Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] Adams, Kyle. “What Did Danger Mouse Do? The Grey Album and Musical Composition in Configurable Culture.” Music Theory Spectrum 37 (Spring 2015): 7-24.

Index Classifications: 2000s, Popular

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. “Blues Lives: Promise and Perils of Musical Copyright.” Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 27 (2010): 574-619.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

[+] Baker, Catherine. “Wild Dances and Dying Wolves: Simulation, Essentialization, and National Identity at the Eurovision Song Contest.” Popular Communication 6 (2008): 173–89.

Through the simulation and essentialization of recognizable folk-musical traits, several Eastern European nations competing at the Eurovision Song Contest in the early 2000s were successfully able to represent, misrepresent, or brand the ethnic folk traditions of their home nation. The Eastern European countries that consistently won the contest between 2001 and 2007 played upon Western stereotypes of the East by incorporating stylized national music, instruments, and ethnic musical characteristics into their song entries. In doing so, they created a distinctively alternative sound to the modern musical styles (such as pop, rock, or disco) featured in the Western countries’ entries. In particular, the Ukrainian singer songwriter Ruslana exemplifies this kind of simulation and essentialization, with her winning entry Wild Dances making use of various traditional instruments, folk-inspired performance practices, and stylistic allusions to Hutsul traditional music that she collected during her ethnographic field work in the Carpathian Mountain region. Her entry is both an example of simulation, as she is presenting a commercialized and stylized version of traditional folk music, and an example of essentialization because her entry only represents a small demographic within Ukraine. Other winning entries, such as Željko Joksimovi’s Lane Moje, also incorporate ethnic folk elements and folk musical tropes.

Works: Ruslana: Wild Dances (175-77, 180, 184); Željko Joksimović: Lane Moje (178), Lejla (178), Call Me (178); Boris Novković: Vukovi umiru sami (179-80).

Sources: Damir Lipošek, Vedran Božić, and Husein Hasanefendić: Moja domovina (179-80).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Baker, David. "From The Composer's Perspective: Three Saxophone Concertos." International Jazz Archives Journal 1 (Fall 1993): 104-13.

In a discussion of three of his saxophone concertos, David Baker describes Ellingtones: A Fantasy for Saxophone and Orchestra as "an attempt to capture the spirit and feel of Duke Ellington." In the first movement, the piece features quotations of the A sections of Ellington's Caravan,Drop Me Off in Harlem, and Minnehaha, while fragments from other songs are used as linking materials. The second movement uses Ellington's All Too Soon not only as one of the themes but also as music heard underneath the saxophone solo. Movement III introduces Ellington's It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing in the introduction. Baker describes his treatment of the theme as "Morse-code-like." He then presents six variations on the borrowed tune's ground bass, which he refers to as a passacaglia.

Works: Baker: Ellingtones: A Fantasy for Saxophone and Orchestra.

Sources: Ellington: Caravan (106), Drop Me Off in Harlem (106), Minnehaha (106), All Too Soon (106), It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing (107).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Barbera, C. André. "George Gershwin and Jazz." In The Gershwin Style, ed. Wayne Schneider, 175-206. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

In a study of George Gershwin's historical relationship with jazz, it is suggested that the composer's songs continue to be attractive to jazz musicians because of their rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and formal characteristics. For instance, Gershwin tended to repeat notes in his melodies, allowing for the performer to embellish harmonically and rhythmically, as was exemplified by Billy Holiday's recording of Oh, Lady Be Good! In other instances, Gershwin songs are favored because their harmonies can be separated from their melodies, as in Nice Work If You Can Get It. Songs like Somebody Loves Me and The Man I Love contain repeated four-measure phrases, a characteristic musical succinctness that improvisers have long found inviting.

Works: George Gershwin: How Long Has This Been Going On? (188, 200), I Got Rhythm (188, 190, 201), They Can't Take That Away From Me (188-90, 200), A Foggy Day (188-90, 198, 201), Fascinating Rhythm (188,199), Oh, Lady Be Good! (189-90, 193-94, 196-97, 200), Nice Work If You Can Get It (190, 195-96, 198, 201), Bess, You Is My Woman Now (193, 200), The Main I Love (193-94, 197, 200-201), But Not For Me (193), Summertime (195,197, 201), Embraceable You (197, 199, 200-201), Somebody Loves Me (197-98, 200-201), Liza (198), Someone To Watch Over Me (198), Soon (198), Our Love is Here To Stay (198), 'S Wonderful (200).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Berrett, Joshua. "Louis Armstrong and Opera." The Musical Quarterly 76 (Summer 1992): 216-41.

Louis Armstrong's prolifically wide-ranging tastes regarding art and music find their outlet in his incorporation of operatic fragments in his improvised solos. Armstrong was inclined to imitate operatic gestures such as recitative style, as exemplified by his solo in Blue Again. Armstrong also played operatic cadenza-like passages in certain breaks, such as in I Can't Give You Anything But Love (234). In other instances, Armstrong quoted operatic themes, such as Verdi's Rigoletto quartet and "Vesti la giubba" from Pagliacci. By quoting Pagliacci and Rigoletto, he was showing that his artistic influences were not limited to the pantheon of New Orleans cornet virtuosos of the early twentieth century. Armstrong did not distinguish between "high" and "low" art; it was all jazz to him, and his quotations of well-known music are a demonstration of this belief.

Works: Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Araby (220), Blue Again (222, 235), New Orleans Stomp (223), Dinah (223-24, 234, 236), Tiger Rag (225), New Tiger Rag (225); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Kansas City Man Blues (228), Texas Moaner Blues (229); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Potato Head Blues (229); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Cake Walking Babies from Home (230, 234); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on West End Blues (231-36); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Mandy Make Up Your Mind (232), Early Every Morn (233); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Beau Koo Jack (235), Once in a While (235), Can't Give You Anything But Love (235).

Sources: Verdi: Rigoletto (218, 222-23, 231-32); Gounod: Faust (220); Ponchielli: Dance of the Hours (221), Gershwin: Lady Be Good! (223); Sindig: Rustle of Spring (225); Leoncavallo: Pagliacci (225); Porter Steele: High Society (227, 232); Bizet: Carmen (231); Eva Dell'Acqua: Villanelle (232-33); Suppé: Poet and Peasant Overture (233).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan, Marc Geelhoed

[+] Blyton, Carey. “Sondheim’s ‘Sweeney Todd’: The Case for the Defence.” Tempo 149 (June 1984): 19-26.

Stephen Sondheim’s Sweeney Todd is not a musical, but an opera, and has suffered by not being performed by opera companies for opera audiences. In Sweeney Todd, Sondheim shows his knowledge of the Western art music tradition through musical borrowing, leitmotif-like motivic recurrence, stylistic allusion to canonic composers and popular musics, harsh dissonance and bi-tonality, mixed meter, and other techniques. Such techniques provide the work with dramatic cohesion and musical integrity.

Works: Stephen Sondheim: Sweeney Todd.

Sources: Anonymous: Dies Irae (20, 24-25).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Brown, Robert L. "Classical Influences on Jazz." Journal of Jazz Studies 3 (Spring 1976): 19-35.

From the earliest beginnings of jazz, classical music has played a role in its development. Early and pre-jazz musicians were known to have performed classical music publicly, and others, such as Scott Joplin, studied with European teachers. As jazz moved into the twentieth century, the borrowing of classical music instrumentation became prominent. In the 1950s, jazz musicians employed fugal writing, as exemplified by Dave Brubeck's Fugue on Bop Themes, among other works. In the 1960s, twelve-tone rows were utilized, as exemplified by Bill Evans's T.T.T. Also, the procedure known as "jazzin' the classics" has been a constant feature within jazz tradition, from Jelly Roll Morton's recording of a version of the Misere from Il Trovatore through Joe Walsh's synthesized arrangement of Ravel's Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty. An appendix includes selective annotated discography.

Works: Brubeck: Fugue on Bop Themes (22); Lewis: Vendome (23), Three Windows (23), Concorde (23), Versailles (23); Hampton: Fugue (23); Williams: Prelude and Fugue (23); Ferguson: Passacaglia and Fugue (23); Johnson: Music for Brass (23); Schuller: Abstraction (23); Bank: Equation Part I (23); De Franco: 12-Tone Blues (23); Giuffre: Densities I (23); Farberman: . . . Then Silence (23); Smith: Elegy for Eric (23); Schifrin: The Ritual of Sound (23); Coltrane: Miles Mode (24); Evans: T.T.T. (24-25); Heckman: The Twelves (26); Waller: Russian Fantasy (26); Morton/Verdi: Misere (26-27); Gershwin: The Man I Love as performed by Paul Whiteman (27); Ellington: Ebony Rhapsody (27); Walsh/Ravel: Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty (30); Ginastera: Toccata as performed by Emerson, Lake, and Palmer (30).

