School of Music
University of Nebraska--Lincoln
Lincoln, NE 68588-0100
(phone: [402] 472-2507; Internet: plefferts1@unl.edu)

Data entry: Peter M. Lefferts and Ausra Motuzaite-Pinkeviciene
Checked by: Kristie Withers
Approved by: Peter M. Lefferts

Fn and Ft: MOR1597D TEXT
Author: Morley, Thomas
Title: A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke, End Matter
Source: Thomas Morley, A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke (London: Peter Short, 1597) [STC 18133], ff. G1r-(:.)4v
Graphics: MOR1597D 01GF-MOR1597D 10GF
[Note: the folio sign represented as G is not G but a paragraph symbol, and the sign represented as (:.) is really a little triangle of dots.]

[-f.G.1r-] ANNOTATIONS necessary for the vnderstanding of the Booke, wherein the veritie of some of the preceptes is prooued, and some argumentes which to the contrary might be obiected are refuted.

To the Reader.

WHen I had ended my booke, and showne it (to be perused) to some of better skill in letters then my selfe, I was by them requested, to giue some contentment to the learned, both by setting down a reason why I had disagreed from the opinions of others, as also to explaine something, which in the booke it selfe might seeme obscure. I haue therefore thought it best to set downe in Annotations, such thinges as in the text could not so commodiouslie be handled, for interrupting of the continuall course of the matter, that both the young beginner shoulde not be ouerladed with those things, which at the firste woulde be to hard for him to conceiue: and also that they who were more skilful, might haue a reason for my proceedings. I would therefore counsel the young scholler in Musicke, not to intangle himselfe in the reading of these notes, til he haue perfectly learned the booke it selfe, or at least the first part thereof: for without the knowledge of the booke, by reading of them, hee shal runne into such confusion, as hee shall not know where to begin or where to leaue. But thou (learned Reader) if thou find any thing which shal not be to thy liking, in friendship aduertise me that I may either mend it, or scrape it out. And so I ende, protesting that Errare possum haereticus esse nolo.

[Annotation 1] Page 2. verse 26. The scale of Musicke) I haue omitted the definition and diuision of musicke because the greatest part of those, for whose sake the booke was taken in hand, and who chieflie are to vse it: be either altogither vnlearned, or then haue not so farre proceeded in learning, as to vnderstand the reason of a definition: and also because amongst so many who haue written of musicke, I knew not whom to follow in the definition. And therefore I haue left it to the discretion of the Reader, to take which he list of all these which I shal set downe. The most auncient of which is by Plato set out in his Theages thus. Musicke (saith he) is a knowledge (for so I interpret the worde [sophia] which in that place he vseth) whereby we may rule a company of singers, or singers in companies (or quire, for so the word [choros] signifieth.) But in his Banquet he giueth this definition. Musick, saith he, is a science of loue matters occupied in harmonie and rythmos. Boetius distinguisheth and theoricall or speculatiue musicke he defineth, in the first chapter of the fift booke of his musicke, Facultas differentias acutorum et grauium sonorum sensu ac ratione perpendens. A facultie considering the difference of high and lowe soundes by sence and reason. Augustine defineth practicall musicke (which is that which we haue now in hand) Recte medu laudi scientia, A science of well dooing by time, tune, or number, for in al these three is modulan di peitia occupied. Franchinus gaufurius thus Musica est proportionabilium sonorum concinnis interuallis disiunctorum dispositio sensu ac ratione consonantiam monstrans. A disposition of proportionable soundes diuided by apt distances, shewing by sence and reason, the agreement in sound. Those who haue byn since his time, haue doon it thus, Rite et bene canendi scientia, A Science of duly and wel singing, a science of singing wel in tune and number Ars bene canendi, an Art of wel singing. Now I saie, let euery man follow what definition he list. As for the diuision, Musicke is either speculatiue or practicall. Speculatiue is that kinde of musicke which by Mathematical helpes, seeketh out the causes, properties, and natures of soundes by themselues, and compared with others proceeding no further, but content with the onlie [-f.G.1v-] contemplation of the Art. Practical is that which teacheth al that may be knowne in songs, eyther for the vnderstanding of other mens, or making of ones owne, and is of three kindes: Diatonicum, chromaticum, and Enharmonicum. Diatonicum, is that which is now in vse, and riseth throughout the scale by a whole, not a whole note and a lesse halfe note (a whole note is that which the Latines call integer tonus, and is that distance which is betwixt any two notes, except mi and fa. For betwixt mi and fa is not a full halfe note, but is lesse then halfe a note by a comma: and therfore called the lesse halfe note) in this maner.

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.1v,1] [MOR1597D 01GF]

Chromaticum, is that which riseth by semitonium minus (or the lesse halfe note) the greater halfe note, and three halfe notes thus:

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.1v,2] [MOR1597D 01GF]

(the greater halfe note is that distance which is betwixt fa and mi, in b fa [sqb] mi). Enharmonicum, is that which riseth by diesis, diesis, (diesis is the halfe of the lesse halfe note) and ditonus. But in our musicke, I can giue no example of it, because we haue no halfe of a lesse semitonium, but those who would shew it, set downe this example.

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.1v,3] [MOR1597D 01GF]

of enharmonicum, and mark the diesis thus X as it were the halfe of the apotome or greater halfe note, which is marked thus #. This signe of the more halfe note, we now adaies confound with our b square, or signe of mi in b fa [sqb] mi, and with good reason: for when mi is sung in b fa [sqb] mi, it is in that habitude to alamire, as the double diesis maketh Ffaut sharpe to Elami, for in both places the distance is a whole note. But of this enough, and by this which is already set downe, it may euidentlie appeare, that this kind of musick which is vsual now a daies, is not fully and in euery respect the ancient Diatonicum. For if you begin any foure notes, singing vt re mi fa, you shal not finde either a flat in elami, or a sharpe in Ffaut: so that it must needes follow, that it is neither iust diatonicum, nor right Chromaticum. Likewise by that which is saide, it appeareth, this point which our Organists vse

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.1v,4] [MOR1597D 01GF]

is not right Chromatica, but a bastard point patched vp, of halfe chromaticke, and halfe diatonick. Lastlie it appeareth by that which is said, that those Virginals which our vnlearned musytians cal Chromatica (and some also Grammatica) be not right chromatica, but halfe enharmonica: and that al the chromatica, may be expressed vppon our common virginals, except this

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.1v,5] [MOR1597D 01GF]

for if you would thinke that the sharpe in g sol re ut would serue that turne, by experiment you shal find that it is more then halfe a quarter of a note too low. But lett this suffice for the kinds of musicke: now to the parts Practical. Musicke is diuided into two parts, the first may be called Elementarie or rudimental, teaching to know the quality and quantity of notes, and euery thing else belonging to songes, of what maner or kind soeuer. The second may be called Syntactical, Poetical, or effectiue; treatinge of soundes, concordes, and discords, and generally of euery thing seruing for the formal and apte setting together of parts or soundes, for producing of harmonie either vpon a ground, or voluntarie.

[Annotation 2] Page eadem verse 27. Which we call the Gam) That which we cal the scale of musicke, or the Gam, others cal the Scale of Guido: for Guido Aretinus, a Monke of the order of Saint Benet, or Benedict, about the yeare of our Lord 960. changed the Greeke scale (which consisted onely of 15. keyes, beginning at are, and ending at alamire) thinking it a thing too tedious, to saye such long wordes, as Proslambanomenos, hypatehypaton, and such like: turned them into Are, b mi, c fa ut, et cetera and to the intent his inuention might the longer remaine and the more easily be learned of children, hee framed and applied his Scale to the hand: setting vppon euery ioint a seuerall keye, beginning at the thumbes ende, and descending on the inside: then orderly through the lowest iointes of euery finger, ascending on the little finger, and then vpon the tops of the rest, stil going about, setting his last key ela vpon the vpper iointe of the middle finger on the outside. But to the ende that euerie one might know from whence he had the Art, he set this Greeke letter [Gamma] gamma, to the beginning of his Scale, seruing for a diapason to his seuenth letter g. And whereas before him the whole Scale consisted of foure Tetrachorda or fourthes, so disposed as the highest note of the lower, was the lowest of the next, except that of mese, as we shal know more largely hereafter, he added a fift Tetrachordon, including in the Scale (but not with such art and reason as the Greekes did) seauen hexachorda or deductions of his sixe notes, causing that which before contained but fifteene notes, contain twentie, and so fill vp both the reach of most voices, and the iointes of the hande. Some after him (or he himselfe) altered his Scale in forme of Organ pipes, as you see set downe in the beginning of the Booke. But the Greek Scale was thus.

