Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] [Unsigned]. "New Gershwin Tunes Featured in Movie." Down Beat 31 (23 April 1964): 14-15.

Billy Wilder's 1964 film Kiss Me Stupid re-used some Gershwin songs used previously (during the composer's lifetime) and introduced some new ones (posthumously). The new songs were released to the public for the first time from the composer's musical notebooks.

Works: Gershwin: 'S Wonderful,I'm a Poached Egg,All the Livelong Day,Sophia.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "From J. C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright, and Cultural Context." North Carolina Law Review 84 (January 2006): 547-645.

Current copyright laws do not adequately support the forms of musical borrowing prevalent in hip-hop. The use of pre-existing recordings in hip-hop samples simultaneously violates the protected rights of both the existing musical composition and the recording of that musical composition. Sampling continues to be viewed as theft rather than a source of innovation within music. Aesthetic values prevalent in hip-hop, such as oral tradition, textual emphasis, repetition, polyrhythm, and borrowing, need to be situated in a broader context of musical aesthetics and, consequently, legal treatment of borrowing practices. Treating hip-hop as theft or plagiarism robs it of its rightful place within the historical context of musical borrowing in many different kinds of music. Modifications to current copyright laws, such as payment structures and differentiation of different types of sampling, are necessary to address the legality of hip-hop sampling.

Works: Irving Gordon (songwriter), Natalie Cole (performer): Unforgettable (562); Beastie Boys: Pass the Mic (570-72); N.W.A.: 100 Miles and Runnin' (574-76); Biz Markie: Alone Again (580-81); Handel: Israel in Egypt (601-603, 610).

Sources: James Newton: Choir (570-72); George Clinton (songwriter), Funkadelic (performers): Get off Your Ass and Jam (574-76); Gilbert O'Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (580-81); Dionigi Erba: Magnificat (601-603, 610).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Auslander, Philip. "Intellectual Property Meets the Cyborg: Performance and the Cultural Politics of Technology." Performing Arts Journal 14, no. 1 (January 1992): 30-42.

The technology of digital sampling challenges our traditional understanding of authorship, and the resulting ambiguities are reflected in our cultural and political environment. For instance, when the group Frankie Goes to Hollywood sampled Led Zeppelin's drummer John Bonham for their recording of Relax, who was the author? Was it John Bonham (who was deceased at the time)? Was it the sampling software? Donna Haraway, in her "Manifesto for Cyborgs," has argued that high-tech culture problematizes many of the binarisms built into our culture, and such destabilization can be politically useful. One artist who has exploited technology for politically useful ends is Laurie Anderson. In her film Home of the Brave she opens by lecturing the audience through a synthesized "male" voice, blurring the binarism of gender. She also samples the voice of William S. Burroughs, who is also silently present for one scene, playing with the dualism of recording and "liveness." Throughout her film, she goes on to challenge other dualisms such as speaking/singing, self/other, author/reader, and person/machine. Anderson's work provides a glimpse of the effect that technology can have on politics and culture.

Works: Frankie Goes to Hollywood (Peter Gill, Holly Johnson, Brian Nash, Mark O'Toole): Relax (31); Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Ula Hedwig (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Bette Midler (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Laurie Anderson: Home of the Brave (37-41).

Sources: Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Bette Midler (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Bobbie Freeman (songwriter and performer): Do You Want to Dance (33).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Barbera, C. André. "George Gershwin and Jazz." In The Gershwin Style, ed. Wayne Schneider, 175-206. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

In a study of George Gershwin's historical relationship with jazz, it is suggested that the composer's songs continue to be attractive to jazz musicians because of their rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and formal characteristics. For instance, Gershwin tended to repeat notes in his melodies, allowing for the performer to embellish harmonically and rhythmically, as was exemplified by Billy Holiday's recording of Oh, Lady Be Good! In other instances, Gershwin songs are favored because their harmonies can be separated from their melodies, as in Nice Work If You Can Get It. Songs like Somebody Loves Me and The Man I Love contain repeated four-measure phrases, a characteristic musical succinctness that improvisers have long found inviting.

Works: George Gershwin: How Long Has This Been Going On? (188, 200), I Got Rhythm (188, 190, 201), They Can't Take That Away From Me (188-90, 200), A Foggy Day (188-90, 198, 201), Fascinating Rhythm (188,199), Oh, Lady Be Good! (189-90, 193-94, 196-97, 200), Nice Work If You Can Get It (190, 195-96, 198, 201), Bess, You Is My Woman Now (193, 200), The Main I Love (193-94, 197, 200-201), But Not For Me (193), Summertime (195,197, 201), Embraceable You (197, 199, 200-201), Somebody Loves Me (197-98, 200-201), Liza (198), Someone To Watch Over Me (198), Soon (198), Our Love is Here To Stay (198), 'S Wonderful (200).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Barrett, Sam. “Classical Music, Modal Jazz, and the Making of Kind of Blue.Dutch Journal of Music Theory 16 (2011): 53-63.

A dynamic or cyclical notion of influence allows for a more sophisticated approach to understanding the relationship between twentieth-century classical music and Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue. While numerous scholars have generated a long list of influences to Davis’s album, multiple techniques and sources invite further consideration. There are three categories of art music that serve as sources to Kind of Blue: late-romantic and impressionist music, American classical modernism, and Stravinsky ballets. In the first category, Rachmaninoff’s and Ravel’s works include general harmonic, intervallic (specifically concerning vamp patterns), and tonal elements that can be found in the songs So What and Flamenco Sketches, while Khachaturian’s use of non-diatonic melodies over tonal harmonies can be found across Davis’s entire album. In the second category, widely spaced leaps and upper-register sonorities from Copland’s music of the 1940s can be found in So What. In the final category, Stravinsky's ballets provide a procedure of fragmentary melodic variation that relates to Davis’s own “melodic variation” in his solos on every song. That these particular classical styles influence Kind of Blue on different levels indicates that “modal” jazz is a meaningful term to describe the album's musical language.

Works: Miles Davis: Kind of Blue.

Sources: Ravel: Piano Concerto for the Left Hand (53-56), String Quartet in F Major (56-57); Rachmaninoff: Piano Concerto No. 4, Op. 40 (53-57); Khachaturian: Gayane Suites (57-58); Debussy: Images No. 1 (“Reflets dans l'eau”) (58); Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (58), Appalachian Spring; Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (59-60), Petrushka (59-60).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Bartlett, Andrew. "Airshafts, Loudspeakers, and the Hip Hop Sample: Contexts and African American Musical Aesthetics." African American Review 28 (1994): 639-52.

Rap music, and in particular the practice of sampling in rap music, can be grounded within a larger context of African-American interest in imitation. Early examples of imitation in slave culture suggest interests similar to sampling, namely the desire to reconfigure aspects of dominant culture into strictly African-American forms. Sampling can be seen as a way to archive interactive historical material. Rap artists use new language to describe their use of samples, and acknowledge their sources to avoid legal trouble. EMPD, for example, thanks their sources and introduces their raps by indicating which pre-existing compositions the new rap embodies.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Beadle, Jeremy. Will Pop Eat Itself? Pop Music in the Soundbite Era. London: Faber and Faber, 1993.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Berlin, Edward A. King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Within a study of Scott Joplin and his compositions, several cases of borrowing or modeling are explored. The most imitated Joplin piece was Maple Leaf Rag, his biggest hit. Also imitated to some extent were Elite Syncopations,Palm Leaf Rag, and Original Rags. Many imitations were little more than plagiarisms. Joplin's imitations of himself, however, were brilliant. Gladiolous Rag,Rose Leaf Rag, and Cascades preserve what Joplin apparently felt were attractive structural elements of the Maple Leaf Rag. Also noteworthy is the possibility of Irving Berlin's Alexander's Ragtime Band borrowing from Joplin's Treemonisha.

Works: Settle: X.L. Rag (51, 68); Etter: Whoa! Maud (52, 69); Butler: The Tantalizer (67); Donaldson: Latonia Rag (68); Nonnahs: That's Goin' Some (68); Tournade: Easy Money (113); Scott: A Summer Breeze (113); Morton: Fuzzy Wuzzy Rag (113-14); Verge: Who You Heiffer (131); Joplin: Cascades (136-38), Gladiolous Rag (169-72), Rose Leaf Rag (169-72); Berlin: Alexander's Ragtime Band (210-12).

Sources: Joplin: Original Rags (50-51), Maple Leaf Rag (67-69, 136, 152, 169-70, 179, 182-83), The Entertainer (108-10), A Breeze From Alabama (110-12), Elite Syncopations (113-14), Palm Leaf Rag (130-32), Treemonisha (210-12).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Bick, Sally. "Political Ironies: Hanns Eisler in Hollywood and Behind the Iron Curtain." Acta Musicologica 75 (2003): 65-84.

By borrowing a musical passage from his film score Hangman also Die within the opening of his song Auferstanden aus Ruinen, Hanns Eisler utilized the same music for two extremely different political and social circumstances—a paradox that illustrates music's ability to mediate meaning through cultural encoding. The 1943 motion picture Hangmen also Die by Fritz Lang is a product of the Hollywood entertainment industry and American capitalism, whereas Auferstanden aus Ruinen is a patriotic song adopted by the communist German Democratic Republic as its national anthem. In the film, the story centers on the struggle of the united Czech people to overcome the brutal Nazi occupation; the relevant musical passage is heard in a scene in which the leading Czech resistance leader lies on his deathbed after a Nazi raid. The slow, syncopated rhythm in the bass line and the three-note descending sequential figure in the melody symbolize the patriotism and heroism of the Czech people fighting against fascism. Eisler borrows these same gestures in the opening of the anthem, and in both cases exploits the emotional power of music to mediate a political and social message. The paradox of Eisler's self-borrowing emphasizes music's ability to cross social and political boundaries.

Works: Eisler: Auferstanden aus Ruinen.

Sources: Eisler: Score for Hangman also Die.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Mary Ellen Ryan

[+] Block, Steven. “Bemsha Swing: The Transformation of a Bebop Classic to Free Jazz.” Music Theory Spectrum 19 (Fall 1997): 206-231.

Critics of Cecil Taylor’s recordings have incorrectly accused him of abandoning tonality and emphasizing texture in his improvisations. Pitch-class set analysis of Taylor’s improvisations, however, reveals a much closer connection between Taylor and his predecessors than previously acknowledged. Two recordings of Thelonious Monk and Denzil Best’s Bemsha Swing, one by Monk in 1955 and one by Taylor in 1958, demonstrate this close connection. Monk uses only a small collection of pitch-class sets and pitch-class operators for many of his improvisations, all in the context of standard bebop extended tonality. Taylor uses sets that imply traditional jazz scales and derive from Monk’s improvisations. By applying pitch-class operations, particularly multiplication, to these sets, Taylor gradually removes them from a tonal context.

Works: Thelonious Monk and Denzel Best (composers) and Cecil Taylor (performer): Bemsha Swing (219-31).

Sources: Thelonious Monk and Denzil Best (composers) and Thelonious Monk (performer): Bemsha Swing (207-19).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Burnett, Robert and Bert Deivert. "Black or White: Michael Jackson's Video as a Mirror of Popular Culture." Popular Music and Society 19, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 19-40.

Analysis of visual and musical elements of Michael Jackson's video for his song Black or White reveals it as a series of intertextual references that generate meaning through allusions to aspects of popular culture. Intertextuality is defined according to Gerard Genette's theories of transtextuality and therefore is taken to be a relationship between "two or more texts existing or showing their presence within a work," including quotation, plagiarism, and allusion as types of intertextuality. In every scene of the video, intertextual references can be found, including the use of quintessential heavy metal guitar and drum sounds, cinematic allusions to Hitchcock and the film Raising Arizona, evocation of the militant political groups the Black Panthers as Jackson morphs into a panther, a rhythmic reference to Buddy Rich drum solos, and the inclusion of a brief section of rap.

Works: Bill Botrell and Michael Jackson: Black or White.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Burns, Lori. “Feeling the Style: Vocal Gesture and Musical Expression in Billie Holiday, Bessie Smith, and Louis Armstrong.” Music Theory Online 11 (September 2005).

Billie Holiday was quoted as saying that she wanted the “feeling” of Bessie Smith with the “style” of Louis Armstrong. Two Holiday songs, Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do and I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues, serve as clear homages respectively to Smith and Armstrong, each of whom recorded the songs well before Holiday. Both the style and feeling are identifiable by three vocal metrics: quality (dynamics/intensity), space (range/range-based timbre), and articulation (enunciation/rhythmic emphasis). Detailed transcriptions of the Smith, Armstrong, and Holiday recordings of these song, including dynamics, bending of pitches, and rhythmic manipulation show not only that Holiday was strongly influenced by her predecessors, but also that elements of vocal quality, space, and articulation that Holiday actively wanted to emulate appear in her performances of these songs.

Works: Porter Grainger and Everett Robbins (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do; Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues.

Sources: Porter Grainger and Everett Robbins (composers) and Bessie Smith (performer): Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do; Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler (composers) and Louis Armstrong (performer): I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Butler, Mark. "Taking it Seriously: Intertextuality and Authenticity in Two Covers by the Pet Shop Boys." Popular Music 22 (January 2003), 1-19.

