): 871-74.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Gilbert, Henry F. "Folk-Music in Art-Music--A Discussion and a Theory." The Musical Quarterly 3 (October 1917): 577-601.

Folk songs most accurately reflect the spirit of a people, and art music is an extension of the spirit of the folk song. Three ways composers use folk songs are: "(1) verbatim, as a musical germ from which to develop a composition; (2) verbatim, but having no particular relation to the musical structure; (3) as suggestion--toward the composition of folk-like themes expressive of the folk spirit."

Works: Haydn: Symphony in D Major (583); Weber: Der Freischütz (584); Schumann: Rheinweinlied (585); Brahms: Academische Festoverture (585); Grieg: Humoreske Op. 6, No. 2 (586), No. 1 of Aus dem Volksleben Op. 19 (586), Ballade Op. 24 (586), Improvisata Op. 29 (586), Norwegian Dances Op. 35 (586); Glinka: Life to the Czar (587); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2 (587), String Quartet Op. 11 (587), Piano Concerto in B flat Minor, Op. 23 (587), Marche Slav (587); Borodin: Prince Igor (588), Steppenskizze (588); Rimsky-Korsakov: Fantasie, Op. 6 (589), La Pskovitaine (589), Antar (589), Sinfonietta, Op. 31 (589), La Grand Paque Russe (589); Stravinsky: Firebird (589), Petrouchka (589); Smetana: Die Brandenburger in Böhmen (589), Das Geheimniss (589), Aus meinem Leben (590), Tábor (590), Aus Böhmens Flur und Hain (590); Dvorak: Slavonic Dances (590), Hussitska Overture (590); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsodies (590), Mazeppa (590), The Battle of the Huns (590), Hungarian Coronation Mass (590), St. Elizabeth (590); Pedrell: Los Pirineos (591); Bizet: L'arlesienne (592).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Gruber, Germont. "Das musikalische Zitat als historisches und systematisches Problem." Musicologica Austriaca 1 (1977): 121-35.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Gudewill, Kurt. "Ursprünge und nationale Aspekte des Quodlibets." In Report of the Eighth Congress of the International Musicological Society, 30-43. Kassel, 1961.

Index Classifications: General, 1400s, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s

[+] Haberl, Ferdinand. "Anmerkungen zur Parodie." In Divini cultus splendori, Festschrift Joseph Lennards zum 80. Geburtstag. Rome: CIMS, 1980.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Hannig, R. "Unbewusste Plagiate." Die Musik 22 (December 1929): 178-181.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

[+] Hatten, Robert. "The Place of Intertextuality in Music Studies." American Journal of Semiotics 3/4 (1985): 69-82.

Intertextuality may be defined as "the view of a literary work as a text whose richness of meaning results from its location in a potentially infinite network of other texts." In adapting this notion for music, intertextuality operates on two essential levels: stylistic and strategic. A purely stylistic intertextuality arises when a composer makes reference to the conventions of an earlier style or musical tradition without evoking any particular earlier work. Beethoven exploits stylistic intertextuality in the third movement of his String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132, where the music is imbued with richer meaning through the conscious evocation of Renaissance and Baroque styles. Strategic intertextuality arises when a composer makes reference to a specific earlier work or works. A "spectacular, perhaps unique, example of strategic intertextuality" occurs in the third movement of Berio's Sinfonia, which represents the end of a chain of intertextual references involving the third movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 2, Schumann's "Das ist ein Flöten und Geigen" from Dichterliebe, and Bach's Cantata No. 19 ("Es erhub sich ein Streit") along with an extensive collage of shorter quotations from musical, literary, and non-literary sources.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Hein, H. G. "Das Plagiat in der Tonkunst." Ph.D. diss., University of Cologne, 1937.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Hellquist, Per-Anders. Om musik. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt &Söners Förlag, 1984.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Heuss, Alfred. Kammermusikabende: Erläuterungen von Werken der Kammermusikliteratur. Leipzig: Breitkopf &Hartel, 1919.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Karbusicky, Vladimir. "Intertextualität in der Musik." Dialog der Texte: Hamburger Kolloquium zur Intertextualität, ed. Wolf Schmid, 361-98. Wien, 1983.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Keppler, Philip Jr. "Some Comments on Musical Quotation." The Musical Quarterly 42 (October 1956): 473-85.

Allusions to well-known tunes or passages may (1) deliver a concealed comment (as in a theatrical "aside") and (2) depend on the listener's knowledge of the source if the comment is to be effective or even noted. Several categories can be differentiated: incidental thematic quotation, topical thematic reference (to tunes such as the Marseillaise and to less familiar tunes), and quotation of vocal works in which the text is of significance. Commentarial quotation is distinguished from self-quotation (here with reference to Mahler, Rossini, and Beethoven) since in the latter knowledge of the source is of no significance. Commentarial quotation is a predominantly Romantic phenomenon and fits in with the desire to be exclusive and the tendency to refer to things outside the work of art.

