TEXTS ON MUSIC IN ENGLISH
School of Music
University of Nebraska--Lincoln
Lincoln, NE 68588-0100
(phone:  472-2507; Internet: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Data entry: Peter M. Lefferts, Ausra Motuzaite-Pinkeviciene
Checked by: Peter M. Lefferts
Approved by: Peter M. Lefferts
Fn and Ft: MOR1597A_TEXT
Author: Morley, Thomas
Title: A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke, First Part
Source: Thomas Morley, A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke (London: Peter Short, 1597) [STC 18133], ff. A1r-Bv, pp. 1-68.
Graphics: MOR1597A 01GF-MOR1597A 52GF
[-f.A1r-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, f.A1r; text: A PLAINE AND EASIE INTRODVCTION TO PRACTICALL MVSICKE, Set downe in forme of a dialogue. Deuided into three partes, The first teacheth to sing with all things necessary for the knowledge of prickesong. The second treateth of descante and to sing two parts in one vpon a plainsong or ground, with other things necessary for a descanter. The third and last part entreateth of composition of three, foure, fiue or more parts with many profitable rules to that effect. With new songs of .2.3.4. and .5 parts. By Thomas Morley, Batcheler of musick, and one of the gentlemen of hir Maiesties Royall Chappell. Imprinted at London by Peter Short dwelling on Breedstreet hill at the signe of the Starre. 1597. Marinus, Strabo, Polibius, Astronomia, Musica, Mercurius, Arithmetica, Geometria, Hipparchus, Aratus, Ptolomeus, VVLNERE VIRESCIT VERITAS, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [MOR1597A 01GF]
[-f.A2r-] To the most excellent Musician Maister William Birde one of the gentlemen of her Maiesties chappell.
THere be two whose benefites to vs can neuer be requited: God, and our parents, the one for that he gaue vs a reasonable soule, the other for that of them we haue our beeing. To these the prince and (as Cicero tearmeth him) the God of the Philosophers added our maisters, as those by whose directions the faculties of the reasonable soule be stirred vp to enter into contemplation, and searching of more then earthly things: whereby we obtaine a second being, more to be wished and much more durable then that which any man since the worlds creation hath receiued of his parents: causing vs liue in the mindes of the vertuous, as it were, deified to the posteritie. The consideration of this hath moued me to publish these labors of mine vnder your name both to signifie vnto the world, my thankfull mind: and also to notifie vnto your selfe in some sort the entire loue and vnfained affection which I beare vnto you. And seeing we liue in those daies wherein enuie raigneth; and that it is necessary for him who shall put to light any such thing as this is, to choose such a patron, as both with iudgement may correct it, and with authority defend him from the rash censures of such as thinke they gaine great praise in condemning others: Accept (I pray you) of this booke, both that you may exercise your deepe skill in censuring of what shall be amisse, as also defend what is in it truely spoken, as that which somtime proceeded from your selfe. So shall your approbation cause me thinke the better of it, and your name set in the forefront thereof be sufficient to abate the furie of many insulting momistes who think nothing true but what they doo themselues. And as those verses were not esteemed Homers which Aristarchus had not approuod, so wil I not auouch for mine that which by your censure shalbe condemned. And so I rest,
in all loue and affection to you most addicted,
[-f.A2v-] Anthony Holborne in commendation of the Author
To whom can ye, sweet Muses, more with right
Impart your paines to praise his worthy skill,
Then vnto him that taketh sole delight,
In your sweet art, therewith the world to fill.
Then turne your tunes to Morleys worthy prayse,
And sing of him that sung of you so long:
His name with laud and with dew honour rayse,
That hath made you the matter of his song.
Like Orpheus sitting on high Thracian hill,
That beasts and mountaines to his ditties drew,
So doth he draw with his sweete Musicks skill
Men to attention of his Science trew.
Wherein it seemes that Orpheus he exceeds,
For he wyld beasts, this men with pleasure feeds.
Another by A. B.
WHat former tymes through selfe respecting good
Of deepe-hid Musicke closly kept vnknowne,
That in our tongue of all to b'understoode,
Fully and plainly hath our Morley showne.
Whose worthy labors on so sweete a ground,
Great to himselfe to make thy good the better.
If that thy selfe do not thy selfe confound,
Will win him praise and make thee still his detter.
Buy, reade, regard, marke with indifferent eye,
More good for Musicke elsewhere doth not lie.
Another by I.W.
A Noise did rise like thunder in my hearing,
When in the East I saw darke clowdes appearing:
Where furies sat in Sable mantles couched,
Haughty disdaine with cruel enuy matching,
Olde Momus and young Zoylus all watching,
How to disgrace what Morley hath auouched,
But loe the day star with his bright beames shining,
Sent forth his aide to musicks arte refining,
Which gaue such light for him whose eyes longe houered,
To find a part where more lay vndiscouered,
That all his workes with ayre so sweete perfumed,
Shall liue with fame when foes shal be consumed.
[-f.Br-] To the curteous Reader.
I Do not doubt, but many (who haue knowen my disposition in times past) will wonder that (amongst so manie excellent Musicions as be in this our countrie at this time, and farre better furnished with learning then my selfe,) I haue taken vpon mee to set out that in our vulgar tongue, which of all other things hath beene in writing least knowen to our contrimen, and most in practise. Yet if they would consider the reasons mouing mee therevnto: they would not onely leaue to marueile, but also thinke mee worthie, if not of praise, yet of pardon for my paines. First, the earnest intreatie of my friends daily requesting, importuning, and as it were adiuring me by the loue of my contrie, which next vnto the glorie of God, ought to be most deere to euery man. Which reason so often tolde and repeted to mee by them, chiefely caused mee yeld to their honest request in taking in hand this worke which now I publish to the viewe of the worlde: Not so much seeking thereby any name or glorie, (though no honest minde do contemne that also, and I might more largely by other meanes and lesse labour haue obtained) as in some sort to further the studies of them, who (being indewed with good naturall wittes, and well inclined to learne that diuine Art of Musick) are destitute of sufficient masters. Lastly, the solitarie life which I lead (being compelled to keepe at home) caused mee be glad to finde anything wherein to keepe my selfe exercised for the benefite of my contrie. But as concerning the booke it selfe, if I had before I began it, imagined halfe the paines and labour which it cost mee, I would sooner haue beene perswaded to anie thing, then to haue taken in hand such a tedious peece of worke, like vnto a great Sea, which the further I entred into, the more I sawe before mee vnpast: So that at length dispairing euer to make an end (seeing that growe so bigg in mine hands, which I thought to haue shut vp in two or three sheetes of paper,) I layde it aside, in full determination to haue proceeded no further, but to haue left it off as shamefully as it was foolishly begonne. But then being admonished by some of my friends, that it were pitie to lose the frutes of the imployment of so manie good houres, and how iustly I should be condemned of ignorant presumpsion, in taking that in hand which I could not performe, if I did not go forwarde: I resolued to endure whatsoeuer paine, labour, losse of time and expence, and what not? rather then to leaue that vnbrought to an end, in the which I was so farre ingulfed. Taking therefore those precepts which being a childe I learned, and laying them togither in order, I began to compare them with some other of the same kinde, set downe by some late writers: But then was I in a worse case then before. For I found such diuersitie betwixt them, that I knew not which part said truest, or whome I might best beleeue. Then was I forced to runne to the workes of manie, both strangers and English men (whose labours togithers with their names had beene buried with mee in perpetuall obliuion, if it had not beene for this occasion) for a solution and clearing of my doubt. But to my great griefe, then did I see the most part of mine owne precepts false and easie to be confuted by the workes of Tauerner, Fairfax, Cooper, and infinite more, whose names it would be too tedious to set downe in this place. But what labour it was to tomble, tosse, and search so manie bookes, and with what toyle and wearinesse I was enforced to compare the parts for trying out the valure of some notes, (spending whole daies, yea and manie times weekes for the demonstration of one example, which one would haue thought might in a moment haue been set down,) I leaue to thy discretion to consider: and none can fully vnderstande, but he who hath had or shall haue occasion to do the like. As for the methode of the booke, [-f.Bv-] although it be not such as may in euery point satisfie the curiositie of Dichotomistes: yet is it such as I thought most conuenient for the capacitie of the learner. And I haue had an especiall care, that nothing should be set out of his owne place, but that it which should serue to the vnderstanding of that which followeth should be set first. And as for the definition, diuision, partes, and kindes of Musicke, I haue omitted them as things onely seruing to content the learned, and not for the instruction of the ignorant. Thus hast thou the reasons which moued mee to take in hand and go forward with the booke. The paines of making whereof, though they haue beene peculier to mee, and onely to mee: yet will the profit redound to a great number. And this much I may boldly affirme, that any of but meane capacitie, so they can but truely sing their tunings, which we commonly call the sixe notes, or vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la, may without any other help saving this booke, perfectly learn to sing, make discant, and set partes well and formally togither. But seeing in these latter daies and doting age of the worlde, there is nothing more subiect to calumnie and backbiting then that which is most true and right: and that as there be many who will enter into the reading of my booke for their instruction: so I doubt not but diuerse also will read it, not so much for anie pleasure or profit they looke for in it, as to finde some thing whereat to repine, or take occasion of backbyting. Such men I warne, that if in friendship they will (eyther publikly or priuately) make me acquainted with any thing in the booke, which either they like not or vnderstand not: I will not onely be content to giue them a reason (and if I cannot, to turne to their opinion,) but also thinke my selfe highly beholding to them. But if any man, either vpon mallice, or for ostentation of his owne knowledge, or for ignorance (as who is more bolde then blinde bayerd) do either in huggermugger or openly calumniate that which either he vnderstandeth not, or then maliciously wresteth to his own sense, he (as Augustus said by one, who had spoken evill of him) shall finde that I haue a tongue also: and that me remorsurum petit, He snarleth at one who will bite againe, because I haue saide nothing without reason, or at least confirmed by the authorities of the best, both schollers and practicioners. There haue also been some, who (knowing their own insufficiencie, and not daring to disallow, nor being able to improue any thing in the booke) haue neuerthelesse gone about to discredite both mee and it another waie, affirming that I haue by setting out thereof maliciously gone about to take awaye the liuings from a nomber of honest poore men, who liue (and that honestly) vpon teaching not halfe of that which in this booke may be found. But to answere those malicious caterpillers, who liue vpon the paines of other men,) this booke will be so farre from the hinderance of anie, that by the contrarie, it will cause those whome they alledge to be thereby damnified, to be more able to giue reason for that which they do: Whereas before they either did it at hap-hazerd, or for all reasons alledged, that they were so taught. So that if any at all owe mee any thanks for the great paines which I haue taken, they be in my iudgement, those who taught that which they knew not, and may here if they will learne. But if the effect do not answere to my good meaning, and if manie do not reape that benefit which I hoped; yet there wilbe no reason why I should be blamed, who haue done what I could, and giuen an occasion to others of better iudgement and deeper skill then my selfe to doe the like. And as for those ignorant Asses, who take vpon them to lead others, none being more blinde then themselues, and yet without any reason, before they haue seene their workes, wil condemne other men, I ouerpasse them, as being vnworthie to be nominated, or that any man should vouchsafe to aunswere them: for they be in deede such as doing wickedly hate the light for feare they should be espyed. And so (gentle Reader) hoping by thy favourable curtesie, to auoide both the malice of the enuious and the temeritie of the ignorant, wishing thee the whole profit of the booke and all perfection in thy studies, I rest.