[-f.G.2r-] [Morley, Introduction, f.G.2r; text: Systema harmonicum quindecim chordarum in genere diatonico. tonus, semitonium minus, diapason, diapente, diatessaron, ratio sesquitertia, sesquialtera, dupla, Disdiapason maximum Systema ratio quadrupla. Nete hyperbolaeon, Paranete, Trite, diezeugmenon, Paramese, Mese, Lychanos meson, Parhypate, Hypate, hypaton, Proslambanomene, 2304, 2592, 2916, 3072, 3456, 3888, 4096, 4608, 5184, 5832, 6144, 6912, 7776, 8192, 9216] [MOR1597D 01GF]

For vnderstanding of which, there be three thinges to be considered: the names, the numbers, and the distances. As for the names, you must note that they be all Nounes adiectiues, the substantiue of which is chorda, or a string. Proslabanomene, signifietsl a string assumed or taken in, the reasonne whereof we shal straight know.

[-f.G.2v-] Al the scale was diuided into foure Tetrachordes or fourths, the lowest of which foure was called Tetrachordon hypaton, the fourth of principals. The second tetrachordon meson, the fourth of middle or meanes. The third tetrachordon diezeugmenon, the fourth of strings disioyned or disiunct. The fourth and last tetrachordon hyperbolaeon, the fourth of stringes exceeding: the lowest string Proslambanomene is called assumed, because it is not accounted for one of any tetrachorde, but was taken in to be a Diapason to the mese or middle string. The tetrachorde of principals or hypaton, beginneth in the distance of one note aboue the assumed string, containing foure strings or notes, the last of which is Hypatemeson: the tetrachorde of meson or meanes, beginneth where the other ended (so that one string is both the end of the former, and the beginning of the next) and containeth likewise foure, the last whereof is mese. But the third tetrachorde, was of two maner of dispositions, for either it was in the natural kind of singing, and then was it called tetrachordon diezeugmenon, because the middle string or mese, was separated from the lowest stringe of that tetrachorde, by a whole note, and was not accounted for any of the foure belonging to it, as you may see in the scale, or then in the flat kind of singing: in which case, it was called tetrachordon synezeugmenon, or synemmenon, because the mese was the lowest note of that tetrachorde, all being named thus mese. Trite synemmenon, or synezeugmenon, paranete synezeugmenon, and nete synezeugmenon. But least these strange names, seeme fitter to coniure a spirite, then to expresse the Art, I haue thought good to giue the names in English.

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.2v; text: All the names of the Scale in English. Tetrachordon hypaton. Are. Proslambanomene. B mi. Hypate hypaton. Principal of principals. C fa vt. Parhypate hypaton. Subprincipal of principals. D sol re. Lychanos hypaton. Index of principals. Tetrachordon meson. E la mi. Hypate meson. Principall of meanes. F fa ut. Parhypate meson. Subprincipal of meanes. G sol re ut. Lychanos meson. middle. mese. A la mi re. Mese. Index of meanes. Tetrachordon diezeugmenon. B fa # mi. Paramese. Next the middle. C sol fa vt. Trite diezeugmenon. Third of disiunct. D la sol re. Paranete diezegmenon. Penulte of disiunct. E la mi. Nete diezeugmenon. Last of disiunct. Tetrachordon hyperbolaeon. F fa vt. Trite hyperbolaeon. Third of exceeding or treble. G sol re ut. Paranete hyperbolaeon. Penulte of trebles. A la mi re. Nete hyperbolaeon. Last of trebles. Tetrachordon synezeugmenon. Mese. Trite synezeugmenon. Paranete synezeugmenon. Nete synezeugmenon.] [MOR1597D 02GF]

So much for the names. The numbers set on the left side, declare the habitude (which we call proportion) of one sound to another, as for example: the number set at the lowest note Proslambanomene, is sesqui octaue, to that which is set before the next: and sesquitertia to that which is set at Lychanos hypaton, and so by consideration of these numbers, may be gathered the distance of the sound of the one from the other: as sesqui octaue produceth one whole note. Then betwixt Proslambanomene, and hypatehypaton, is the distance of one whole note. Likewise sesquitertia, produceth a fourth: therefore Proslambanomene and Lychanos hypaton are a fourth, and so of others. But least it might seeme tedious, to diuide so many numbers, and seeke out the common deuisors for so many fractions, both the distance is set downe betwixt euerie two notes, and the consonants are drawne on the right side of the Scale. Thus much for the explanation of the table, but what vse it had, or how they did sing is vncertaine: onely it appeareth by the names, that they tearmed the keyes of their scale, after the stringes of some instrument, which I doubt not is the harpe. And though the Frier Zaccone out of Franchinus affirme, that the Greekes didde sing by certaine letters, signifying both the time that the note is to be holden in length, and also the height and lownesse of the same: yet because I finde no such matter in Franchinus his Harmonia instrumentorum (for his theorica nor Practica I haue not seene, nor vnderstand not his arguments) I knowe not what to saie to it. Yet thus much I will saie, that such characters as Boetius setteth downe, to signifie the stringes, do not signifie any time: for it is a great controuersie amongst the learned, if the auncient musytions had any diuersitie of notes, but onely the signe of the chord being set ouer the word, the quantitie or length was knowne, by that of the syllable which it serued to expresse. But to returne to Guidoes inuention, it hath hitherto been so vsuall as the olde is gone quite out of mens memorie. And as for the Gam, many haue vpon it deuised such fantastical imaginations, as it were ridiculous to write, as (forsooth) Are is siluer, B mi quicksiluer, et cetera for it were too long to set downe all. But it should seeme, that he who wrote it, was either an Alcumiste, or an Alcumistes friend. Before an old treatise of musicke written in vellim aboue an hundred yeares ago, called Regula Franchonis cum additionibus Roberti de Haulo, there is a Gam set downe thus.


[Morley, Introduction, f.G.3r,1; text: [Gamma] vt. Terra, A re. Luna, B mi. Mercurius, C fa vt. Venus, D sol re. Sol, E la mi. Iupiter, F fa vt. Saturnus, G sol re vt. Coelum. E la my Saturnus, F fa vt Iupiter, G sol re ut Mars, A la mi re Sol, B fa # mi Venus, C sol fa vt Mercurius, D la sol re Luna, Boetius.] [MOR1597D 02GF]

And at the end thereof the words Marcus Tullius pointing (as I take it) to that moste excellent discourse in the dreame of Scipio, where the motions and soundes of all the sphaeres are most sweetlie set downe: which who so listeth to read, let him also peruse the notes of Erasmus vppon that place, where he taketh vp Gaza roundlie for his Greeke translation of it: for there Tullie doeth affirme, that it is impossible that so great motions may be mooued without sound, and according to theyr neerenesse to the earth, giueth he euery one a sound, the lower body the lower sounde. But Glareanus, one of the most learned of our time, maketh two arguments to contrarie effects, gathered out of their opinion, who denie the sound of the sphaeres.

The greatest bodies, saith he, make the greatest sounds,
The higher celestiall bodies are the greatest bodies,
Therefore the highest bodies make the greatest sounds.
The other prooueth the contrarie thus.
That which moueth swiftest giueth the highest sound,
The higher bodies moue swiftliest,
Therefore the highest bodies giue the highest sound.