Works: Elgar: Enigma Variations (473); Saint-Saëns: Carnival of Animals (473), Danse Macabre (474); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (474); Schumann: Die beiden Grenadieren (474); Weber: Jubilee Overture (474), Battle Symphony (474); Brahms: Song of Triumph (474), Academic Festival Overture (474); Mendelssohn: Reformation Symphony (474); Wagner: Kaisermarsch (474); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (474); Liszt: Totentanz (474), Dante Symphony (474); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death (474); Rachmaninoff: Isle of the Dead (474), Variations on a Theme by Paganini (474); Schelling: A Victory Ball (475); Wagner: Parsifal (476), Die Meistersinger (477), "Wesendonck" Songs (477), Siegfried Idyll (478); Puccini: Il Tabarro (479); Mozart: Don Giovanni (480), The Marriage of Figaro (480); Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (481), Capriccio (482); Sterndale Bennett: Études Symphoniques, Op. 13 (483).

Sources: Mendelssohn: Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (473); Berlioz: Dance of the Sylphs (473); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (474); Arne: God Save the King (474); Luther: Ein feste Burg; Anonymous: Gaudeamus Igitur (474), Dies Irae (474); Rossini: "Una voce poco fa" from Barber of Seville (475), "Di tanti palpiti" from Tancredi (475-76); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (477-78); Strauss: Death and Transfiguration (480); Martín: Una Cosa Rara (480); Sarti: I Due Litiganti (480); Marschner: The Templar and the Jewess (483).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Kirchmeyer, Helmut. "Vom Sinn und Unsinn musikliterarischer Schlagwortzitate: Eine Studie zum Thema 'Demagogie der Informationen.'" Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 122 (1961): 490-96.

This article discusses the deep symbolic ramifications of musical quotations and leitmotivs. According to Kirchmeyer, quotations and leitmotivs possess demagogical powers or properties. He feels that composers of the German school such as Mahler, Schoenberg, and particularly Wagner were highly aware of these demagogical powers and properties, and consequently exploited them through the use of quotations and/or leitmotivs in their compositions. Kirchmeyer discusses the way in which these three German composers strengthen the symbolic meanings of their works through the use of quotations and leitmotivs.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Kirkman, Andrew. “The Invention of the Cyclic Mass.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 54 (Spring 2001): 1-47.

Much scholarship has emphasized the development of the cyclic mass as a watershed moment in music history that ushered in the music of the Renaissance. Among these cyclic masses, cantus firmus masses have been singled out as historically and artistically superior to songs, motets, and other masses because of their unified aesthetic and coherence over a larger form. These modern perceptions, however, do not align with fourteenth- and fifteenth-century realities: the writings of theorists, copying records, executors’ accounts, contemporary remarks, and musical manuscripts show that masses, whether based on cantus firmi or not, were not necessarily viewed as larger units until the mid-fifteenth century, and structural coherence was not a primary concern. Rather, mass movements were conceived as separate motets and valued as demonstrations of the greatest diversity of musical expressions and compositional techniques. Modern emphasis on the importance of cyclic masses (and especially the cantus firmus mass) and their unified structural elements were largely constructs of Hegelian- and Enlightenment-influenced thinking. By suggesting that composers such as Du Fay united their music with aesthetic rather than liturgical considerations in mind, nineteenth century scholars portrayed these composers as some of the first self-conscious artists, building upon the past, yet freeing themselves from external constraints and exercising their genius.

Index Classifications: General, 1400s

Contributed by: Amanda Jensen

[+] Kneif, Tibor. "Zur Semantik des musikalischen Zitats." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 134 (1973): 3-9.

A consideration of hermeneutics compounds Lissa's list of methods of citation by proposing the necessity of composer intent in order to defend a possible quotation. The character of the citation is defined by the connection between the composer and the listener, not between the composer and the quoted material. Reasons for parody are found in Bach and Schubert examples, "contrast citation" in Debussy, Beethoven, and Bartók examples, and self quotation in Wagner, Strauss, and Mozart examples. Contemporary composers, such as Cage and Stockhausen, show their affinity for the character of earlier works through citation, even while they vocally reject such styles.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Kneipel, Eberhard. "Wir klären Fachbegriffe Zitat/Collage." Musik in der Schule 35, no. 4 (1984): 100-4.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Korsyn, Kevin. "Towards a New Poetics of Musical Influence." Music Analysis 10 (March-July 1991): 3-72.