Sources: Liszt: Rigoletto Concert Paraphrase (26); Rossini: William Tell Overture (26); Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite (26); Rachmaninoff: Prelude in C sharp Minor (26); Verdi: Il Trovatore (26-27); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (27); MacDowell: To a Wild Rose (27); Rimsky-Korsakov: Song of India (27); Wagner: Tristan and Isolde (27); Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (27), Passacaglia in C (27); Stravinsky: Rite of Spring (28, 30); Ginastera: Toccata (30); Ravel: Mother Goose Suite (30).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Carver, Philip. "The Metamorphosis of a Jazz Standard." Jazz Research Papers (1996): 18-31.

As a well-constructed song, Cole Porter's What Is This Thing Called Love? became a popular source tune for jazz musicians. James P. Johnson's 1930 recording displays stride and boogie-woogie patterns, and only slightly modifies the chord progression. More drastic alterations are exhibited by Clifford Brown and Sonny Rollins in their 1956 recording with the Max Roach Quartet. In this case, the tune was highly ornamented and expanded, non chord-tones were emphasized during solos, and the tempo was twice as fast as prior versions. Brief analyses of treatments by Sidney Bechet, James "Bubber" Miley, Ella Fitzgerald, John Hardee, Bill Evans, Marian MacPartland, and Thad Jones attest to the variety of ways in which jazz musicians developed different perspectives on What Is This Thing Called Love?

Works: Porter: What Is This Thing Called Love?

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Crawford, Richard. "George Gershwin's I Got Rhythm (1930)." In The American Musical Landscape, 213-344. Berkley: University of California Press, 1993.

Since its premiere in Gershwin's 1930 musical Girl Crazy, the song I Got Rhythm has been performed, arranged, and recorded countless times. In these subsequent realizations of Gershwin's song three approaches can be identified in which the original material is treated as (1) a song played and sung by popular performers, (2) a jazz standard, a piece known and frequently played by musicians in the jazz tradition, and (3) a musical structure, a harmonic framework upon which jazz instrumentalists have built new compositions. These new compositions, called contrafacts, include examples such as Duke Ellington's 1940 Cotton Tail, Charlie Parker's 1940 Steeplechase, Parker and "Dizzy" Gillespie's 1945 Shaw 'Nuff, and many others. Tables listing titles of Parker I Got Rhythm contrafacts and recordings of I Got Rhythm contrafacts (up to 1942) are included.

Works: Ellington: Cotton Tail (229-30), Parker: Steeplechase (232), Red Cross (232), Moose the Mooche (233), An Oscar For Treadwell (233); Parker and Gillespie: Shaw 'Nuff (239).

Sources: Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (213-44).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Czackis, Lloica. “Yiddish Tango: A Musical Genre?” European Judiasm 42 (Autumn 2009): 107-21.

Although the tango originated in Buenos Aires, several Ashkenazi Jewish songwriters in Europe soon adopted this genre as their own, either by giving existing tango melodies new lyrics in Yiddish or by composing new ones. The Ashkenazi Jews soon exported their Yiddish tangos to cities like New York City and Buenos Aires, where they became staples of Yiddish theater and musical productions. During World War II and after, the tango became an especially symbolic and even painful genre for Jews, as Nazis sometimes forced prisoners in concentration camps to play tangos when other prisoners were killed. Despite this, the tango genre also offered Jewish prisoners a medium for expression and a tie to their heritage, and the familiar melodies allowed the prisoners to easily remember their new lyrics. For instance, songs like Kinder yorn and Makh tsu di eygelekh include musical gestures that allude to the tango, while the contrafact camp song Yiddish Tango was adapted and reworked from Shpil zhe mir a lidele in yidish as a song of resistance.

Works: Anonymous: Death Tango (116); Anonymous: Der Todesfuge (116); Dovid Beigelman: Kinder yorn (117), Makh tsu di eygelekh (117); Ruven Tsarfat: Yiddish Tango (118); Rikle Glezer: Es iz geven a zumertog (118); Anonymous: Niewolnicze tango (118); Mary Sorianu: Tango fun libe (118).

Sources: Eduardo Bianco: Plegaria (116); Julio César Sanders: Adios Muchachos (111); Ángel Villoldo: El Choclo (111); Dovid Beigelman: Ikh ganve in der nakht (114); Henech Kon: Shpil zhe mir a lidele in yidish (118); Herman Yablokoff: Papirosn (118); Gerardo Matos Rodríguez: La Cumparsita (118).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Deazley, Ronan. “Copyright and Parody: Taking Backward the Gowers Review?” The Modern Law Review 73 (September 2010): 785-807.

In the United Kingdom, the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 does not except parody from copyright violation. Since then, both the Gowers Review of Intellectual Property in 2006 and the Intellectual Property Office in 2008 stated that including an exception for parody would be in the best interests of producers and consumers. In 2009 the Intellectual Property Office reversed their position, rejecting an exception for parody. Yet such an exception should be made, as demonstrated by considering the conditions for parodic use under the current laws and the arguments for and against the exception of parody. In certain situations, direct borrowing of significant portions of music is necessary for the success of the parody, and often the necessity directly depends on various factors surrounding each individual case; this is where copyright fails to protect the parodist.

Works: Rick Dees: When Sonny Sniffs Glue (792); 2 Live Crew: Pretty Woman (792); Saturday Night Live: I Love Sodom (794).

Sources: Jack Segal and Marvin Fisher: When Sunny Gets Blue (792); Roy Orbison: Oh, Pretty Woman (792); Steve Karmen: I Love New York (794).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Demers, Joanna. “Sampling the 1970s in Hip-Hop.” Popular Music 22 (January 2003): 41-56.

Hip-hop draws influence directly from 1970s African American culture. Many prominent hip-hop artists, including Public Enemy, Ice Cube, and the Fugees, mention this decade in their music as one in which blacks began to assert themselves politically and culturally. This is demonstrated primarily by hip-hop musicians and producers borrowing the music of Blaxploitation films, which often portrayed African American pimps and drug dealers fighting against white authority. Hip-hop borrows musically and culturally from these Blaxploitation films’ introductory theme music for the main characters, politically charged content, and focus on the ghetto. While these films and their music do not uniformly glorify or demonize black poverty, drug abuse, and violence, the hip-hop community has borrowed their material almost exclusively to show street credibility.

Works: Jay-Z: Reservoir Dogs (49); Smoothe Da Hustler: Hustler’s Theme (49); Snoop Doggy Dogg: Doggystyle (52); Dr. Dre: Rat Tat Tat Tat (53); Ol’ Dirty Bastard: Got Your Money (54).

Sources: Isaac Hayes: Theme to Shaft from Shaft (49); Curtis Mayfield: Freddie’s Dead from Super Fly (49); Willie Hutch: Brother’s Gonna Work It Out from The Mack (53); Rudy Ray Moore: The Signifying Monkey from Dolemite (54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] DeVeaux, Scott. The Birth of Bebop: A Social and Musical History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

This book examines the development of bebop from artistic, social, and commercial perspectives, beginning in the Swing Era and progressing through the 1940s. The repertory at jam sessions in the early 1940s was based primarily on a few familiar chord progressions, notably the blues, Gershwin's I Got Rhythm, and a handful of other pop song "standards" of which How High the Moon and Whispering were among the most frequently used. The economics of the recording industry promoted the composition of new melodies over existing chord progressions; having a new, colorful title would attract buyers, and by calling it a new work the record company could avoid paying royalties to the copyright owners of the song from which the chord progression was taken. In addition to using existing chord progressions in new songs, bebop musicians often borrowed material from each other and incorporated it into new compositions and arrangements. Moreover, musical borrowing in the form of quotation within improvised solos was both a ubiquitous and a controversial presence in bebop. Charlie Parker frequently inserted clearly recognizable quotations from jazz or popular sources into solos in live performance, but some performers criticized Parker for diluting his music. In other instances, European art music directly influenced jazz: stride pianists used materials from opera or "light classics" in a new idiom. For some bebop musicians, borrowing (or at least recognizing borrowings) was less important. Struggles over the definition of "the work" pervade any discussion of quotation in jazz, and such discussion must recognize the multiple "composers" at work in a jazz performance: the nominal composer who notates a song, and the improviser who re-composes the score in live performance.