Artistic authenticity is a central concern in the genre of rock music. "Covering" previously recorded songs directly involves rock and popular bands' rendering of a cover song as either authentic or artificial (inauthentic). Two cover songs by the Pet Shop Boys exemplify two opposing notions of authenticity. Their cover of U2's Where the Streets Have No Name casts the original version as artificial, as the Pet Shop Boys ignore the original song's emphasis on individuality, undermine the structural importance of motivic elements, recast the song in a quasi-disco style, and make other significant musical changes. On the other hand, the Pet Shop Boys' version of Go West heightens the authenticity of the Village People's version. The song evokes the climate of "1970s urban gay culture," with an emphasis on community and the freedom to be liberated by going west. The Pet Shop Boys' cover not only recaptures the Village People's message, placing it in its 1970s pre-AIDS culture, but also uses musical devices to also evoke the song's new context in an post-AIDS culture. For example, the interaction among the musicians seems more formally restrained, which resembles the heightened sense of caution members of the gay community must take in an AIDS-stricken world. Ultimately, the Pet Shop Boys' Go West celebrates the history of gay culture and casts the Village People's version as authentic.

Works: Bono (Paul Hewson) and U2: Where the Streets Have No Name as performed by the Pet Shop Boys (4-7); Henri Belolo, Jacques Morali, and Victor Willis: Go West as performed by the Pet Shop Boys (7-15).

Sources: Bono (Paul Hewson) and U2: Where the Streets Have No Name (2-6); Bob Crewe and Bob Gaudio: Can't Take My Eyes Off You as performed by Frankie Valli and by Boystown Gang (5-6); Henri Belolo, Jacques Morali, and Victor Willis: Go West (7-12); Pachelbel: Canon in D (13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Cohen, Judah M. "Hip-Hop Judaica: The Politics of Representin' Heebster Heritage." Popular Music 28 (Winter 2009): 1-18.

Musical artists within the Jewish American "hipster" scene (ca. 1986-2006) drew on conventions from rap and hip-hop as a means of negotiating a new Jewish identity. Of the many strategies to draw on the conventions of rap, one common tactic was parody. For instance, parody artist Shlock Rock parodied Aerosmith and Run DMC's Walk This Way (1986) and created Wash This Way, now a song about the Jewish hand-washing ritual. Despite the different lyrics, Shlock Rock's parody borrows vocal inflection, instrumentation, and even attitude. Although humor and parody were common reasons to incorporate rap and hip-hop into Jewish music, the Yeshiva-educated duo Black Hattitude used rap to promote a political and controversial program. Drawing on the stylings of rap, the duo included spoken tracks, took polemical points of view, and sampled artists such as Led Zeppelin. Such music provided a site in which young Jews could simultaneously negotiate a new Jewish identity and preserve and transmit their culture through such change.

Works: Lenny Solomon and Etan Goldman (songwriters), Shlock Rock (performers): Bless On It/Boogie in the Shul [Synagogue] (5), Wash This Way (5); Black Hattitude, R.E.L.I.G.I.O.N (7); Etan G (Etan Goldman): South Side of the Synagogue (8).

Sources: Newcleus: Jam On It/Boogie in the Club (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Aerosmith (performers): Walk This Way (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Run DMC (performers): Walk This Way (5); Led Zeppelin (Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Bonham, and John Paul Jones) and Willie Dixon: Whole Lotta Love (7, endnote 11); Peter Gabriel: Sledgehammer (7, endnote 11); Lenny Solomon (songwriter), Shlock Rock (performers): Yo Yo Yo Yarmulke (8), Recognize the Miracles (8).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Covach, John R. "The Rutles and the Use of Specific Models in Musical Satire." Indiana Theory Review 11 (1990): 119-44.

The 1978 NBC "docudrama," The Rutles: All You Need Is Cash, is a humorous satire of the music and history of the Beatles. According to Schopenhauer, an amused reaction arises as a response to the "recognition of incongruity between a representation and a concept." Thus, for a listener to experience an amused response to musical satire, he or she must possess "stylistic competencies" that allow for the recognition of the congruity-incongruity dialectic in the music. The fictitious Rutles's Hold My Hand is modeled on three Beatles songs, and it incorporates elements of lyrics, pitch, rhythm, harmony and instrumentation from the sources. Evidence of modeling in Ouch!, a parody of the Beatles' song, Help!, is found in instrumentation and in formal and harmonic similarities to the source. The harmonic parallelism is such that a dialogue between Ouch! and Help! emerges, which is facilitated by diminution of the model's harmonic rhythm and partial reordering of the harmonic progression. Leonard Meyer's theory of style, in combination with the semiotic theory of intertextuality, can become a powerful analytic device in explaining musical satire. The humor arises from the listener's recognition of the model and the clever alterations and juxtapositions of the original material. This recognition must take place on three different levels of specificity: dialectic or general style (e.g., British invasion), individual idiom (e.g., early Beatles style), and intraopus style or the style within a single work (e.g., the style of Help!).

Works: Neil Innes: Hold My Hand (124-32), Ouch! (133-37).

Sources: John Lennon and Paul McCartney: I Want to Hold Your Hand (124-32), She Loves You (124-32), All My Loving (124-32), Help! (133-37).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey, Sarah Florini

[+] Coyle, Michael. "Hijacked Hits and Antic Authenticity: Cover Songs, Race, and Postwar Marketing." In Rock Over the Edge: Transformations in Popular Music Culture, ed. Roger Beebe, Denise Fulbrook, and Ben Saunders, 133-157. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.

The term "cover" does not accurately describe the history behind or motivations for an artist recording a previously recorded song. In the 1950s, listeners did not make the same associations between song and singer that they make today; therefore re-recording a song was not understood as a reference in any way to the earlier artist. "The music itself" existed independently of its realization; therefore multiple versions of a song could circulate and not be considered to be referential. Re-recording a song that was circulating at the time was known as "hijacking a hit." It was not until Elvis re-recorded older R&B records that were no longer circulating that the cover song in the modern sense of the word came into existence.

Works: Chuck Willis (songwriter), Derek and the Dominos (performers): It's Too Late (151-52); Otis Redding (performer): It's Too Late (151-52).

Sources: Chuck Willis (songwriter and performer): It's Too Late (150-52); Otis Redding (performer): It's Too Late (151-52).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Culter, Chris. "Plunderphonia." Musicworks 60 (Summer 1994): 6-19.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Cusic, Don. "From Zap to Rap: Digital Sampling, Rap Music, and the Folk Tradition." The Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 54, no. 4 (1991): 139-43.

According to Charles Seeger, folk music represents the epitome of plagiarism. Since rap music relies so heavily on digital sampling, rap and folk music are therefore linked through similar processes of musical borrowing. The explanation for such borrowing is not plagiarism but a new definition of creativity: creativity as synthesis of existing materials. Rap and folk music are also extensions of oral traditions, which value synthesis over novelty.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Cusic, Don. "In Defense of Cover Songs." Popular Music and Society 28 (May 2005): 171-77.

Recording labels in Nashville demand that recording artists be singer-songwriters: that is, that musicians write and perform their own songs. Critics and fans believe that writing and performing one's own songs is the best measure of the legitimacy of a musician's abilities. This expectation ignores the potential value of cover songs and the interpretive skill of covering artists. Not only can a cover song provide a new interpretation of a song, but it may introduce music to new listeners who are unfamiliar with the original because of separation by time or genre. For covering artists, cover songs are important for three reasons: (1) the song has a proven track record of commercial success, (2) the song can act as a nod or tribute to an important influence on the artist, and (3) it can provide audiences with familiar music as they hear a new artist.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Daley, Mike. "Patti Smith's 'Gloria': Intertextual Play in a Rock Vocal Performance." Popular Music 16, no. 3 (October 1997): 235-53.

Patti Smith's version of Van Morrison's Gloria transforms the meaning of the original through the use of textual tropes and altered vocal performance that ultimately decenters the "dominant male rock singer" to clear out creative space for herself. In her version, Gloria in excelsis deo, Smith adds a great deal of text to the original lyrics but retains some of Morrison's text without changing the male perspective, deliberately playing up the male sexual undertones. Smith also utilizes a number of subtle vocal inflections to emphasize specific words and phrases and bring out meaning in the text. These vocal performance techniques include qualities such as "raspy," "hard/nasal," "breathy," or "creaky," as well as exaggerated or closed vowel sounds and pitch inflections. An appendix contains the text to Morrison's Gloria and a transcription of Smith's version featuring both traditional staff notation and the author's notation for indicating vocal performance techniques.

Works: Van Morrison and Patti Smith: Gloria in excelsis deo.

Sources: Van Morrison: Gloria.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Davies, Hugh. "A History of Sampling." Organised Sound: An International Journal of Music Technology 1, no.1 (April 1996): 3-11.

The commercially available samplers invented in the 1980s have a long history that can be seen to include the early digital (but not binary) technology of the telegraph up until the invention of modern digital technology. After World War I inventors constructed and patented musical instruments based on available sound recording technologies as well as early versions of magnetic tape recorder dictating machines. This is generally considered the first "sampler." By 1948, Pierre Schaeffer initiated musique concrète and developed a technique similar to the later tape loop, the sillon fermé. Influenced by the invention of magnetic tape, Schaeffer transferred all of his disc recording techniques to the medium of magnetic tape and patented his Phonogène in the 1950s. In 1964, the first successful instrument based on magnetic tape technology, the Mellotron, was marketed. The first digital sampling instruments appeared in the early 1970s, and by the second half of the 1980s digital sampling technology had become a standard part of every electronic piano, organ, or synthesizer. Musicians have explored extensively the possibilities of the manipulation of recorded sound. The phonograph has been used for works like John Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 5 as well as "scratching" by DJs in the popular music tradition. Other works have used this technology to manipulate pre-existing recorded works by other artists, generating conflict with copyright law. Among these works are James Tenney's Collage No. 1 ('Blue Suede') and John Oswald's Plunderphonics. Live manipulations of prerecorded magnetic tape material, such as Laurie Anderson's Tape Bow Violin, have also been explored. Commercial digital samplers are now used in a variety of contemporary composers' works, such as Michel Waisvisz 's The Archaic Symphony or Nicolas Collins's Devil's Music.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Epstein, Dena J. "A White Origin for the Black Spiritual?: An Invalid Theory and How It Grew." American Music 1 (Summer 1983): 53-59.

The myth that the black spiritual was completely derived from white folk hymns is one of the most pervasive in the literature about black folk music. Early studies of black folk music such as Richard Wallaschek's Primitive Music (1893) and George Pullen Jackson's White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (1933) relied solely on transcriptions, a process which does not account for performative and aural contexts of folk music. In effect, these studies mistakenly equated transcriptions with the music as it was performed and thus tacitly assumed that any deviation from the diatonic scale was due to a performer's misinterpretation of music of white origins. These analyses do not account for the process of syncretism which had to have taken place between African- and European-derived musical elements in the development of the black spiritual.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Everett, Walter. "The Learned vs. the Vernacular in the Songs of Billy Joel." Contemporary Music Review 18, no. 4 (2000): 105-129.

Due to his formal musical training and informal musical upbringing, Billy Joel was equally adept at incorporating both classical and popular styles in his songs depending on the expressive context of the lyrics. Many of his songs deliberately quote popular tunes, while others are either modeled after specific songs, especially by the Beatles, or are modeled after the general style of different popular artists (as shown in the appendix). Likewise, Joel was known to quote classical works in some of his songs, and many other songs exhibit a harmonic or contrapuntal language reminiscent either of classical style in general or of specific classical composers, especially Chopin. These learned and vernacular styles are exemplified particularly in two songs, James (1976) for the learned style and Laura (1983) for the vernacular style, and the personae of these two titular characters reflect the expressive correlations of their particular musical styles.

Works: Billy Joel: Storm Front (106), Lullabye (Goodnight, My Angel) (106), Modern Woman (106), All You Wanna Do Is Dance (106), C'etait toi (You Were the One) (106), Laura (106, 122-24), The Great Suburban Showdown (106), Uptown Girl (106), Captain Jack (107), Scandinavian Skies (107), A Room of Our Own (107), Just the Way You Are (107), Attila (album) (107), Why Judy Why (107), If I Only Had the Words (To Tell You) (107), 52nd Street (album) (107), This Night (110), Leningrad (110), Souvenir (110), The Ballad of Billy the Kid (111), She's Got a Way (111), James (119-22).

Sources: Harold Arlen: Stormy Weather (106); Duke Ellington: Mood Indigo (106); Ethelbert Nevin: Mighty Lak' a Rose (106); John Lennon and Paul McCartney (songwriters), The Beatles (performers): Rubber Soul (album) (106), Here, There, and Everywhere (106), Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds (107), I Am the Walrus (107), Glass Onion (107), I Will (107), Birthday (107), Her Majesty (107); George Harrison (songwriter), The Beatles (performers): Something (107); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique) (110); Robert Schumann: Piano Concerto in A Minor, Op. 54 (110); Chopin: Prelude in D-flat Major, Op. 28, No. 15 (110), Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28, No. 4 (111-12); Copland: Appalachian Spring (111).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Fink, Robert. "The Story of ORCH5, or, The Classical Ghost in the Hip-Hop Machine." Popular Music 24 (October 2005): 339-56.

