Principles of Orthography for the TML

version 30/IV/09, layout rev. 12/IX/13. This document is also available as a PDF file.


A. Text data files produced from printed or manuscript sources will retain as exactly as possible the original spelling, punctuation, and capitalization, with the following exceptions.

  1. In manuscript sources (but not in printed material), i/j, u/v, c/t before i plus vowel will be normalized.
  2. In printed material, small caps will be converted to upper- or lower-case letters as the context requires (Roman numerals will always be entered as upper-case letters).
  3. In printed material, corrigenda published as a part of the book itself should be entered (but note ¶B1e below).
  4. Accented letters are entered without accents.
  5. Suspensions and abbreviations will be expanded.(1)
  6. Periods, commas, colons, or paragraphi will always be placed on the baseline.
  7. Proper nouns will be capitalized.
  8. Initial letters of titles and true incipits will be capitalized, but initial letters of obvious or apparent fragments will not be capitalized.
  9. Non-roman letters, which are not part of the standard ASCII character set, will be entered as capitalized letter- names between brackets (e.g., Γ will be entered as [Gamma]); words written in non-roman letters will be transliterated according to the standards of the Chicago Manual of Style, 13th edition.
  10. In order to preserve the lining of poetry, a return (ASCII code 13) will be entered at the end of each line. 11. Double letters set one above the other (e.g., vertically stacked ee) are entered side by side (e.g., ee).

B. Various types of symbols are available and will be used in data files that will be stored as ASCII files readable on any machine.(2)

  1. Single brackets ([ and ], ASCII codes 91 and 93, respectively) will enclose six types of material.
    1. Codes showing the beginning of each page or folio side, surrounded by hyphens. For example, [-2-] will indicate the beginning of page 2 in text drawn from a published (or paginated) work; [-f.22v-] will indicate the beginning of the verso of folio 22 in text drawn from a manuscript (or foliated) work.
    2. Codes for musical notation appearing within a sentence (see Table of Codes and the Musical Notation section below).
    3. Editorial notes indicating the presence of figures, tables, or a musical example. For each example, a separate line will exhibit a reference to the source (e.g., [Berkeley, 88] or [Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 6486, f.22v]). If the example is accompanied by text, this will be included within the brackets (e.g., [Berkeley, 86; text: E-la, D-la-sol, C-sol-fa, B-fa-B-mi, A-la-mi-re, G-sol-re-ut, F-fa-ut, E-la-mi, D-la-sol-re, C-sol-fa-ut, D-sol-re, C-fa-ut, B-mi, A- re, Gamma-ut, 5 superacute, 7 acute, 8 graves, Declaracio manus secundum usum]) to enable the search program to locate and display text strings within figures as well as within the text proper. The text, of course, will also appear in the graphics file that will store the figure, table, or musical example itself.(3)
    4. Text added by later hands(4) (noted following the text: m.sec. or m.alt. or m.rec.), especially marginal hands (noted following the text: in marg.).
    5. Corrections added to the base text, either above the line (noted: corr. supra lin.) or in the margin (noted: corr. in marg.).
    6. Non-Roman letter-names.
  2. Double brackets ([[ ]]) will enclose letters or words cancelled in the manuscript itself.
  3. Angle brackets (< and >, ASCII codes 60 and 61, respectively) will enclose (a) letters, words, or passages read by conjecture; or (b) if a short passage cannot be certainly transcribed, dots indicating the approximate number of letters. In the very few cases where an entire passage may be illegible, the number of lines followed by “legi non potest” will be noted within the angle brackets.
  4. Braces ({ and }, ASCII codes 123 and 125, respectively) will surround an interpolated passage to show the appropriate transposition.
  5. The asterisk (ASCII code 42) will be used as equivalent to the obelus (†).

Musical Notation

All musical symbols or notation that appear within sentences of the text will be entered as codes. In general, single- line examples—especially examples with no specific pitch content—should also be encoded. See “Table of Codes for Noteshapes and Rests.” Polyphonic or other more complex musical examples, charts, figures, graphs, and similar sorts of material that cannot be easily keyed as ASCII text (which may, of course, include the use of tabs to lay out simple tables) will be scanned, saved in GIF format, and keyed to its original location in the printed or manuscript source.


  1. Abbreviated cardinal or ordinal numbers (e.g., 2a, 4a, 3us, etc.) should be expanded when the result can be expressed as a single word (e.g., secunda, quarta, tritus, etc.) but otherwise should be left in abbreviated form (e.g., 1343o). Numerals (Roman or Arabic), of course, should be left as numerals. (Return to text)
  2. I.e., alphanumeric codes 32–126. (Return to text)
  3. The figures themselves will be stored and retrievable as GIF files. (Return to text)
  4. Including glosses and scholia. (Return to text)

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