Thine in all couttesie
[-1-] The first part of the Introduction to Musicke, teaching to sing.
Polymathes. Philomathes. Master.
Polymathes. STaye (brother Philomathes) what haste? Whither go you so fast?
Philomathes. To seeke out an old frind of mine.
Polymathes. But before you goe, I praie you repeat some of the discourses which you had yester night at master Sophobulus his banket: For commonly he is not without both wise and learned guestes.
Philomathes. It is true in deede. And yester night, there were a number of excellent schollers, (both gentlemen and others:) but all the propose which then was discoursed vpon, was Musicke.
Polymathes. I trust you were contented to suffer others to speake of that matter.
Philomathes. I would that had been the worst: for I was compelled to discouer mine own ignorance, and confesse that I knewe nothing at all in it.
Polymathes. How so?
Philomathes. Among the rest of the guestes, by chaunce, master Aphron came thether also, who falling to discourse of Musicke, was in an argument so quickely taken vp and hotly pursued by Eudoxus and Calergus, two kinsmen of Sophobulus, as in his owne art he was ouerthrowne. But he still sticking in his opinion, the two gentlemen requested mee to examine his reasons, and confute them. But I refusing and pretending ignorance, the whole companie condemned mee of discurtesie, being fully perswaded, that I had beene as skilfull in that art, as they tooke mee to be learned in others. But supper being ended, and Musicke bookes, according to the custome being brought to the table: the mistresse of the house presented mee with a part, earnestly requesting mee to sing. But when after manie excuses, I protested vnfainedly that I could not: euerie one began to wonder. Yea, some whispered to others, demaunding how I was brought vp: so that vpon shame of mine ignorance I goe nowe to seeke out mine olde frinde master Gnorimus, to make my selfe his scholler.
Polymathes. I am glad you are at length come to bee of that minde, though I wished it sooner. Therefore goe, and I praie God send you such good successe as you would wish to your selfe. As for mee, I goe to heare some Mathematicall Lectures, so that I thinke, about one time wee may both meete at our lodging.
[-2-] Philomathes. Farewell, for I sit vpon thornes till I be gone: therefore I will make haste. But if I be not deceiued, I see him whome I seeke sitting at yonder doore, out of doubt it is hee. And it should seeme he studieth vpon some point of Musicke; But I will driue him out of his dumpe. Good morrow Sir.
Master. And you also, good master Philomathes, I am glad to see you, seing it is so long agoe since I sawe you, that I thought you had either been dead, or then had vowed perpetually to keepe your chamber and booke, to which you were so much addicted.
Philomathes. In deede I haue beene well affected to my booke. But how haue you done since I sawe you?
Master. My health, since you sawe mee, hath beene so badd, as if it had beene the pleasure of him who may all things, to haue taken me out of the worlde, I should haue beene verie well contented: and haue wished it more than once. But what businesse hath driuen you to this end of the towne?
Philomathes. My errand is to you, to make my self your scholler. And seeing I haue found you at such conuenient leisure, I am determined not to departe till I haue one lesson in Musicke.
Master. You tell mee a wonder: for I haue heard you so much speake against that art, as to terme it a corrupter of good manners, and an allurement to vices, for which many of your companions termed you a Stoick.
Philomathes. It is true: But I am so farre changed, as of a Stoick I would willingly make a Pythagorian. And for that I am impacient of delay, I praie you begin euen now.
Master. With a good will. But haue you learned nothing at all in Musick before?
Philomathes. Nothing. Therefore I pray begin at the verie beginning, and teach mee as though I were a childe.
Master. I will do so, and therefore behold, here is the Scale of Musicke, [Annotation 1] which wee terme the Gam. [Annotation 2]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 2; text: 1, 2, 3, note, notes, cliffes, vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la, Prima sex vocum deductio, Secunda, Tertia, Quarta, Quinta, Sexta, Septima, Double or Treble keyes. Meane, Graue or Base, [Gamma], A, [sqb], C, D, E, F, G, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, aa, bb, cc, dd, ee] [MOR1597A 02GF]
[-3-] Philomathes. In deede I see letters and syllables written here, but I doe not vnderstand them nor their order.
Master. For the vnderstanding of this Table, You must begin at the lowest word Gam-vt, and so go vpwards to the end still ascending.
Philomathes. That I do vnderstand. What is next?
Master. Then must you get it perfectly without booke, to saie it forwards and backwards. Secondly, You must learne to knowe, wherein euery Keye standeth, that is, whether in rule or in space. And thirdly, How manie cliefes and how manie notes euery Key containeth.
Philomathes. What do you call a Cliefe, and what a Note?
Master. [What a cliefe is. in marg.] A Cliefe is a charecter set on a rule at the beginning of a verse, shewing the heigth and lownes of euery note standing on the same verse, or in space (although vse hath taken it for a generall rule neuer to set any cleife in the space except the b cleife) and euery space or rule not having a cleife set in it, hath one vnderstoode, being only omitted for not pestering the verse, and sauing of labor to the writer: but here it is taken for a letter begining the name of euery keye: and are they which you see here set at the beginning of euery worde.
Philomathes. I take your meaning, so that euery keye hath but one cleife, except, b fa b mi.
Master. You haue quickly and well conceiued my meaning. The residue which you see written in Syllables are the names of the Notes.
Philomathes. In this likewise I thinke I vnderstand your meaning. But I see no reason, why you should say the two b b be two seuerall cliefes, seeing they are but one twise named. [Annotation 3]
Master. The Herralds shall answere that for mee: for if you should aske them, why two men of one name should not both giue one Armes? they will straight answere you, that they be of seuerall houses, and therefore must giue diuers coates. So these two b b, though they be both comprehended vnder one name, yet they are in nature and charecter diuers.
Philomathes. This I doe not vnderstand.
Master. Nor cannot, till you know all the cliefes, and the rising and falling of the voyce for the true tuning of the notes.
Philomathes. I praie you then go forwards with the cliefes: the diffinition of them I haue heard before.
Master. [How manie cliefes there be. The formes of the vsuall cliefes. in marg.] There be in all seuen cliefes (as I told you before) as A.B.C.D.E.F.G. but in vse in singing [Annotation 4] there be but foure: that is to saie, the F fa vt, which is commonly in the Basse or lowest part, being formed or made thus [ClefF]. The C sol fa vt cliefe which is common to euery part, and is made thus [ClefC]. The G sol re vt cliefe, which is commonly vsed in the Treble or highest part, and is made thus [ClefG]. And the b cliefe which is comon to euery part, is made thus b or thus [sqb] the one signifying the halfe note and flatt singing: the other signifying the whole note or sharpe singing.
Philomathes. Now that you haue tolde mee the cliefes, it followeth to speake of the tuning of the Notes.
Master. It is so, and therefore be attentiue and I will be briefe. [The sixe notes in continuall deduction. in marg.] There be in Musicke but vj. Notes, which are called, vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la, and are comonly set down thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 3]. [MOR1597A 02GF]
Philomathes. In this I vnderstand nothing, but that I see the F fa vt cliefe standing on the fourth rule from beneath.
Master. And do you not vnderstand wherin the first note standeth?
Philomathes. Verily, no.
Master. [How to know wherein euery note standeth. in marg.] You must then recken downe from the Cliefe, as though the verse were the [-4-] Scale of Musicke, [Annotation 5] assigning to euerie space and rule a seuerall Keye.
Philomathes. This is easie. And by this meanes I finde that the first note standeth in Gam-vt, and the last in E la mi.
Master. You saie true. Now sing them.
Philomathes. How shall I terme the first note?
Master. If you remember that which before you tolde mee you vnderstood: you would resolue your selfe of that doubt. But I pray you in Gam vt, how manie cliefs, and how manie notes?
Philomathes. One cliefe and one note. O I crye you mercie, I was like a potte with a wide mouth, that receiueth quickly, and letteth out as quickly.
Master. Sing then after mee till you can tune: for I will lead you in the tuning, and you shall name the notes your selfe.