Works: Thelonious Monk: The Theme (224), Rhythm-a-Ning (224), 52nd Street Theme (292), Hackensack (403): Dizzy Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (292, 421), Things to Come (433): Coleman Hawkins: Mop Mop (292, 306-7), Rainbow Mist (309), Father Co-operates (326), Bean at the Met (326), On the Bean (330), Stumpy (330), Rifftide (390), Bean Stalking (394), Too Much of a Good Thing (401), Bean Soup (403-5), Hollywood Stampede (404-5); Charlie Parker: Red Cross (307, 374); Benny Harris: Ornithology (323, 382); Howard McGhee: New Orleans Jump (362), Sportsman?s Hop (391, 393); Billy Eckstine: Good Jelly Blues (341-3, 424); Jerome Kern: All the Things You Are (342-43, 424).

Sources: George Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (203, 224, 292, 305, 306-7, 326, 374, 421), Lady Be Good (390, 403); Nancy Hamilton and Morgan Lewis: How High the Moon (305, 323, 326, 382); John Schonberger, Malvin Schonberger, and Richard Coburn: Whispering (305, 330); Edward Heyman, Robert Sour, Frank Eyton, and Johnny Green: Body and Soul (309); Dizzy Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (326-28), Be-Bop (362, 404-5, 433), Groovin' High (403-5); Rachmaninoff: Prelude in C-Sharp Minor (342-43, 424); Igor Stravinsky: Petrouchka (360n); Benny Goodman, Edgar Sampson, Clarence Profit, and Walter Hirsch: Lullaby in Rhythm (391, 393); Jesse A. Stone: Idaho (394); Kay Swift and Paul James: Fine and Dandy (401); Ben Bernie, Ken Casey, and Maceo Pinkard: Sweet Georgia Brown (404-5); Benny Harris: Ornithology (404-5); Vincent Youmans and Irving Caesar: Tea for Two (405); Billy Eckstine: Good Jelly Blues (424).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger, Amy Weller

[+] Floyd, Samuel A. Jr. "Troping the Blues: From Spirituals to the Concert Hall." Black Music Research Journal 13, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 31-51.

African-American music has continually used the troping of texts in blues, jazz, and other popular traditions. Two examples of troping occur in the use of the spiritual "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" and the riding train. Troping of the spiritual has occurred on the textual and musical level. Furry Lewis tropes the idea of a motherless child in his piece "Big Chief Blues." Washington "Bukka" White also creates his trope relating to the motherless child in "Panama Limited" while singing about being far from home. Musical troping can be found in George Gershwin's repetition of the tune of "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" in the piece "Summertime" from the opera Porgy and Bess. Gershwin tropes the spiritual's intervallic structure, rhythm, melodic structures, and beat structure throughout "Summertime." David Baker and Olly Wilson also trope the music and text of "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child." The train trope deals in the sounds created by a passenger train throughout the United States. Duke Ellington's composition "Happy-Go-Lucky-Local" tropes the passenger train through its use of chugging rhythms, whistles, and sounds of steam locomotives through orchestration. These tropes display an evolution in African-American music through repetition and revision of texts and music.

Works: Traditional: Big Chief Blues as performed by Furry Lewis (36-37); White: Panama Limited (37); Gershwin: "Summertime" from Porgy and Bess (37-43); Baker: Through This Vale of Tears (43-44); Wilson: Sometimes (44-45); Ellington: Happy-Go-Lucky-Local (46-47); Logan: Runagate Runagate (47-50).

Sources: Traditional: Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child (35-45).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Gabbard, Krin. "The Quoter and His Culture." In Jazz in Mind: Essays on the History and Meanings of Jazz, ed. Reginald T. Bruckner and Steven Weiland, 92-111. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991.

Jazz today can be considered part of the avant garde movement of the early twentieth century. One of the common characteristics of the avant garde is pastiche, a characteristic jazz shares, particularly in improvisatory virtuosic solos. The purpose of such pastiche is to call into question the distinction between high and low art. Soloists such as James Moody, Lester Young, and Louis Armstrong regularly quoted other works from both the classical tradition and the popular tradition. Juxtaposing a jazz melody with a quotation from the classical tradition provides irony for the listener, who will understand at least that the quotation comes from an entirely different genre of music. A list of several examples is included.

Works: James Moody, Body and Soul (92, 104); Louis Armstrong, Ain't Misbehavin' (93); more in footnotes.

Sources: Percy Grainger, Country Garden; George Gershwin, Rhapsody in Blue.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Gaunt, Kyra. “The Veneration of James Brown and George Clinton in Hip Hop Music: Is it Live! Or is it Re-memory?” In Popular Music: Style and Identity, 117-22. Montreal: Centre for Research on Canadian Cultural Industries and Institutions, 1995.

Hip-hop’s joining together of samples to create a sonic whole is not done to express a “postmodern” stance mocking the linearity and rationality of modernism, but is done to honor black funk musicians of the past, especially James Brown and George Clinton. “Live” in black culture can mean “excellence,” and in recordings connotes a live-performance aesthetic which is contrary to the polished sound of the recording industry. Brown and Clinton sought to create this live aesthetic in their recordings through crowd noise and other signifiers of live performance. Comparing James Brown’s Make It Funky to Public Enemy and producer Hank Shocklee’s Fight the Power (which samples the Brown track) shows that the funk ideals of the 1970s are utilized in hip-hop. Thus, “live” in hip-hop is not in a binary with recorded sound, but is an act of “re-memory,” or a piecing together of a history by “remembering” critical pieces of the past.

Works: Eric B &Rakim: I Know You Got Soul (117); Janet Jackson: That’s the Way Love Goes (118); Public Enemy: Fight the Power (119-20).

Sources: James Brown: Papa Don’t Take No Mess (118), Make It Funky (119).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Grant, Barry. "Purple Passages or Fiestas in Blue? Notes Toward an Aesthetic of Vocalese." In Representing Jazz, ed. Krin Gabbard, 285-303. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995.

Vocalese, as referred to in jazz, is the name for a vocal composition created by setting newly composed lyrics to music taken from existing recordings of jazz instrumental music, including the improvised solos. The resulting compositions often require a high degree of vocal virtuosity because the singer is performing music that is not idiomatic for the voice. This practice, which began in the early 1950s and remains popular today, has been unjustly marginalized by most jazz critics, mainly because it does not involve improvisation. Some examples of vocalese are Eddie Jefferson's 1952 Moody's Mood for Love, based on James Moody's I'm in the Mood for Love, Jefferson's version of Charlie Parker's Now's the Time, Jefferson's version of Dizzy Gillespie's Night in Tunisia, and John Hendrick's version of Gillespie's Night in Tunisia.

Works: Jefferson: Moody's Mood for Love (292-94).

Sources: Moody: I'm In the Mood for Love (292-94); Parker: Now's the Time (291); Gillespie: Night in Tunisia (292-93).

Index Classifications: Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Greene, Paul D. “Mixed Messages: Unsettled Cosmopolitanisms in Nepali Pop.” Popular Music 20 (May 2001): 169-87.

Nepalese “mix music” utilizes the latest technologies to produce music which borrows sound bites and sonic styles from both foreign popular music and indigenous music. These “mixes” rapidly juxtapose musical styles without an organizing form, and seek to celebrate sonic multiplicity instead of idiomatic unity. Yet despite the sonic similarity or sameness of the new work and its source materials, the meaning of the new music becomes different from that of the sources’ cultural and contextual meanings. These differences in meaning are illuminated through ethnographic methods, as can be seen in Nepalese heavy metal and in Nepalese mixes.

Works: Mongolian Hearts: Unbho Unbho (178-79); Brazesh Khanal: Deusee rey extended mix (180-82).

Sources: Anonymous: Deusee rey (180).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Hamberlin, Larry. “National Identity in Snyder and Berlin’s ‘That Opera Rag.’” American Music 22 (Fall 2004): 380-406.

Snyder and Berlin’s “coon song” That Opera Rag is a strong case study for examining the complex attitudes towards class, race, nationality, and gender in the early 1900s. That Opera Rag, despite its many conventional features, has three which defy expectations: a mediant relationship between the two tonal areas of A minor and F major, operatic (as well as popular) quotations, and irregular phrase lengths resulting from the opera quotations. This song perhaps began as an instrumental example of “ragging the classics” by combining highbrow operatic music with lowbrow ragtime conventions, and can be heard as a spoof of operatic grandeur. The lyrics, which utilize minstrelsy misspellings, “humorously” portray black housepainter Sam Johnson as an opera neophyte who misidentifies the quotations. Johnson’s recognition of operatic music represents a contemporary fear for white Americans that African Americans were asserting cultural aspirations through the appreciation of opera. Yet That Opera Rag was also used in the Broadway play Getting a Polish, in which a (white) Montana widow tries to transcend her “common” status by seeking refinement in Paris. May Irwin, the star of Getting a Polish, used That Opera Rag as an unconventional vehicle to stardom by performing these racist songs in a masculine fashion; she gained much renown and success despite being a woman and not being traditionally attractive. Thus, critical interpretation of the song renders multiple levels of commentary which represent the coexisting and contradictory cultural spaces that existed in America in the early twentieth century.