The Greekes haue made another comparison of the tunes, keyes, muses and planets thus,

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.3r,2; text: Vrama Mese Hypermixolydius Coelum stellatum, Polymma Lychanos meson Myxolydius Saturnus, Euterpe Parhypate meson Lydius Iupiter, Erato Hypate meson Phrygius Mars, Melpomene Lychanos hypaton Dorius Sol, Terpsichore Parhypate hypaton Hypolydius Venus, Caliope Hypate hypaton Hypophrygius Mercurius, Clio Proslambanomene Hypodorius Luna. Thalia terra.] [MOR1597D 02GF]

And not without reason, though in many other thinges it hath beene called iustlie Mendax and Nugatrix graecia. Some also (whom I might name if I would) haue affirmed, that the Scale is called Gam vt, from Gam, which signifieth in Greeke graue, or antient: as for me I find no such greek in my Lexicon, if they can proue it they shall haue it.

[Annotation 3] Page 3. verse 22. But one twice named.) It should seeme that at the first, the rounde b. was written as now it is thus b. and the square b. thus h. But for haste men not being careful to see the stroks meet iust at right angles, it degenerated into this figure [sqb] and at length came to be confounded with the sign of the Apotome or semitonium maius, which is this #. And some falslie terme Diesis, for diesis is the halfe of Semitonium minus, whose signe was made thus X. But at length, the signe by ignorance was called by the name of the thing signified, and so the other signe being like vnto it, was called by the same name also.

[Annotation 4] Page eadem. verse 35. But in vse of singing) these be commonlie called Claues signatae, or signed Cliffes, because they be signes for all songes, and vse hath receiued it for a generall rule, not to sette them in the space, because no Cliffe can be so formed as to stand in a space and touch no rule, except the B cliffe. And therefore least any should doubt of their true standing (as for example the G cliffe, if it stood in space and touched a rule, one might iustlie doubt, whether the Author meant G sol re vt in Base, which standeth in space, or G sol re ut in alto which standeth on the rule) it hath been thought best by all the musytions, to set them in rule. Indeed I cannot denie, but that I haue seene some Are cliffes, and others in the space: but Vna hirundo non facit ver.

[-f.G.3v-] [Annotation 5] Page 4 verse 1. as though the verse were the scale) so it is: and though no vsual verse comprehend the whole scale, yet doth it a part ther of. For if you put any two verses togither, you shal haue the whole Gam thus,

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.3v,1; text: g, c, F, [Gamma]] [MOR1597D 03GF]

[Annotation 6] Page eadem verse 34. The three natures of singing) a propertie of singing is nothing else, but the difference of plainsongs caused by the note, in b fa # mi, hauing the halfe note either aboue or belowe it, and it may plainly be seen, that those three properties haue not byn deuised for pricktsong; for you shal find no song included in so smal bounds as to touche no b. And therfore these plainsongs which were so contained, were called naturall, because euery key of their six notes stood inuariable the one to the other, howsoeuer the notes were named. As from d sol re, to elami, was alwaies a whole note, whether one did sing sol la, or re mi, and so forth of others. If the b. had the semitonium vnder it, then was it noted b. and was termed b. molle, or soft; if aboue it, then was it noted thus [sqb] and termed b. quadratum or b. quarre. In an olde treatise called Tractatus quatuor principalium, I find these rules and verses, omne vt incipiens in c. cantatur per naturam. in F. per b. molle, in g. per [sqb] quadratum. that is, Euery vt beginning in C. is sung by properchant in F. by b.molle or flat, in g by the square [sqb] or sharpe, the verses be these

c. naturam dat. f. b molle nunc tibi signas,

g. quoque b. durum tu semper habes cantiturum.

Which if they were no truer in substance then they be fine in words and right in quantitie of syllables, were not much worth. As for the three themselues, their names beare manifest witnes, that musicke hath come to vs from the French. For if we had had it from any other, I see no reason why we might not aswel haue said the square b. as b. quarre or carre, the signification beeing al one. In the treatise of the foure principals I found a table, containing all the notes in the scale; and by what propertie of singing euery one is sung, which I thought good to communicate vnto thee in English.

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.3v,2; text: by the square [sqb], by nature, by b mole, by b mol, by [sqb], by b, vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la, In gamut is no mutation because it is one only key, and one voice maketh no change, In are is no change because it is but one only voice, In b fa b mi is no change because it is b in one voice, In b fa b mi no change bicause in it diuers signes and diuers soundes, Here is no change for the reason aforesaid, [Gamma], A, C, D, E, G, a, b, c, d, e, f, g] [MOR1597D 03GF]

[-f.G.4r-] But for the vnderstanding of it, I must shew you what is meant by mutation or change. Mutation is the leauing of one name of a note and taking another in the same sound, and is done (sayeth the Author of quatuor principalia) either by reason of propertie, or by reason of the voice. By reason of the property, as when you change the sol in g sol re ut, in ut, by the [sqb] and in re by the b. and such like, by reason of the voice when the name is changed, for the ascension or descensions sake: as for example, in c fa ut, if you take the note fa, you may rise to the third, and fall to the fourth, in the due order of the six notes, if the property let not. But if you would ascend to the fourth, then of force must you change your fa, into vt, if you will not sing improperlie, because no man can ascende aboue la, nor descend vnder vt properlie: for if he descend, he must call vt, fa. Now in those keyes wherein there is but one note, there is no change, where two, there is double change, where three is sextupla: but al this must be vnderstood where those three or two notes be all in one sounde, for if they be not of one sound, they fall not vnder this rule, for they be directed by signes set by them. But all mutation ending in vt re mi, is called ascending, because they may ascend further then descend, and all change ending in fa sol la, is called descending, because they may descend further then ascend, and thereof came this verse: vt re mi scandunt, descendunt fa quoque sol la. But though, as I said, these three properties be found in plainsong, yet in pricktsong they be but two: that is, either sharp or flat, for where nature is, there no b. is touched. But if you would knowe whereby any note singeth (that is whether it sing by properchant [sqb] quarre, or b. molle, name the note and so come downeward to vt: example, you would knowe wherby sol in g sol re ut singeth, come down thus, sol fa mi re vt, so you find vt in c fa ut, which is the propertie whereby the sol in g sol re ut singeth, and so by others.

[Annotation 7] Page 9. verse 18. By the forme of the note) There were in old time foure maners of pricking, one al blacke which they tearmed blacke full, another which we vse now which they called black void, the third all red, which they called red ful, the fourth red as ours is blacke, which they called redde void: alwhich you may perceiue thus:

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.4r,1] [MOR1597D 04GF]

But if a white note (which they called black voide (happened amongste blacke full, it was diminished of halfe the value, so that a minime was but a crotchet, and a semibriefe a minime, et cetera. If a redde full note were found in blacke pricking, it was diminished of a fourth part, so that a semibriefe was but three crotchettes and a Redde minime was but a Crotchette: and thus you may perceiue that they vsed their red pricking in al respects as we vse our blacke noweadaies. But that order of pricking is gone out of vse now, so that wee vse the blacke voides, as they vsed their black fulles, and the blacke fulles as they vsed the redde fulles. The redde is gone almost quite out of memorie, so that none vse it, and fewe knowe what it meaneth. Nor doe we pricke anye blacke notes amongst white, except a semibriefe thus:

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.4r,2] [MOR1597D 04GF]

in which case, the semibriefe so blacke is a minime and a pricke (though some would haue it sung in tripla maner, and stand for 2/3 of a semibriefe) and the black minime a Crotchet, as indeede it is. If more blacke semibriefes or briefes bee togither, then is there some proportion, and most commonly either tripla or hemiolia, which is nothing but a rounde common tripla or sesquialtera. As for the number of the formes of notes, there were within these two hundred yeares but foure, knowne or vsed of the Musytions: those were the Longe, Briefe, Semibriefe, and Minime. The Minime they esteemed the least or shortest note singable, and therefore indiuisible. Their long was in three maners: that is, either simple, double, or triple: a simple Long was a square forme, hauing a taile on the right side hanging downe or ascending: a double Long was so formed as some at this daie frame their Larges, that is, as it were compact of 2. longs: the triple was bigger in quantitie than the double. Of their value we shal speake hereafter. The semibriefe was at the first framed like a triangle thus [signum] as it were the halfe of a briefe diuided by a diameter thus [signum] but that figure not being comly nor easie to make, it grew afterward to the figure of a rombe or loseng thus [SB] which forme it still retaineth.