Philomathes. I can name them right till I come to C fa vt. Now whether shall I terme this fa, or vt?
Master. [A note for singing of vt. in marg.] Take this for a generall rule, that in one deduction of the sixe notes, you can haue one name but once vsed, although in deede (if you could keepe right tune) it were no matter how you named any note. But this wee vse commonly in singing, that except it be in the lowest note of the part wee neuer vse vt.
Philomathes. How then? Do you neuer sing vt but in Gam vt?
Master. Not so: But if either Gam vt, or C fa vt, or F fa vt, or G sol re vt, be the lowest note of the parte, then we may sing vt there.
Philomathes. Now I conceiue it.
Master. Then sing your sixe notes forward and backward.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 4,1; text: Vt, re mi, fa, sol, la] [MOR1597A 02GF]
Is this right?
Master. Verie well.
Philomathes. Now I praie you shew me all the seuerall Keyes wherein you may begin your sixe notes.
Master. Lo here they be set downe at length.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 4,2] [MOR1597A 02GF]
Philomathes. Be these all the wayes you may haue these notes in the whole Gam?
Master. These and their eights: as what is done in Gam vt may also be done in G sol re vt, and likewise in g sol re vt in alt. And what in C fa vt, may be also in C sol fa vt, and in C sol fa. And what in F fa vt in Base, may also be done in f fa vt in alt. But these be the three principall keyes containing the three natures or properties of singing. [Annotation 6]
Philomathes. Which be the three properties of singing?
Master. [The three properties of singing. in marg.] b quarre. Properchant. and b molle.
Philomathes. What is b quarre?
Master. It is a propertie of singing, wherein mi is alwaies song in b fa [sqb] mi, and is alwayes when you sing vt in Gam vt.
Philomathes. What is Properchant?
[-5-] Master. It is a propertie of singing, wherin you may sing either fa or mi in b fa [sqb] mi according as it shalbe marked b or thus [sqb] and is when the vt is in C fa vt.
Philomathes. What if there be no marke.
Master. There it is supposed to be sharpe. [sqb]
Philomathes. What is b molle?
Master. It is a propertie of singing, wherein fa must alwaies be song in b fa [sqb] mi, and is when the vt is in F fa vt.
Philomathes. Now I thinke I vnderstand all the cliefes, and that you can hardly shewe me any note, but that I can tell wherein it standeth.
Master. Then wherein doth the eighth note stand in this example.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 5,1] [MOR1597A 02GF]
Philomathes. In G sol re vt.
Master. How knew you?
Philomathes. By my proofe.
Master. How do you prooue it?
Philomathes. [How to prooue where a note standeth. in marg.] From the cliefe which is F fa vt: for the next keye aboue F fa vt is G sol re vt.
Master. Now sing this example.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 5,2] [MOR1597A 02GF]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 5,3; text: vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la] [MOR1597A 02GF]
But now I am out of my byas, for I know not what is aboue la.
Master. Wherein standeth the note whereof you doubt?
Philomathes. In F fa vt.
Master. And I praie you, F fa vt, how manie cliefes and how manie notes?
Philomathes. One cliefe and two notes.
Master. Which be the two notes?
Philomathes. fa and vt.
Master. [What to be sung aboue la. in marg.] Now if you remember what I told you before concerning the singing of vt, you may not sing it in this place: so that of force you must sing fa.
Philomathes. You saie true. And I see that by this I should haue a verie good wit, for I haue but a bad memorie: But now I will sing forward.
Master. Do so then,
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 5,4; text: vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la] [MOR1597A 02GF]
But once againe, I knowe not how to go any further.
Philomathes. Because I know not what to sing aboue this la.
Master. Wherein standeth the note?
Philomathes. In b fa [sqb] mi.
Master. And what b hath it before it?
[-6-] Master. How then must you sing it when there is no signe?
Philomathes. I crie you mercie, it must be sharpe: but I had forgotten the rule you gaue mee, and therefore I pray you set mee another example, to see if I haue forgotten any more?
Master. Here is one: sing it.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 6,1] [MOR1597A 03GF]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 6,2; text: Vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la] [MOR1597A 03GF]
Master. This is well song: Now sing this other.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 6,3] [MOR1597A 03GF]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 6,4; text: vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la] [MOR1597A 03GF]
Master. This is right: but could you sing it no other wise?
Philomathes. No otherwise in tune, though I might alter the names of the notes.
Master. Of which, and how?
Philomathes. [The three first notes may be altered in name though not in tune. in marg.] Of the three first, thus
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 6,5; text: fa, sol, la, et cetera] [MOR1597A 03GF]
and so foorth of their eyghtes.
Master. You do well. Now for the last tryall of your singing in continuall deduction sing this perfectly, and I will saie you vnderstand plainsong well enough.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 6,6] [MOR1597A 03GF]
Philomathes. I know not how to beginne.
Philomathes. Because, beneath Gam vt there is nothing: and the first note standeth beneath Gam vt.
Master. [Musicke is included in no certaine bounds. in marg.] Whereas you saie, there is nothing beneath Gam vt, you deceiue your selfe: For Musicke is included in no certaine bounds, (though the Musicions do include their songs within a certaine compasse.) And as you Philosophers say, that no number can be giuen so great, but that you may giue a greater. And no poynt so small, but that you may giue a smaller. So there can be no note giuen so high, but you may giue a higher. and none so lowe, but that you may giue a lower. And therfore call to minde that which I tolde you concerning the keyes and their eightes: for if Mathematically you consider it, it is true as well without the compasse of the Scale, as within: and so may be continued infinitely.
[-7-] Philomathes. Why then was your Scale deuised of xx. notes and no more?
Master. [What is to bee sung vnder Gam vt. in marg.] Because that compasse was the reach of most voyces: so that vnder Gam vt the voice seemed as a kinde of humming, and aboue E la a kinde of constrained skricking. But wee goe from the purpose, and therefore proceede to the singing of your ensample.
Philomathes. Then I perceiue the first note standeth in F fa vt vnder Gam vt, and being the lowest note of the verse I may there sing vt.
Master. Right, or fa if you will, as you did in the eyght aboue in the other verse before. But goe forward.
Philomathes. Then though there be no re in Gam vt, nor mi in A re, nor fa in [sqb] mi et cetera. yet because they be in their eyghtes I may sing them there also. But I pray you why do you set a b in E la mi? seeing there is neither in it nor in E la mi in alte, nor in E la any fa, and the b cliefe is onely set to those keyes wherein there is fa.
Master. [Euery note both sharpe and flat. in marg.] Because there is no note of it selfe either flatt or sharpe, but compared with another, is sometime flatt and sometime sharpe: so that there is no note in the whole Scale which is not both sharpe and flatt: And seeing you might sing la in D sol re, you might also (altering the tune a litle) sing fa in E la mi. There be manie other flattes in Musicke, as the b in A la mi re, whereof I will not speake at this time, because I will not cloy your memorie with vnprofitable precepts: and it will be time enough for you to learne them when you come to practice pricksong.
Philomathes. This I will then think sufficient till that time, and therefore goe forward to some other matter.
Master. Then seeing you vnderstand continuall deduction, I will shewe you it disjunct or abrupt.
Philomathes. In good time.
Master. [The notes in disjunct deduction. in marg.] Here, sing this verse.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 7,1] [MOR1597A 03GF]
Philomathes. Here I knowe where all the notes stand: but I know not how to tune them by reason of their skipping.
Master. [How to keepe right tune in disiunct deduction. in marg.] When you sing
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 7,2] [MOR1597A 03GF]
Imagin a note betwixt them thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 7,3] [MOR1597A 03GF]
and so leauing out the middle note, keping the tune of the last note in your minde, you shall haue the true tune, thus: sing first vt re mi, then sing vt mi, and so the residue, thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 7,4] [MOR1597A 03GF]
And so downward againe, thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 7,5] [MOR1597A 03GF]
Philomathes. Here is no difficultie but in the tuning: so that now I thinke I can keepe tune, and sing any thing you can set downe.
Master. Then sing this verse.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 7,6] [MOR1597A 03GF]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 8,1; text: mi, fa, sol, la] [MOR1597A 04GF]
Master. This is well song. Now here be diuerse other examples of plainsong, which you may sing by your selfe.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 8,2; text: mi, fa, sol, la] [MOR1597A 04GF]
[-9-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 9,1; text: fa, sol, la] [MOR1597A 05GF]
Master. Thus for the naming and turning [Errata 1] of the notes, it followeth to speake of the diuersitie of timing of them (for hetherto they haue all beene of one length or time, euery note making vp a whole stroke.
Philomathes. What is stroke?
Master. [Definition of strokes. in marg.] It is a successiue motion of the hand, directing the quantitie of euery note and rest in the song, with equall measure, according to the varietie of signes and proportions: [Deuision of strokes. in marg.] this they make three folde, more, lesse, and proportionate. The More stroke they call, when the stroke comprehendeth the time of a Briefe. The lesse, when a time of a Semibriefe: and proportionat where it comprehendeth three Semibriefes, as in a triple or three Minoms, as in the more prolation, but this you cannot yet vnderstand.
Philomathes. What is the timing of a note?
Master. [Definition of time. in marg.] It is a certayne space or length, wherein a note may be holden in singing.
Philomathes. How is that knowen?
Master. By the forme of the note [Annotation 7] and the Moode. [Annotation 8]
Philomathes. How many formes of notes be there?
Master. Eight, which be these. [Vsuall formes of notes. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 9,2; text: A large. A longe. A briefe. A semibreife. A minim. A crotchet. A quauer. A simiquauer.] [MOR1597A 05GF]
Philomathes. [Restes. in marg.] What strokes be these set after euery note?