The ideas of literary critic Harold Bloom may serve as the model for a new theory of mapping musical influence. Bloom's theory (as first proposed in The Anxiety of Influence in 1973) rests on the notion that the true subject matter of poetry is poetry itself; every poem is seen as a "misreading" or "misprision" of a precursor poem or poems. Bloom divides poets into two categories, "strong" and "weak." What differentiates a "strong" poet is his ability to confront his anxiety of influence; a strong poet is one who wrestles with his great precursors to achieve his own originality. In appropriating Bloom's idea for music, compositions become "relational events" rather than "closed and static entities." The model is tested through an interreading of two compositions--Brahms's Romanze, Op. 118, No. 5, and Reger's Träume am Kamin, Op. 143, No. 2--with respect to their essential precursor, Chopin's Berceuse, Op. 57. Reger is shown to have weakly "misread" the Berceuse; although Reger places himself in direct competition with Chopin by overtly adopting the compositional strategy of the precursor (a series of increasingly florid variations over a one-measure ostinato figure, a figure that is virtually identical in both pieces), he fails to go beyond Chopin and forge an original meaning of his own. In contrast, Brahms's Romanze is shown to be a "strong" misreading of the Berceuse. Bloom's six "revisionary ratios" (clinamen, tessera, kenosis, daemonization, askesis, and apophrades) are evoked to demonstrate how Brahms is able to echo Chopin and yet go beyond his precursor, forging his own originality. For example, Bloom defines clinamen as the "initial swerve from the precursor," akin to the rhetorical trope of irony. The harmonic strategy of Chopin's Berceuse is one of extreme tonal stability, being composed almost entirely over a tonic-dominant ostinato; in making his "initial swerve" from Chopin, Brahms departs markedly from this strategy by setting his series of variations (the music most directly reminiscent of the Berceuse) as the D major middle section within a larger ternary design, framed by contrasting music in F major. Brahms's alternate strategy in the Romanze exemplifies Bloom's clinamen: "the framing action of the F major music 'ironizes' the Berceuse reminiscence of the middle section so that it says one thing ('tonal stability') and means another ('tonal instability')."

Works: Brahms: Romanze, Op. 118, No. 5; Reger: Träume am Kamin, Op. 143, No. 2.

Sources: Chopin: Berceuse, Op. 57.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Krylora, Larisa. "Funkcii citaty v muzykal'nom tekste [The function of quotation in music]." Sovetskaja muzyka (August 1975): 92-97.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Lipphardt, Walther. "Über die Begriffe: Kontrafaktur, Parodie, Travestie." Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie 12 (1967): 104-11.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Lissa, Zofia. "Ästhetische Funktionen des musikalischen Zitats." Die Musikforschung 19 (October/December 1966): 364-78.

One finds quotation in almost every epoch. Quotation must be distinguished from parody technique, contrafactum, variation, transcription, phantasy on known themes, paraphrase, pasticcio, metamorphosis, and stylization. Some thirteen criteria for quotation are listed (pp. 365-67). Four aesthetic functions of quotation are discussed with numerous examples of each: (1) a quotation may serve as the symbol for a well-defined expressive character; (2) a quotation may be used not so much as a symbol but rather as a means of expressing the content of a programmatic work (quotation as commentary); (3) a quotation may serve as an allusion or reference which will be more or less understood by the listener; and (4) a quotation may express parody, irony, or grotesquerie. The significance of quotation must be considered in relation to the genre in which it appears, such as pure instrumental music, vocal music, opera and ballet, music for film, and Jazz.

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger (368); Britten: Albert Herring (368); Bax: Tintagel (368); Berg: Lyrischen Suite (368); Mendelssohn: Reformation Symphony (369); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (369); Prokofiev: Aleksander Newski (369); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 12 (369); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (369); Liszt: Dante Symphony (369), Totentanz (369); Rachmaninoff: Die Todesinsel (369); Dallapiccola: Canti di prigionia (369); Miaskowski: Symphony No. 6 (369); Schubert: Der Tod und Das Mädchen (369); Strauss: Ein Heldenleben (370), Don Juan (370), Tod und Verklärung (370), Don Quixote (370), Also Sprach Zarathustra (370), Til Eulenspiegel (370); Offenbach: Orpheus (371); Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (372).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Lissa, Zofia. Aufsätze zur Musikästhetik. Berlin: Henschel, 1969.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Lissa, Zofia. Neue Aufsätze zur Musikästhetik. Wilhelmshaven: Heinrichshofen, 1975.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Lockwood, Lewis. "On 'Parody' as Term and Concept in 16th-Century Music." In Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. Jan LaRue with Martin Bernstein, Hans Lenneberg, and Victor Yellin, 560-75. New York: W. W. Norton, 1966.

The authority and widespread of the term "parody" as applied to sixteenth-century music stem from a reference by Ambros in 1868, based on the title of Jacob Paix's Missa Parodia Mottetae Domine da nobis auxilium of 1587. Theorists such as Vicentino, Zarlino, Pietro Ponzio, and Cerone discussed the concept as it applies to music but did not use the Greek term "parody," most often using the Latin "imitatio." While other terms would be more acceptable, the widespread use of the word "parody" makes necessary a concise definition as it has come to be used. The term "parody" can be applied preeminently to music in the sixteenth century, and its major area of cultivation was the Mass. A distinctive feature of sixteenth-century "parody" is that its unit of procedure is the motive and that the skill and art of "parody" lay in the transformation that composers could achieve from previously formed motivic constructions. A drastic change in the concept of composition was an apparently essential condition for "parody" to develop in music.