ORCH5, a digital sample of a single chord from Igor Stravinksy's Firebird created on the Fairlight Computer Musical Instrument, became one of the first recognized samples used in popular music. It was used as a sample in some eclectic electronic music in the early 1980s, but gained fame as the orchestral sound that began Afrika Bambaataa's seminal 1982 song Planet Rock. This song also prominently samples music from the German electronic group Kraftwerk, including a chromatic Weltschmerz theme from their song Trans Europe Express. Taken together, these two samples--a digital orchestral sound and a melody with intentional commentary on the decay of German music--create some unintended resonances of the decline of classical music in the Western world. While the use of ORCH5 in Planet Rock signals the decay of classical music in popular culture, the sample is also given new life by being appropriated into both the Afro-futurist movement and especially the early stages of hip-hop sampling, where it is used in the same capacity as a DJ's vinyl scratch.

Works: Kate Bush: The Dreaming (343); The Art of Noise: Close (to the Edit) (343); Afrika Bambaataa &the Soulsonic Force with Arthur Baker and John Robie: Planet Rock (343-54).

Sources: Stravinsky: The Firebird (341-54); Kraftwerk: Trans Europe Express (344-54), Numbers (344-54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Finson, Jon. "Music and Medium: Two Versions of Manilow's 'Could it be Magic.'" The Musical Quarterly 65 (April 1979): 265-80.

Barry Manilow and Adrienne Anderson wrote two versions of the 1975 hit "Could it be Magic." The first version was intended for the LP and FM radio airplay, while a substantially shortened second version was intended for a 45 single and AM radio airplay. "Could it be Magic" quotes intact a substantial amount of Chopin's Prelude Op. 28, No. 20 in C minor; the first version of the song begins with measures one through eight of the prelude and ends with measures nine through thirteen of the prelude. There are several possible reasons for quoting Chopin: this could be simply another example of the growing number of rock musicians who quote classical music; the composers seem to share a fascination for modal ambiguity with Chopin; Chopin's preludes have become part of a narrow canon of classical music known to composers of all musical genres; and the constant demand for novelty in the popular music industry has encouraged popular music artists to draw from other styles to ensure quick composition. The two versions of Manilow's song allow us to examine how a popular artist responds to the demands of different media.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Garnett, Liz. "Cool Charts or Barbertrash?: Barbershop Harmony's Flexible Concept of the Musical Work." Twentieth-Century Music 2 (September 2005): 245-63.

The field of modern competitive barbershop singing is in a state of crisis over falling membership and popularity, and repertoire is one variable being considered as a means of increasing the appeal of barbershop music. This particular genre tends to blur the distinctions between composer, arranger, and performer. As a result, the product of that network, the musical work, acquires an equally fluid identity. A question of ownership arises: what is "the work" and to whom does it belong? Arrangements vary in their fidelity to an original published tune, and a certain amount of improvisation or rearranging is expected in barbershop, at the very least in the form of tags or codas at the end of a chart.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Givan, Ben. “Django Reinhardt’s I’ll See You in My Dreams.Annual Review of Jazz Studies 12 (2002): 41-62.

A jazz performer’s improvisation on a given model can provide insight into that performer’s understanding of the model’s essential elements. What the performer preserves, avoids, and manipulates from the model can indicate not only that performer’s competency, but also their inventiveness. Django Reinhardt’s 1939 recording of Isham Jones’s I’ll See You in My Dreams is one such example. In the context of a rhythmically repetitive structure, Reinhardt creates variety by alternatively highlighting and obscuring phrase boundaries. In cases of the former, Reinhardt includes chromatic turns at midpoints and endings of choruses. In cases of the latter, Reinhardt repeats rhythmic motives across phrases. Additionally, Reinhardt’s use of paraphrase and thematic improvisation demonstrates a deep understanding of the melody from Jones’s model. When paraphrasing, Reinhardt preserves between one and six measures of the melody; longer paraphrases, however, are rare. In thematic improvisations, Reinhardt highlights an important large-scale melodic connection in one of two ways. In the first, he foregrounds the connection as a short melody and plays it repeatedly; in the second, he increases the technical virtuosity of his improvisation while maintaining the melodic outline of the model.

Works: Isham Jones (composer) and Django Reinhardt (performer): I’ll See You in My Dreams (41-58).

Sources: Isham Jones: I’ll See You in My Dreams (41-42).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Givan, Benjamin. “The South-Grappelli Recordings of the Bach Double Violin Concerto.Popular Music and Society 29 (2006): 335-57.

The South-Grappelli recordings of Bach's Double Violin Concerto with Django Reinhardt in 1937 were, in addition to an aesthetically adventurous experiment, a socio-political statement based on the diverse musical and cultural backgrounds of the performers. The recordings were organized by Charles Delaunay, who convinced the reluctant violinists to record Bach's score without rehearsal. The first recording corresponds highly to the score: only a handful of ornamentations decorate the violinists' notes, and Grappelli omits some of his part. The second recording involves a much freer interpretation of the Bach original by both violinists, and Reinhardt's accompaniment is highly altered. In both cases, most of Bach's music was omitted so that the recordings could fit on a 78 rpm disc.

Works: Stéphane Grappelli and Eddie South: Interprétation Swing du Première Mouvement du Concerto en Re Mineur de Jean-Sébastien Bach (336-40, 351-54), Improvisation sur le Première Mouvement du Concerto en Re Mineur de Jean-Sébastien Bach (336-40, 351-54).

Sources: Johann Sebastian Bach: Concerto for Two Violins in D minor, BWV 1043 (335-54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Goodwin, Andrew. "Sample and Hold: Pop Music in the Digital Age of Reproduction." In On Record: Rock, Pop, and the Written Word, ed. Simon Frith and Andrew Goodwin, 258-273. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990.

Sampling techniques in popular music give credence to Walter Benjamin's theory of the "age of reproduction." Recent trends in popular music have seen the resurrection of older popular music through two means: new digital reproductions of otherwise unavailable records; and the integration of samples from older music into new music. There are so many references in today's pop music that we now have references to references of original sources. Authorship and authenticity are problematized in the process. Some popular artists claim that samples and references preserve a popular music archive, but by reproducing these sounds digitally, the human element of original production is lost.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Greenwald, Jeff. "Hip-Hop Drumming: The Rhyme May Define, but the Groove Makes You Move." Black Music Research Journal 22 (Autumn 2002): 259-71.

The importance of drums in hip-hop is often overlooked, but the drums establish the groove, emphasize the vocal style, and enhance the music beyond its vocal content. Ingrid Monson's discussion of repetition in African diasporic musics and Olly Wilson's concept of the heterogeneous sound ideal in African and African American musics can both be applied to the sonic role of drumming. Both sampling and drum machines play integral roles in hip-hop drumming, but the drum machine is more flexible than a sample because drum machines allow subtle changes to the beat without the necessity of a live performer. A Tribe Called Quest's Everything Is Fair, for example, mimics the delivery of Clyde Stubblefield's drum break in James Brown's Funky Drummer, but incorporates further syncopation and a pause before the downbeat emphasis.

Works: A Tribe Called Quest: Everything Is Fair (268-70).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (261-63, 268-70).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Griffiths, Dai. "Cover Versions and the Sound of Identity in Motion." In Popular Music Studies, ed. David Hesmondhalgh and Keith Negus, 51-64. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Cover versions of songs invite analysis of the effects of musical change, particularly when cover versions cross lines of gender, sexuality, race, place, class, and language. For example, Judy Collins's cover of Bob Dylan's Just Like a Woman can be read as a monologue, a lesbian version, an address to another woman, or a strict rendition of the original because Collins does not change any of the gendered pronouns from Dylan's original lyrics. Additionally, covers across race lines may either appropriate stylistic elements from the original or rewrite the cover version in a different style. International or cross-language covers often designate English as the hegemonic norm and raise questions about the use of another language as merely an exotic type of instrument. A discography of all music discussed is included.

Works: Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Thelma Houston (performer): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Communards (performers): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Bob Dylan (songwriter), Roberta Flack (performer): Just Like a Woman (52-53); Bob Dylan (songwriter), Judy Collins (performer): Just Like a Woman (53-54); John Gluck, Wally Gold, and Herb Weiner (songwriters), Bryan Ferry (performer): It's My Party (54); Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller (songwriters), Elvis Presley (performer): Hound Dog (55-56); Little Richard (songwriter), Pat Boone (performer): Long Tall Sally (55-57); Hank Williams (songwriter), Ray Charles (performer): Your Cheatin' Heart (55, 57, 59-60); Paul Simon (songwriter), Simon and Garfunkel (performers): Bridge Over Troubled Water (58-59); Paul Simon (songwriter), Aretha Franklin (performer): Bridge Over Troubled Water (59).

Sources: Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Harold Melvin and the Bluenotes with Teddy Pendergrass (performers): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Bob Dylan: Just Like a Woman (52); John Gluck, Wally Gold, and Herb Weiner (songwriters), Lesley Gore (performer): It's My Party (54); Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller (songwriters), Big Mama Thornton (performer): Hound Dog (55-56); Little Richard: Long Tall Sally (55-57); Hank Williams: Your Cheatin' Heart (55, 57, 59-60); Claude Jeter (songwriter), Swan Silvertones (performers): Mary Don't You Weep (58-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Gunkel, David J. "Rethinking the Digital Remix: Mash-Ups and the Metaphysics of Sound Recording." Popular Music and Society 31 (October 2008): 489-510.

The popularity of the mash-up, a product of what Wired magazine has termed "cut and paste culture," can be evaluated with regard to Plato's Phaedrus. The idea of writing as a method of fixing an original performance maps onto recording technology and its practice of fixing an aural event in a recording. The mash-up manipulates a recording, undermines its originality and authority, manufactures copies from copies, and combines seemingly incompatible components. For example, Danger Mouse's Grey Album mashes the vocal track of Jay-Z's Black Album with instrumental samples from the Beatles' White Album. The mash-up also appears consistent with Theodor Adorno's assertion that most popular music is easily replicated and substitutable. Mash-ups delight in all of the elements deemed negative by Plato, such as plagiarism, inauthenticity, and repetition.

Works: Danger Mouse (Brian Burton): The Grey Album (490, 498, 502); Mark Vidler: Ray of Gob (491, 497-99).

Sources: The Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr): The White Album [The Beatles] (490, 498); Jay-Z: The Black Album (490, 498); Madonna: Ray of Light (497-99); Sex Pistols: Pretty Vacant (497-99), God Save the Queen (497-499).

Index Classifications: 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Gunther, John G. “Transmigrations of Body and Soul: Three Contemporary Interpretations of a Jazz Classic Analyzed and Applied to Performance.” In Five Perspectives on “Body and Soul”: And Other Contributions to Music Performance Studies, ed. Claudia Emmenegger and Olivier Senn, 61-76. Zurich: Chronos, 2011.

Transcribing jazz improvisations should entail more than note-by-note recording, especially for advanced performance students. Three additional steps reinforce the pedagogical benefits of transcription: an overall description of what occurs in an improvisation, an assessment of the musical parameters that the improvisation highlights, and an application of that assessment to creating improvisations in a similar style. Analyses of three interpretations of Body and Soul by Bill Frisell, Cassandra Wilson, and Keith Jarrett encourage three different approaches to improvisation. From Frisell, an improvisational model includes incorporating looping technology for repeating aleatoric motives. From Wilson, an improvisational model encourages a singer to replace the notes of a song while keeping its lyrics. Finally, from Jarrett, an improvisational model provides a performer with preset motives that can be manipulated with a large-scale formal trajectory in mind.

Works: Johnny Green: Body and Soul as performed by Bill Frisell (64-66), Cassandra Wilson (66-69), and Keith Jarrett (70-75).

Sources: Johnny Green: Body and Soul (61-62).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Holm-Hudson, Kevin. "John Oswald's Rubaiyat (Elektrax) and the Politics of Recombinant Do-Re-Mi." Popular Music and Society 20, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 19-36.

Advances in technology in the twentieth century, such as the reproduction and manipulation of sound, have led to controversies regarding intellectual property, copyright law, and even the very definition of the "musical work." Modern sampling techniques allow artists to appropriate pre-existing musical material and then alter its codes of meaning through processes of recontextualization and alteration. This act of generating meaning through the use of existing "musical artifacts" can be highly subversive, as is the case with John Oswald's 1989 CD Plunderphonics and subsequent CD Rubaiyat (Elektrax). For Rubaiyat (Elektrax), commissioned by Electra records for the company's fortieth anniversary, Oswald utilized pre-existing material recorded by Electra artists as raw material that was then altered using various techniques that undermine and change the work's original meaning. Oswald's techniques include recontexualization of familiar material, the restoration of a previously controversial or "banished" text, and encouraging the listener to create similar works at home with available technology.