The minime was formed as it is now, but the taile of it they euer made ascending, and called it Signum minimitatis in their Ciceronian Latine. The inuention of the minime they ascribe to a certaine priest (or who he was I know not) in Nauarre, or what contrie else it was which they tearmed Nauernia, but the first who vsed it, was one Philippus de vitriaco, whose motetes for some time were of al others best esteemed and most vsed in the Church. Who inuented the Crotchet, Quauer, and Semiquauer is vncertaine. Some attribute the inuention of the Crotchet to the aforenamed Philip, but it is not to be founde in his workes, and before the saide Philippe, the smallest note vsed was a semibriefe, which the Authors of that time made of two sortes more or lesse: for one Francho diuided the briefe, either in three equal partes (terming them semibriefes) or in two vnequal parts, the greater whereof was called the more semibriefe (and was in value equal to the vnperfect briefe) the other was called the lesse semibriefe, as being but halfe of the other aforesaid.

This Francho is the most ancient of al those whose workes of practical musicke haue come to my handes, one Roberto de Haulo hath made as it were Commentaries vpon his rules, and termed them [-f.G.4v-] Additions. Amongst the rest when Francho setteth downe, that a square body hauing a taile comming downe on the right side, is a Long, he saith thus: Si tractum habeat a parte dextra ascendentem erecta vocatur vt hic

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.4v,1] [MOR1597D 04GF]

ponuntur enim iste longae erectae ad differentiam longarum quae sunt rectae et vocautur erecta quod vbicunque inueniuntur per semitonium eriguntur, that is, If it haue a taile on the right side going vpward, it is called erect or raised thus:

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.4v,2] [MOR1597D 04GF]

for these raised longs be put for difference from others which be right, and are raised, because wheresoeuer they be found, they be raised halfe a note higher, a thing which (I beleue) neither he himselfe nor any other, euer saw in practise. The like obseruation he giueth of the Briefe, if it haue a taile on the left side going vpward, the Larg, long, briefe, semibriefe, and minime (saith Glareanus) haue these 70. yeares beene in vse: so that reckoning downeward, from Glareanus his time, which was about 50. yeares agoe, we shal find that the greatest antiquity of our prickt song, is not aboue 130. yeares olde.

[Annotation 8] Page eadem. verse eadem. and the mood) By the name of Mood were signified many thinges in Musicke. First those which the learned call moodes, which afterward were tearmed by the name of tunes. Secondly a certaine forme of disposition of the Church plainsong in longes and Breues example. If a plainsong consisted al of Longes, it was called the first mood: if of a Long and a Briefe successiuely, it was called the second mood, et cetera. Thirdly, for one of the degrees of musick, as when we saie mood, it is the dimension of Larges and Longes. And lastly, for al the degrees of Musicke, in which sence it is commonlie (though falsly) taught to all the young Schollers in Musicke of our time: for those signes which we vse, do not signeifie any moode at all, but stretche no further then time, so that more properly they might cal them time perfect of the more prolation, et cetera then mood perfect of the more prolation.

[Annotation 9] Page eadem. verse 22. The restes) Restes are of two kindes, that is: either to be told, or not to bee tolde, those which are not to be told be alwaies sette before the song (for what purpose wee shall know hereafter) those which are to be told for two causes cheefly were inuented. First, to giue som leasure to the singers to take breath. The second, that the pointes might follow in Fuge one vpon another, at the more ease, and to shew the singer how farre he might let the other goe before him before he began to follow. Some restes also (as the minime and crotchet restes) were deuised, to auoid the harshnesse of some discord, or the following of two perfect concords together.

But it is to be noted, that the long rest was not alwaies of one forme: for when the long contained three Briefes, then did the Long rest reach ouer three spaces, but when the Long was imperfect, then the Long rest reached out ouer two spaces as they now vse them.

[Annotation 10] Page eadem. verse 25. Ligatures) Ligatures were deuised for the Ditties sake, so that how manye notes serued for one syllable, so many notes were tied togither. Afterwards they were vsed in songs hauing no dittie, but only for breuitie of writing: but nowadaies our songes consisting of so small notes, few Ligatures be therein vsed: for minimes, and figures in time shorter then minimes cannot be tied or enter in ligature. But that defect might be supplyed by dashing the signe of the degree either with one stroke, or two, and so cause the Ligable figures serue to any smal quantitie of time we list. But because in the booke I haue spoken nothing of black or halfe black ligatures, I thoght it not amisse, to set downe such as I haue found vsed by other Authors, and collected by Frier Zaccone, in the 45. chapter of the first booke of practise of Musicke, with the resolution of the same in other common notes.

[Morley, Introduction, f.G.4v,3; text: The Resolution] [MOR1597D 04GF]

[-f.*1r-] And by these few the diligent Reader may easily collect the value of any other, wherfore I thoght it superfluous to set downe any more, though infinite more might be found.

[Annotation 11] Page 12. verse 6. Pricks) A pricke is a kinde of Ligature, so that if you would tie a semibrief and a minime together, you may set a pricke after the semibriefe, and so you shal binde them. But it is to be vnderstood, that it must be done in notes standing both in one key, else wil not the prick augment the value of the note set before it, But if you would tie a semibriefe and a minime, or two minimes together, which stand not both in one key, then must you vse the forme of some note ligable (for as I tolde you before, the minime and smaller figures then it bee not ligable) and marke the signe of degree, with what diminution is fittest for your purpose, example. There bee two minimes, the one standing in Alamire, the other in elami: if you must needs haue them sung for one syllable, or be tied together, then may you set them downe thus

[Morley, Introduction, f.*1r] [MOR1597D 04GF]

as though they wer semibriefes, but dashing the signe of the time with a stroake of diminution to make them minimes. But if you thinke that would not be perceiued, then may you sette downe numbers before them thus 2/1 which would haue the same effect: but if that pleased you no more then the other then might you set them in tied briefes with this [C/] or this 4/1 signe before them, which were all one matter with the former.