Master. These be called rests or pauses. [Annotation 9] And what length the notes, Large, Long, Briefe, Semibriefe or any other signified in sounde the same. The rests are (as you call them) [Errata 2] stroks, doe them [Errata 3] in silence. But before wee goe anie further, wee must speake of the Ligatures. [Annotation 10]
Philomathes. What is a Ligature?
Master. [What ligatures be. in marg.] It is a combination or knitting together of two or more notes, altering by their scituation and order the value of the same.
Philomathes. And because wee will in learning keepe order, I pray speake of them according to their order beginning at the first.
Master. [First notes in Ligature without tayles. in marg.] I am contented, be then attentiue and I will both be briefe and playne, if your first note lack a tayle, the second descending, it is a Long, as in this ensample.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 9,3; text: 4, 2] [MOR1597A 05GF]
[-10-] Philomathes. But what if it haue a taile?
Master. I pray you giue mee leaue first to dispatch those which lacke tailes: and then I will speake of them which haue tailes.
Philomathes. Go to then, but what if the next note be ascending?
Master. Then is it a briefe, thus.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 10,1; text: 2] [MOR1597A 05GF]
Philomathes. But interrupting your course of speech of Ligatures: how manie notes doeth that charecter conteine which you haue set downe last?
Philomathes. Where doe they stande? for I thought it should haue been set thus,
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 10,2] [MOR1597A 05GF]
because it stretcheth from A la mi re, to E la mi.
Master. The notes stand at the beginning and the ende, as in this example aforesaide: the first standeth in A la mi re, the last in E la mi.
Philomathes. Proceed then to the declaration of the tayled notes.
Master. [First notes with tayles coming downe. in marg.] If the first note haue a tayle on the left side hanging downward: (the second ascending or descending) it is a briefe:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 10,3; text: 2, 4] [MOR1597A 05GF]
Philomathes. But how if the tayle goe vpward?
Master. [First notes with tayles ascending. in marg.] Then is it and the next imediatly following, (which I pray you keepe well in minde,) a semibriefe:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 10,4; text: 1, 4] [MOR1597A 05GF]
Philomathes. How if the tayle goe both vpward and downewarde?
Master. There is no note so formed as to haue a tayle of one side to goe both vpwarde and downewarde.
Philomathes. But how if it haue a tayle on the right side?
Master. [Euery Note hauing a tayle on the right side, is as though it were not in Ligaturs in marg.] Then out of doubt it is as though it were not in Ligature and is a Long, thus.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 10,5; text: 2, 4] [MOR1597A 05GF]
And this is trew, aswell in the last notes as in the first.
Philomathes. Now I think you haue tolde me all that may be spoken of the first notes: I pray you proceede to the middle notes, and their nature.
[-11-] Master. [A general rule for midle notes in Ligatures in marg.] Their nature is easely knowne, for euery note standing betweene two others is a Briefe, as thus.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 11,1; text: 2, 4] [MOR1597A 06GF]
[Exception. in marg.] But if it follow immediatly after an other, which had a tayle going vp, then is it a Semibriefe as I tould you before, and you may see here in this
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 11,2; text: 1, 2, 4] [MOR1597A 06GF]
Philomathes. So, now goe to the finall or last notes.
Master. [Finall notes in Legatures in marg.] Euery finall note of a Ligature descending: being a square note is a long:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 11,3; text: 1, 2, 4] [MOR1597A 06GF]
Philomathes. But how if it be a hanging or long note?
Master. Then it is alwaies briefe except it follow a note, which hath the tayle vpward as here.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 11,4; text: 1, 2, 4] [MOR1597A 06GF]
But if the note be ascending, be it either square or long it is alwaies a briefe if it lacke a tayle, as thus.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 11,5; text: 1, 2] [MOR1597A 06GF]
[Prickt notes in Ligature. in marg.] There be also Ligatures with prickes, whereof, the first is three Minomes, and the last likewise three Minomes thus,
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 11,6] [MOR1597A 06GF]
And also others, whereof the first is three Semibriefes, and the last two, thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 11,7] [MOR1597A 06GF]
There be likewise other Ligatures which I haue seene, but neuer vsed by any approued author, wherof I will cease to speake further, setting them onely down with figures signifying their value of Semibriefs, whereof if you finde one directly to be set ouer another, the lowest is alwaies first song:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 11,8; text: 1, 2, 4] [MOR1597A 06GF]
[-12-] Philomathes. Now haue you fully declared the Ligatures. all which I perswade my selfe I vnderstande [Errata 4] well enough: but because you speake of a prickt Ligature, I do not vnderstand that yet perfectly: therefore I pray you say what Prickes or poynts signifie in singing.
Master. For the better instruction here is an example of the notes with a pricke following euery one of them. [Annotation 11]
[Pricks and their signification. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 12] [MOR1597A 06GF]
[A pricke of augmentation. in marg.] And as your rests signified the whole lengthe of the notes in silence, so doth the pricke the halfe of the note going before to be holden out in voyce not doubled, as (marke me) v vt, re e, mi i, fa a, so-ol, la-a, and this pricke is called a pricke of augmentation. [Annotation 12]
Philomathes. What be there any other prickes.
Master. Yes there be other prickes whereof we will speake in their owne place.
Philomathes. Hauing learned the formes and value of the notes, restes and prickes by them selues, it followeth to speake of the Moodes, and therefore I pray you to proceede to the declaration of them.
Master. Those who [Annotation 13] within these three hundreth yeares haue written the Art of Musicke, haue set downe the Moodes otherwise then they eyther haue been or are taught now in England.
Philomathes. What haue been the occasion of that?
Master. Although it bee hard to assigne the cause, yet may we coniecture that although the great musicke maisters who excelled in fore time, no doubt weare wonderfully seen in the knowledge therof, aswell in specilation [Errata 5] as practise, yet since their death the knowledge of the arte is decayed and a more slight or superficiall knowledge come in steede thereof, so that it is come now adaies to that, that if they know the common Moode and some Triples, they seeke no further.
Philomathes. Seeing that it is alwaies commendable to know all, I pray you first to declare them as they were set downe by others, and then as they are vsed now a dayes.
Master. I will, and therefore be attentiue.
Philomathes. I shall be so attentiue, that except I finde some greate doubt, I will not dismember your discourse till the ende.
Master. [The definition of a degree. in marg.] Those which we now call Moodes, they tearmid degree of Musicke: the definition they gaue thus: a degree is a certayne meane whereby the value of the principall notes is perceaued by some signe set before them, [Three degrees in marg.] degrees of musicke they made three, Moode: Time and Prolation.
Philomathes. [Moodes. in marg.] What did they tearme a Moode?
Master. The dew measuring of Longes and Larges, and was either greater or lesser.
Philomathes. [Great Moode. in marg.] What did they tearme the great moode?
Master. The dew measuring of Larges by Longes, and was either perfect or vnperfect.
Philomathes. What did they tearme the Great moode perfect?
[-13-] Master. That which gaue to the Large three Longes, for in both Moode, time, and prolation, that they tearme perfect which goeth by three: as the great Moode is perfect when three longes go to the large. The lesse Moode is perfect when three briefes go to the long: and time is perfect when three semibriefes goe to the briefe. And his signe is thus. [O3]
[Franchinus Glareanus Lossius. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 13,1] [MOR1597A 06GF]
Philomathes. Which Moode did they terme, the great one imperfect?
Master. That which gaue to the Large but two Longes. His signe is thus, [C3]
[Franchinus opus musicae italicae tractatus 3 capitulum 2 Lossius. liber 2. capitulum 4. Peter Aron Tuscanello. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 13,2] [MOR1597A 06GF]
Philomathes. What did they call the lesser Moode?
Master. That moode which measured the Longes by Breeues, and is either perfect or vnperfect. The lesse Moode perfect was when the Long contained three Breeues, and his signe is thus [O2]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 13,3] [MOR1597A 06GF]
The lesse Moode vnperfect is, when the Long containeth but two Breeues. And his signe is thus: [C2]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 13,4] [MOR1597A 07GF]
Philomathes. What called they time?
Master. The dimension of the Breefe by Semibreeues: and is likewise perfect or vnperfect. Perfect time is, when the Brief containeth three semibreeues. His signes are these, [O3 C3 O]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 13,5] [MOR1597A 07GF]
The time vnperfect is, when the Briefe containeth but two semibrees, whose signes are these: [O2 C2 C]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 13,6] [MOR1597A 07GF]
[-14-] Philomathes. What is Prolation?
Master. It is the measuring of Semibriefs by Minoms, and is either more or lesse. The more prolation is, when the Semibrief contayneth three Minoms, his signes be these: [Od Cd]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 14,1] [MOR1597A 07GF]
The lesse prolation is when the Semibriefe contayneth but two Minomes: The signe wherof is the absence of the pricke thus. [O C]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 14,2] [MOR1597A 07GF]
So that you may gather that the number doth signifie the mode, the circle the time, and the presence or absence of the poynt the prolation. I haue thought good for your further knowledge to set downe before you the examples of all the Moodes, ioyned to their times and prolations: to begin with the great Moode perfect. Here is his ensample following without any prolation, because in this Moode it is alwaies *unperfect. [Annotation 14]
[*Great Mood and time perfect. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 14,3] [MOR1597A 07GF]
The great Moode vnperfect, with time perfect, is set downe thus.
[Great Moode vnperfect and time perfect in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 14,4] [MOR1597A 07GF]
[-15-] The lesser Moode perfect and vnperfect, may be gathered out of the former two. It followeth, to set downe the Prolation in the times perfect and vnperfect: Prolation perfect in the time perfect is thus:
[Great Moode imperfect, Small Moode imperfect, time and prolation both perfect. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 15,1] [MOR1597A 08GF]
Where there is respect had to the prolation, the Moode is left out. But yet to make a difference: when the Moode is shewen, it is set by the Larg: when the prolation is shewen, it is alwaies within.