Works: John Oswald: O Hell (25-28), Vane (28-29), Mother (29-30), Plunderphonics (24-25), Rubaiyat (Elektrax) (25-34).

Sources: John Densmore, Robbie Krieger, Ray Manzarek, and Jim Morrison [The Doors]: Hello, I Love You (26-28), When the Music's Over (26-28); Carly Simon: You're So Vain (28-29), You're So Vain as performed by Faster Pussycat (28-29); Michael Davis, Wayne Kramer, Fred "Sonic" Smith, Dennis Thompson, and Rob Tyner [MC5]: Kick Out the Jams (29-30).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Holm-Hudson, Kevin. "Quotation and Context: Sampling and John Oswald's Plunderphonics." Leonardo Music Journal: Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology 7 (1997): 17-25.

Though sampling only emerged with the invention of digital technology in the 1980s, it is best understood as part of the long history of musical borrowing. Specific melodic quotation, akin to literal sampling, can be found throughout western art music in the works of composers like Bach, Berlioz, Tchaikovsky, and Ives. In this repertoire, the context in which the quotation appears imposes commentary or new meaning on the original. A similar process occurs with digital sampling where meaning is often generated through recontextualization and juxtaposition of samples. In attempts to generate a "taxonomy" of sampling practices, scholars David Sanjek, Thomas Porcello, and Chris Cutler have created classification systems based, respectively, on reconcilability of the source, procedural methods, and in terms similar to Christopher Ballentine's "musical-philosophical" ideals. The central difference between digital sampling and traditional borrowing is that "the timbre is appropriated in addition to pitch and rhythm." In addition to illustrating the role of recontextualization of sampled material in creating meaning, John Oswald's works Plunderphonics and Plexure demonstrate the role of timbre in conveying musical meaning. For example, Oswald experiments with the timbre of Michael Jackson's voice in the piece "DAB" on Plunderphonics.

Works: Alex Paterson and Youth [Orb]: Little Fluffy Clouds (18-19); James Tenney: Collage #1: Blue Suede (19); John Oswald: Plunderphonics (20-23), DAB (21-22), Plexure (23-24).

Sources: Ennio Morricone: Score for Once Upon a Time in the West (18-19); Steve Reich: Electric Counterpoint (18-19); Carl Perkins: Blue Suede Shoes as performed by Elvis Presley (19); Michael Jackson: Bad (21-22).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Hoshowsky, Robert. "Plunderphonics Pioneer." Performing Art and Entertainment in Canada 31, no. 1 (Summer 1997): 12-13.

John Oswald's now infamous works were created through analogue and digital editing and recombining of pre-existing musical material. Oswald adjusted the speed, timbre, pitch, and other aspects of various fragments of music and then combined and layered them to create a type of musical collage. In 1989, he generated a great deal of controversy with the release of his album Plunderphonics, which consisted of exclusively borrowed material. Though Oswald had produced the album at his own expense and was receiving no profit from the endeavor, giving the copies away to libraries, radio stations, and others for free, legal action was taken by Michael Jackson, CBS Records, and the Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA). Oswald was forced to destroy the Plunderphonics master copy and any remaining copies in his possession. Since then, Oswald has produced Rubaiyat for Electra Records' 40th anniversary and the two-CD set Plexure. In Plexure, Oswald plays with the "threshold of recognizability" or the amount of material a listener must hear to identify the original source.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Huang, Hao, and Rachel V. Huang. “Billie Holiday and Tempo Rubato: Understanding Rhythmic Expressivity.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 7 (1996): 181-200.

Billie Holiday's recordings reveal a sophisticated use of tempo rubato, the slowing-down and speeding-up of a melody over a steady accompaniment. While Holiday's version of a tune rarely strays from the pitch material of the original, the rhythmic comparison is considerably more complex. Holiday tends to begin her lines or melodic fragments late relative to the accompaniment, yet she catches up to the accompaniment by the end of the passage. In fact, Holiday takes the given melody at a faster tempo than the original. Transcriptions of Holiday's recordings indicate that the ratio between her tempo and that of the accompaniment is as advanced as 6 to 5 or 7 to 5, a much higher ratio than similar procedures found in African, Afro-Cuban, and African-American music (such as the music of Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith).

Works: Cole Porter: What is This Thing Called Love as performed by Billie Holiday (182-92) and Ella Fitzgerald (185-86); Gerald Marks and Seymour Simons (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): All of Me (192-94).

Sources: Cole Porter: What is This Thing Called Love (182-92); Gerald Marks and Seymour Simons: All of Me (192-94).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Hunter, Mead. "Interculturalism and American Music." Performing Arts Journal 11, no. 3 and 12, no. 1 (1988): 186-202.

Interculturalism, musical borrowing from multiple cultures, is a burgeoning trend in twentieth-century art music, theatrical music (opera, musicals, Gesamtkunstwerks), film music, and popular music. "World beat," an aesthetic that fuses popular styles from different parts of the world, is one manifestation of interculturalism. Interculturalism creates meaning in musical works, which manifest as political statements, instructional tools, "syntheses of styles, cultures and perspectives," or works that embrace or reject particular cultural values. These extramusical meanings result from various intercultural borrowing techniques, including patchwork, collage, and "suggestive" allusion (stylistic and pertaining to specific works).

Works: Dissidenten: Sahara Electric (190); Toshi Tsuchotoris: score to Mahabharata (192); Bob Telson: score to Sister Suzie Cinema (192-93), score to The Gospel at Colona (193), score to The Warrior Ant (194); Philip Glass: Satyagraha (196), Akhnaten (197-98); John Cage: Truckera (200), Europeras 1 &2 (200-201).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Jones, Andrew. Plunderphonics, 'Pataphysics, and Pop Mechanics: An Introduction to musique actuelle. Wembley, Middlesex, England: SAF Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Katz, Mark. "Music in 1s and 0s: The Art and Politics of Digital Sampling." Chapter 7 in Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, 137-57. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.

Digital sampling is a specific type of musical borrowing in which one recorded sound is incorporated into a new recorded sound. Sampling, unlike other types of musical borrowing, is able to manipulate the recorded sounds of specific performances. Sampling is a transformative art, rather than a practice of technological quotation. New works, such as Fatboy Slim's Praise You, which samples Camille Yarbrough's Take Yo' Praise, raise questions about creativity, originality, gender, race, and class. An accompanying CD provides recordings of several mentioned works.

Works: Eric B. and Rakim: Lyrics of Fury (137); Philip King (composer), Sinéad O'Connor (performer): I Am Stretched on Your Grave (137); Robert Hunter and Jerry Garcia (songwriters), Sublime (performers): Scarlet Begonias (137); George Michael: Waiting for that Day (137); Paul Lansky: Notjustmoreidlechatter (141-145); Fatboy Slim: Praise You (145-151); Public Enemy: Fight the Power (151-156).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (137, 152, 154): Camille Yarbrough: Take Yo' Praise (145-151); Trouble Funk: Pump Me Up (151, 157).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Korman, Clifford. “Criss Cross: Motivic Construction in Composition and Improvisation.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 10 (1999): 103-26.

Jazz analysts have frequently pointed to Thelonious Monk's Criss Cross as an exemplar of motivic development and coherence in jazz literature. Full transcriptions of Monk's four recordings of Criss Cross, previously unavailable in analytical literature, confirm and elaborate on this claim. Monk's melody is composed entirely of three measure-long motives and variants of those motives. His improvisations incorporate these motives at their respective places in the original melody. In both the main statement and solo sections of two recordings from 1963 and 1971, Monk augments the motives rhythmically, changes the timings of some eighth-note passages, enriches the accompaniment in the left hand, and adjusts the lengths of concluding notes. Monk's solos occasionally deviate from motivic coherence, especially in two recordings from 1951. Deviations most often occur, however, when previous solos by members of Monk's band focus more on harmonic and scalar improvisation than motivic improvisation. Milt Jackson and Sahib Shibab, both on the two 1951 recordings, use a vocabulary that consists of bebop and quotation. In contrast, Charlie Rouse, on the 1963 and 1971 recordings, maintains motivic coherence in his improvisations with Monk's theme.

Works: Thelonious Monk: Criss Cross as recorded in 1951, 1963, and 1971.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Krasnow, Carolyn. "Fear and Loathing in the 1970s: Race, Sexuality and Disco." Stanford Humanities Review 3, no. 2 (Fall 1993): 37-45.

In the late 1960s rock began to appropriate values more closely resembling the classical tradition, such as virtuosity, creativity, and originality. One of the complaints leveled against newly emergent disco by proponents of rock was disco's perpetual use of pre-recorded music as the basis of new dance tracks. Reusing existing music was seen as an affront to rock's newly won creativity and individuality and represented a collective approach to music found frequently in African-American musical traditions. Because of its use of musical borrowing, therefore, disco represented a challenge to white hegemony in the production of popular culture.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Kugelberg, Johan, ed. Born in the Bronx: A Visual Record of the Early Days of Hip Hop. New York: Rizzoli, 2007.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Lacasse, Serge. "Intertextuality and Hypertextuality in Recorded Popular Music." In The Musical Work: Reality or Invention?, ed. Michael Talbot, 35-58. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000.

In his book Palimpsestes: la littérature au second degree, Gérard Genette addresses intertextual and hypertextual relationships between texts utilizing a theoretical framework that could be enlightening if applied to recorded popular music. Genette defines intertextuality as the "actual presence of a text within another." Thus, the techniques of quotation and allusion fall into this category. Genette goes on to define hypertextuality as the modeling of a new text (the hypertext) on a previous text (the hypotext). Parody, which is defined as the alteration of subject matter while retaining style characteristics, and its converse travesty, in which the subject matter is retained but the style is altered, fall under this category. Also, included in the category of hypertextuality are pastiche, covering, copy, translation, instrumental cover, and various types of remixes. An additional distinction in the categorization of intertextual relationships is the differentiation between borrowings with a "sameness of spelling" or autosonic borrowing (e.g., sampling) and those with a "sameness of sounding" or allosonic borrowings (e.g., a performed allusion or quotation).

Works: John Bonham, Puff Daddy (Sean Combs), Mark Curry, Jimmy Page, and Robert Plant: Come With Me (39-40); Kurt Cobain, Nirvana, and Weird Al Yancovic: Smells Like Nirvana (41-42); Noel Gallagher: Wonderwall as performed by Mike Flowers (42); Arthur 'Big Boy' Crudup: That's All Right as performed by Elvis Presley (46).

Sources: John Bonham, Jimmy Page, and Robert Plant [Led Zeppelin]: Kashmir (40); Kurt Cobain and Nirvana: Smells Like Teen Spirit (41-42); Noel Gallagher [Oasis]: Wonderwall (42); Arthur 'Big Boy' Crudup: That's All Right (46).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Lacasse, Serge. "La musique pop incestueuse: Une introduction à al transphonographie." Circuit: Musiques Contemporaines 18 (2008): 11-26.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

[+] Magee, Jeffrey. "'Everybody Step': Irving Berlin, Jazz, and Broadway in the 1920s." Journal of the American Musicological Society 59 (Fall 2006): 697-732.

In the early 1920s, when public familiarity and associations with jazz were amorphous and inconsistent, Irving Berlin cultivated a sense that his theatrical music defined jazz. In addition to textual and musical references to ragtime or blues characteristics, Berlin used quotations of his own music, which had already gained ragtime associations, to reinforce this idea. One notable example is Berlin's quotation of his earlier songs Alexander's Ragtime Band, Everybody's Doing It Now, and The Syncopated Walk in his 1921 Everybody Step. Berlin's self-borrowing ranged from nearly exact quotation of a full phrase of both music and lyrics to more subtle use of one- or two-measure units of rhythms, fills, or pick-ups that were nevertheless recognizable as being drawn from his earlier pieces. The earlier songs' associations with jazz implied that Berlin's newer music also fit into the genre. To further build upon this personal jazz lineage, Berlin borrowed from Everybody Step in later works.

Works: Irving Berlin: Everybody Step (698-10), The Syncopated Vamp (706, 708), Pack Up Your Sins and Go to The Devil (710-12).

Sources: Irving Berlin: Alexander's Ragtime Band (706-07, 709-10), Everybody's Doing It Now (706, 708-09), The Syncopated Walk (706-09), Everybody Step (710-13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Magee, Jeffrey. "Irving Berlin's 'Blue Skies': Ethnic Affiliations and Musical Transformations." Musical Quarterly 84 (Winter 2000): 537-80.

Applying the technique of a "song profile," or the compositional and performance history of a tune that reveals socially constructed meanings, to Irving Berlin's Blue Skies reveals several borrowings that suggest reinterpretation. Many of Berlin's songs reflect a Jewish tradition, incorporating modal mixture and chromatic inflection. Although this tradition is not uniquely Jewish, listeners interpreted as such in Manhattan in Berlin's day. Looking at the tune history of Blue Skies demonstrates the shift from its Jewish origins in the 1920s to subsequent revisions that change its ethnic associations. A performer such as Belle Baker, for example, who sang the song in Betsy, attempted to identify directly with Jewish culture, whereas Al Jolson, who played straightforward and jazzy renditions in The Jazz Singer, gave the song, in addition to its Jewish characteristics, jazz overtones. Benny Goodman and Mary Lou Williams employed allusion; Bing Crosby crooned a slow, balladic version and marketed it toward a broader, Caucasian, middle-class audience. Through contrafact, Thelonius Monk virtually disguised the source in In Walked Bud, while Ella Fitzgerald used scat. Willie Nelson and Pete Seeger reinterpreted the song further to represent an American folk song. Above all, the transcendent power of the tune proves the "assimilative power of Jewish culture" and effectively reinforces its roots.