[Annotation 12] Page eadem. verse 8. A pricke of augmentation.) Some tearme it a pricke of addition, some also a pricke of perfection, not much amisse: but that which now is called of our musicians a prick of perfection, is altogither superfluous and of no vse in musicke: for after a semibriefe in the more prolation, they set a pricke, though another semibriefe follow it: but though the pricke were away, the semibriefe of it selfe is perfect. The Author of the Treatise De quatuor principalibus, saieth thus. "Take it for certaine, that the point or pricke is set in pricksong for two causes, that is, either for perfection or diuisions sake, although some haue falsly put the point for other causes, that is, for imperfections and alterations sake, which is an absurdity to speake. But the pricke following a note, will make it perfect, though of the owne nature it be vnperfect. Also the point is putte to deuide, when by it the perfections (so hee tearmeth the number of three) be distinguished, and for any other cause the point in musicke is not set downe." So that by these his wordes it euidentlie appeareth, that in those daies (that is about twoe hundred yeares agoe) musicke was not so farre degenerate from theoricall reasons as it is now. But those who came after, not only made foure kinds of pricks, but also added the fift, thus. There bee say they in all fiue kindes of pricks, a pricke of addition, a pricke of augmentation, a pricke of perfection, a pricke of diuision, and a pricke of alteration. A pricke of augmentation they define, that which being sette after a note, maketh it halfe as muche longer as it was before: the pricke of Addition they define, that which being set after a semibriefe in the more prolation, if a minime follow, it causeth the semibriefe to be three white minimes. A pricke of perfection they define, that which being set after a semibriefe in the more prolation, if an other semibriefe follow, it causeth the first to be perfect. The pricke of deuision and alteration they define, as they be in my booke. But if we consider rightly both the pricke of Addition, of Augmentation, and that of alteration, are conteined vnder that of perfection: for in the lesse prolation when a semibriefe is two minimes, if it haue a pricke and be three, then must it bee perfect: and in the more prolation, when two minimes come betwixt two semibriefes, or in time perfect, when two semibriefes come betwixt two briefes which be perfect, the last of the two minimes is marked with a pricke, and so is altered to the time of two minimes: and the laste of the twoe semibriefes is likewise marked with a pricke, and is sung in the time of two semibriefes, which is onely done for perfections sake, that the ternary number may be obserued: yet in such cases of alteration, som cal that a point of diuision. For if you diuide the last semibriefe in time perfect from the briefe following, either must you make it two semibriefes, or then perfection decaies: so that the point of alteration may either be tearmed a point of perfection, or of diuision. But others whoe woulde seeme very expert in musicke, haue set downe the points or pricks thus: this pricke (say they) dooth perfect [C,B,pt]. Now this pricke standing in this place [O,pt,B] doeth imperfect. Nowe the pricke standing in this place [O,pt sup, L] takes away the third part, and another pricke which standeth vnder the note takes away the one halfe, as heere [L,pt sub] and like in all notes. But to refute this mans opinion (for what or who he is I know not) I need no more then his owne words, for (saith he) if the pricke stand thus [O,pt,B] it imperfecteth, if thus [O,pt sup,L] it taketh away the third part of the value. Nowe I praye him, what difference he maketh betwixt taking away the third part of the value and imperfection? If he say (as he must needes say) that taking awaye the thirde part of the value is to make vnperfect, then I say he hath done amisse, to make one point of imperfection, and another of taking away the third part of a notes value.

Againe, all imperfection is made either by a note reste or cullor, but no imperfection is made by a pricke, therefore our Monke (or whatsoeuer he were) hath erred, in making a point of imperfection. And lastly, all diminution is signified, either by the dashing of the signe of the degree, or by proportionate numbers, or by a number sette to the signe, or else by asscription of the Canon: but none of these is a pricke, therefore no diminution (for taking away halfe of the note is diminution) [-f.*1v-] is signified by a pricke, and therefore none of his rules be true sauing the first, which is, that a prick following a blacke briefe perfecteth it.

[Annotation 13] Page eadem. verse 16. those who) that is, Franchinus Gauforus, Peter Aron, Glareanus, and at a word all who euer wrote of the Art of Musicke. And though they all agree in the number and forme of degrees, yet shall you hardly finde two of them tell one tale for the signes to know them. For time and prolation there is no controuersie, the difficultie resteth in the moodes. But to the ende that you may the more easilie vnderstand their nature, I haue collected such rules as were requisite for that purpose, and yet could not so well be handled in the booke. The mood therefore was signified two maner of waies, one by numerall figures, another by pauses or restes. That way by numbers I haue handled in my booke, it resteth to set downe that way of shewing the mood by pauses. When they would signifie the great mood perfect, they did set downe three long restes together. If the lesse mood were likewise perfect, then did euery one of those long restes take vp three spaces thus [3LR,3LR,3LR,Od on staff 4] but if the great mood were perfect, and the lesse mood vnperfect, then did they like wise set downe three long Restes, but vnperfect in this manner, [2LR,2LR,2LR on staff5] and though this way bee agreeable both to experience and reason, yet hath Franchinus Gauforus sette downe the signe of the great mood perfect thus, [3LR,3LR on staff5] of the great moode vnperfect he setteth no sign, except one would say that this is it [4LR on staff5] for when he sets downe that mood, there is such a dashe before it, touching all the fiue lines. But one may iustlye doubt if that bee the signe of the mood, or some stroke set at the beginning of the lines. But that signe which he maketh of the great moode perfect, that doth Peter Aron set for the great mood imperfect, if the lesse mood be perfect. But (saith he) This is not of necessity, but according as the composition shall fal to be, the lesse mood perfect not being ioyned with the great mood imperfect. So that when both moodes be imperfect, then is the signe thus [2LR,2LR on staff5] And thus much for the great mood. The lesse moode is often considered and the great left out, in which case if the smal mood be perfect it is signified thus [3LR on staff5] if it be vnperfect, then is there no pause at all set before the song, nor yet any cifer, and that betokeneth both moodes vnperfect: so that it is most manifest, that our common signes which we vse, haue no respect to the moodes, but are contained within the boundes of time and prolation.

[Annotation 14] Page 14 verse 10. In this mood it is alwaies imperfect) That is not of necessity, for if you putte a point in the center of the circle, then will the prolation be perfect, and the Large be worth 81. minimes, and the Long 27. the briefe nine, and the semibriefe three: so that moodes great and small, time, and prolation, wil altogether be perfect.

[Annotation 15] Page 18. verse 11. Perfect of the more) This (as I said before) ought rather to be tearmed time perfect of the more prolation, then mood perfect, and yet hath it been receiued by consent of our English practicioners, to make the Long in it three briefes, and the Large thrice so much. But to this day could I neuer see in the workes of any, either strangers or Englishmen, a Long set for 3. briefes with that signe, except it had either a figure of three, or then modal rests sette before it, Zarlino volume 1. part. 3. capitulo 67. Zaccone libro 2. capitulo 14. But to the end that you may know when the restes be to be told, and when they stand only for the signe of the mood you must marke if they bee set thus, [3LR,3LR,3LR,Od on staff5] in which case they are not to be told: or thus [Od,3LR,3LR,3LR on staff5] and then are they to be numbred. Likewise you must make no accompte whether they be set thus [3LR,3LR,3LR on staff5] or thus [3LR,3LR,3LR on staff5] for both those be one thing signifieng both moods perfect.

[Annotation 16] Page 8 [recte: 18] verse 18. The perfect of the lesse) This first caused me to doubt of the certainty of those rules which being a childe I had learned, for whereas in this signe I was taught, that euery Large was 3. Longes, and euery Long three Briefes, I finde neither reason nor experience to proue it true. For reason (I am sure) they can alledge none, except they will vnder this signe [O] comprehende both mood and time, which they can neuer proue. Yet doe they so sticke to their opinions, that when I told some of them (who had so set it downe in their bookes) of their error, they stoode stiffelie to the defence thereof, with no other argument, then that it was true. But if they will reason by experience, and regard how it hath been vsed by others, let them looke in the masse of Master Tauerner, called Gloria tibi trinitas, where they shall finde examples enough to refute their opinion, and confirme mine. But if they thinke maister Tauerner partiall, let them looke in the workes of our English doctors of musicke, as Doctor Farfax, Doctor Newton, Doctor Cooper, Doctor Kirby, Doctor Tie, and diuers other excellent men, as Redford, Cornish, Piggot, White, and Master Tallis. But if they will trust none of all these, here is one example which was made before any of the aforenamed were borne.

[-f.*2r-] [Morley, Introduction, f.*2r,1] [MOR1597D 05GF]

And this shall suffice at this time for the vnderstanding of the controuerted moods. But to the ende thou mayst see how many waies the moods may be diuersly ioyned, I haue thought good to shew thee a table, vsed by two good musytians in Germany, and approued by Fryer Lowyes Zaccone, in the 57 chapter of his second booke of practise of musicke.