Works: Jacob Paix: Missa ad imitationem Mottetae In illo tempore (564-65), Missa Parodia Mottetae Domine da nobis auxilium (561-66, 568). WJM

Index Classifications: General, 1500s

[+] Mann, Alfred. "Self Borrowing." In Festa Musicologica: Essays in Honor of George J. Buelow, ed. Thomas J. Mathiesen and Benito V. Rivera, 147-63. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon, 1995.

The term "self borrowing" is not only grammatically contradictory (what one owns, one needs not borrow), it also tends to obscure the compositional process. Composers such as Bach and Handel did not stop thinking about musical material once it was committed to paper; rather, they continued to revise and expand on it. In Handel's case, expansion and elaboration of a theme can be seen in manuscript sketches.

Works: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Piano Trio in E-flat, K. 498 (147-48), Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Act II, "Welche Wonne, welche lust" (147, 149); Anonymous, attributed to Handel: St. John Passion (150); George Frideric Handel: Organ Concerto, Op. 7, No. 4 (150-52), Nel dolce dell' oblio (150, 153), composition studies for Princess Anne (157-59), Sixth Chandos Anthem (159-63); Johann Sebastian Bach: Mass in B minor, BWV 232, "Patrem omnipotentem" (155-56).

Sources: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Piano Quartet in G minor, K. 478 (147-48), Flute Concerto, K. 314 (147, 149); Georg Philipp Telemann: Musique de table, second set (150, 153); Johann Sebastian Bach: Gott, wie dein Name, so ist auch dein Ruhm, BWV 171 (155-56); George Frideric Handel: Utrecht Te Deum (159).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Mansfield, Orlando Augustine. "The Cuckoo and Nightingale in Music." The Musical Quarterly 7 (April 1921): 261-77.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Marmande, Francis. "Le Travail de la 'citation': Espace rupture." Jazz Magazine 194 (November 1971): 16-19.

The enormous variety of borrowing (citation) in free jazz cannot be adequately described by our current rigid and limited terminology. The rhetoric and ideology present in outmoded descriptions of borrowing that use language and assumptions advanced by Philippe Carles and Jean-Louis Comolli obligate us to intervene and create a new system for writing about borrowing. We must do away with mythical and mystical language of inspiration and creation, as well as the inflexible idea that jazz emerged solely from the condition of Black Americans. Furthermore, distinctions between types of borrowing are useless if divorced from the texts--"text" in this case being a flexible term that refers not just to our traditional ideas of notated music, but to any heard performance. If we separate term and text, we slide back towards old unconstructive accusations of copying and plagiarism. The new terminology should incorporate the many types of borrowing that occur, including collage, mélange, collision, juxtaposition, reminiscence, and self-borrowing, as well as the performance conditions and the reason for the use of a particular source.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Münzer, Georg, and Oscar Grohe. "Musikalische Zitate und Selbstzitate." Die Musik 3, no. 6 (1903-4): 430-33.

The article's first section discusses a quotation found in Die Meistersinger (when the master is so named), which is taken from Die Walküre. The second part lists a number of pieces that use quotations, including Wolf's Grenzen der Menschheit and Corregidor, Bruckner's 2nd Symphony, and Brahms's Intermezzo No. 2, Op. 119.

Works: Wolf: Grenzen der Menschheit (431), Corregidor (431); Bruckner: Symphony No. 2 (431); Brahms: Intermezzo No. 2, Op. 119 (432), Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 5 (432).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Murphy, John P. "Jazz Improvisation: The Joy of Influence." The Black Perspective in Music 18, no. 1 (1990): 7-19.

One of the central questions in jazz research is the relationship of a specific jazz musician to his or her jazz predecessors. Much of jazz can be analyzed with Henry Louis Gates's concept of "Signifyin(g)." Meaning in jazz is found in the relationship of each piece to the rest of the jazz repertoire, and in this respect clearly reflects the viability of Harold Bloom's theory of the anxiety of influence for jazz studies. But the influence of predecessors is felt joyfully rather than anxiously in jazz improvisation, and musical quotations in jazz tend to reflect homage.

Works: Joe Henderson: If (10-15); Freddie Hubbard: Bird Like (10-17).

Sources: Charlie Parker: Buzzy (10-17).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Nelson, Robert U. The Technique of Variation: A Study of the Instrumental Variation from Antonio de Cabézon to Max Reger. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1948; 2nd ed., 1962.