Works: Ted Snyder and Irving Berlin: That Opera Rag; Irving Berlin: When the Midnight Choo Choo Leaves for Alabam’ (389).

Sources: Verdi: Miserere from Il Trovatore (387-88); Bizet: Toreador Song from Carmen (389); Donizetti: Sextet from Lucia di Lammermoor (389); Henry Bishop: Home! Sweet Home! from Clari, or the Maid of Milan (389); Ted Snyder and Irving Berlin: That Opera Rag (389-90).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Heile, Björn. "Uri Caine's Mahler: Jazz, Tradition, and Identity." Twentieth-Century Music 4 (September 2007): 229-55.

Jazz pianist Uri Caine quotes extensively from symphonic and vocal works by composers in the classical or art music tradition. On his albums Dark Flame (2003) and Urlicht/Primal Light (1997), Caine's borrowing from Mahler takes a variety of forms, ranging from quotation of a full piece to selective quotation of important and sequential melodic fragments in order to mimic the structure of Mahler's original in a more condensed form. Mahler is a particularly appropriate source for the jazz artist's borrowing, as the earlier composer's use of "folk" materials provides a model for Caine's own appropriation of musical material to explore Jewish identity. Caine's use of Mahler's music is not simply a matter of performance, or of arrangement for different voices; rather, Caine's borrowing is a reflection upon Mahler, history, and subjectivity. Even so, Caine's borrowing within a jazz context raises valuable questions about the validity of the frequently assumed dichotomy between composition and improvisation.

Works: Uri Caine: Dark Flame (230-31, 237-38, 241, 248, 250-52), Urlicht/Primal Light (230-31, 233, 237-39, 241-42, 248-52).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (237, 238), Symphony No. 1 (237, 242, 247), Symphony No. 2 (238, 250), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (238, 241), Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (238, 250), Das Lied von der Erde (239, 241, 248), Fünf Rückertlieder (241); Anonymous, Frère Jacques (237).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Horn, David. "The Sound World of Art Tatum." Black Music Research Journal 20 (Autumn 2000): 237-57.

Reactions to Art Tatum have been divided between admiration of his technical proficiency and criticism of his perceived lack of creativity. Both of these stances, however, ignore the complex intertextual nature of Tatum's music. Tatum's music from throughout his career contains a significant number of quotations of tunes recorded by others during the 1920s and 1930s, recordings which Tatum would have heard and which might have had a greater impact on him than on many other musicians because of his partial blindness and his resulting difficulty in reading sheet music. Two consistent features in the majority of Tatum's quotations are the retention of the original melody, and the ornamentation of that melody in a manner which embellishes without comment or critique. The result is a relationship--frequently dialogic--between the original and the quotation.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Howard, Joseph. "The Improvisational Technique of Art Tatum." 3 Vols. Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

[+] Hung, Eric. “Hearing Emerson, Lake, and Palmer Anew: Progressive Rock as ‘Music of Attraction.’” Current Musicology 79-80 (2005): 245-59.

Progressive rock, a loose label for music which combines elements of rock and roll with those of various forms of art music from around the world, has in the past been viewed by critics and scholars as being most successful (or most appalling) when elements of “high” and “low” culture are synthesized. However, Emerson, Lake, and Palmer’s popular “free transcription” of Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky frequently shifts between different styles, suggesting that its success is due not to stylistic synthesis but an “ever-changing, channel-surfing quality.” Pictures at an Exhibition, which was played at every Emerson, Lake, and Palmer concert from 1970 to 1988, allowed fans to react to the changes in texture as they happened, dancing when it was appropriate and cheering when Emerson would destroy his organ in the final “Great Gate of Kiev” movement. These fans showed an interest in being “present” at concerts, enjoying each subjective moment as it happens now, like the counter-cultural hippies from the 1960s. This is related to Susan Sontag’s call in “Against Interpretation” for greater focus on “presentness” in art criticism, and to Tom Gunning’s “cinema of attractions” concept, which states that in films before 1908 the audience’s focus was not on the plot narrative but on the moment-to-moment spectacle.

Works: Emerson, Lake, and Palmer: Pictures at an Exhibition (247-53).

Sources: Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition (247-53).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Katz, Mark. “The Turntable as Weapon.” Chapter 6 in Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, 114-36. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

[+] Larson, Steve. "Dave McKenna's Performance of 'Have You Met Miss Jones?'" American Music 11 (Fall 1993): 283-315.

Jazz pianist Dave McKenna's recording of Rodgers and Hart's Have You Met Miss Jones? reveals clever improvisational strategies, procedures, and devices. For instance, throughout the multiple improvised choruses McKenna slowly expands in register, creating a sense of large-scale unity. In one instance, McKenna also borrows melodic material from the song How to Handle a Woman by Lerner and Loewe. McKenna also uses a "polymetric riff" and when returning to the "head," his restatement of the melody recollects salient features from the improvisation. McKenna's insertions of fragments of the melody within his improvised choruses reveal that in this case, the performer does not improvise simply over harmonic changes, but also keeps the original tune in mind.

Works: Rodgers/Hart: Have You Met Miss Jones? as performed by Dave McKenna.

Sources: Rodgers/Hart: Have You Met Miss Jones?; Lerner/Loewe: How to Handle a Woman (293).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Lawn, Richard, and Jeffrey Hellmer. "Rhythm Changes: The Classic Jazz Model." In Jazz Theory and Practice, 203-19. Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing, 1993.

Jazz performers and composers adopted the chord structure of George Gershwin's 1930 song I Got Rhythm both as a useful improvisational vehicle and as supporting harmony for newly composed melodies. Gershwin's chord structure, known as "the Rhythm Changes," was subjected to a variety of harmonic alterations by subsequent users, including adding chords between two original chords, changing minor chords into major, and substituting new chords for selected originals. The resulting variety of versions of "the Rhythm Changes" is so great that there is no "standard" version used by a large number of jazz performers or arrangers. Sonny Rollins's Oleo, and J. J. Johnson's Turnpike (both included here in notated versions) are two frequently played examples of the many new melodies composed to "the Rhythm Changes." They include extensive alterations to Gershwin's original chords. A partial list of other compositions based on "the Rhythm Changes" is included, as well as a list of recordings of these compositions.

Works: Johnson: Turnpike (216-17); Rollins: Oleo (217-18).

Sources: Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (203-19).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Long, Michael. Beautiful Monsters: Imagining the Classic in Musical Media. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Musicology is in need of generalist methodologies and perspectives for fragments, clichés, and non-sequiturs of classical music that occur in twentieth-century media and culture. Such music is related to the “vernacular imagination,” the shared phenomenon of twentieth-century American (and occasionally European) media audiences in which an artist’s imaginative priorities intersect with the past and with memory. Musicologists can adapt the notion of register, a tool used to locate a work culturally, to study this music in a way that traces the development and intersection of its fluctuating meanings, emphasizing audience reception of an expressive mass media rather than arguing for the absolute value of a musical object.

Works: Barry Manilow: Could it Be Magic (17); Kiss: Great Expectations (17); Billy Joel: This Night (18); DMX: What’s My Name? (34-40); Busta Rhymes: Gimme Some More (34, 38-40); Alan Crosland (director) and Louis Silvers (composer): score to The Jazz Singer (51-55, 73-81, 86, 177); Otto Preminger (director) and David Raksin (composer): score to Laura (42, 44-47, 52, 58-59, 76, 163); Irving Rapper (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Now, Voyager (59-60); Victor Fleming (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Gone with the Wind (69-70); Gregory La Cava (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Symphony of Six Million (86-101); Jefferson Airplane: White Rabbit (122-24); The Doors: Light My Fire (124); Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven (126-27); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (129-39, 149-51); The Swingle Singers: Aria (135-37); Lawrence Kasdan (director) and Meg Kasdan (composer): soundtrack to The Big Chill (152-56); Alfred Hitchcock (director) and Bernard Herrmann (composer): score to Psycho (171-73); Robert Z. Leonard (director): soundtrack to Strange Interlude (181-83); James Whale (director) and Franz Waxman (composer): score to Bride of Frankenstein (190-95); Stephen Herek (director) and Michael Kamen (composer): score to Mr. Holland’s Opus (196-202); William Hanna and Joseph Barbera (directors) and Scott Bradley (music editor): score to Tom and Jerry, no. 29, The Cat Concerto (197-98); Friz Freleng (director): score to Merrie Melodies, episode Rhapsody Rabbit (197, 205); Carlos Santana and Dave Matthews: Love of My Life (214-16); Albert Lewin (director): The Picture of Dorian Gray (216-21); Queen: Bohemian Rhapsody (222-35); Penelope Spheeris (director): soundtrack to Wayne’s World (222-23, 231-32).