[Morley, Introductioin, f.*2r,2; text: Mood, Prolation, Time, Small, Great, Strokes, that is measures. Perfect, imperfect, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 18, 24, 27, 36, 81] [MOR1597D 05GF]

But by the way you must note, that in all Moodes (or rather signes) of the more prolation, he setteth a minime for a whole stroke, and proueth it by examples out of the masse of Palestin, called l'home armè. There is also another way of setting downe the degrees, which because I had not seen practised by any Musition, I was determined to haue passed in silence. But because some of my friends affirmed to me, that they had seen them so set down, I thought it best to shew the meaning of them. The auncient Musytians, who grounded all their practise vpon Speculation, did commonlie sette downe a particular signe for euery degree of musycke in the song: so that they hauing no more degrees then three, that is, the two moods and time (prolation not being yet inuented) set down three signes for them, so that if the great moode were perfect, it was signified by a whole circle, which is a perfect figure: if it were imperfect, it was marked with a halfe circle. Therefore, wheresoeuer these signes [Od33] were set before any songe, there was the greate moode perfect signeified by the circle. The small mood perfect signified by the first figure of three, and time perfect signified by the last figure of three. If the song were marked thus [C33], then was the great mood vnperfect, and the smal mood and time perfect. But if the first figure were a figure of two thus [C23], then were both moods vnperfect and time perfect: but if it were thus [C22], then were all vnperfect. [-f.*2v-] But if in al the song there were no Large, then did they set downe the signes of such notes as were in the song: so that if the circle or semicircle were set before one onelie cifer, as [O2] then did it signifie the lesse mood, and by that reason that circle now last sette downe with the binarie cipher following it, signified the lesse mood perfect, and time vnperfect. If thus [Cd3] then was the lesse mood vnperfect and time perfect. If thus [C2], then was both the lesse mood and time vnperfect, and so of others. But since the prolation was inuented, they haue set a pointe in the circle or halfe circle, to shew the more prolation, which notwithstanding altereth nothing in the mood nor time. But because (as Peter Aron saith) these are little vsed now at this present, I will speake no more of it, for this wil suffice for the vnderstanding of any song which shal be so markt: and whosoeuer perfectly vnderstandeth and keepeth that which is already spoken, wil finde nothing pertaining to the moodes to be hard for him to perceiue.

[Annotation 17] Page 12 line 9 [recte: page 24, line 33; 12/9 is not a complete typo, since it directs the reader to a different appearance of the word augmentation] Augmentation.) If the more prolation be in one part with this signe [Od] and the lesse in the other with this [O] then is euery perfect semibriefe of the more prolation worth three of the lesse: and euery vnperfect semibriefe (that is, if it haue a minime following it) worth twoe, and the minime one. But if the lesse prolation be in the other parts with this signe [Cd] euerye perfect semibriefe of the more prolation is worth six of the lesse, and the vnperfect semibriefe worth foure, and euery minime two, as in the example of Iulio Rinaldi, set at the ende of the firste part of the booke after the proportions, may be perceiued.

[Annotation 18] Page 27. verse 18. Proportion is) When any two things of one kind, as two numbers, two lines or such like are compared together, each of those two things so compared, is of the Greeks called [horos], which Boetius interpreteth in Latin Terminus, in English we haue no proper worde to signifie it. But some keepe the Latin, and cal it Tearme: and that comparison of those two thinges is called of the Greeks [logos kai schesis], that is as the Latins say, Ratio et habitudo, in English we haue no word to expresse those two. But hitherto we haue abusiuely taken the worde proportion in that sence. What proportion is we shall know hereafter, but with what English worde soeuer wee expresse those ratio and habitudo, they signifie this, how one terme is in quantity to another: as if you compare 3, and 6 togither, and consider howe they are to another, there will bee twoe tearmes the first three, and the latter sixe, and that comparison and as it were respect of the one vnto the other, is that ratio et habitudo which wee spake of. Now these things which are compared together, are either aequal one to another, as fiue to fiue, an elle to an elle, an aker to an aker, et cetera and then is it called aequalitatis ratio, respect of aequalitie, which we falsly tearme proportion of aequality, or then vnaequal, as three to sixe, a handbredth to a foot, et cetera in which case it is called inaequalis, or inaequalitatis ratio. Now this respect of equalitie is simple, and alwaies one, but that of inaequalitie is manifold: wherefore it is diuided into many kindes, of which some the Greekes terme [prologa] and other some [hypologa]. Those kinds they tearme [prologa], wherein the greater terme is compared to the lesse, as six to three, which of the late barbarous writers, is tearmed proportion of the greater inaequalitie: and by the contrary, those kindes they tearme [hypologa], where the lesse terme is compared to the greater, as 4. to six, which they terme the lesse inaequalitie. Of eache of these two kinds there be found fiue species or formes, three simple and two compound. The simple prologa ar multiplex superparticular, and superpartient compound. Prologa ar multiplex superparticular and multiplex superpartient. Multiplex ratio, is when the greater terme doth so conteine the lesse, as nothing wanteth or aboundeth, as ten and fiue: for ten doth twice containe fiue precisely, and no more nor lesse, of which kinde there bee many formes. For when the greater containeth the lesse twise, then is it called Dupla ratio, if thrise tripla, if foure times quadrupla, and so infinitely. Superparticularis ratio, which the Greeks call [epimorios], is when the greater terme containeth the lesse once with some one part ouer, which one part, if it be the halfe of the lesser terme, then is the respect of the greater to the lesser called sesquiplex, and sesquialtera ratio, as three to two. If it be the third part, it is called sesquitertia, as foure to three: if it be the fourth part, it is called sesquiquarta, as fiue to foure, and so of others. Superpartiens which the learned called [epimeres logos], is when the greater terme containeth the lesse once, and some partes besides, as fiue doth comprehend three once, and moreouer, two third parts of 3. which are two vnities, for the vnity is the thirde part of three. and ten comprehendeth six once, and besides two third parts of 6, for 2, is the third part of sixe: in which case it is called ratio superbipartiens tertias, and so of others according to the number and names of the partes which it containeth. Multiplex superparticulare, is when the greater tearme comprehendeth the lesse more then once, and beside some one part of it, as 9 to 4, is dupla sesquiquarta, because it containeth it twise. And moreouer, one fourth part of it. Likewise 7 is to 2, tripla sesquialtera, that is multiplex, because it containeth 2 often, that is thrice: and superparticular, because it hath also a halfe of two: that is one, and so of others: for of this kind there be as manye formes as of the simple kindes multiplex and superparticular. Multiplex superpartiens, is easily knowne by the name, example 14 to 5. is multiplex superpartiens. Multiplex, because it contayneth 5 twise, and superpartiens, because it hath foure fift parts more, and so 14 to 5 is dupla superquadripartiens quintas, for of this kind there be so many formes as of multiplex and superpartiens. Thus you see that two termes compared togither, containe ratio, habitudo respecte, or howe else you liste to terme it. But if the termes be more then two, and betwixt them one respect or more, then doe the Greekes by the same word [logos], tearm it [analogia], the Latines call it Proportio, and define [-f.*3r-] it thus, Proportio est rationum similitudo. And Aristotle in the fift booke of his Morals, ad Nicomachum, defineth it Rationum aequalitas, as for example. Let there be three numbers, whereof the first hath double respect to the second, and the second double respect to the third thus, 12, 6, 3. these or any such like make proportion or Analogie. The Arithmeticians set downe in their bookes many kinds of proportions, but we wil touch but those three which are so common euerye where in the workes of those chiefe Philosophers Plato and Aristotle, and be these, Geometrical, Arithmetical, and Harmonical. Geometricall proportion (which properly is proportion) is that which two or more aequal habitudes do make, as I shewed you euen now, and is either coniunct or disiunct. Coniunct proportion, is when the middle tearme is twice taken thus, as 16 to 8, so are 8 to 4, and 4 to 2, and 2 to 1, for here is euery where double habitude. Disiunct proportion, is when the middle termes bee but once taken thus, as 16 to 8, so 6 to 3. Arithmeticall proportion, is when between twoe or more termes is the same, not habitude but difference, as it is in the natural disposition of numbers thus, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5: for here euery tearme passeth other, by one only, or thus, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, where euery number passeth other, by two, or any such like. But Harmonical proportion is that, which neither is made of aequal habitudes, nor of the like differences: but when the greatest of three termes is so to the least as the differences of the greatest and middle termes, is to the difference of the middle and least example. Here be three numbers 6 4 3, whereof the first twoe are in sesquialtera habitude, and the latter two are in sesquitertia: you see here is neither like habitude, nor the same differences, for foure is more then three by one, and six is more then four by two: but take the difference betwixt six and foure, which is two, and the difference of 4 and 3. which is 1, and compare the differences together, you shal find two to 1, as 6 is to 3, that is dupla habitude. And this is called harmonical proportion, because it containeth the habitudes of the Consonantes amongest themselues: as, Let there bee three lines taken for as many stringes or Organ-pipes, let the first be six foot long, the second foure, the thirde three: that of sixe wil be a diapason or eight to that of three, and that of four wil be a diapente or fift aboue that of sixe, thus:

[Morley, Introduction, f.*3r,1; text: ut, re, mi, fa, sol, diapente, diatesseron, diapason, 6, 4, 3, C, G, c] [MOR1597D 06GF]

Thus you see what proportion is, and that proportion is not properlie taken in that sence wherein it is vsed in the booke: yet was I constrained to vse that word for lacke of a better. One whose booke came lately from the presse, called the Pathwaie to Musicke, setting downe the proportions, calleth them a great proportion of inequality, and a lesse proportion of inequalitie: and a little after treating of dupla, he setteth down words which hee hath translated out of Lossius his Musicke, but it seemeth hee hath not vnderstood too well, for (saith he) dupla is that which taketh from all notes and rests the halfe value, et cetera and giueth this example:

[Morley, Introduction, f.*3r,2] [MOR1597D 06GF]

But if he had vnderstoode what he said, he would neuer haue sette down this for an example, or else he hath not knowen what a minim or a crotchet is. But if I might, I would aske him of what length he maketh euery note of the plainsong? I knowe hee will answer of a semibriefe time. Then if your plainsong be of a semibriefe time, how will two minimes being diminished, make vp the time of a whole semibriefe? A minime in dupla proportion beeing but a [-f.*3v-] Crotchet. O but (saith he) the plainsong note is likewise diminished, and so the diminished minims wil make vp the time of a diminished semibriefe. But then how wil one barre of your partition make vppe a full stroke? seeing in the lesse prolation a minime is neuer taken for a whole stroke. Againe, no diminution is euer knowne, but where the signes of diminution be set by the notes, and except you sette the numbers in both partes, diminution wil not be in both parts. But to conclude, he who set downe that example, either knew not what dupla was, or then vnderstood not what he himselfe said, which appeareth in many other places of his booke: as for example, in the tenth page (leauing out the leafe of the title) A perfect sound (saith he) containeth a distance of two perfect soundes. What would he say by this? in mine opinion he would say A perfect second containeth a distance of two perfect soundes. Yet I know not what he meaneth by a perfect sound: for any sound is perfect not compared to another, and though it were compared to another, yet is the sound perfect, though it be not a perfect consonant to the other. But our master who shewes such Pathwaies to Musicke, would say this, A perfect second conteineth a whole note (or as the Latines tearme it integer tonus) as from vt to re, is a whole note, et cetera. In the beginning of the next page, he saith, An vnperfect second a sound and a halfe: but I pray you good Master Guide of the Pathway, howe can you make that a sound (for so you interpret the word tonus) and a halfe, which is not full a halfe sound or halfe a tonus? But if you had vnderstood what you saide, you would haue said thus: An vnperfect seconde conteineth but a lesse halfe note, as is euer betwixt mi and fa. Also defining what diatessaron, or a fourth is, he saith, a fourth is the distance of the voice by a fourth. And likewise, a fift the distance of the voice by a fift. Notable definitions: as in the play, the page asking his maister what a Poet was, he, after a great pause and long studie, answered that it was a Poet. Likewise, giuing the definition of a note, he saith it is a signe shewing the lowdnesse or stilnesse of the voice, but these be light faultes to those which follow after. For the Ligatures are set downe false, and comming to speake of the Moodes, or degrees of musicke, he maketh no mention at all of the lesse mood. And defining time he saith, it is a formall quantity of semibriefes measuring them by three or by two: and prolation he calleth a formall quantity of minimes and semibriefes, and shewing time perfect of the lesse prolation, he setteth it downe thus.

[Morley, Introduction, f.*3v,1] [MOR1597D 06GF]

And in the imperfect of the more prolation, he maketh two minimes to the semibriefe. But I am almoste out of my purpose, following one quem vincere inglorium et à quo atteri sordidum. For if you read his book you may say by it, as a great Poet of our time said by anothers, Vix est in toto pagina sana libro. What, said I vix? Take away two or three scales which are filched out of Beurhusius, and fill vp the three first pages of the booke, you shal not finde one side in all the booke without some grosse errour or other. For as hee setteth downe his dupla, so dooth he all his other proportions, giuing true definitions and false examples, the example still importing the contrary to that which was said in the definition. But this is the Worlde. Euery one will take vpon him to write, and teach others, none hauing more need of teaching then himselfe. And as for him of whom we haue spoken so much, one part of his booke he stole out of Beurhusius, another out of Lossius, peruerting the sence of Lossius his wordes, and giuing examples flatte to the contrary, of that which Lossius saith. And the last part of his booke treating of Descant, he tooke verbatim out of an old written booke which I haue. But it should seeme, that whatsoeuer or whosoeuer he was, that gaue it to the presse, was not the Author of it himselfe, else would he haue set his name to it, or then hee was ashamed of his labour.

[Annotation 19] Page 27. verse 40. Dupla) I cannot imagine how the teachers (which these 30, or 40, years past haue taught) should so farre haue strayed from the truth, as for no reason to call that common sort of Musick, which is in the time vnperfect of the lesse prolation dupla, or that it is in dupla proportion, except they would say, that any two to one is dupla: which none (at least who is in his right wits) will affirme. For when proportion is, then must the thinges compared be of one kind: as one aker to two akers is in subdupla proportion, et cetera. So when you see dupla set downe, you must sing euery note so faste againe as it was before. Glareanus giueth this example of dupla out of Franchinus, which because it hath some difficulty, I thought good to set downe and explaine in this place.

[Morley, Introduction, f.*3v,2] [MOR1597D 06GF]

[-f.*4r-] The signe at the beginning sheweth time perfect, so that euery briefe not hauing a semibriefe after it is three semibriefes, and so being diminished of halfe their value in dupla proportion, are but three minimes a peece: those briefes which in dupla haue a semibrife following them, are sung but in time of one semibriefe, the signe of imperfect time comming in after the proportion destroyeth it, but these numbers 4/2 being the notes of dupla habitude, following within foure notes, make vp the proportion againe: but in the latter dupla, you must marke that the diminished briefe is lesse by a whole minime then it was in the former, because the first followed time perfect, and the halfe of a briefe in time perfect, is three minimes, the latter followed time imperfect, and the halfe of a briefe in time vnperfect, is a semibriefe or twoe minimes. Likewise you must note, that when dupla or any other proportion is in all the partes alike, then can it not be called proportion, seeing there is no comparison of notes together, according to any imparity of numbers.

[Annotation 20] Page 29. Verse 3. Tripla) This is the common hackney horse of al the Composers, which is of so manie kindes as there be maners of pricking, sometimes al in blacke notes, sometimes all in white notes, sometimes mingled, sometimes in briefes, sometimes al in semibriefes, and yet all one measure. But one thing I mislike (though it be in common vse with vs all) that is, when wee call that tripla wherein al the voices goe together in one time with the stroke of sesquialtera time, or three minimes for a stroke, for that is no tripla, but as it were a sesquialtera compared to a sesquialtera: and whereas wee commonly make tripla with three minimes for a stroke, we confound it with sesquialtera. Lastly, true tripla maketh three Semibriefes or their value in other notes to the time of one semibriefe, whereof Glareanus giueth this example out of Coclaeus.