Prolation perfect in the time vnperfect is set thus:
[Great Moode imparfect, small Moode imperfect, time imperfect and prolation perfect. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 15,2] [MOR1597A 08GF]
Prolation imperfect in the perfect time, is set downe thus:
[Both Moodes imperfect, time perfect and prolation vnperfect. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 15,3] [MOR1597A 08GF]
[-16-] The vnperfect prolation in the vnperfect time, thus.
[Both Moodes, time and prolation vnperfect. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 16,1] [MOR1597A 09GF]
And because you may the better remember the value of euery note, according to euery signe set before it, here is a Table of them.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 16,2; text: A Table containing the value of euery Note, according to the value of the Moodes or signes. 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 27, 36] [MOR1597A 09GF]
Philomathes. I praie you explaine this Table, and declare the vse thereof.
Master. [The vse of the precedent Table. in marg.] In the Table there is no difficultie, if you consider it attentiuely. Yet, to take away all scruple, I will shew the vse of it. In the lower part stande the signes, and iust ouer them the notes, that if you doubt of the value of anie note in anie signe, seeke out the Signe in the lowest part of the Table, and iust ouer it you shall finde the note: then at the left hand, you shall see a number set euen with it, shewing the value or howe many Semibreeues it conteineth. Ouer it you shal find how many of the next lesser notes belong to it in that signe. As for example in the great Moode perfect you doubt how manie Breeues the Longe containeth in the lowest part of the table on the left hand, you find this signe [O3] which is the Moode you sought: iust ouer that signe you finde a Large, ouer that, the number 3, and ouer that a Longe. Now hauing found your Longe you finde hard by it on the left hand the number of 9. signifying that it is nyne Semibreeues in that Moode: Ouer it you finde the figure of three, signifying that there belong three Breeues to the Longe in that Moode: and so foorth with the rest.
Philomathes. This is easie and verie profitable, therefore seeing you haue set downe the ancient Moodes (which hereafter may come in request, as the shotten-bellied doublet, and the great breeches,) I praie you come to the declaration of those which wee vse nowe.
Master. I wil, but first you shall haue an example of the vse of your Moodes in singing, where also you haue an example of augmentation, (of which wee shall speake another [-17-] time) in the Treble and Meane partes. The Tenor part expresseth the lesser moode perfect, that is, three Breeues to the Longe, the blacke Longs containe but two Breeues. [This is imperfection, whereof hereafter. in marg.] But when a white Breefe or a Breefe rest doeth immediatly follow a Longe, then the Longe is but two Breeues, as in your Tenor appeareth. Your Base expresseth time perfect, where euerie Breefe containeth three Semibreeues, except the blacke, which containeth but two.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 17; text: Discantus. Augmentation. Altus. Tenor. Bassus. Time perfect.] [MOR1597A 10GF]
[-18-] Philomathes. So much of this song I vnderstand as the knowledge of the degrees hath showen mee: the rest I vnderstand not.
Master. The rest of the obseruations belonging to this, you shall learne, when wee haue spoken of the Moodes.
Philomathes. You haue declared the Moodes vsed in old times so plainly, that I long to heare the other sort of Moodes, and therefore I pray you now explaine them.
Master. Although they differ in order of teaching and name, yet are they both one thing in effect, and therefore I will be the more briefe in the explaining of them. [Exposition of the foure vsuall Moodes. in marg.] There be foure Moodes now in common vse: Perfect of the more prolation. Perfect of the lesse prolation. Imperfect of the more prolation. And Imperfect of the lesse prolation. The moode perfect of the more [Annotation 15] is, when all go by three: as three Longes to the Large: three Breeues to the Long: three Semibreeues to the Breefe: three Minomes to the Semibreefe. His signe is a whole cirkle with a prick or point in the center or middle thus: [Od]
[Perfyte of the More. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 18,1] [MOR1597A 11GF]
Philomathes. What is to be obserued in this Moode?
Master. The obseruation of euery one, because it doth depend of the knowledge of them all, wee will leaue till you haue heard them all.
Philomathes. Then I pray you go on with the rest.
Master. The Moode perfect of the lesse [Annotation 16] prolation is, when all go by two, except the Semibreefe: as two Longes to the Large. two Breeues to the Long: three Semibreeues to the Breefe: two Minoms to the Semibreefe. And his signe is a whole cirkle without any poynt or pricke in the middle, thus.
[Perfyte of the Lesse. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 18,2] [MOR1597A 11GF]
Philomathes. Verie well. Proceede.
Master. The Moode Imperfect of the more prolation is, when all go by two, except the Minome which goeth by three: as two Longes to the Large, two Breeues to the Longe, two Semibreeues to the Briefe, and three Minomes to the Semibriefe: so that though in this Moode the Briefe be but two Semibriefes, yet you must vnderstand that he is sixe Minomes, and euery Semibriefe three Minomes. His signe is a halfe cirkle set at the beginning of the song, with a prick in the middle, thus.
[Imperfyte of the More. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 18,3] [MOR1597A 11GF]
[-19-] The Moode Imperfect of the lesse prolation is, when all go by two: as two Longes to the Large, two Breeues to the Longe, two Semibriefes to the Briefe, and two Minomes to the Semibriefe, two Crotchets to the Minome, and et cetera. His signe is a halfe cirkle without a pricke or poynt set by him, as thus.
[Imperfyte of the Lesse. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 19,1] [MOR1597A 11GF]
This Moode is in such vse, as when so euer there is no Moode set at the beginning of the song, it is alwaies imagined to be this: and in respect of it, all the rest are esteemed as strangers.
Philomathes. This is well. Now I pray you shewe mee what is to be obserued in euery one of the Moodes?
Master. The perticuler obseruations, because they are best conceiued by examples, I will set you downe one of euery seuerall Moode. And to begin with the perfect of the Moore. Take this example of a Duo.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 19,2; text: Cantus. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 11GF]
[-20-] Philomathes. Now I praie you begin and shewe mee how I may keepe right time in this example.
Master. [The value of some Notes in this Moode. in marg.] In this Cantus there is no difficultie if you sing your Semibreefes three Minyms a peece (the blacke excepted, which is alwaies but two) your Breeues nine. and your black Breeues sixe. And whereas there is a breefe rest in the beginning of the Base, that you must reckon nine Minymes. There is also in the Base a Longe which must be sung nine Semibreefes which is xxvii. Minymes.
Philomathes. A time for an Atlas or Typheus to holde his breath, and not for mee or any other man now adayes.
Master. True, but I did set it downe of purpose, to make you vnderstand the nature of the Moode.
Philomathes. You did well. But I praie you, what is that which you haue set at the end of the verse, thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 20,1] [MOR1597A 12GF]
Master. [A director, and the vse therof. in marg.] It is called an Index or director: for looke in what place it standeth, in that place doth the first note of the next verse stand.
Philomathes. But is there no other thing to be obserued in this Moode?
Master. Yes, for though in this Moode, and likewise in the other of this prolation, euerie Semibreefe be three Minymes: yet if an odd Minyme come immediatly either after or before (but most commonly after) a semibreefe, then is the semibreefe sung but for two minymes, and that other Minyme maketh vp the nomber for the stroke. But to the intent that the singer may the more easily perceiue when the Minyme is to be taken in with the Semibreefe, and when it is to be left out: the maisters haue deuised a certaine pricke (called a pricke of diuision) which being set betwixt a Semibreefe and a minyme thus:
[A prick of diuision, with the nature and vse thereof. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 20,2] [MOR1597A 12GF]
sheweth, that the Semibreefe is perfect, and that the minyme next following doth belong to another stroke.
Likewise, if the pricke of diuision come betwixt two minymes, thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 20,3] [MOR1597A 12GF]
it signifieth, that the Semibreefe going before is vnperfect, and that the minyme following it must be ioyned with it to make vp the stroke.
Philomathes. Now I thinke you haue sufficiently declared the nature of this Moode: I pray you therefore go forward to the next, or perfect Moode of the lesse prolation.
Master. Here is an ensample, pervse it.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 20,4; text: Cantus. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 12GF]
[-21-] Philomathes. In this last also I praie you begin with your stroke and time.
Master. [The value of the notes in this Moode. in marg.] In this Moode euery semibreefe is two minymes or one full stroke. Euery breefe three semibreefes, except it be blacke, in which case it is but two. Euery longe is sixe semibreefes, except it be blacke, and then it is but foure, or haue a semibreefe following it noted with a prick of diuision thus:
[The value of a Long hauing a semibreef with a prick of diuision after it. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 21,1] [MOR1597A 12GF]
and then it is fiue, and the other semibreefe maketh vp the full time of sixe. And though this hath beene receiued by the composers, yet haue they but small reason to allow of it: for of Iusquin they had it in the Tenor part of the Gloria of his Masse Aue Maris stella: but Iusquin in that place vsed it for an extremitie, because after the longe came two semibreefes and then a breefe: so that if the first semibreefe had not beene taken in for one belonging to the longe, the second must haue beene song in the time of two semibreefes and noted with a pricke of alteration, as in these his notes you may see.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 21,2] [MOR1597A 12GF]
And though (as I said) he vsed it vpon an extremitie, yet finde I it so vsed of many others without any necessitie. And amongest the rest master Tauerner in his Kyries and Alleluyas, and therefore I haue set it downe in this place because you should not be ignorant how to sing such an example if you should finde any hereafter in other songs.