Sources: Chopin: Prelude in C minor, Op. 28, No. 20 (17); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (18); Richard Addinsell: Warsaw Concerto (34-35, 41); Bernard Herrmann: score to Psycho (34, 38-40); Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture (51-58), Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (59-63); Handel, “Ombra mai fu” from Serse (69-70); Ravel: Bolero (123-24); Johann Sebastian Bach, Air from Suite in D Major, BWV 1068 (133-34), Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140 (133-34, 136-37); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (152-56); George Antheil: Symphony No. 4; Dukas: The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (190); Gottfried Huppertz: score to Metropolis (194-95); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (198, 204-6); The Toys: Lover’s Concerto (196, 202-9, 213); The Supremes: I Hear a Symphony (196, 202-4, 213); Brahms: Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90 (214-16); Chopin: Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28, No. 24 (217-21); Queen: Bohemian Rhapsody (222-23); Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (227); Richard Strauss: Ariadne auf Naxos (227-31).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Magee, Jeffrey. "'Everybody Step': Irving Berlin, Jazz, and Broadway in the 1920s." Journal of the American Musicological Society 59 (Fall 2006): 697-732.

In the early 1920s, when public familiarity and associations with jazz were amorphous and inconsistent, Irving Berlin cultivated a sense that his theatrical music defined jazz. In addition to textual and musical references to ragtime or blues characteristics, Berlin used quotations of his own music, which had already gained ragtime associations, to reinforce this idea. One notable example is Berlin's quotation of his earlier songs Alexander's Ragtime Band, Everybody's Doing It Now, and The Syncopated Walk in his 1921 Everybody Step. Berlin's self-borrowing ranged from nearly exact quotation of a full phrase of both music and lyrics to more subtle use of one- or two-measure units of rhythms, fills, or pick-ups that were nevertheless recognizable as being drawn from his earlier pieces. The earlier songs' associations with jazz implied that Berlin's newer music also fit into the genre. To further build upon this personal jazz lineage, Berlin borrowed from Everybody Step in later works.

Works: Irving Berlin: Everybody Step (698-10), The Syncopated Vamp (706, 708), Pack Up Your Sins and Go to The Devil (710-12).

Sources: Irving Berlin: Alexander's Ragtime Band (706-07, 709-10), Everybody's Doing It Now (706, 708-09), The Syncopated Walk (706-09), Everybody Step (710-13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Magee, Jeffrey. "Irving Berlin's 'Blue Skies': Ethnic Affiliations and Musical Transformations." Musical Quarterly 84 (Winter 2000): 537-80.

Applying the technique of a "song profile," or the compositional and performance history of a tune that reveals socially constructed meanings, to Irving Berlin's Blue Skies reveals several borrowings that suggest reinterpretation. Many of Berlin's songs reflect a Jewish tradition, incorporating modal mixture and chromatic inflection. Although this tradition is not uniquely Jewish, listeners interpreted as such in Manhattan in Berlin's day. Looking at the tune history of Blue Skies demonstrates the shift from its Jewish origins in the 1920s to subsequent revisions that change its ethnic associations. A performer such as Belle Baker, for example, who sang the song in Betsy, attempted to identify directly with Jewish culture, whereas Al Jolson, who played straightforward and jazzy renditions in The Jazz Singer, gave the song, in addition to its Jewish characteristics, jazz overtones. Benny Goodman and Mary Lou Williams employed allusion; Bing Crosby crooned a slow, balladic version and marketed it toward a broader, Caucasian, middle-class audience. Through contrafact, Thelonius Monk virtually disguised the source in In Walked Bud, while Ella Fitzgerald used scat. Willie Nelson and Pete Seeger reinterpreted the song further to represent an American folk song. Above all, the transcendent power of the tune proves the "assimilative power of Jewish culture" and effectively reinforces its roots.

Works: Rodgers and Hart: Betsy (552-57); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer (557-59), Fletcher Henderson and Benny Goodman (559-63); Mary Lou Williams: Trumpet No End, arrangement for Duke Ellington (560-62); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Bing Crosby (563-65); Thelonius Monk: In Walked Bud (566-69); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Ella Fitzgerald (569-70), Willie Nelson (570-71), Pete Seeger (571-72).

Sources: Berlin: Blue Skies (537-38, 540-44, 547, 549-52, 572-73).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Markewich, Reese. The New Expanded Bibliography of Jazz Compositions Based on the Chord Progressions of Standard Tunes. New York, N.Y.: Reese Markewich, 1974.

Many modern jazz and popular compositions have been written based on the chord progressions of standard popular songs and other jazz compositions. They provide a fresh approach, both melodically and harmonically, to familiar material, and serve jazz musicians in jam sessions as an acceptable common denominator of chord progressions known to all. In addition to brief introductory comments, this book lists groups of compositions (more than one hundred compositions are included) that share the same chord progressions. Compositions based on the twelve-bar blues harmonic scheme and George Gershwin's song I Got Rhythm are not included.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Marmande, Francis. "Le Travail de la 'citation': Espace rupture." Jazz Magazine 194 (November 1971): 16-19.

The enormous variety of borrowing (citation) in free jazz cannot be adequately described by our current rigid and limited terminology. The rhetoric and ideology present in outmoded descriptions of borrowing that use language and assumptions advanced by Philippe Carles and Jean-Louis Comolli obligate us to intervene and create a new system for writing about borrowing. We must do away with mythical and mystical language of inspiration and creation, as well as the inflexible idea that jazz emerged solely from the condition of Black Americans. Furthermore, distinctions between types of borrowing are useless if divorced from the texts--"text" in this case being a flexible term that refers not just to our traditional ideas of notated music, but to any heard performance. If we separate term and text, we slide back towards old unconstructive accusations of copying and plagiarism. The new terminology should incorporate the many types of borrowing that occur, including collage, mélange, collision, juxtaposition, reminiscence, and self-borrowing, as well as the performance conditions and the reason for the use of a particular source.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Marshall, Wayne. “Giving up Hip-Hop’s Firstborn: A Quest for the Real after the Death of Sampling.” Callaloo 29 (Summer 2006): 868-92.

By examining the criticism and liner notes written by The Roots’ drummer Questlove (Ahmir Thompson), the notion that sampling is what determines authenticity in hip-hop can be questioned. Though Questlove frequently admits that sampling is highly important to hip-hop, he notes that many of the earliest and some of the most successful hip-hop recordings use studio instrumentalists performing “samples” of hit breaks and grooves. He also notes the ability of producers to sample is severely limited by the amount of money required to license many well-known samples. When performing and recording with The Roots, Questlove has sought to recreate the sound and rhythmic character of sampled drums through various studio techniques and playing in a funk-based, relatively invariable fashion. Examples of this can be found on “Dynamite” and “Double Trouble” from Illadelph Halflife. The Roots have also utilized beatboxers Scratch and Rahzel, who can imitate the sounds of samples and record scratching in their beatboxing. Such efforts to mimic sampled sounds on “traditional” instruments demonstrate both the importance of sampling for hip-hop and the desire to explore other avenues of music making while staying true to hip-hop’s essence.

Works: De La Soul: Transmitting Live from Mars (868); Biz Markie: Alone Again (868); Afrika Bambaataa: Planet Rock (874); Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (874); Sugar Hill Gang: Rapper’s Delight (874); Yes: Owner of a Lonely Heart (876); Common: Like Water for Chocolate (876); The Roots: Concerto of the Desperado (880).

Sources: Jim McGuinn and Gene Clark (songwriters) and The Turtles (performers): You Showed Me (868); Gilbert O’Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (868); Kraftwerk: Trans-Europe Express (874); Funk Inc.: Kool is Back (876); Lionel Bart: Theme from From Russia with Love (880).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Metzer, David. "Shadow Play: The Spiritual in Duke Ellington's 'Black and Tan Fantasy.'" Black Music Research Journal 17, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 137-58.