Variations, which often use borrowed material, fall into the following seven historical categories: (1) Renaissance and Baroque variations on secular songs, dances, and arias; (2) Renaissance and Baroque variations on plainchant and chorales; (3) the Baroque basso ostinato variation; (4) the ornamental variation of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; (5) the nineteenth-century character variation; (6) the nineteenth-century basso ostinato variation; and (7) the free variation of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Variations also fall into two basic plans, structural and free. Variations in categories (1) through (6) above followed the older structural plan, in which basic relationships of parts, sections, and phrases in the theme were preserved in the variations. By the early twentieth century, variations were constructed in two ways: following the structural plan and following the newer free plan, in which basic relationships of sections and phrases in the theme were disregarded. Generally, the most conspicuous elements of themes most emphatically demand change. Rhythm is the most conspicuous element, and thus must be varied the most. The melodic subject is second most conspicuous. The harmonico-structural frame is least conspicuous, was historically generally retained, and therefore may be considered as the substance of the theme. All variations are committed to the task of securing unity within a manifold. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there was a growing trend toward the use of original themes. Renaissance and Baroque themes were frequently borrowed from dances and secular songs. In the ornamental variation, borrowed themes continued to include the dance piece and the popular song and also included the operatic excerpt. In the nineteenth-century character variation, neither the secular song nor the operatic aria were important sources of borrowed themes. Instead, composers used instrumental works (such as suites and sonatas) and instrumentally conceived themes from members of their own circles. Despite the trend toward the use of original themes, borrowed themes, including folk songs, still persisted in the free variation.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Noé, Günther von. "Das musikalische Zitat." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 124 (1963): 134-37.

Quotation must be understood as a subdivision of the larger field of borrowing, which is a principal component of composition and can be categorized in terms such as conscious vs. unconscious and legitimate vs. illegitimate. Whereas legal and ethical views of quotation have been historically variable, purely musical criteria employed by musicians have emerged to evaluate quotation practices. Quotation is distinguished from thematic reworking and plagiarism by virtue of its specifically extramusical function, intended to be heard by the listener. Quotation may be employed (1) to evoke time, place, or circumstance, (2) as musical wit, (3) as the basis for parody or caricature, or (4) as the basis for exposition of serious content.

Works: Debussy: La bôite à joujouz (136); Busoni: Arlecchino (136); Mozart: Piano Rondo in A minor, K. 511 (136); Berg: Lyric Suite (136).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Alexander J. Fisher, David Lieberman

[+] Noé, Günther von. Die Musik kommt mir äusserst bekannt vor: Wege und Abwege der Entlehnung. Wien and München: Doblinger, 1985.

[On borrowing. Defines terms on pp. 51-53.]

Index Classifications: General

[+] Peterson, Franklin. "Quotation in Music." Monthly Musical Record 30 (October 1900): 217-19, (November 1900): 241-43, and (December 1900): 265-67.

Quotation in music is different from literary quotation. Most examples of musical quotation are accidental, but exceptions to this include self-borrowing, universally recognized excerpts, programmatic or evocative borrowing, or humorous allusions. All other conscious quotation is plagiarism. "Making a few possible exceptions where words are used, THERE IS NO QUOTATION IN MUSIC" (capitals original).

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (218); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 (218), Quintet, Op. 16 (218); S. S. Wesley: Ascribe Ye Unto the Lord (218); Beethoven, Diabelli Variations (241); Reinecke: Variations for Two Pianofortes (241); Bach: Wachet auf, BWV 140 (242), Christmas Oratorio (242); Mackenzie: Dream of Jubal (242); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (265); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (265); Volkmann: Richard the Third Overture (265); Saint-Saëns: Henry VIII (265); Wagner: Der Ring des Nibelungen (266); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (266); Haydn: The Seasons (266); Mozart: Don Giovanni (267).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s

[+] Petzsch, Christoph. "Kontrafaktur und Melodietypus." Die Musikforschung 21 (July/September 1968): 271-90.

Index Classifications: General, Monophony to 1300, 1300s, 1400s

[+] Pohlmann, Hansjörg. Die Frühgeschichte des musikalischen Urheberrechts (ca. 1400-1800): Neue Materialen zur Entwicklung des Urheberrechtsbewusstseins der Komponisten. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1962.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Quereau, Quentin W. "Sixteenth-Century Parody: An Approach to Analysis." Journal of the American Musicological Society 31 (Fall 1978): 407-41.

A system of graphs is used to facilitate a study of the relationship between a motet and a Mass that is based on it using sixteenth-century parody technique. In the graphs, relationships not immediately apparent from looking at the score become clear, such as the borrowing of the entire complex of a motive and the points of imitation that accompany it, or the relationships among points of imitation that enable them to be combined contrapuntally in a particular manner. The motet Salvum me fac by Jacquet of Mantua and the parody Mass of the motet by Palestrina serve as examples in the graphing process.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Rabinowitz, Peter J. "Fictional Music: Toward a Theory of Listening." In Theories of Reading, Looking, and Listening (Bucknell Review 26, no. 1), ed. Harry R. Garvin, 193-208. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1981.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Sanjek, David. "'Don't Have to DJ No More': Sampling and the 'Autonomous' Creator." In The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature, ed. Martha Woodmansee and Peter Jaszi, 343-60. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.