Works: Rodgers and Hart: Betsy (552-57); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer (557-59), Fletcher Henderson and Benny Goodman (559-63); Mary Lou Williams: Trumpet No End, arrangement for Duke Ellington (560-62); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Bing Crosby (563-65); Thelonius Monk: In Walked Bud (566-69); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Ella Fitzgerald (569-70), Willie Nelson (570-71), Pete Seeger (571-72).

Sources: Berlin: Blue Skies (537-38, 540-44, 547, 549-52, 572-73).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Marcus, Jason. "Don't Stop That Funky Beat: The Essentiality of Digital Sampling to Rap Music." COMM-ENT: Hastings Journal of Communications and Entertainment Law 13, no. 4 (Summer 1991): 767-90.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] mcclung, bruce d. "Life after George: The Genesis of Lady in the Dark's Circus Dream." Kurt Weill Newsletter 14, no. 2 (Fall 1996): 4-8.

Kurt Weill originally conceived the third dream sequence in Lady in the Dark as a minstrel show, but lyricist Ira Gershwin preferred Gilbert and Sullivan as a model, particularly Trial by Jury. Early drafts and the final version include many parallels and echoes in the text. Weill joined in by borrowing the Mikado's entrance song from The Mikado for the entrance of the jury.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] McLeod, Kembrew. "Confessions of an Intellectual (Property): Danger Mouse, Mickey Mouse, Sonny Bono, and My Long and Winding Path as a Copyright Activist-Academic." Popular Music and Society 28 (February 2005): 79-93.

The electronic collage aesthetic, which originated with musique concrète and tape works such as John Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 5 and Bill Buchanan and Dickie Goodman's The Flying Saucer, finds its modern incarnation in Danger Mouse's The Grey Album, a mash-up of Jay-Z's The Black Album and The Beatles' White Album. The current mash-up phenomenon is made possible by file-sharing software and readily available mixing programs. The Grey Album presents a legal quagmire because the samples were used without permission of EMI, prompting cease-and-desist letters to all those who circulated the album. Current laws only permit covers of songs, and sampling without permission is prohibited. Until copyright laws catch up with the collage aesthetic, the limited legality of fair use rights has the potential to stifle creativity and the free exchange of ideas.

Works: Danger Mouse (Brian Burton): The Grey Album (79-81); Freelance Hellraiser (Roy Kerr): A Stroke of Genie-us (82, 86-87); Soulwax: Smells Like Teen Booty (82, 84); Alan Copeland: Mission: Impossible Theme/Norwegian Wood (85); Negativland: U2 (88); Illegal Art: Sonny Bono is Dead (91), Deconstructing Beck (91).

Sources: The Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr): The White Album [The Beatles] (79-81); Jay-Z: The Black Album (79-81); Kurt Cobain, Dave Grohl, and Krist Novoselic (songwriters), Nirvana (performers): Smells Like Teen Spirit (82, 84); Rob Fusair, Falonte Moore, and Beyoncé Knowles (songwriters), Destiny?s Child (performers): Bootylicious (82, 84); Eminem: Without Me (84-85); Kevin Rowland, Big Jim Paterson, and Billy Adams (songwriters), Dexy's Midnight Runners (performers): Come On Eileen (84-85); U2: I Still Haven?t Found What I?m Looking For (88).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] McLeod, Ken. "'A Fifth of Beethoven': Disco, Classical Music, and the Politics of Inclusion." American Music 24 (Autumn 2006): 347-363.

For a short time in the 1970s, disco provided a place in which various cultures could coexist on the dance floor, and such diversity is reflected in the music, such as in Walter Murphy's A Fifth of Beethoven and David Shire's A Night on Disco Mountain. Murphy's A Fifth of Beethoven is primarily based on the first theme area of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 and opens with a quotation from the opening of the first movement. This opening motive is set against a 4/4 disco pattern of electric bass, acoustic drum set, and clavinet playing composed material. Recalling the French horn bridge to the second theme area, Murphy alternates C and Eb whole notes, marking the beginning of the B section, but, rather than following sonata form, Murphy keeps A Fifth of Beethoven firmly in C minor throughout. By not modulating and by using static harmonies and a persistent rhythmic drive, A Fifth of Beethoven exemplifies the "inclusive homogeneity" that was a marker of disco style. Shire's A Night on Disco Mountain, like its Mussorgsky source, employs a wide range of sources for its orchestration, including a wah-wah electric guitar. The combination of sounds serves as a reflection of the diversity on the disco dance floor. While this was a short-lived phenomenon, disco borrowings of classical music served to exemplify the pluralism of disco.

Works: Walter Murphy: A Fifth of Beethoven (349-57, 260-61); David Shire: A Night on Disco Mountain (349-51, 357-58, 360-61).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (351-56); Mussorgsky: Night on Bald Mountain (349-51, 357-58, 360-61).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] McLeod, Ken. "Bohemian Rhapsodies: Operatic Influences on Rock Music." Popular Music 20 (May 2001): 189-203.

Although opera and rock music are seemingly situated on different sides of a cultural, stylistic, and aesthetic divide, rock and pop songs of the 1970s and later have occasionally appropriated some style characteristics from opera. Although many rock works are considered "rock operas" and some classical works were written by rock musicians, none of these works owes much to the stylistic norms of the other genre. On the other hand, a work like Queen's Bohemian Rhapsody (from the 1974 album A Night at the Opera) does incorporate many operatic characteristics, such as a cappella vocals, lamenting ballads, sarcastic recitatives, distorted operatic phraseology, underworld motifs, and so forth. These characteristics are not instances of direct borrowing of any operatic source, but are rather more general features of the style, integrated and exaggerated as a parody. Punk rock artists in the 1980s like Nina Hagen, Klaus Nomi, and Malcolm McLaren incorporated opera more directly, with more reverence for the genre, and with the intention of promoting female and homosexual voices. Hagen incorporated expressionist operatic influences and coloratura technique into her music. Nomi appropriated entire operatic arias into his eclectic music, including Handel's aria "Total Eclipse" from Samson, not as a parody but rather with a camp aesthetic. McLaren created dance-rock versions of grand opera, including "Un bel dì" from Madama Butterfly and the "The Flower Duet" from Délibe's Lakmé.

Works: Freddie Mercury (songwriter), Queen (performers): Bohemian Rhapsody (192-194); Nina Hagen: New York, New York (196); Kristian Hoffman (songwriter), Klaus Nomi (performer): Total Eclipse (197-98); Purcell (composer), Klaus Nomi (arranger/performer): The Cold Song (197); Saint-Saëns (composer), Klaus Nomi (arranger/performer): Samson and Delilah (Aria) (197); Malcolm McLaren: Madame Butterfly (198-99).

Sources: David Bowie: Fashion (196); Purcell: King Arthur (197); Saint-Saëns: Samson et Dalila (197); Handel: Samson (197-98); Puccini: Madama Butterfly (198-99); Délibe: Lakmé (199).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Meintjes, Louise. "Paul Simon's Graceland, South Africa, and the Mediation of Musical Meaning." Ethnomusicology 34 (1990): 37-73.

Paul Simon's Graceland is an excellent example of both artistic and stylistic collaboration. Simon and Ladysmith Black Mambazo navigate through traditional South African and American popular styles in a constantly changing compositional process. Three songs from this album, "Gumboots," "The Boy in the Bubble," and "That Was Your Mother," are particularly interesting because they are cover versions of African popular songs. Simon credits the authors of the first two songs, but neglects to do so for the third. The differences in crediting represent the complex issues of collaboration on an international scale.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Metzer, David. "Sampling and Thievery." Chapter 5 in Quotation and Cultural Meaning in Twentieth-Century Music, 160-87. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Sampling constitutes a form of creative theft that should be seen within the history of musical borrowing. Sampling is mainly associated with digital technology beginning around 1980, and it is used in two main ways: to sample performance sounds, such as a cymbal crash, or to sample more extended sounds. One group that exemplifies creative theft is Negativland. who sampled the lead singer of U2 singing I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For and turned the singer into a whining voice. The artist Scanner travels the airwaves sampling personal phone calls. John Oswald sampled Michael Jackson's voice in BAD to create Oswald's own DAB. Oswald removed all markers of Jackson's voice until it no longer sounded like the artist, and, in so doing, used Jackson's own medium against him. This new form of musical borrowing, creative theft, is appropriate for our media-saturated environment.

Works: Puff Daddy and Faith Evans: I'll Be Missing You (160); Wyclef Jean: We Trying to Stay Alive (160); Janet Jackson: Got 'til it's Gone (160); Negativland: U2 (162, 166-67, 169-70); John Oswald: Plexure (171), Plunderphonic (177), DAB (178-81); Scanner: Sulphur (175); Tape-Beatles: Music with Sound (181-83).

Sources: Sting (songwriter), The Police (performers): Every Breath You Take (160); Bee Gees (Barry Gibb, Robin Gibb, and Maurice Gibb): Stayin' Alive (160); Joni Mitchell: Big Yellow Taxi (160, 163-64); U2: I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For (167); Buck Ram (songwriter), Dolly Parton (performer): The Great Pretender (177); Michael Jackson: BAD (178-81).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Metzer, David. “Black and White: Quotations in Duke Ellington’s ‘Black and Tan Fantasy.’” Chapter 2 in Quotation and Cultural Meaning in Twentieth-Century Music, 47-68. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Metzer, David. Quotation and Cultural Meaning in the Twentieth-Century Music. New Perspectives in Music History and Criticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

See annotations for individual chapters.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Middleton, Jason, and Roger Beebe. "The Racial Politics of Hybridity and 'Neo-Eclecticism' in Contemporary Popular Music." Popular Music 21 (May 2002): 159-72.

Producers of popular music at the turn of the twenty-first century developed hybrid music forms which combine rock music with styles and sounds of its competitors, particularly hip-hop. For example, groups such as Limp Bizkit graft the sound of record scratching and rapping into a rock band context, although record scratching is used as a sound in and of itself rather than in the service of sampling or other hip-hop musical devices. Additionally, music videos of these hybrid groups integrate visual components of both rock and rap videos. These groups assert their authenticity through textual, aural, and visual signifiers of a low socioeconomic status, which supposedly signals an allegiance with blacks.

Works: Limp Bizkit: Nookie (163, 167); Eminem: Guilty Conscience (163-64); Kid Rock: Cowboy (164-65); Dexter Holland (songwriter), The Offspring (performers): Pretty Fly (For a White Guy) (165-66).

Sources: N.W.A.: Straight Outta Compton (164-65).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Middleton, Richard. "Work-in(g)-Practice: Configurations of the Popular Music Intertext." In The Musical Work: Reality or Invention?, ed. Michael Talbot, 59-87. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000.

Popular music, as practice, differs from classical music, as a repertoire of iconic objects, in that the former places less emphasis on authorial attribution, involves greater collaboration between musicians, has blurred the distinction between "performance" and "composition," and overall features widespread use of borrowing procedures. "Intertextuality" is the best term that encompasses the borrowing practices of popular music. "Remixes" are one type of borrowing procedure, in which old songs are digitally re-worked in a new context. Bill Laswell creates remixes of the music of Miles Davis and Bob Marley. In the Davis remix, Laswell streamlines 38 minutes of music into fifteen, clarifies the instrumentation and textures through digital technology, reorders seamlessly connected sections, and highlights the similarities between all included source materials. Through his creative process, Laswell emerges more as a composer of something new, rather than a "remixer" of something old. In addition, the artist presents a remix of Marley's songs, but removes all of his prominent vocals. The result is not reggae, but rather a new "ambient gospel" genre. In part, these modern borrowing procedures in popular music have precedent in Western music history and are part of a long-established vernacular tradition. Other influences in popular music practice include multi-voiced repetition, best characterized as African-American "Signifyin(g)," which opposes the traditional Western concept of the singular "composer's voice." A semiotic dialogical theory can address these issues in popular music intertextuality. A final issue to consider is the opposition that emerges between intertextual musical performance and popular music recording, which preserves a specific version of a given song at its moment in time and highlights solo individualism. Remixes and cover songs highlight this tension; to accommodate this, one's analytical model must account for an "originating moment," the version of a song that is to be the measure for all others that re-create it.

Works: Bill Laswell: Panthalassa: The Remixes (62-67), Dreams of Freedom: Ambient Translations of Bob Marley in Dub (62, 67-71); Bob Marley: One Love (People Get Ready) (71); Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (79-80); Richard Ashcroft [Verve]: Bittersweet Symphony (82); Paul Anka: My Way as performed by Elvis Presley (82-83), Sid Vicious (83).