The inclusion of an African-American spiritual in Ellington's Black and Tan Fantasy follows the ideas set forth by many writers during the Harlem Renaissance. Ellington takes the Renaissance ideals a step further by integrating the spiritual with blues, urban jazz, call-and-response, and even a quotation of Chopin's funeral march. Bubber Miley, cornetist and co-composer in the Ellington band, bases the opening motive of the fantasy on a spiritual he heard his mother singing while he was a child. However, the spiritual is not truly African-American in its origins. A friend of Miley pointed out that the spiritual is derived from "The Holy City," a sacred song in the style of a spiritual but by the white composer Stephen Adams. This white sacred tune is transformed through Miley's performance practice of bending the pitches, growling, and vocal ya-yas. These issues moved the spiritual away from Du Bois's ideas of the "sorrow song" with lush, pleasant, and Europeanized harmonies and toward Hurston's ideas of the spiritual, which strives for the unrefined sounds of the "real Negro singer." Black and Tan Fantasy was not the only jazz composition to draw upon "The Holy City." King Oliver and His Creole Jazz Band incorporated the sacred work into a twelve-bar blues, and Johnny Dodds responds to the text and music of "The Holy City" in his composition "Weary City."

Works: Ellington/Miley: Black and Tan Fantasy (137-58); Oliver: Chimes Blues (151); Dodds: Weary City (151-53).

Sources: Adams: The Holy City (137-58); Chopin: Piano Sonata No. 2 in B flat Minor (140).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Miyakawa, Felicia M. “Turntablature: Notation, Legitimization, and the Art of the Hip-Hop DJ.” American Music 25 (Spring 2007): 81-105.

Hip-hop DJs take previously recorded material in the form of vinyl LPs and reorganize and alter the recorded sounds to create new music. As DJ techniques and routines have grown increasingly complex, DJs such as DJ A-Trak and DJ Radar and others such as filmmaker John Carluccio have created methods of notating DJs’ musical and technical choices. By examining three forms of scratch notation developed by hip-hop DJs (including the widely-used Turntablist Transcription Methodology, or TTM), various uses for notation can be shown, ranging from idiosyncratic memory-aid to symbolic justification for “art” and “work” status. These uses are linked to those practiced throughout the history of Western art music.

Works: Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (90-91); DJ Radar: Antimatter (94), Concerto for Turntable (96-97).

Sources: DJ Babu: Super Duck Breaks (88); DJ Q-Bert: Toasted Marshmallow Feet Breaks (88); Chic: Good Times (91); Queen: Another One Bites the Dust (91).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Monson, Ingrid. "Doubleness and Jazz Improvisation: Irony, Parody, and Ethnomusicology." Critical Inquiry 20 (Winter 1994): 283-313.

Jazz musicians--particularly African-American musicians--draw upon many sources of knowledge from multiple traditions, and their borrowings are characterized by a sophisticated familiarity with practices from traditions to which they may not traditionally have been thought to belong, as well as a virtuosic and playful tendency to transform the materials they borrow to ironic effect. John Coltrane's position within the world of improvised African-American music did not prevent him from appreciating certain elements of European-American musical theater song in My Favorite Things as sung by Mary Martin. Furthermore, his transformed version of Martin's simple delivery of the Rodgers and Hammerstein tune demonstrates a confidence that African-American musical aesthetics could improve European-American music. Roland Kirk's Rip, Rig, and Panic countered assumptions that he would be unfamiliar with Western art music by citing multiple influences from Edgard Varèse, but did so in an irreverent way that implies multiple meanings and motivations. Not all borrowings must be intercultural or even inter-generic: Jaki Byard's Bass-ment Blues makes ironic references to other styles within the jazz tradition. Intermusical relationships can be ambiguous and still communicate: intention does not necessarily need to line up perfectly with perception. A listener has some liberty to interpret a communicative gesture, although each side should be working with a certain amount of shared knowledge and experience.

Works: Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II (songwriters), John Coltrane (performer): My Favorite Things (292-99); Roland Kirk: Rip, Rig, and Panic (300-302); Jaki Byard: Bass-ment Blues (302-5); Ralph Peterson, Jr.: Princess (306-8).

Sources: Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II (songwriters), Mary Martin (performer): My Favorite Things (292-99); Edgard Varèse: Poème électronique (300), Ionisation (300).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Monson, Ingrid. "Intermusicality." In Saying Something: Jazz Improvisation and Interaction, 97-132. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

In Jazz, quotations of, transformations of, or allusions to existing music are part of a tradition of irony and signifying in African-American music. Most of these quotations, transformations, and allusions are found within improvisations. Allusions to other pieces can function as homage, irony, criticism, or artistic improvement on the original. The success of quotations and allusions depends on the listener's familiarity with the repertoire in question.

Works: Roland Kirk, Rip, Rig, and Panic (121-23).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Murphy, John P. "Jazz Improvisation: The Joy of Influence." The Black Perspective in Music 18, no. 1 (1990): 7-19.

One of the central questions in jazz research is the relationship of a specific jazz musician to his or her jazz predecessors. Much of jazz can be analyzed with Henry Louis Gates's concept of "Signifyin(g)." Meaning in jazz is found in the relationship of each piece to the rest of the jazz repertoire, and in this respect clearly reflects the viability of Harold Bloom's theory of the anxiety of influence for jazz studies. But the influence of predecessors is felt joyfully rather than anxiously in jazz improvisation, and musical quotations in jazz tend to reflect homage.

Works: Joe Henderson: If (10-15); Freddie Hubbard: Bird Like (10-17).

Sources: Charlie Parker: Buzzy (10-17).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Norris, Renee Lapp. “Opera and the Mainstreaming of Blackface Minstrelsy.” Journal of the Society for American Music 1 (August 2007): 341-65.

Around 1840, comic blackface minstrelsy became popular with both high and low society audiences as a result of its combining visual and ideological elements from the established “blackface context” with musical elements borrowed either directly or stylistically from the European operatic repertoire. Comparing parodies and other reworkings of contemporary operatic favorites to their sources, it is evident that there were a variety of borrowing practices at work in blackface shows. Through advertising the productions as both novel and yet akin to other legitimate forms of entertainment, and promoting themes of a sentimental and nationalist nature, these shows were capitalizing on the vogues of the time.

Works: Nelson Kneass: I Dreamed Dat I Libed in Hotel Halls (349-52), See! Sir, See! (352-57).

Sources: Michael William Balfe: “I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls” from The Bohemian Girl (349-52); Vincenzo Bellini: “Vi ravviso o luoghi ameni” from La Sonnambula (352-57).

Index Classifications: 1800s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Patrick, James. "Charlie Parker and the Harmonic Sources of Bebop Composition: Thoughts on the Repertory of New Jazz in the 1940s." Journal of Jazz Studies 2 (1975): 3-23.

In bebop music, especially that of Charlie Parker, new compositions were created by composing new melodies to pre-existing chord progressions and forms. By analogy to contrafactum (the practice of fitting a new text to a pre-existing melody), which dates from the Middle Ages or earlier, this technique is called "melodic contrafact." The two most common songs or forms that provided the harmonic and formal material for contrafacts were George Gershwin's I Got Rhythm and the twelve bar blues. Many bebop contrafacts, like Parker's Ornithology,Perhaps, and Cool Blues, employed previously used improvisational "riffs" (short melodic-rhythmic passages). Pragmatic applications of the jazz contrafact include the "jam session," wherein musicians who did not regularly perform together would congregate and improvise on these familiar chord progressions, and recording sessions in which there was a very limited amount of time to record unrehearsed material. In addition, recording companies could avoid paying royalties to the composer of the source song because the chords of a song were not protected by copyright laws. Contrafacts and their harmonic innovations were an outgrowth of bebop ideology, which was characterized by Afro-centrism and emphasis on virtuosity.

Works: Bechet: Shag (3); Parker: Dexterity (3, 13), Ornithology (4, 17), Scrapple From the Apple (4, 13, 19), Now's the Time (4), Relaxin' at Camarillo (4), Klactoveedsedstene (4, 13), Billie's Bounce (4), The Jumpin' Blues (7), Perhaps (7-8), Cool Blues (8, 19); Gillespie: Dizzy Atmosphere (8), Salt Peanuts (9-10); Ellington: Cotton Tail (9); Sampson: Don't Be That Way (9), Carter: Pom Pom (10); Parker: Red Cross (12), Tiny's Tempo (12), Bongo Bop (13-14), Dewey Square (13), The Hymn (13), Bird of Paradise (13), Bird Feathers (13), Quasimodo (14-15), Parker/Gillespie: Moose the Mooche (17, 18), Yardbird Suite (17); Parker: Klaun Stance (18).