The practice of sampling has democratized music production because instrumental dexterity is no longer required in order to produce compositions. The forms of sampling can be broken down into four general areas: sampling recognizable material that calls the listener's attention to its new context; sampling both familiar and arcane sources; a process dubbed "quilt-pop" by Chuck Eddy of the Village Voice, in which a new product is stitched together entirely from samples; and the use of samples to create alternate versions of tracks called "club mixes." Sampling falls into a gray area between the Postmodern aesthetic and the Romantic notion of the autonomous creator. The Copyright Act of 1976 fails to address questions of authorship and ownership which arise in sampling procedures and needs to be amended accordingly.

Works: Public Enemy: Yo! Bum Rush the Show (349), It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back (349), Fear of a Black Planet (349); Grandmaster Flash: Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (350); De La Soul: Transmitting Live from Mars (354); Beastie Boys: Yo Leroy (354); John Oswald: Plunderphonics (358-59).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (349); Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers (songwriters), Chic (performers): Good Times (350); John Deacon (songwriter), Queen (performers): Another One Bites the Dust (350); Deborah Harry and Chris Stein (songwriters), Blondie (performers): Rapture (350); Sugarhill Gang: 8th Wonder (350); Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five: The Birthday Party (350); Spoonie Gee: Monster Jam (350); Jim McGuinn and Gene Clark (songwriters), The Turtles (performers): You Showed Me (354); Jimmy Castor: The Return of Leroy (Part I) (354).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Schäfer, Thomas. "Musik über Musik." Musica 48 (November-December 1994): 324-29.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Scott, Hugh Arthur. "Indebtedness in Music." The Musical Quarterly 13 (October 1927): 497-509.

Amid the general discussion of the various forms that indebtedness can take (Handel is most specifically discussed), the article questions composers' frequent use of "familiar phrases": Was Wagner aware that the opening notes or intervals from the prelude to Tristan had already been used by Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, and Liszt? The main interest focuses on various and sundry quotations, merely citing examples by well-known composers, while no real connection between the quotations is apparent.

Works: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2 (504-06), Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique) (503); Wagner: "Anvil" motive from the Ring (504-05); Brahms: Symphony in C Minor (505), Piano Quartet in G Minor (505); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 (Pathétique) (506); Liszt: Dante Symphony (507); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (502, 507); Mozart: Don Giovanni (508); Beethoven: Diabelli Variations (508); Brahms: Unüberwindlich (509); Elgar: "The Music Makers," from Enigma Variations (509); Mackenzie: London Day by Day Suite (509), Dream of Jubal (509); Puccini: Madame Butterfly (509); Richard Strauss: Elektra (498); Bach: Wachet, betet (504), Ich hatte viel Bekümmerniss (504), Uns ist ein Kind geboren (504), St. John Passion (504), St. Matthew Passion (504).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Skeris, Robert A. "Zum Problem der geistlichen Liedkontrafaktur. Überlegungen aus theologisch-hymnologischer Sicht." Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 67 (1983): 25-33.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1900s

[+] Spitzer, John. "Authorship and Attribution in Western Music." Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1983.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Steinecke, Wolfgang. Das Parodieverfahren in der Musik. Kieler Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft, 1. Wolfenbüttel: Kallmeyer, 1934. Reprinted as Die Parodie in der Musik. Wolfenbüttel: Möseler, 1970.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. "Zum Thema 'Musik über Musik.'" In Studia Musicologica: aesthetica, theoretica, historica, ed. Elzbieta Dziebowska, Zofia Helman, Danuto Idaszak, and Adam Neuer, 395-404. Crakow: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzycyne, 1979.

Discusses the methodological change in making "music about music" which was introduced by Stravinsky around 1920. The concept of creating an updated and/or "improved" setting for familiar thematic material is exemplified here by Baroque practice and related to the late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century vogue involving both salon pieces and serious variation sets and fantasies. The musical goal of all such works, that is, the exhibition of artistry through inventive development of recognizable material, finds its inversion in the trend, eventually termed Neo-Classicism, of the twentieth-century. Therein new thematic materials, and even new musical languages, could be introduced by placing them within recognizable, traditional structural frameworks.

Works: Bach: Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis, BWV 579, Organ Pieces on Themes by Corelli, BWV 579, Organ Pieces on Themes by Legrenzi, BWV 574; Brahms: Variations on a Theme by Handel, Variations on a Theme by Haydn; Fortner: Elegies for Piano; Hindemith: Ludus Tonalis, Neues vom Tage; Reger: Prelude and Fugue in G Major for Violin Solo, Op. 117, No. 5, String Trio in A Minor, Op. 77b; Stravinsky: Piano Sonata (1924), Pulcinella.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Sternberg, Constantin von. "On Plagiarism." The Musical Quarterly 5 (July 1919): 390-97.

This article provides an interesting perspective with regard to the early twentieth-century attitude toward musical borrowings. Sternberg argues that musical borrowings are a legitimate compositional device employed by a number of great composers. The issue of emulation and competition is also addressed. Although Sternberg asserts that "stealing is stealing," musical borrowing is established as a long-standing compositional tradition, and Sternberg remains inconclusive as to whether or not this tradition should be defined as plagiaristic.