It followeth to speake of the thirde Moode which is the Imperfect of the more prolation, of which, let this be an example.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 21,3; text: Cantus, Bassus. Duo.] [MOR1597A 13GF]
And as we did in the others, to begin with your stroke and time. Strike and sing euery one of these breefes sixe minymes, and euery one of the semibreeues (except the last) three.
Philomathes. And why not the last also?
Master. If you remember that which I told you in the obseruations of the perfect moode of this prolation, you would not aske mee that question: For what I tolde you there concerning a minyme following a semibreefe in the more prolation, is as well to be vnderstoode of a minyme rest as of a minyme it selfe.
[-22-] Philomathes. I crie you mercie, for in deede, if I had remembred the rule of the minyme I had not doubted of the rest. But I pray you proceede.
Master. You see the minyme in d la sol marked with a pricke, and if you consider the tyming of the song, you shal finde that the minym going before that beginneth the stroke, so that those two minymes must make vp a full stroke. [A pricke of alteratiou in marg.] You must then knowe, that if you finde a prick so following a Minyme in this Moode, it doubleth the value therof and maketh it two Minymes, and then is the pricke called a pricke of alteration. The blacke semibriefe is alwaies two minymes in this Moode, and the black breefe twice so much, which is foure minymes, and this is all to be obserned in this Moode.
Philomathes. All that I thinke I vnderstand: therefore I praie you come to the declaration of the fourth and last.
Master. The last, which is tearmed the Imperfect of the lesse prolation is, when all goe by two, as two longes to the large, two breefes to the longe, two semibreefes to the breef, two minymes to the semibreefe, two crochets to the minyme, two quauers to the crochet, and two semiquauers to the quauer, and so foorth, Example.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 22; text: Cantus. Bassus. Duo.] [MOR1597A 13GF]
[-23-] The signe of this Moode set with a stroke parting it thus [C slash] causeth the song before, which it is set, to be so song as a breefe or the value of a breefe in other notes, make but one ful stroke, and is proper to motetes specially when the song is prickt in great notes.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 23; text: Cantus. Bassus. 2, 4] [MOR1597A 14GF]
Although that rule bee not so generally kept: but that the composers set the same signe before songs of the semibriefe time: But this I may giue you for an infalable rule, that if a song of many parts haue this Moode of the imperfect of the lesse prolation, set in one parte with a stroke through it, and in another part without the stroke, than is that parte [-24-] which hath the signe with the stroke so diminished, as one briefe standeth for a semibriefe of the other part which hath the signe without the strok, whereof you shal see an euident example after that we haue spoken of the proportions. [zaccone. Berrhusius cum alijs. in marg.] But if the signe be crossed thus [C X] then is the song so noted, so diminished in his notes, as foure semibriefes are song but for one, which you shall more cleerely perceiue heereafter, when we come to speake of diminution. The other sort of setting the Moode thus [C] belongeth to Madrigals, Canzonets and such like.
This much for the Moodes by them selues: but before I proceede to the declaration of the altering of them, I must giue you an obseruation to bee kept in perfect Moodes.
Philomathes. What is that?
Master. It is commonly called imperfection.
Philomathes. What is imperfection?
Master. [Imperfection. in marg.] It is the taking away of the third part of a perfect notes value, and is done three maner of wayes, By note, rest, or cullor. Imperfection by note, is when before or after anie note there commeth a note of the next lesse value, as thus.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 24,1; text: 9, 18] [MOR1597A 14GF]
By rest, when after any note there commeth a rest of the next lesse value, as thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 24,2; text: 4, 2, 3] [MOR1597A 15GF]
Imperfection by coullor, is when notes perfect are prickt blacke, which taketh awaie the third part of their value, thus:
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 24,3; text: 18, 4, 2, 2/3] [MOR1597A 15GF]
The example whereof you had in your Tenor part of the song set next after the former Moodes. But the examples of perfection and imperfection, are so common, specially in the Moodes of perfect time and more prolation, that it would be superfluous to set them downe. There is also another obseruation a kin to this, to be obserued likewise in Moods perfect, and is termed alteration.
Philomathes. What is alteration?
Master. [Alteration. in marg.] It is the doubling of the value of any note for the obsaruation of the odde number, and that is it which I told you of in the example of the Moode perfect of the Moore prolation, so that the note which is to be altered is commonly marked with a pricke of alteration.
Philomathes. Now I pray you proceed to the alteration of the Moodes.
Master. Of the altering of the Moods proceedeth augmentation, or diminution, [Augmentation in marg.] augmentation [Annotation 17] proceedeth of setting the signe of the more prolation in one parte of the songe onely, and not in others, and is an increasing of the value of the notes aboue their common and essentiall valor, which commeth to them by signes set before them, or Moodes set ouer them, or numbers set by them. Augmentation by numbers is when proportions of the lesse in aequalitie are set down, meaning that euery note and rest [-25-] following are so often to be multiplyed in them selues, as the lower number contayneth the higher thus. 1/2 1/3/1/4 et cetera that is, the minym to be a semibrief, the semibriefe a briefe et cetera but by reason that this is better conceiued by deede than worde, heere is an example of augmentation in the Tenor part.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 25; text: Cantus. Tenor. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 15GF]
Philomathes. I con you thanke for this ensample, for in deed without it I had hardly conceaued your words, but now proceede to diminution.
Master. [Diminution. in marg.] Diminution is a certaine lessening or decreasing of the essential value of the notes and rests, by certayne signes or rules, by signes, when you finde a stroke cutting a whole circle or semicircle thus, [Odim Cdim Odim Cdim] But when (as I tolde you before) a circle or halfe circle is crossed thus [OX? CX?] it signifieth diminution of diminution, so that wheras a note of the signe once parted was the halfe of his owne value: here it is but the quarter. By a number added to a cirkle or semicircle thus. [O2 C2 Od2 Cd2]. also by proportionate numbers as thus. 2/1 dupla 3/1 tripla 4/1 quadrupla et cetera. By a semicircle inuerted thus [CL CLd] and this is the most vsuall signe of diminution, diminishing stil the one halfe of the note: but if it be dashed thus, [CLdim CLddim] it is double diminished.
Philomathes. As you did in the augmentation, I pray you giue me an example of diminution.
[-26-] Master. Lo, here is one.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 26; text: Cantus. Tenor. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 16GF]
[-27-] Where you see two Moodes set to one part, the one thus [Cdim] the other retorted thus [CLdim] siguifying that the first must serue you in your first singing till you come to this signe [:||:] where you must begin againe and sing by the retort in halfe tyme (that is, as ronnde againe as you did before) till you come againe to the same signe, and then you must close with the note after the signe.
Philomathes. [A Retort. in marg.] What do you terme a retorted Moode?
Master. It is a Moode of imperfect time set backward, signifyng that the Notes before which it is set must be sung as fast againe as they were before, as in your former example, at the second singing, that which was a semibreef at the first you did sing in the time of a minyme, and the minyme in the time of a crochet.
Philomathes. Why did you saie a Moode of imperfect time?
Master. Because a Moode of perfyt tme cannot be retorted.
Philomathes. Of the lesse prolation I haue had an exsample before, therefore I praie you let me haue an ensample of the imperfect of the More retorted.
Master. Although by your former example, you may well enough comprehend and perceiue the nature of a retort, yet will I to satisfie your request, giue you an example of that Moode, with manie others after wee haue spoken of the proportions.
Philomathes. [Proportion. in marg.] What is Proportion? [Annotation 18]
Master. It is the comparing of numbers placed perpendicularly one ouer another.
Philomathes. This I knewe before, but what is that to Musicke?
Master. Indeede wee doe not in Musicke consider the numbers by themselues, but set them for a signe to signifie the altering of our notes in the time.
Philomathes. Proceede then to the declaration of proportion.
Master. Proportion is either of equalitie or vnequalitie. Proportion of equalitie, is the comparing of two aequall quantities togither, in which, because there is no difference, we will speake no more at this time. Proportion of inequalitie is, when two things of vnequall quantitie are compared togither, and is either of the more or lesse inaequalitie. Proportion of the more inaequalitie is, when a greater number is set ouer and compared to a lesser, and in Musicke doeth alwaies signifie diminution. Proportion of the lesse inaequalitie is, where a lesser number is set ouer, and compared to a greater, as 2/3, and in Musicke doeth alwaies signifye augmentation.
Philomathes. How manie kindes of Proportions doe you commonly vse in Musicke? for I am perswaded it is a matter impossible to sing them all, especially those which be tearmed superpercients.
Master. You saie true, although there be no proportion so harde but might be made in Musicke, but the hardnesse of singing them, hath caused them to be left out, and therefore there be but fiue in most common vse with vs: Dupla, Tripla, Quadrupla, Sesquialtera, and Sesquitertia.