Sources: Joe Zawinul: In a Silent Way as performed by Miles Davis (63-67), Miles Davis: Shhh/Peaceful (63-67), It's About That Time (63-67); Bob Marley: One Love (People Get Ready) (67-69), Exodus (69-71); Curtis Mayfield: People Get Ready (71); Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers [Chic]: Good Times (79); John Deacon [Queen]: Another One Bites the Dust (79-80); Debbie Harry and Chris Stein [Blondie]: Rapture (79-80); Grandmaster Flash: Birthday Party (79); Sugarhill Gang: 8th Wonder (79); Spoonie Gee (Gabriel Jackson): Monster Jam (79); Mick Jagger and Keith Richards [Rolling Stones]: The Last Time (82); Paul Anka: My Way as performed by Frank Sinatra (82-83).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Moses, Oral L. "The Nineteenth-Century Spiritual Text: A Source for Modern Gospel." In Feel the Spirit: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Afro-American Music, ed. George R. Keck and Sherrill V. Martin, 49-60. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988.

African-American spirituals are one important textual source for contemporary gospel music. Gospel music addresses similar themes of hardship, struggle, and perseverance, all of which are prevalent in spiritual texts. At least three different twentieth-century gospel versions of the spiritual The Old Ship of Zion have been recorded by performers such as Wings Over Jordan and Modern Gospel. Although gospel performers sometimes change or omit words of a spiritual in gospel arrangements, the importance of the text and its ability to express the oral tradition of African American music remain in the foreground. An appendix lists examples of the various ways in which spiritual texts are borrowed for gospel songs, including chorus only, borrowed incipit, substitution of words, and chorus and stanza borrowed.

Works: Anonymous: Oh, Get Away, Jordan (51-52); Wings Over Jordan (performer): Old Ship of Zion (54-55); Thomas A. Dorsey: Old Ship of Zion (54-55); Modern Gospel (performers): Old Ship of Zion (54-55).

Sources: Anonymous: Oh, Give Way, Jordan (50-51); Anybody Here (52); Jacob?s Ladder (52-53); Keep Your Lamps Trimmed and Burning (52-53); Rise and Shine (52-53); Old Ship of Zion (54-55).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Mosher, Harold F. Jr. "The Lyrics of American Pop Music: A New Poetry." In American Popular Music: Readings from the Popular Press, ed. Timothy Scheurer. Vol. 2, The Age of Rock, 144-50. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University, 1990.

Mimetic songs are a trend in popular music, and the lyrics of these songs follow in the tradition of classical poetry. These songs have meanings, expressed "by simple implication, ambiguity, irony, symbolism, surrealistic devices, or by dramatic means." Paul Simon's songs provide rich examples of meaning, and they draw upon multiple voices, often one newly-composed and one borrowed from pre-existing material. A dramatic opposition and multiple meanings are created between two voices in both Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night and Scarborough Fair/Canticle. Humor and satire is found in At the Zoo.Mrs. Robinson offers a satirical or ironic view of the suburban housewife and includes a mocking reference to Jesus Loves Me This I Know.

Works: Paul Simon: America (146-47), Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night (147), Scarborough Fair/Canticle (147-48), At the Zoo (148), Mrs. Robinson (148-49), A Hazy Shade of Winter (149).

Sources: Franz Gruber: Silent Night (147); Traditional: Scarborough Fair (147); William B. Bradbury: Jesus Loves Me This I Know (149).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Nicholson, Sara. "Keep Going: The Use of Classical Music Samples in Mono's 'Hello Cleveland!'" ECHO: A Music-Centered Journal 4 (Spring 2002) [http://www.echo.ucla.edu/volume4-issue1/nicholson/nicholson1.html].

The duo Mono's 1997 album Formica Blues samples a variety of sources. For instance, the tenth track of the album, Hello Cleveland, samples works from Berio, Webern, Schoenberg, and Berg, which are combined with Mono's composed ambient setting. Depending on the listener, one would hear this track in two different ways. To a listener unfamiliar with classical music or with these particular source pieces, it might sound like a collection of undifferentiated "classical" sources. But to one more familiar with classical music and the tradition of borrowing, the song is full of potential meaning. However, when Mono provides the listener with such an abundance of sources, the knowing listener is left with a similar result as the unknowing listener: no single, unified narrative.

Works: Mono [Martin Virgo and Siobhan de Maré]: Formica Blues, Hello Cleveland.

Sources: Burt Bacharach: Walk on By; John Barry: Ipcress File; Miles Davis and Gil Evans: The Pan Piper; Berg: Lulu Suite; Schoenberg: Five Orchestral Pieces, Op. 16; Berio: Sinfonia; Webern: Six Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 6.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Oswald, John. "Plunderphonics, or Audio Piracy as a Compositional Prerogative." 1990. Available from http://www.halcyon.com/robinja/mythos/Plunderphonics. (Accessed 16 November 2002).

Legal rights over recorded sound materials involve many difficult issues. Although many artists have been incriminated for use of another's pitch and rhythmic materials, there is more difficulty concerning borrowing of timbres and less quantifiable musical elements within copyright laws. In fact, artists who use technology to create their works often use pitch and rhythm elements less than timbral elements. The oral tradition of popular music compounds this issue. Traditionally, plagiarism has been determined by the written notes on a page, but purely recorded musical works have no written component. This makes the case of copyright violation more difficult. Unique uses of instruments either associated with particular nationalities, such as the Trinidadian steel drum, or created from traditionally non-musical objects, such as a blade of grass cupped in one hands, also compound copyright issues. Does one's unique appropriation of such instruments give the person the rights over those sounds? Within American and Canadian copyright law, borrowing for pedagogical, illustrative, critical, and parody purposes qualifies as legal fair use. As long as the "economic viability" of the source work is maintained, there is no violation of copyright law. Moreover, borrowing of works in the public domain has no legal repercussions. Whether considered legal or not, all popular and folk music exists as public domain entities.

Works: Charles Ives: Symphony No. 3; George Harrison: My Sweet Lord; Jim Tenney: Collage 1.

Sources: Ronnie Mack: He's so Fine; Carl Perkins: Blue Suede Shoes.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Oswald, John. "Plunderphonics, or Audio Piracy as a Compositional Prerogative." Musicworks 34 (Spring 1986): 5-8.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Plasketes, George M. "The King Is Gone but Not Forgotten: Songs Responding to the Life, Death and Myth of Elvis Presley in the 1980s." Studies in Popular Culture 12, no. 1 (1988): 58-74.

In the 1980s, over one thousand songs have been written about Elvis Presley as an act of homage, parody, critique, commentary or interpretation, all of which use quotations from, references to, or imitations of his songs. These songs can be classified into four broad categories: deification, vilification, iconization, and demythification. The category of deification includes songs that juxtapose imagery of God or Jesus Christ with imagery associated with Elvis. The second category, vilification, includes songs that comment musically or lyrically on feeling betrayed by Elvis's drug use and subsequent demise. Iconization involves the stories, souvenirs, and songs of Elvis becoming associated as glorified, sacred, and permanent icons. Demythification involves songs and other media that comment on the commercialization of Elvis or counter popular Elvis myths.

Works: Paul Simon: Graceland (59, 62); Wall of Voodoo: Elvis Brought Dora a Cadillac (60); Mr. Bonus (Peter Holsapple): Elvis What Happened? (60, 65); Beatmistress/Diego [Death Ride]: Elvis Christ (60); Adrenalin O.D.: Velvet Elvis (60); Dead Milkmen: Going to Graceland (60, 70); Vandals: Elvis Decanter (61, 67); Mojo Nixon and Skip Roper: Elvis is Everywhere (61), Twilights Last Gleaming (61); Frank Zappa: Elvis Has Just Left the Building (61); Warren Zevon: Jesus Mentioned (61-62); Billy Joel: Allentown (62-63); John Hiatt: Riding with the King (62); John Fogarty: Big Train (From Memphis) (63); Elvis Costello: Brilliant Mistake (64); Robbie Robertson: American Roulette (64); Paul Westerberg [The Replacements]: Bastards of Young (64); Bono (Paul Hewson) and U2: Elvis Presley and America (64); Neil Young: My My, Hey Hey (Out of the Blue) (65); Bruce Springsteen: Johnny Bye Bye (66); Chris Barrows and Dorsey Martin [Pink Lincolns]: Velvet Elvis (67); Scott Kempner: Listening to Elvis as performed by Syd Straw (68); Exene Cervenka and John Doe [X]: Back 2 the Base (68); Forgotten Rebels: Elvis is Dead (69); Pink Slip Daddy: Elvis Zombie (70); Sons of Ishmael: Elvis Incorporated (70); Elvis Hitler: Disgraceland (70); Peter Holsapple [dB]: Rendezvous (70).

Sources: Chuck Berry: Bye Bye Johnny (66); Otis Blackwell: Don't Be Cruel as performed by Elvis Prelsey (68); Lou Handman and Roy Turk: Are You Lonesome Tonight? as performed by Elvis Prelsey (68); Paul Simon: Graceland (70).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Plasketes, George. "Cross Cultural Sessions: World Music Missionaries in American Popular Music." Studies in Popular Culture 18, no. 1 (October 1995): 49-61.

While the popularity of "World Music" is growing, many have criticized collaborations between Western and non-Western artists, such as Paul Simon's Graceland, as being exploitive of non-Western traditional music. However, these cross-cultural germinations actually serve as cultural bridges leading to greater levels of understanding. In the 1960s and 1970s many Western artists, particularly jazz musicians, attempted to achieve a synthesis between Western musical traditions and the music of Eastern, African, and South American cultures. By the late 1980s "World Music" was a staple of the record store, and artists such as Peter Gabriel, David Byrne, and Paul Simon were incorporating elements of non-Western music into their work. More recently, artists like Ry Cooder, Henry Kaiser, and David Lindley have sought out collaborations with non-Western musicians to create a blending of disparate music traditions. Cooder's A Meeting by the River blends elements and performance techniques of Hindustani music with the American musical idiom of Delta blues, and his Talking Timbuktu seeks to blend Delta blues with traditional West African music. Kaiser and Lindley traveled to Madagascar and Norway to create albums steeped in these traditions. Rather than being thought of as appropriations, the work of Cooder, Kaiser, and Lindley should be seen as collaborations that attempt to preserve the integrity of non-Western sources while blending them with distinctly Western idioms.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Porcello, Thomas. "The Ethics of Digital Audio-Sampling: Engineers' Discourse." Popular Music 10 (January 1991): 69-84.

The ability of the digital sampler to mimic, reproduce, extract, and manipulate musical material has led to substantial discourse in issues of intellectual property and fair use. A series of interviews with studio engineers reveals a general, broad consensus regarding various aspects of sampling, such as payment to musicians, legal issues, and the threat to studio musicians, despite the disagreements about pragmatic aspects of actual use of sampling technology. The engineers interviewed all agreed that certain uses of sampling, such as the wholesale lifting of an entire phrase common in rap songs, are unethical and that sampling should not be "a technological free-for-all." Largely, the controversy centers around the question first raised by the Dadaist movement: can one actually own a sound? Where does one make the distinction between the material of a work and the work as a created, artistic whole? These questions have become even more difficult to answer after Foucault, who views all categories of authorship as spurious. Each engineer cited a "code of the West" that has evolved in the recording industry through general consensus, explaining that controversy occurs when someone is found to violate this unwritten code. Furthermore, since there is money to be made and saved though the use of digital sampling, its use ultimately serves to reinforce the asymmetrical power balance of the recording industry.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Priestley, Brian. “Charlie Parker and Popular Music.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 14 (2009): 83-99.

The reception history of Charlie Parker as a thoroughly original artist overlooks the influence of popular music on the altoist's recordings and performances. An exaggerated focus on technique over context in jazz performance pedagogy ignores this crucial historical element of Parker's musical development. Parker's colleagues and bandmates provide anecdotal evidence that he not only knew popular tunes, but played and practiced them frequently. Schenkerian analysis demonstrates that some of Parker's compositions correspond strongly to popular tunes both melodically and harmonically. This applies even to Parker's use of altered and extended harmonies, which can be found in many popular tunes that predate Parker's career.

Works: Sam H. Stept (composer) and Charlie Parker (performer): I'm Painting the Town Red (86); Charlie Parker: Ballade (87), Confirmation (87-89), My Little Suede Shoes (89-91); George Gershwin (composer) and Charlie Parker (performer): Embraceable You (92); Charlie Parker: Koko (93-96).

Sources: Sam H. Stept: I'm Painting the Town Red (86); Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler: As Long as I Live (87); Herb Magidson and Allie Wrubel: (I’m Afraid) The Masquerade is Over (87-89); Henri Giraud: Pedro Gomez (90), Le petit cireur noir (90); Zequinha de Abreu: Tico-Tico (90); George Gershwin: Embraceable You (92); Sam Coslow: A Table in a Corner (92); Ray Noble: Cherokee (93-96).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Priestley, Brian. “The Stardust File.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 10 (1999): 151-62.