Works: Bizet: Carmen (391); Schumann: "The Happy Farmer," from Album for the Young (392); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 3 (392); Wagner: Lohengrin (392); Schubert: Atlas (393); Liszt: Les Préludes (393).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Sternfeld-Friedenau, Richard. "Musikalische Citate und Selbstcitate." Die Musik 2, no.24 (1903): 429-42.

Establishing whether a musical quotation is deliberate or whether it is an unconscious reminiscence is not simple. Quotation may take various forms, including variations, where it is well-disguised. It may be used for many different purposes--to convey emulation, to enhance the plot of a drama, to add textual significance, for symbolic significance, and for popular appeal. Self-quotation may take the form of organic motivic quotation.

Works: Beethoven: Missa Solemnis, Op. 123 (430), Diabelli Variations (431); Peter Cornelius: Beethoven-Lied for mixed choir, Op. 10 (431); Gluck: Orfeo ed Euridice (431); Mozart: Bastien et Bastienne (431); Don Giovanni (431), Die Zauberflöte (431).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Thomas, Ted. "Infringement." Songwriter's Review 34, no. 1 (1979): 4.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Thomas, Ted. "Plagiarism." Songwriter's Review 34, no. 1 (1979): 5.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Tibbe, Monika. "Musik in Musik: Collagetechnik und Zitierverfahren." Musica 25 (November/December 1971): 562-63.

Unstylized dances, marches, and songs are conspicious in the music of Charles Ives, giving his symphonies an unruly appearance when compared with their European counterparts. Ives uses collage technique to combine such material (normally considered "foreign" to the symphonic domain) with more "acceptable" symphonic material. Mozart's Don Giovanni, Carl Maria von Weber's Concerto in F Minor for Piano and Orchestra, Beethoven's Missa Solemnis, and Mahler's symphonies reveal different methods of incorporating such functional "music in music." In these cases, however, the quoted music is absorbed into the character of the composition in which it finds itself to a greater extent than it is in the music of Ives, where it maintains its identity and is thus an equal partner. In addition, in Ives's music, the quoted material becomes, through collage technique, a "principle of form."

Works: Beethoven: Missa Solemnis; Berg: Wozzeck; Ives: Holidays Symphony; Mahler: Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 4; Mozart: Don Giovanni; Weber: Concerto in F Minor for piano and orchestra.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Todd, R. Larry. “On Quotation in Schumann’s Music.” In Schumann and His World, ed. R. Larry Todd, 80-112. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Scholars and critics have long recognized that Robert Schumann’s music contains a multitude of quotations, allusions, and extramusical ideas. Although some of these borrowings are clearly heard, others are only apparent, and still others are conjectural and may not exist at all. Additionally, even when instances of borrowing or allusion can be proven, there is often much uncertainty over what these borrowings mean and how they function within each piece.

However, a loose typology, consisting of three categories, can help to illuminate the types of materials Schumann borrowed, and what these borrowings signify in their new contexts. First, Schumann’s historical interests led him to allude to composers of the past, especially Bach and Beethoven. Second, Schumann referenced contemporary composers as a means of praising or critiquing them, and thus promoting high musical standards while criticizing “shallow” composers. Finally, Schumann alluded to his own music, critically reinterpreting previous material in new and unexpected ways.

Works: Robert Schumann: Faschingsschwank aus Wien, Op. 26 (81); Brahms: Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann, Op. 9 (82-84); Robert Schumann: Carnaval: Scènes Mignonnes sur Quatre Notes, Op. 9 (84-86), Papillons, Op. 2 (84-86), Album für die Jugend, Op. 68 (86-87), Impromptus, Op. 5 (86-87), Intermezzos, Op. 4 (87-89), Kreisleriana, Op. 16 (88-91, 104-5), Fantasie in C, Op. 17 (92-95), Konzert-Allegro mit Introduktion, Op. 134 (96-97), Kerner Gedichte, Op. 35 (97-98), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 97 (98-99), Noveletten, Op. 21 (101-2), Symphony No. 4 in D Minor, Op. 120 (102-3), Klavierstücke, Op. 32 (104-5), Andante and Variations, Op. 46 (105-8).

Sources: Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (81); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in E-flat Major, Op. 31, No. 3 (81); Robert Schumann: Carnaval: Scènes Mignonnes sur Quatre Notes, Op. 9 (82-83); Anonymous: Groβvater-Tanz (84-91); Beethoven: An die ferne Geliebte, Op. 98 (92-94); Schubert: Fantasie in C Major, D.760 (94), An die Musik, D.547 (94); Carl Maria von Weber: Konzert-Allegro mit Introduktion, Op. 134 (96-97); Clara Schumann: Notturno, Op. 6, No. 2 (101-2); Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda: Symphony No. 1, Op. 7 (102-3); Robert Schumann: Kreisleriana, Op. 16 (104-5), Frauenliebe und -leben, Op. 42 (106-8).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "The Evolution of the Folk-song." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 28-52. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Folk song has evolved as an oral tradition, a tradition known in Vaughan Williams's day to have been remarkably strong and accurate. Elements common or borrowed in folk music have been the norm, because folk music was written not by one composer but by several, and over a considerable period of time.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "The Folk Song Movement." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 234-36. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