Philomathes. What is Dupla proportion in Musicke? [Annotation 19]
Master. [Dupla. in marg.] It is that which taketh halfe the value of euery note and rest from it, so that two notes of one kinde doe but answere to the value of one: and it is knowen when the vpper number contayneth the lower twise thus. 2/1 4/2 6/3 8/4 12/6 et cetera. [A confutation of Dupla in the minyme. in marg.] But by the way you must note that time out of minde we haue tearmed that dupla where we set two Minymes to the Semibriefe, which if it were trew, there should be few songs but you should haue dupla quadrupla and octupla in it, and then by consequent must cease to be dupla. But if they thinke that not inconuenient, I pray them how will they answere that which from time to time hath been set downe for a general rule amongst all musitions, that proportions of the greater inequalitie, do alwaies signifie dimunution, and if their minyms be diminished, I pray you how shall two of them make vp the time of a full stroke, for in all [-28-] proportions the vpper number signifieth the semibriefe, and the lower number the stroke, so that as the vpper number is to the lower, so is the semibriefe to the stroke. Thus if a man would goe seeke to refute their Inueterat opinions, it were much labour spent in vayne: but this one thing I will adde, that they haue not their opinion confirmed by the Testimony of any, either musition or writer, where as on the other side, all who haue beene of any name in Musicke, haue vsed the other dupla, and set it downe in their works, as you may see in the example following, confirmed by the authorities of Peter Aron, Franchinus, Iordanus, and nowe of late dayes, learned Glareanus, Losius, Listenius, Berhusius and a greate number more, all whome it were to tedius to nominate: true it is that I was taught the contrary my selfe, and haue seene many old written books to the same ende. But yet haue I not seene any published vnder any mans name: but if their opinion had been true, I maruayle that non amongst so many good musitions haue eyther gone about to proue the goodnesse of their owne waie, or refute the opinions of others from time to time by general consent and approbation, taking new strength: therefore let no man cauil at my doing in that I haue chaunged my opinion and set downe the proportions otherwise then I was taught them, For I assure them that if any man will giue mee stronger reason to the coutrary, than those which I haue brought for my defence, I will not onely chaunge this opinion, but acknowledge my selfe debt bound to him, as he that hath brought me out of an error to the way of trueth.
Philomathes. I doubt not but your maister who taught you would thinke it as lawfull for you to goe from his opinion, as it was for Aristotle to disalow the opinion of Plato with this reason, that Socrates was his friend, Plato was his friend but verity was his greater friend.
Master. Yet will I (to content others) set downe the proportions at the ende of this treatise as they are commonly prickt now, to let you see that in the matter there is no difference betwixt vs, except onely in forme of pricking, which they doe in great notes and we in small: and to the ende, that if any man like his owne way better than this, hee may vse his owne discretion: But we goe too farre, and therefore peruse your example.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 28; text: Cantus.] [MOR1597A 17GF]
[-29-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 29; text: Tenor. Bassus. Diminution in tyme Dupla proportion.] [MOR1597A 17GF]
Philomathes. What is tripla proportion in musicke? [Annotation 20]
Master. [Tripla. in marg.] It is that which diminisheth the value of the notes to one third part: for three briefes are set for one, and three semibriefes for one, and is knowen when two numbers are set before the song, whereof the one contayneth the other thrise thus 3/1 6/2 9/3 For example of this proportion take this following.
[-30-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 30; text: Cantus. Tenor. Bassus,] [MOR1597A 18GF]
Heere is likewise another ensample wherein Tripla is in all the parts together, which if you pricke al in blacke notes, will make that proportion which the musitions falslie termed Hemiolia, when in deed it is nothing else but a round Tripla. [A confutation of hemiolia. in marg.] For Hemiola doth signifie that which the Latines tearme Sesquipla or sesquialtra: but the good Munks finding it to go somwhat rounder then common tripla, gaue it that name of Hemiolia for lacke of another. But for their labour they were roundly taken vp by Glareanus, Lossius and others.
[-31-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 31; text: Cantus. Altus. Tenor. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 19GF]
Philomathes. Proceed now to Quadrupla.
Master. Quadrupla is a proportion deminishing the value of the notes to the quarter of that which they were before, and it is perceiued in singing, when a number is set before the song, comprehending another foure times, as 4/1 8/2 12/4 [Errata 6] et cetera.
Philomathes. I pray you giue me an ensample of that.
Master. Heere is one.
[-32-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 32; text: Cantus. Tenor. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 20GF]
Quintupla and Sextupla I haue not seene vsed by any stranger in their songs (so far as I remember) but heere we vse them, but not as they vse their other proportions, for wee call that sextupla, where wee make sixe black minyms to the semibriefe, and quintupla when we haue but fiue et cetera. But that is more by custome then reason.
Philomathes. I pray you giue me an example of that.
Master. You shall heereafter: but we will cease to speake any more of proportions of multiplicitie, because a man may consider them infinitly.
Philomathes. [Sesquialtera. in marg.] Come then to Sesquialtera, what is it? [Annotation 21]
Master. It is when three notes are sung to two of the same kinde, and is knowne by a [-33-] number contayning another once, and his halfe 3/2 6/4 9/6 the example of this you shal haue amongst the others. Sesquitercia is when foure notes are sung to three of the same kinde, and is knowen by a number set before him, contayning another once, and his third part thus. 4/3 8/6 12/9 And these shall suffice at this time: For knowing these, the rest are easelie learned. But if a man would ingulfe himselfe to learne to sing, and set downe all them which Franchinis Gaufurius hath set downe in his booke De proportionibus musicis, he should finde it a matter not onely hard, but almost impossible. But if you thinke you would be curious in proportions, and exercyse your selfe in them at your leasure. Heere is a Table where you may learne them at full.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 33; text: A table containing all the vsuall proportions. Dupla, Tripla, Quadrupla, Quintupla, Sextupla, Septupla, Octupla, Nonupla, Deempla, Sesqui altra, Sesqui tercia, Superbipartiens tercias, Sesqui quarta, Supertripartiens quartas, Sesquiquinta, Superbipartiens quintas, Superquadripartiens quintas, Sesqui sexta, Sesqui Septima, Superbipartiens septimas, Supertripartiens septimas, Sesqui octaua, Sesqui nona, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 32, 35, 36, 40, 42, 45, 48, 49, 50, 54, 56, 60, 63, 64, 70, 72, 80, 81, 90, 100, C, Cd, O, Od] [MOR1597A 21GF]
[-34-] As for the vse of this Table, when you would know what proportion any one number hath to another, finde out the two numbers in the Table, then looke vpwarde to the triangle inclosing those numbers, and in the angle of concourse, that is, where your two lynes meete togither, there is the proportion of your two numbers written: as for example, let your two numbers be 18 and 24. Looke vpward, and in the top of the tryangle couering the two lynes which inclose those numbers, yon find written sesquitertia, so likewise 24. and 42. you finde in the Angle of concurse written super tripartiens quartas, and so of others.
Philomathes. Heere is a Table in deede contayning more than euer I meane to beate my brayns about. As for musick, the principal thing we seek in it, is to delight the eare, which cannot so perfectly be done in these hard proportions, as otherwise, therefore proceede to the rest of your musicke, specially to the example of those Proportions which you promised before.
Master. I will, but before I giue it you, I will shew you two others, the one out of the workes of Iulio Renaldi: the other out of Alexandro Striggio, which because they be short and wil help you for the vnderstanding of the other, I thought good to set before it.
Philomathes. I pray you shew me the true singing of this first, because euery parte hath a seuerall Moode and prolation.
Master. [Explanation of the example next ensuing. in marg.] The Treble contayneth Augmentation of the Moore prolation in the subdupla proportion, so that euery semibreefe lacking an odde minyme following, it is three: But if it haue a minyme following it, the semibriefe it selfe is two semibriefs and the minyme one. The Altus and Quintus be of the lesse prolation, so that betwixt them ther is no difference, sauing that in the Quintus the time is perfect, and by that meane euerie briefe three semibriefs. Your Tenor is the common Moode of the imperfect of the lesse prolation, diminished in dupla proportion, so that in it there is no difficultie. Lastly your Base conteyneth diminution of diminution or diminution in quadrupla proportion, of that (as I shewed you before) euery long is but a semibreefe, and euery semibriefe is, but a crochet. And to the ende that you may the more easelie vnderstand the contryuing of the parts, and their proportion one to another, I haue set it downe in partition.
[Giulio Renaldi in the eight song of his Madrigali and Neapolitans to fiue voyces beginning diuerse lingue. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 34; text: et cetera] [MOR1597A 22GF]
[-35-] Philomathes. This hath been a mightie musicall furie, which hath caused him to shewe such diuersitie in so small bounds.
Master. True, but he was moued so to doe by the wordes of his text, which reason also mouid Alexandro Striggio to make this other, wherein you haue one poynt handled first in the ordinary Moode through all the parts, then in Tripla through all the parts, and lastly in proportions, no part like vnto another, for the Treble contayneth diminution in the quadrupla proportion. The second Treble or sextus hath Tripla prickt all in blacke notes: your Altus or Meane contayneth diminution in Dupla proportion. The Tenor goeth through with his Tripla (which was begonne before) to the ende. The Quintus is sesquialtra to the breefe which hath this signe [Cdim 3/2] set before it: But if the signe were away, then would three minyms make a whole stroke, where as nowe three semibriefs make but one stroke The Base is the ordinary Moode, wherein is no difficulty as you may see.
[Alexandro Striggio in the end of the 30. song of the Seconde booke of his Madrigals to sixe voyces, beginning All'Acqua sagra. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 35, Cangiar fani mìlle di su sate forme] [MOR1597A 22GF]
[-36-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 36,1; text: gier] [MOR1597A 23GF]
Philomathes. Now I thinke you may proceed to the examples of your other proportions.