Hoagy Carmichael’s Stardust did not start out as a slow song, but instead an instrumental piece with a fast tempo. The song shares a number of unusual melodic fragments with Bix Beiderbecke’s interpretation of Singin’ the Blues and Louis Armstrong’s Dardanella. The three-note pickup to the chorus later associated with the words “Sometimes I...” is also found in the choruses to popular songs Poor Butterfly and Rose Room. Carmichael first recorded the piece in 1927. The band Mills’s Merry Makers, led by Irving Mills, recorded the first slow version less than a year later. Carmichael, however, credited the tempo change to Isham Jones’s later recording, on which Carmichael was the pianist. Carmichael wrote lyrics to Stardust even before it was recorded for the first time as an instrumental work, but Mitchell Parish, a staff writer for Mills, wrote the lyrics that Bing Crosby sang in the 1931 release of the first version with voice. Crosby and Louis Armstrong are among a handful of artists who have recorded multiple versions of Stardust, indicating its endurance as a jazz standard.

Works: Hoagy Carmichael: Stardust (151-53); Hoagy Carmichael: Stardust as performed by Mills’s Merry Makers (153-54), Isham Jones (154-55), Bing Crosby (156-57), Louis Armstrong (157-58), and Benny Goodman (159).

Sources: J. Russel Robinson, Con Conrad, Sam M. Lewis, and Joe Young (composers) and Bix Beiderbecke (performer): Singin’ the Blues (152); Felix Bernard, Johnny S. Black, and Fred Fisher (composers) and Louis Armstrong (performer): Dardanella (152); Raymond Hubbell: Poor Butterfly (152); Art Hickman: Rose Room (152).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Rose, Tricia. "Orality and Technology: Rap Music and Afro-American Cultural Resistance." Popular Music and Society 13, no. 4 (Spring 1989): 35-44.

Rap is often conceptualized as developing from the oral orientation of the African-American tradition but is rather a complex combination of orality and post-modern technology. The concept of rap as a "post-literate" oral tradition that is a natural outgrowth of oral Afro-American traditional forms is overly simplistic and romanticized. Rap lyrics, which are strongly identified with the rappers that wrote them, display the strong sense of authorship at work in the rap community, which stands in stark contrast to the concepts of orality. However, rap artists' use of sampling reveals the influence of the oral Afro-American tradition in which authorial authority is achieved not in creating a story but rather in its retelling, as texts are considered community property. By sampling, rap artists recontextualize pre-existing material, essentially using sampling technology as "de- and re-construction devices." Sampling, largely regarded as theft by the mass culture, consequently creates a type of resistance against that culture. The re-use of copyrighted material without permission can be read as undermining the legal and capital market authorities.

Works: Kool Moe Dee (Mohandas Dewese) and Teddy Riley: How Ya Like Me Now! (41); Eric B. (Eric Barrier) and Rakim (William Griffin Jr.): Paid in Full (42-43).

Sources: Jimmy Forrest: Night Train as performed by James Brown (41); Franne Golde, Dennis Lambert and Duane Hitchings: Don't Look Any Further as performed by Dennis Edward (42-43).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1994.

In a broader investigation of rap music and contemporary Black American culture, sampling is discussed (pp. 73-80 and 88-93). Rappers utilize sampling technology not as a shortcut to copy pre-existing music but rather as a means to achieve unique creative objectives. Often, the sonic qualities sought after by rap artists and producers can only be created through sampling, not through live performance or digital synthesized sound such as drum machines. The way in which digital samples are used by rap DJs is in line with what Walter Ong has identified in oral traditions as "narrative originality." According to Ong, narrative originality is achieved not through the creation of new material but through the "reshuffling" of the pre-existing material. However, in addition to this, use of sampling technology by rap artists can also be seen to constitute a means of composition. Samples in a rap song generate meaning through complex intertextual references, as does the process of "versioning," the reworking of an entire song so that it takes on new meaning in a new context. The use of sampling and versioning has generated conflict with existing copyright laws, and rap artists are often accused of stealing musical material. This problem arises partially because current copyright laws originated in the nineteenth century and were originally intended to protect musical scores. Sampling technology allows access to sounds that were previously "uncopiable" and therefore unprotected.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Russell, Craig H. "The Idiom of Simon and Image of Dylan: When Do Stars Cast Shadows?" In Music in Performance and Society: Essays in Honor of Roland Jackson, ed. Malcolm Cole and John Koegel, 589-97. Warren, Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1997.

Little research has been done on Paul Simon's earliest years of songwriting and recording (pre-1963), as the songs have been dismissed by the songwriter himself as teen fluff and many early recordings are unavailable. Simon's style changed decisively in 1963 and 1964 because of his maturing as a songwriter, but also and maybe more importantly because of Bob Dylan's overwhelming influence in the folk-rock scene of the 1960s. Dylan paved the way for songwriters to express concerns about serious cultural and political issues. Simon could not help but be influenced by Dylan's songs that showed his consciousness of civil rights and other social issues. Simon claimed to have been inspired to write his first "serious" tune, He Was My Brother, as a eulogy to his friend, Andrew Goodman, who had been murdered in 1964. However, it is clear from the songs themselves as well as other evidence, that Dylan's influence was the primary factor in transforming Simon from a more frivolous singer/songwriter into a more mature songwriter in the 1960s.

Works: Paul Simon: He Was My Brother (595); Traditional: Peggy-O as performed by Paul Simon (596); Bob Dylan: The Times They Are A-Changin' (596); Paul Simon: A Church is Burning (596), On the Side of a Hill (596-97), A Simple Desultory Philippic, or How I was Robert McNamara'd into Submission (596-97).

Sources: Bob Dylan: Oxford Town (595), The Death of Emmett Till (595), The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll (595), Only a Pawn in Their Game (595-96); Traditional: Pretty Peggy-O as peformed by Bob Dylan (596); Bob Dylan: The Times They Are A-Changin' (596), With God on Our Side (597), Subterranean Homesick Blues (597), It's Alright Ma, I'm Only Bleeding (597), I Shall Be Free (597), Rainy Day Women No. 12 &35 (597), Highway 61 Revisited (597).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Sanjek, David. "'Don't Have to DJ No More': Sampling and the 'Autonomous' Creator." In The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature, ed. Martha Woodmansee and Peter Jaszi, 343-60. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.

The practice of sampling has democratized music production because instrumental dexterity is no longer required in order to produce compositions. The forms of sampling can be broken down into four general areas: sampling recognizable material that calls the listener's attention to its new context; sampling both familiar and arcane sources; a process dubbed "quilt-pop" by Chuck Eddy of the Village Voice, in which a new product is stitched together entirely from samples; and the use of samples to create alternate versions of tracks called "club mixes." Sampling falls into a gray area between the Postmodern aesthetic and the Romantic notion of the autonomous creator. The Copyright Act of 1976 fails to address questions of authorship and ownership which arise in sampling procedures and needs to be amended accordingly.

Works: Public Enemy: Yo! Bum Rush the Show (349), It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back (349), Fear of a Black Planet (349); Grandmaster Flash: Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (350); De La Soul: Transmitting Live from Mars (354); Beastie Boys: Yo Leroy (354); John Oswald: Plunderphonics (358-59).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (349); Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers (songwriters), Chic (performers): Good Times (350); John Deacon (songwriter), Queen (performers): Another One Bites the Dust (350); Deborah Harry and Chris Stein (songwriters), Blondie (performers): Rapture (350); Sugarhill Gang: 8th Wonder (350); Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five: The Birthday Party (350); Spoonie Gee: Monster Jam (350); Jim McGuinn and Gene Clark (songwriters), The Turtles (performers): You Showed Me (354); Jimmy Castor: The Return of Leroy (Part I) (354).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Schloss, Joseph. "Elements of Style: Aesthetics of Hip-Hop Composition." In Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop, 135-68. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

Interviews with hip-hop deejays, including Mr. Supreme, Domino, Prince Paul, Samson S., and King Otto, reveal that the practice of sampling relies on the practitioner?s ability to "flip a beat," that is, to recast sound material and its meaning. The new juxtaposition of a sample, the internal characteristics of sampled materials, and the relationship between samples within the structure all contribute to the interpretive context for a new recording. Most hip-hop producers interviewed agree that the quality of manipulation is the most important, rather than the quality of the final sound product. A hip-hop producer must preserve, master, and celebrate the ambiguities inherent in sample-based hip-hop.

Works: De La Soul: Say No Go (147-48); Alicia Keys, Jermaine Dupri, and Joshua Thompson (songwriters), Alicia Keys (performer): Girlfriend (151); Guy Berryman, Jon Buckland, Will Champion, and Chris Martin (songwriters), Yesterday's New Quintet (performers): Daylight (158-59); A Tribe Called Quest: Bonita Applebum (158-59).

Sources: Darly Hall, John Oates, and Janna Allen (songwriters), Hall and Oates (performers): I Can't Go For That (147-48); Ol' Dirty Bastard: Brooklyn Zoo (151); Guy Berryman, Jon Buckland, Will Champion, and Chris Martin (songwriters), RAMP (performers): Daylight (158-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Schloss, Joseph. Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

See annotation for chapter "Elements of Style."

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz

[+] Schumacher, Thomas G. "This Is a Sampling Sport: Digital Sampling, Pop Music, and the Law in Cultural Production." Media, Culture, and Society 17 (April 1995): 253-73.

The invention of digital sampling and its pervasive use in rap music creates problems regarding concepts of authenticity, originality, and ownership that manifest themselves as conflicts with copyright law. The prevailing legal attitude towards sampling considers it to be intellectual thievery as well as simply lacking in artistic merit due to the absence of creative "originality." However, according to the theories of Walter Benjamin, in the age of modern reproduction there exist no originals, only a "plurality of copies." This, in conjunction with the fact that all popular music is a product of technological alteration and production, makes the concept of "authentic music" that exists in a pure, unaltered form an illusion. This illusive concept is widely accepted in western Anglo society and forms the basis of current copyright laws. However, it stands in stark contrast to the practice of "Signifyin(g)" that forms the basis of Black discourse in which meaning largely depends on the "intertextual referencing of previous texts." This institutionalized belief in the illusion of "authentic" and "original" music helps to perpetuate the use of authorial designations to reinforce positions of social power as described by Foucault. In addition, control of capital is affected by this concept as the legal system relies heavily on profitability in making decisions of copyright violation.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Schwartz, Charles M. "Elements of Jewish Music in Gershwin's Melody." M.A. thesis, New York University, 1965.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Smith, Christopher. "'Broadway the Hard Way': Techniques of Allusion in Music by Frank Zappa." College Music Symposium 35 (1995): 35-60.

The album Broadway the Hard Way is a prime example of Frank Zappa's use of quotation and allusion to generate and alter meaning within his works. Zappa accomplishes this by invoking what he refers to as "Archetypal American Musical Icons." These icons are commonly known, readily recognizable material from American mass culture, such as the theme from The Twilight Zone or The Battle Hymn of the Republic, and carry with them connotations and associations that Zappa then manipulates to expressive ends. The associations carried with "Archetypal American Musical Icons" are deliberately invoked to create a subtext within a song that supplements and generates meaning. Zappa will also often alter a song's original meaning by adding style allusions and quotations to create a new subtext, a procedure referred to as "putting the eyebrows on it." An appendix outlines borrowings and allusions in portions of Rhymin' Man,Promiscuous, and Jesus Thinks You're a Jerk.

Works: Zappa: Dickie's Such an Asshole (40-41), When the Lie's So Big (42), What Kind of Girl? (42), Jesus Thinks You're a Jerk (43-44, 57-58), Rhymin' Man (44-48, 53-54), Promiscuous (49, 55-56).

Sources: William Steffe: Battle Hymn of the Republic (40-44); Marius Constant: Theme from The Twilight Zone (44-48, 53, 57); Lalo Schifrin: Theme from Mission Impossible (44-48, 53); Hava Nagilah (44-48, 54); Hail to the Chief (44-48, 54); La Cucaracha (44-48, 54); Julius Fucík: March of the Gladiators (44-48, 54, 57); Milton Ager: Happy Days are Here Again (44-48, 54); Frère Jacques (53-54); Ennio Morricone: Theme from The Untouchables (53); Berton Averre and Doug Fieger [The Knack]: My Sharona (54); Rock of Ages (57-58); Dixie (57-58); Richard Berry: Louie Louie as peformed by The Kingsmen (58).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans: A History. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.

[Need annotation for discussions of borrowings within African-American tradition.] Within the context of her comprehensive volume on the musical tradition of black Americans, Southern briefly discusses the use by white Europeans and Americans of specific music and of musical styles of black Americans. She focuses on ragtime (pp. 331-32), jazz (pp. 395-97), and rhythm-and-blues (pp. 498-500).

Works: Debussy: Children's Corner (331-32); Stravinsky: Piano-Rag Music (331-32), Ragtime (331-32), L'Histoire du Soldat (331-32); Satie: Parade (331-32); Hindemith: Piano Suite (1922) (331-32); Carpenter: Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1916) (331-32), Krazy Kat (395-97), Skyscrapers (395-97); Krenek: Johnny spielt auf (395-97); Milhaud: La Création du Monde (395-97); Ravel: Piano Concerto in D (1931) (395-97); Walton: Façade (395-97); Stravinsky: Ebony Concerto for Dance Orchestra (395-97); Copland: Music for the Theater (395-97), Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1927) (395-97); Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (395-97), Concerto in F (1925) (395-97), An American in Paris (395-97).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Squire, William Barclay. "An Index of Tunes in the Ballad Operas." The Musical Antiquary 2 (October 1910): 1-17.