Sources: Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (3, 5, 8-13, 17); Kern: All the Things You Are (13, 18); Gershwin: Embraceable You (15); Kern: The Way You Look Tonight (18).

Index Classifications: Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb, Eytan Uslan

[+] Prato, Paolo. “Selling Italy by the Sound: Cross-Cultural Interchanges through Cover Records.” Popular Music 26 (October 2007): 441-62.

Despite a current lack of English-speaking musicians covering Italian songs, in prior decades (especially the 1960s) there was much covering of Italian music by non-Italians and non-Italian music by Italians. Many of these covers would maintain the music of the original song while changing the lyrics, either through approximate translation or a complete re-writing of the meaning of the original text. This brought about musical modernity for Italian canzone. A theory of “coverability” suggests that songs written in the classical and pre-rock veins are most easily covered because they provide recognizable structure and melody and are based in notation. In contrast, rock and roll is based in orality and performance, and songs like Hendrix’s Voodoo Chile and Led Zeppelin’s Whole Lotta Love, which are defined by particular recordings, resist replication. The “cultural imperialism thesis” of Francesco Alberoni applies to these covers: songs from the USA and the UK are the most likely to be hits (and thus likely to be covered) in other countries, followed by those of other European countries, down to those countries whose songs are unlikely to be covered.

Works: I Dik Dik: Senza luce (442), Sognando California (442); The Rokes: Che colpa abbiamo noi (442); Patty Pravo: Ragazzo triste (443); Bing Crosby, Richard Tucker, and Gracie Fields: Come Back to Sorrento (452); Elvis Presley: It’s Now or Never (452), Viva Las Vegas (452); Al Hoffman, Leo Corday, and Leon Carr (songwriters) and Dean Martin (performer): There’s No Tomorrow (452); Lou Monte: Don’t Say Forever (452); Vic Damone and Frank Sinatra: I Have But One Heart (452); Stevie Wonder: Il sole è di tutti (457).

Sources: Procol Harum: Whiter Shade of Pale (442); Bob Lind: Cheryl’s Going Home (442); John Phillips and Michelle Phillips (songwriters) and The Mamas &The Papas (performers): California Dreamin’ (442); Sonny and Cher: But You’re Mine (443); Ernesto de Curtis: Torna a Surriento (452); Eduardo di Capua and Alfredo Mazzucchi: ’O sole mio (452); Teodoro Cottrau: Santa Lucia (452); Salvatore Gambardella: O’ marinariello (452); Stevie Wonder: A Place in the Sun (457).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Priestley, Brian. “The Stardust File.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 10 (1999): 151-62.

Hoagy Carmichael’s Stardust did not start out as a slow song, but instead an instrumental piece with a fast tempo. The song shares a number of unusual melodic fragments with Bix Beiderbecke’s interpretation of Singin’ the Blues and Louis Armstrong’s Dardanella. The three-note pickup to the chorus later associated with the words “Sometimes I...” is also found in the choruses to popular songs Poor Butterfly and Rose Room. Carmichael first recorded the piece in 1927. The band Mills’s Merry Makers, led by Irving Mills, recorded the first slow version less than a year later. Carmichael, however, credited the tempo change to Isham Jones’s later recording, on which Carmichael was the pianist. Carmichael wrote lyrics to Stardust even before it was recorded for the first time as an instrumental work, but Mitchell Parish, a staff writer for Mills, wrote the lyrics that Bing Crosby sang in the 1931 release of the first version with voice. Crosby and Louis Armstrong are among a handful of artists who have recorded multiple versions of Stardust, indicating its endurance as a jazz standard.

Works: Hoagy Carmichael: Stardust (151-53); Hoagy Carmichael: Stardust as performed by Mills’s Merry Makers (153-54), Isham Jones (154-55), Bing Crosby (156-57), Louis Armstrong (157-58), and Benny Goodman (159).

Sources: J. Russel Robinson, Con Conrad, Sam M. Lewis, and Joe Young (composers) and Bix Beiderbecke (performer): Singin’ the Blues (152); Felix Bernard, Johnny S. Black, and Fred Fisher (composers) and Louis Armstrong (performer): Dardanella (152); Raymond Hubbell: Poor Butterfly (152); Art Hickman: Rose Room (152).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Spottswood, Dick. "The Gouge." Annual Review of Jazz Studies 12 (2002): 135-45.

Trombonist Charlie Green's bluesy solo over a rhythmic vamp in a 1924 recording of W. C. Handy's The Gouge of Armour Avenue has been quoted dozens of times in subsequent recordings, although not usually acknowledged. A few months after this recording session, trombonist Jake Frazier quoted Green's solo in Get Yourself a Monkey and Make Him Strut His Stuff with the Kansas City Five. Kid Ory quoted it again in a 1926 recording with Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five of The King of the Zulu's, and Dicky Wells copied the solo almost exactly in Symphonic Scronch with Lloyd Scott and his orchestra in 1927. Over time, Green's solo has undergone a process of transformation through multiple performers, so that the melody has become a standard term in the jazz vocabulary rather than a specific reference to a particular nameable musical source. The extensive history of quotation of Green's solo fits into larger patterns of borrowing in early jazz recordings; a cornet solo by Joe Oliver on 1923 recordings of Dipper Mouth Blues was also quoted by other musicians. A partial list of later recordings that either quote Green's melody or feature "extended solo cadenzas" or vamps is included.

Sources: Charlie Green: Trombone solo in 1924 Vocalion recording of W. C. Handy's The Gouge of Armour Avenue (136-39).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Tucker, Mark. "The Genesis of Black, Brown and Beige." Black Music Research Journal 13, no. 2 (Fall 1993): 67-86.

Although Ellington's compositional practices tend to support his statements about composing at the end of a deadline, often composing an entire piece in one night, new research shows that the ideas of Black, Brown, and Beige can actually be found twelve years earlier with Ellington's unproduced opera Boola. The plot of Boola deals with the history of the African-Americans, beginning in Egypt and continuing through Africa and the Deep South until they found their place in present-day Harlem. In Black, Brown, and Beige, Ellington takes the overall diagram of Boola and shrinks the subject matter into a forty-five minute extended work for his band. Ellington also borrows from his own previous compositions in Black, Brown and Beige through quotation and recomposition.

Works: Ellington: Black, Brown and Beige.

Sources: Ellington: Symphony in Black (73-74), Jump for Joy (74-82), East St. Louis Toodle-Oo (82), Riding on a Blue Note (82), Bitches' Ball (82).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Walser, Robert. “The Polka Mass: Music of Postmodern Ethnicity.” American Music 10 (Summer 1992): 183-202.

Since the 1970s, the Polka Mass, a variant of the Catholic Mass that replaces traditional anthems with Polka songs, has been performed in the United States by Polish, German, Slovenian, and Czech congregations. The words and music draw upon familiar melodies and secular traditions to enhance the sacred occasion. This style of mass was created to respond to tensions from immigrant communities who felt like they were losing their ethnic Catholic identities in America. Oftentimes, the composers and arrangers of Polka Masses either replaced the lyrics of well-known polkas, waltzes, or country songs with standard liturgical texts, or parodied secular texts to adapt them for a sacred setting. Some of the parodies involved simple changes, such as changing the word “sun” to “Son” in Let the Son Shine In. Other parodies, however, could reinterpret an original song into one of sacred devotion, as seen in Gene Retka’s Gathered Together. Some Polka Mass writers even drew upon genres and styles such as tango, country, and bebop, which caused controversy in some churches. For example, the use of the tune from the country song, Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain, by Willie Nelson was justified only when Frank Perkovich claimed that the melody was from the Czech tune Place Oci.

Works: Fr. Frank Perkovich: At This Sacrifice (188-90, 193), Let the Son Shine In (186-87, 191), The Church in the Valley (187); Fr. George Balasko: We Offer Bread and Wine (187); Gene Retka: Song for Meditation (187), Gathered Together (192), Lord, Have Mercy; Christ, Have Mercy; Lord, Have Mercy (189-90), Each and Every Day (191, 198-99).

Sources: Hair: Let the Sunshine In (186); Walter Ostanek: The Barking Dog Polka (187); Walt Solek: Julida Polka (187, 192); Hank Thunander: The Tavern in the Valley (187); Willie Nelson: Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain (188-89, 193); Lil’ Wally Jagiello: Johnny’s Knocking (191, 198-99).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Wang, Richard. "Jazz Circa 1945: A Confluence of Styles." The Musical Quarterly 59 (October 1973): 531-46.