Master. You say well, and therefore take this song, peruse it, and sing it perfectly: and I doubt not but you may sing any reasonable hard pricke-song that may come to your sight.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 36,2; text: Cantus. A 3. voces, Christes crosse be my speede, in all vertue to proceede, A. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s and t. double w.v.x. with y. ezod. et per se. con per se. title. est Amen, When you haue done begin againe.] [MOR1597A 23GF]
[-37-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 37,1; text: Tenor. A 3. voces, Christes crosse. Verte folium. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 24GF]
[-38-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 38; text: Cantus. A 3. voces, Christes crosse be my speede, in all vertue to proceede. A b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s and t. double w. v. x with y. ezod. et per se, con per se. title, est Amen, When you haue done begin againe. Tenor.] [MOR1597A 25GF]
[-39-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 39; text: Bassus.] [MOR1597A 26GF]
[-40-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 40; text: Cantus. i, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s and t, double w, v x, with y, ezod et per se, con per se, title, est Amen. Verte folium. Tenor.] [MOR1597A 27GF]
[-41-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 41; text: 31, 3 to one of the notes precedent. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 28GF]
[-42-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 42; text: Cantus. When you haue done, begin againe. Christes crosse be my speede, in all vertue to proceede, A. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. l. m. Tenor. 91, 31 whole.] [MOR1597A 29GF]
[-43-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 43; text: Decupla. Bassus. 3 to one of the notes precedent. 92, 31. whole: 51] [MOR1597A 30GF]
[-44-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 44; text: Cantus. A 3 voces, n. o. p. q. r. s and t. double w. v. x. with y. ezod. et per se, con per se. title. est Amen, When you haue done begin againe. Tenor. 31] [MOR1597A 31GF]
[-45-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 45; text: Bassus. Septupla.] [MOR1597A 32GF]
And this is our vsuall maner of pricking and setting downe of the Proportions generally receiued amongst our Musitions. But if Glareanus, Ornithoparchus, Peter Aron, Zarlino, or any of the greate Musitions of Italy or Germanie had had this example, he would haue set it downe thus, as followeth.
[-46-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 46; text: Cantus. A 3. voces, Christes crosse be my speede, in all vertue to proceede, A. b.c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. l. m. n: o. p. q. r. s and t. double w. v. x. with y. ezod. et per se. con per se. title. est Amen. When you haue done begin againe. Verte folium. Tenor.] [MOR1597A 32GF]
[-47-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 47; text: Bassus. Verte folium.] [MOR1597A 33GF]
[-48-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 48; text: Cantus. to proceede. A, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s and t, double w, v x, with y, ezod. and per se, con per se, title, est Amen. When you haue done begin againe. Tenor.] [MOR1597A 34GF]
[-49-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 49; text: Bassus.] [MOR1597A 35GF]
[-50-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 50; text: Cantus. h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s and t, double w v, x, with y, ezod, et per se, con per se, title est Amen. When you haue done begin againe. Christes crosse be my speede in all vertue to proceede, Tenor. trne tripla whole. true, broken in the more prolation.] [MOR1597A 36GF]
[-51-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 51; text: true tripla. in the more prolation. Bassus. whole. broken, dupla. Verte folium.] [MOR1597A 37GF]
[-52-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 52; text: Cantus. A, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p q, r, s and t, double w v, x, with y, ezod, et per se, con per se, title est Amen. When you haue done begin againe. Tenor. the more prolation. true quintupla. broken. the lesse prolation.] [MOR1597A 38GF]
[-53-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 53; text: true dupla in the more prolation. Bassus. quintupla. septupla.] [MOR1597A 39GF]
[-54-] And to the end that you may see how euerie thing hangeth vpon another, and howe the proportions follow others, I will shew you particularlie euerie one. The first change which commeth after the proportion of equalitie, is commonlie called sextupla, or six to one, signified by the more prolation, retorted thus
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 54,1] [MOR1597A 39GF]
But if we consider rightlie that which we call sextupla, is but true tripla, prickt in blacke notes. But because I made it to expresse sextupla, I haue set it downe in semibriefes, allowing sixe for a stroke, and taking awaie the retortiue [Errata 7] mood, The next proportion is true Dupla: signified by the time vnperfect of the lesse prolation, retorted thus.
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 54,2] [MOR1597A 39GF]
which manner of marking Dupla cannot be disallowed: but if the proportion next before had beene signified by anie mood, then might not this Dupla haue beene signified by the retort, but by proportionate numbers. Thirdlie commeth the lesse prolation in the meane parte, and that ordinarie Tripla [Errata 8] of the blacke minimes to a stroke in the base: and because those three blacke minimes, be sung in the time of two white minimes, they were marked thus [Cd 3 2]. signifieng three minimes to two minimes. But if the signe of the prolation had been left out, and all been prickt in white notes, then had it been true thus
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 54,3] [MOR1597A 39GF]
And in this maner most commonlie do the Italians signifie their three minimes to a stroke or tripla of three minimes, which is indeed true Sesquialtra. But because wee woulde here expresse true tripla, I haue set it downe thus,
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 54,4] [MOR1597A 39GF]
Therefore to destroy the proportion follow these proportionate numbers at the signe of degree thus [C1/3] which maketh the common time vnperfect of the lesse prolation.
Then followeth true tripla, which they call tripla to the Semibriefe. But because it is afterwardes broken, I thought it better to pricke it white then blacke: but the matter is come so farre nowadaies, that some wil haue all semibrieues in proportion prickt black else (say they) the proportion will not be knowne. But that is false, as being grounded neither vpon reason nor authoritie. The tripla broken in the more prolation, maketh nine minimes for one stroke, which is our common Nonapla, but in one place of the broken tripla, where a semibriefe and a minime come successiuelie that they marked with these numbers 9 2, which is the sigue of Quadrupla sesquialtra, if the numbers were perpendicularly placed: but if that were true, why should not the rest also which were before be so noted, seeing nine of them were sung to two minymes of the Treble. Then followeth true Dupla: but for the reason before saide, I signifyed it with numbers and not by the retort but in the Basse, because the signe of the lesse prolation went immediatly before, I could not with reason alter it, and therefore I suffered the retort to stand still, because I thought it as good as the proportionat numbers in that place. Then againe followeth true Tripla in the more prolation, afterward the contrarie numbers 1/3 of Sub Tripla destroyiug the proportion the more prolation remaineth, to which the Basse singeth Quintupla being prickt thus
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 54,5] [MOR1597A 40GF]
such was our maner of pricking without any reason or almost common sence, to make fiue crotchets be Quintupla to a Semibriefe, seeing foure of them are but the propper value of one Semibreefe. But if they wonld make fiue crotchets to one semibreefe, then must they set downe Sesquiquarta proportion thus 5/4, wherein fiue semibriefes or their value make vp the time of foure semibriefes or strokes. But I am almost out of my purpose, and to returne to our matter, I haue altered those crotchets into semibriefes expressing true Quintupla. Then commeth Quintupla broken, which is our common Decupla. But if the other were Quintupla, then is this likewise [-55-] Quintupla, because there goeth but the value of fiue semibriefes for a stroke, and I thinke none of vs but would tsiinke a man out of his wits, who would confesse, that two testers make a shilling, and denie that sixe peeces of two pence a peece, or twelue single pence do likewise make a shilling. Yet we will confesse that fiue semibriefes to one is Quintupla. But we will not confesse that ten minimes, being the value of fiue semibriefes, compared to one semibriefe, is likewise Quintupla: and so in Quadrupla, sextupla, septupla, and others. Then commeth the common measure, or the lesse prolation (the signe of Subquintupla thus 1/5. destroying the proportion) for which the base singeth septupla, but as it is set downe in the first waie, it is as it were not septupla, but Supartripartiens, Quartas, or 7/4. Therefore I set them all downe in semibriefes, allowing seuen of them to a stroke: which ended commeth equalitie after which followeth true Dupla in the more prolation, which we sometime call Sextupla, and sometime Tripla. After which and last of all commeth equalitie.
And lette this suffice for your instruction in singing, for I am perswaded that except practise you lacke nothing, to make you a perfect and sure singer.
Philomathes. I praie you then giue me some songes wherein to exercise my selfe at conuenient leisure.
Master. Here be some following of two parts, which I haue made of purpose, that when you haue any friend to sing with you, you may practise togither, which wil sooner make you perfect then if you should studie neuer so much by your selfe.
Philomathes. Sir I thanke you, and meane so diligentlie to practise till our nexte meeting, that then I thinke I shall be able to render you a full account of all which you haue told me: till which time I wish you such contentment of minde, and ease of bodie as you desire to your selfe, or mothers vse to wish to their children.
Master. I thanke you: and assure your selfe it will not be the smallest part of my contentment, to see my schollers go towardlie forward in their studies, which I doubt not but you will doe, if you take but reasonable paines in practise.
[-56-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 56; text: Cantus. Duo.] [MOR1597A 40GF]
[-57-] [The First. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 57; text: Tenor. Duo.] [MOR1597A 41GF]
[-58-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 58; text: Cantus. Duo.] [MOR1597A 42GF]
[-59-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 59; text: Tenor. Duo.] [MOR1597A 43GF]
[-60-] [The Third. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 60; text: Cantus. Duo.] [MOR1597A 44GF]
[-61-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 61; text: Tenor. Duo.] [MOR1597A 45GF]
[-62-] [Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 62; text: Cantus.] [MOR1597A 46GF]
[-63-] [The fourth. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 63; text: Tenor. Duo.] [MOR1597A 47GF]
[-64-] [The fift. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 64; text: Cantus. Duo. 32] [MOR1597A 48GF]
[-65-] [The fifth. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 65; text: Tenor. Duo. 32] [MOR1597A 49GF]
[-66-] [The sixth. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 66; text: Cantus.] [MOR1597A 50GF]
[-67-] [The sixth. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 67; text: Tenor.] [MOR1597A 51GF]
[-68-] [When you see this signe [:||:] of repetition, you must begin againe, making the note next before the signe (be it minyme, crochet or whatsoeuer) a semibriefe in the first singing. At the second time you must sing it as it standeth, going forwarde without any respect to the close. When you come to the end and find the signe of repetition before the finall close, you must sing the note befor the signe as it standeth and then begin againe at the place where the stroke parteth all the lines, and so sing to the finall close. But if you find any song of this kinde without the stroke so parting all the lines, you must begin at the first signe of repetition, and so sing to the end, for in this maner (for sauing of labor in pricking them at length) do they prick all their ayres and villanellaes. in marg.]
[Morley, Plaine and Easie Introduction, 68; text: Cantus. A 3. voices. Aria. Tenor. Bassus.] [MOR1597A 52GF]