The use of folk song by Russian and other nationalist composers is nothing new. The music of the Austro-German tradition is just as similar to Teutonic folk song as that of other traditions is to their folk origins, but because of its dominance of the classical music scene, does not sound folklike to the general audience.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "The Folk-song." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 21-27. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Some have considered musical borrowing and the "cult of archaism" to be wrong on moral grounds, but this is a protest by the establishment which profits by maintenance of the musical status quo.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "The Influence of Folk-song on the Music of the Church." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 74-82. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

The history of church music includes many borrowed folk tunes and contrafactions, from the Tonus peregrinus (foreign tune) of the Roman church to the use of popular tunes as hymns or chorales well past the Reformation.

Works: Tonus peregrinus (Gregorian chant) (76); Valet will ich dir geben (German chorale); O Filii et Filiae (Sequence) (77); Thomas Oliver: Helmsley (hymn tune) (77); Louis Bourgeois: Old Hundredth (hymn tune) (77), Old 113th (hymn tune).

Index Classifications: General

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Watanabe, Hiroshi. "Ongaku ni okeru inyo no nintei [Recognition of quotation in music]." Memoirs of KunitachiCol. of M. 17 (1982): 151-65.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Westrup, Jack A. "Parodies and Parameters." Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 100 (1973-74): 19-31.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Whitesell, Lloyd. "Men with a Past: Music and the 'Anxiety of Influence.'" 19th-Century Music 18 (Fall 1994): 152-67.

Harold Bloom's theory of "anxiety of influence" sees an Oedipal struggle between the poet and his forebears, in which the poet is forced to misread his predecessors, assert priority over them, and clear creative space for himself. Some musicians, including Benjamin Britten and Robert Schumann, have cited the past as a supportive rather than threatening presence. Rather than a metaphor of male aggression, these composers and others like them see artistic creation as a form of "gift," using a metaphor suggested by Lewis Hyde. In this view the individual becomes "vulnerable" and thus feminized under Bloom's model. In Bloom's mythology, the artist is confronted with two obstacles, sexual anxiety (the Sphinx) and creative anxiety (the Cherub). Because Bloom's model has eliminated the female element of the classical Freudian interpretation of the Oedipal triangle, the model that emerges is one in which homosexual desire becomes a strong element. Social homophobia represents a reaction against traditional structures of gender and power; thus, the homoerotic impulse must be channeled into more acceptable avenues of rivalry and violence. At the end of the nineteenth century, changes in the Victorian definition of "femininity" forced men to "remythologize their claims to authority." It is not a coincidence that Bloom formulated his theory in the 1970s, when feminist, gay, and lesbian voices were challenging the cultural definition of masculinity. Bloom's model remains in "mythical space" by failing to take into account other arenas of cultural conflict, such as nationalism, artistic attitude, and personal psychology. In the final analysis, Bloom's theory perpetuates old ideologies and prevents a thorough consideration of the work of art.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Winn, James Anderson. Unsuspected Eloquence: A History of the Relations between Poetry and Music. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1981.

Index Classifications: General

[+] Wohlberg, Max. "The Music of the Synagogue as a Source of the Yiddish Folksong." Musica Judaica 14 (1999): 33-61.

Not only "stray motifs," but many entire Yiddish folksong melodies can be traced to Jewish liturgical music. Most of these folksongs are metrical and rhythmical although derived from motifs that were sung in the synagogue in an improvised manner free of steady meter. For instance, cantillation motifs from the Ashkenazic High Holiday Pentateuch appear in the folksong Ya-amod Reb Yehude. In some cases, the topic of the folk song is similar to the topic of the prayer source, as a folksong about the approach of winter borrows motifs from the autumn prayer for rain. Other folksongs do not borrow motifs, but use the synagogue modes. The synagogue mode known as the Ukranian-Dorian (G-A-Bb-C#-D-E-F) is used not only in prayers like Mi Sheberakh and Ov Horahamim, but also in folk songs like Dos Fertsente Yor.

Works: Folk Songs: Ya-Amod Reb Yehude (34), S'Yomert Peterburg (36), Akdomus (37), Alef, Indiks Est der Nogid (37), Af b'ri s'iz Nito Vos Tu Gebn (39), Tzvelf a Zeyger (40), Eli Tsiyon (40), Eliyahu Ha-Navi (44-45), Aye-le-lyu-leh (46), Dos Fertsente Yor (48).

Sources: Liturgy: Ashkenazic High Holiday Pentateuch (34), Kol Nidre (38), Geshem (39), Omar Rabbi Elozor (42), Bmeh Madlikim (42), Elu Devorim (42), Aimidah (43), B'fi Y'shorim (45), Mi Sheberakh (48), Ov Horahamim (48).

Index Classifications: General, Jazz

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan



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