Index Classifications: 1700s, Jazz

[+] Steinbeck, Paul. “Analyzing the Music of the Art Ensemble of Chicago.” Dutch Journal of Music Theory 13 (2008): 56-68.

Analyses of improvised jazz music have focused either on musical-structural or group-interactive elements. For the Art Ensemble of Chicago, an avant-garde jazz collective founded in the late 1960s by Roscoe Mitchell, musical-structural and group-interactive elements are inseparable. Two live recordings demonstrate an interactive framework in which members of the group refer to multiple Art Ensemble compositions to build up to a full-length performance of a single work. Within a single interactive framework, performers freely incorporate bass lines, melodic fragments, timbres, and rhythmic motives associated with these compositions.

Works: Roscoe Mitchell (composer) and The Art Ensemble of Chicago (performers): A Jackson in Your House (60-61); Lester Bowie and Don Moye (composers) and The Art Ensemble of Chicago (performers): Mata Kimasu (61-65).

Sources: Roscoe Mitchell: A Jackson in Your House (60-61), Duffvipels (60), Get in Line (60); Albert Ayler, Bells (61); Lester Bowie and Don Moye: Mata Kimasu (61-65); Roscoe Mitchell: People in Sorrow (63).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Straw, Will. "Authorship." In Key Terms in Popular Music and Culture, ed. Bruce Horner and Thomas Swiss, 199-208. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.

The nature of the music industry makes it difficult to positively isolate the author of a given musical recording. Whom do we include from the list of composers, arrangers, performers, producers, sound engineers, and other figures associated with a recording? The group production systems involved in music and cinema are frequently set against the presumably individual efforts involved in writing or painting, but the latter types engage with a complex system of intertexts and conventions. Similarly, musical performances form connections with prior performances, and in so doing, raise questions about what is original in any given performance. Historically, the relationship between songwriter and song has been a source of anxiety. Since the mid-twentieth century, popular music has addressed this anxiety through increased expectations that singer-songwriters will produce their own music, and that they will build up a body of their own music that represents some sort of coherent identity for that artist (allowing of course for the natural evolution and development of an artist over the span of his or her career). Due to the recognized connections between singer-songwriter and song, cover songs and other forms of borrowing are now understood as deliberate "gestures of affinity" (203) that point to a specific artist.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Taubman, Howard. "Why Gershwin's Tunes Live on: His Gift was that out of Popular Themes He Could Arrive at Something Memorable." New York Times 102 (28 September 1952): VI-20.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Trebinjac, Sabine. "Une utilisation insolite de la musique de l'Autre." In Pom pom pom pom: Musiques et caetera, 227-241. Neuchâtel: Musée d'Ethnographie, 1997.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Walser, Robert. "Eruptions: Heavy Metal Appropriations of Classical Virtuosity." Popular Music 11 (October 1992): 263-308. Reprinted as Chapter 3 in Robert Walser, Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1993.

Although heavy metal music is typically viewed as removed from the classical tradition, the most influential heavy metal guitarists of the last two decades were in their turn highly influenced by the classical tradition, particularly in expressions of virtuosity. These influences range from straightforward borrowing of classical melodies or harmonic progressions to exploring the values associated with being a classical artist and a virtuoso. The reasons for direct quotation vary. Emerson, Lake and Palmer created a 1972 remake of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition for the purpose of elevating public taste. Rainbow' s hit Difficult to Cure (1981), featuring guitarist Ritchie Blackmore, quotes Beethoven's Ode to Joy with an altered meter and a new introduction, finishing with sounds of laughter. The intent of this example is parody. Perhaps the most subtle form of appropriation lies not in quotation but in adopting values associated with classical music artistry. Yngwie Malmsteen represents not only the height of virtuosity, but also the nineteenth-century concept of the separation between artist and society. Malmsteen is a self-proclaimed "genius" whose style focuses on elitism and experimentation. The most compelling reason to examine the relationship between heavy metal and the classical tradition is heavy metal guitarists' increasing interest in classical models. Electric guitars provide the closest analogy to the virtuosic approaches to the organ, piano, and violin of past centuries.

Works: Emerson, Lake and Palmer, Pictures at an Exhibition (266); Deep Purple / Ritchie Blackmore, Highway Star (268-69); Rainbow / Ritchie Blackmore, Difficult to Cure (270); Edward Van Halen, Eruption (271-77); Ozzy Osbourne / Randy Rhoads, Goodbye to Romance (281).

Sources: Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition; Beethoven, Ode to Joy from Symphony No. 9 in D Minor; Rodolphe Kreutzer, Caprice Study #2 for Violin; Pachelbel, Canon in D.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Walser, Robert. "Rhythm, Rhyme, and Rhetoric in the Music of Public Enemy." Ethnomusicology 39 (Spring-Summer 1995): 193-217.

Arguments levied against the parasitic nature of rap music can be refuted by using Walter Ong's studies of originality in oral culture, as well as the idea of "signifyin(g)" as discussed by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Dick Hebdige. While musical performance skills are not necessary, rap producers demonstrate virtuosity in the selection and positioning of samples. Extensive analysis of the groove (199-203), rhetorical strategies (203-207), and the rhythmic character (208-212) of Public Enemy?s Fight the Power includes transcriptions of several sections of the track. The groove comprises a sample from Trouble Funk, a combination of drum patterns sampled from songs by Sly Stone, Funkadelic, and the Jacksons, and new rhythms created with a drum machine. The polyrhythmic and repetitive character of Fight the Power makes it comparable with West African musical traditions and values.

Works: Public Enemy: Fight the Power (198-207).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Waters, Keith. “Outside Forces: Autumn Leaves in the 1960s.” Current Musicology 71-73 (Spring 2001-2002): 276-302.

“Outside” playing in the 1960s was defined as the melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic influence of newer movements in jazz on more traditional jazz performance. Two groups in the mid-1960s, the Charles Lloyd Quartet and the Miles Davis Quintet, incorporated avant-garde techniques into their improvisations of standard tunes. The pianists for each group, Keith Jarrett and Herbie Hancock, implemented significant harmonic and metrical disruption during their improvisations. Transcriptions of the final chorus-and-a-half for their respective improvisations on Autumn Leaves illustrate a wide variety of such disruptions. Jarrett combines polymeter, accent shift, and chords in conflict with the original harmonic structure at the end of his third chorus; he uses polyrhythms such as triplets in the beginning of the fourth chorus; and he negates the harmonic scheme of the second half of the chorus by transposing chords down by whole step, where the original tune cycled through the descending circle of fifths. At the end of his fifth chorus, Hancock also uses polymeter and accent shift; however, the chorus ends with dissonant chromatic planing instead of highlighting a consonant chord distant from the original harmonic scheme. At the beginning of his sixth chorus, Hancock eliminates any sense of metric identity by playing chords at seemingly arbitrary attack points. Overall, both Jarrett and Hancock use avant-garde techniques to heighten the intensity of the juncture between the second-to-last and last choruses of their improvisations.

Works: Joseph Kosma: Autumn Leaves as performed by Keith Jarrett (285-90) and Herbie Hancock (290-98).

Sources: Joseph Kosma: Autumn Leaves (281-85).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Weinstein, Deena. "The History of Rock's Pasts through Rock Covers." In Mapping the Beat: Popular Music and Contemporary Theory, ed. Andrew Herman, John Sloop, and Thomas Swiss, 137-51. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.

Despite its claims of existing in and focusing on the present, rock music has always engaged deep connections with its past. The rock cover song offers us a useful means by which to explore that history, particularly in the way that covers refer not just to "the song itself" (i.e., melody, chords, and lyrics), but to a particular recorded performance of that song. At various stages in rock's history, cover songs have referenced a past which existed at a varying chronological distance. In the early years of the genre in 1950s, it was a very recent past. That past grew increasingly distant over the following decades, with constantly changing meanings for artists and listeners. The motivation behind cover songs in different rock eras included claims to authenticity and displays of virtuosity, as well as the desire to offer parody of or tribute to one's rock forebears.

Works: Georgia Gibbs: Dance with Me Henry (The Wallflower) (139).

Sources: Etta James: The Wallflower (139).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Wierzbicki, James. "Sampling and Quotation." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 21 November, 1993. Available from http://pages.sbcglobal.net/jameswierzbicki/borrowing.htm. (Accessed 8 October 2002)

Many popular music groups, especially rap groups, have been sued by other artists and their publishers for using copyrighted music without permission, even though the groups generally took a small section of the piece in question and thus the quotation falls under the fair use clause. However, by looking at quotations more closely, one can find an extramusical meaning to the quoted material. Because of this, many of the quotations should not be seen as plagiarism as long as the composer does not borrow too much from a previous source.

Works: Puccini: Madame Butterfly; Rachmaninoff: Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini; Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15.

Sources: Dees/Orbison: Oh Pretty Woman;The Star-Spangled Banner;Dies Irae; Rossini: William Tell.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Wierzbicki, James. "Sampling and Quotation." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 28 April, 1991. Available from http://pages.sbcglobal.net/jameswierzbicki/borrowing.htm. (Accessed 8 October 2002)

Sampling and quotation in popular music resembles borrowing in Western art music. DJ sampling not only "recycles" music, it also uses specific performances from recordings. This commonly brings in characteristics of timbre and the performer's interpretation from the sampled music that is not found in other forms of musical borrowing. Because of these added factors in sampling, one finds a kind of iconography that the DJs bring into their music that is noticed by the listeners. The idea of extra-musical meaning, albeit through iconography in DJ sampling, is not new. Composers of Western art music have commonly inserted previously composed music into their own compositions for extramusical meanings. These meanings within the borrowing do not hinder the composer's, nor the DJ's, originality in any way.

Works: Berg: Violin Concerto; Wuorinen: Machaut mon chou; Respighi: The Birds; Schubert: String Quartet No. 14 in D Minor; Mahler: Symphony No. 1; Ives: Three Places in New England; Ravel: Bolero; Copland: Symphony No. 3; Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition.

Sources: Brown: Funky Drummer; J.S. Bach: O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort BWV 60; Schubert: Death and the Maiden; Mahler: Songs of a Wayfarer; Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man; Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Wohlberg, Max. "The Music of the Synagogue as a Source of the Yiddish Folksong." Musica Judaica 14 (1999): 33-61.

Not only "stray motifs," but many entire Yiddish folksong melodies can be traced to Jewish liturgical music. Most of these folksongs are metrical and rhythmical although derived from motifs that were sung in the synagogue in an improvised manner free of steady meter. For instance, cantillation motifs from the Ashkenazic High Holiday Pentateuch appear in the folksong Ya-amod Reb Yehude. In some cases, the topic of the folk song is similar to the topic of the prayer source, as a folksong about the approach of winter borrows motifs from the autumn prayer for rain. Other folksongs do not borrow motifs, but use the synagogue modes. The synagogue mode known as the Ukranian-Dorian (G-A-Bb-C#-D-E-F) is used not only in prayers like Mi Sheberakh and Ov Horahamim, but also in folk songs like Dos Fertsente Yor.

Works: Folk Songs: Ya-Amod Reb Yehude (34), S'Yomert Peterburg (36), Akdomus (37), Alef, Indiks Est der Nogid (37), Af b'ri s'iz Nito Vos Tu Gebn (39), Tzvelf a Zeyger (40), Eli Tsiyon (40), Eliyahu Ha-Navi (44-45), Aye-le-lyu-leh (46), Dos Fertsente Yor (48).

Sources: Liturgy: Ashkenazic High Holiday Pentateuch (34), Kol Nidre (38), Geshem (39), Omar Rabbi Elozor (42), Bmeh Madlikim (42), Elu Devorim (42), Aimidah (43), B'fi Y'shorim (45), Mi Sheberakh (48), Ov Horahamim (48).

Index Classifications: General, Jazz

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Zak III, Albin J. "Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix: Juxtaposition and Transformation 'All along the Watchtower.'" Journal of the American Musicological Society 57 (Fall 2004): 599-644.

Jimi Hendrix's recording of Bob Dylan's All along the Watchtower transforms Dylan's reserved and detached delivery into a dramatic and spectacular performance driven by intensification of Dylan's melodies and by a greater focus on unified structure that emphasizes the character of the ballad's narrator. Hendrix's version is the product of the peak of studio technology in its time, while Dylan's focuses on a simple capture of the singer's delivery. Both versions, and indeed both singers, are united by blues influences, although Hendrix intensifies Dylan's harmonic content and structure. Hendrix's remake is one sign of the more general affinities that he felt with Dylan over the course of their careers. Together, the two albums demonstrate much of the range of expression covered by rock artists in the late 1960s.

Works: Bob Dylan (songwriter), Jimi Hendrix (performer): All along the Watchtower.

Sources: Bob Dylan (songwriter and performer): All along the Watchtower.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger



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