Jazz styles and trends tend to radiate outwards from a set of innovative musicians. The emergence of bebop and its distinctions from swing can be demonstrated by a set of Comet recordings created in 1945 by Red Norvo, Teddy Wilson, Slam Stewart, J. C. Heard, Flip Phillips, and, most importantly, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Quotation in jazz is a long-standing tradition with no stigma attached to it as is the case in Western art music. The relationship between the quoting and quoted musicians is important: quotation often acts as a form of tribute or a sign of respect. Sometimes this tribute moves in surprising directions. In the case of these albums, older, more established musicians such as Norvo and Wilson offer such gestures of respect to the creativity of the relatively young Gillespie and Parker. Furthermore, the improvised nature of jazz allows quotation to operate not just between songs or works, but within them: Norvo and Wilson quote motives from solos by Gillespie and Parker within the same set.

Works: Red Norvo: Solo on Slam Slam Blues (541-42); Teddy Wilson: Solo on Slam Slam Blues (541-42).

Sources: Dizzy Gillespie: Solo on Slam Slam Blues (541-42); Charlie Parker: Solo on Slam Slam Blues (541-42).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Washburne, Christopher. "The Clave of Jazz: A Caribbean Contribution to the Rhythmic Foundation of an African-American Music." Black Music Research Journal 17, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 57-80.

Scholarship consistently claims African rhythms as the origin of rhythm in early jazz. However, many of the rhythmic cells found in jazz bear more resemblance to Caribbean styles, specifically the son clave,tresillo, and cinquillo found in Cuban music. The Cuban and Haitian immigrants brought their music with them to New Orleans. Many Creole musicians and marching bands borrowed these Caribbean dance rhythms and sounds as a rhythmic foundation for their own music because of their connection with dance. These rhythms then moved into the music of the early jazz pioneers in the rhythmic breaks that occurred in many pieces. The use of these Afro-Cuban rhythms slowly declined as jazz moved away from its dance beginnings. However, these rhythms are continually borrowed in jazz as an homage to past jazz styles and composers.

Works: Da Costa/Edwards/La Rocca/Ragas/Shields/Sbarbaro: Tiger Rag as performed by Louis Armstrong (69-71); Gillespie/Lewis: Two Bass Hit as performed by Miles Davis (71); Barefield/Moten: Toby (71-72); Ellington/Mills/Nemo: Skrontch (71-72); Monk: Rhythm-a-ning (72-73); Clarke/Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (73); Simons/Marks: All of Me (73); Richard M. Jones: Jazzin' Babies Blues as performed by King Oliver (74-75); Caesar/Kahn/Meyer: Crazy Rhythm as performed by Miff Mole (74-75); Barbarin/Russell: Come Back Sweet Papa as performed by Louis Armstrong (75-76).

Sources: Traditional: Son clave,Tresillo, and Cinquillo (57-80).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Watkins, Glenn. Pyramids at the Louvre: Music, Culture, and Collage from Stravinsky to the Postmodernists. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1994.

Collage can be seen as a central force in the various arts of the twentieth century, including music. Collage in music should be considered as more than just a collection of other people's music used in another composer's piece. By expanding the idea of collage to include cultural explosions and reconstitutions, unilateral use of European and American ideas by each other, access to art and ideas of the non-Western world, and the mixture of culture and music theory, a strong transition between Modernism and Postmodernism can be followed. The modernist music of Stravinsky and Debussy at the fin-de-siècle introduced orientalist musical theories and sounds into their own music. This use of orientalism led the way for Primitivism and its various guises throughout the rest of the twentieth century. Collage took a front seat in the music and culture of the twentieth century after World War II. The techniques used in early film played an important role for the emergence of collage in post-war music by giving composers the chance to suggest many past musical styles in quick succession without using long transitions. Composers also continued the tradition of using cultural, literary, and architectural collages in their compositions instead of only creating collage by cutting and pasting from earlier composers.

Works: Debussy: Images (23-26); Stravinsky: Le Rossignol (38-49), Le Sacre du printemps (84-100); Milhaud: La Creation du monde (116-21); Krenek: Jonny spielt auf (150-53); Thomson: Four Saints in Three Acts (153-55); Ellington: Black and Tan Fantasy (187-88); Gershwin: Porgy and Bess (195-202); Stravinsky: David, projected collaboration with Cocteau (238-43, 256-64), Three Pieces for String Quartet (260-64); Schoenberg: Pierrot lunaire (282-84); Stravinsky: Renard (285-87); Debussy: The Children's Corner (297-98); Antheil: Ballet mecanique (327-29); Stravinsky: Agon (360-74); Varese: Ameriques (389-90); Satie: Le feu d'artifice (399); Ives: Flanders Field (400); Britten: War Requiem (405); Rouse: Symphony No. 1 (407-8); Schnittke: Symphony No. 1 (410); Gubaidulina: Offertorium (411-12); Riley: Salome Dances for Peace (414-15); Berio: Sinfonia (416-17), Rendering (417); Berg: Violin Concerto (430-32); Britten: The Prince of the Pagodas (445-46).

Sources: Traditional: America (400), Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (400); Bruckner: Symphony No. 7 (407-8); Lasso: Stabat Mater (411); Beethoven: Grosse Fugue (410); Bach: The Musical Offering (410); Mahler: Symphony No. 2, Resurrection (416).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Williams, J. Kent. "Oscar Peterson and the Art of Paraphrase: The 1965 Recording of Stella by Starlight." In Annual Review of Jazz Studies 9 1997-98, ed. Edward Berger, David Cayer, Henry Martin, and Dan Morgenstern, 25-43. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2000.

André Hodeir was perhaps the first writer to apply the term paraphrase to jazz. He used the term in 1956 to describe a type of improvised melody that lies between two extremes: the unaltered, original melody (called the "head" by jazz musicians) and the ostensibly new melody (called the "chorus phrase") created by the jazz improviser over the harmonic framework of the original melody. In jazz pianist Oscar Peterson's 1965 recording of Victor Young's 1946 song Stella by Starlight, Peterson begins with a version of Young's melody that stays close to the original, but departs from it sufficiently so as to warrant being designated as paraphrase. In the 1960s Peterson continued to begin performances of Stella by Starlight with this same paraphrased version of the song. It thus represents Peterson's "composed" version of the original melody.

Works: Peterson: Stella by Starlight (25-43).

Sources: Young: Stella by Starlight (25-43).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Williams, Justin A. “The Construction of Jazz Rap as High Art in Hip-Hop Music.” The Journal of Musicology 27 (Fall 2010): 435-59.

Due to the elevation of jazz to a “high art” in the mainstream media during the 1980s, members of the hip-hop community interested in projecting such high-art ideologies began to associate themselves with jazz music. “Jazz rap,” which sampled jazz and used “conscious” lyrics in the spirit of bebop’s perceived highbrow nature, was seen as a form of high art within the hip-hop community starting in the early 1990s, and those who wished to justify its high art status argued that it was more authentic than the “lower,” more popular subgenres of rap music. Groups such as De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Digable Planets, and Gang Starr utilize “jazz codes”—sounds, lyrical references, and imagery identified by audiences with jazz—to associate themselves with jazz music.

Works: A Tribe Called Quest: Verses from the Abstract (445), Check the Rhime (445), Jazz (We’ve Got) (445-46); Digable Planets: It’s Good to Be Here (449), Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat) (450-52).

Sources: Bronislaw Kaper (composer) and Lucky Thompson (performer): On Green Dolphin Street (446); Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers: A Chant for Bu (446); The Honeydrippers: Impeach the President (451-52).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Wood, Abigail. “(De)constructing Yiddishland: Solomon and SoCalled’s ‘HipHopKhasene.’” Ethnomusicology Forum 16 (November 2007): 243-70.

Klezmer music, which is generally associated with old-world Eastern-European Judaism and Yiddish culture, manifests itself as a revived repertory in the work of DJ Sophie Solomon and DJ SoCalled (Josh Dolgin). By creating a fusion of klezmer with hip-hop performance and production techniques (including sampling), the duo constructs a contemporary “Hip Hop Khasene,” or hip-hop wedding, musically reenacting one of the ritual components of the wedding on each track of their 2003 album HipHopKhasene. In doing so, Solomon and SoCalled question concepts of musical and cultural authenticity in the face of changing cultural worlds, and create a sonically constructed contemporary Yiddish identity.

Works: Solomon and SoCalled: HipHopKhasene.

Sources: Abe Schwartz: Sadugerer Chusidl (256).

Index Classifications: 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes



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