[Morley, Introduction, f.*4r] [MOR1597D 06GF]

But this tripla is double as swift in stroke as our common tripla of three minims, which though I haue vsed and stil doe vse, yet am not I able to defend it by reason: so that if any man would change before mee, I would likewise willingly change, but of my selfe I am loth to breake a receiued custome. But one may aske me, if our common tripla be not a proportion, what it is? I will answere out of Glareanus, that it seemeth to be a kind of perfection flourished by Art, and different from the auncient and first kind of order, because in it, both imperfection and alteration haue place. And by this, which in dupla and tripla is spoken, may all other things concerning proportions of multiplicity be easily vnderstoode, therfore one word of sesquialtera, and then an ende of this first part.

[Annotation 21] Page 31. [recte: 32] verse 9. Sesquialtera) Sesquialtera, is a musical proportion, wherin three notes are sung in the time of two of the same kinde, or rather thus. Sesquialtera, is a kinde of musicall diminution, wherein 3. semibriefes or their value in other notes are sung for two strokes. But you may obiect and say, If that be true sesquialtera, what difference do you make betwixt it and the more prolation? Only this, that in the more prolation, a perfect semibriefe maketh vppe a whole stroke and likewise the value of a semibriefe: but in sesquialtera, the value of a semibriefe and a halfe doe but make one stroke, and a semibriefe of it selfe neuer maketh a stroke. And by this it appeareth, that our common tripla of three minimes is false, which is confounded both with the more prolation and sesquialtera. Therefore take that for a sure and infallible rule which I haue set down in my book, that in all musical proportions the vpper number signifieth the semibriefe, and the lower the stroke, so that if the proportion be noted thus 3/2 three semibriefes or the value of three semibriefes must go to two strokes, but if thus 2/3 then must twoe semibriefes or their value make three whole strokes. And let this suffice for the proportions. As for Sesquitertia, sesquiquarta and such like, it were folly to make many wordes of them, seeing they be altogether out of vse, and it is a matter almost impossible to make sweet musicke in that kind. Yet is sesquitertia one of the hardest proportions which can be vsed, and carieth much more difficulty then sesquiquarta, because it is easier to diuide a semibriefe into four aequal parts, then into three: nor haue I euer seene an example of true sesquitertia sauing one, which Lossius giueth for an example, and pricketh it in Longs, making them but three stroks a peece, and the briefes one and a halfe: in semibriefes it is very hard, and almost impossible to vse it, but according to our manner of singing, if one part sing sesquialtera in Crotchets, and another sing Quauers in the lesse prolation, whereof eight go to a stroke, then would we say that that were eight to sixe, which is sesquitertia.

But if I should go about to say al that may be spoken of the proportions, I might bee accounted one [-f.*4v-] who knew not how to employ my time, and therefore I wil conclude with one worde, that proportions of multiplicitie might be had and vsed in any kinde without great scruple or offence: but those superparticulars and superpartients carry great difficultie, and haue crept into musick I know not how, but it shold seeme, that it was by meanes of the Descanters, who striuing to sing harder waies vpon a plainsong then their fellowes, brought in that which neither could please the eares of other men, nor could by themselues be defended by reason. Here was I determined to haue made an ende, but some more curious then discreet, compelled me to speake some words more, and to giue a reason why, after the proportions I haue saide nothing of the inductions. And therefore to be briefe, I say that all which they can say of these inductions, is nothing but meere foolishnesse, and commenta otiosorum hominum qui nihil aliud agunt nisi vt iniuniant quomodo in otio negotiosi videantur. Yet I maruel, that a thinge which neither is of any vse, nor yet can be prooued by any reason, should so much be stood vpon by them, who take vpon them to teach the youth nowadaies. But yet to refute it I need no other argument then this, that not any one of them who teach it, deliuereth it as another doth. But to be plaine, those inductions be no other thinge (as I saide in my booke, page 92. verse 7) but that number which any greater notes broken in smaller do make, as for example (though their opinions be false) sesquialtera or pricke semibriefe is the induction to their tripla, for sing your sesquialtera in minimes, and you shall find three of them to a stroke. Likewise, breake eyther your tripla of three minimes or your pricke semibriefe into crotchets, and so shall the prick semibrief bee the induction to sextupla as they say, but this is so false as what is falsest: for in whatsoeuer notes you sing sesquialtera, it is alwaies sesquialtera, because the value of a semibriefe and a halfe doth alwaies make a full stroke. Breake true tripla in minimes it will make t<h>eir sextupla, make it in crotchets, it will make their duodecupla, and this is it which they call their inductions, which it shal be enough for the scholler to vnderstand when he heareth them named: for no musician (if he can but breake a note) can misse the true vse of them. It resteth now to giue a reason why I haue placed that table of proportions in my book, seeing it belongeth no more to musicke, then any other part of Arithmeticke doth (Arithmeticke you must not take here in that sence as it is commonly for the Art of calculation, but as it is taken by Euclide, Nicomachus, Boetius and others) but the reason why I set it there, was to helpe the vnderstanding of manye young practicioners, who (though they see a song marked with numbers, as thus 8/3 for example) yet doe they not know what proportion that is. And therefore if they do but look vpon the numbers, and marke the concourse of the lines in closing them, they shall there plainly finde set downe, what relation one of those numbers hath to another.

Vpon the second Part.

[Annotation 22] Page 70 verse 22. The name of descant) This part is the second member of our deuision of practical musicke, which may be properly tearmed syntactical, poeticall, or effectiue: and thoughe I dare not affirme that this part was in vse with the musicians of the learned age of Ptolomaeus, or yet of that of Boetius: yet may I with some reason say, that it is more auncient then pricksong, and only by reason of the name which is contrapunto an Italian word deuised since the Gothes did ouerrun Italy, and changed the Latine tounge into that barbarisme which they now vse. As for the word it selfe, it was at that time fit enough to expres the thing signified, because no diuersity of notes being vsed, the musicians in stead of notes did set downe their musicke in plaine prickes or pointes: but afterwards that custome being altered by the diuersity of formes of notes, yet the name is retained amongst them in the former signification, though amongst vs it be restrained from the generality, to signifie that species or kind, which of all others is the most simple and plaine, and in stead of it we haue vsurped the name of descant. Also by continuance of time, that name is also degenerated into another signification, and for it we vse the word setting or composing. But to leaue setting and composing, and come to the matter which now we are to intreat of, the word descant signifieth in our toung, the forme of setting together of sundry voices or concords for producing of harmony: and a musician if he heare a song sung and mislike it, he will saie the Descant is naught. But in this signification it is seldome vsed, and the most common signification which it hath, is the singing ex tempore vpon a plainsong: in which sence there is none (who hath tasted the first elements of musicke) but vnderstandeth it. When descant did begin, by whom and where it was inuented is vncertaine, for it is a great controuersie amongst the learned if it were knowne to the antiquitie, or no. And diuers do bring arguments to proue, and others to disproue the antiquity of it: and for disprouing of it, they say that in all the workes of them, who haue written of musicke before Franchinus, there is no mention of any more parts then one, and that if any did sing to the harpe (which was their most vsuall instrument) they sung the same which they plaied. But those who would affirme that the auncients knew it, saie: That if they did not know it, to what ende serued all those long and tedious discourses and disputations of the consonantes wherein the moste part of their workes are consumed? But whether they knew it or not, this I wil say, that they had it not in halfe that variety wherein we now haue it, though we read of much more strange effects of their musick then of ours.

[Annotation 23] Page eadem. verse 29. Interualla both concords and discords) The Printer not conceiuing the words concordes and discords to be adiectiues, added the word of peruerting the sence, but if you dash out that word, [-f.(:.)1r-] the sence will be perfect. As for the Consonants or concordes, I doe not thinke that anye of those which wee call vnperfect cords, were either in vse or acknowledged for Consonants, in the time of those whoe professed musicke before Guido Aretinus, or of Guido himselfe. Boethius setting downe the harmonicall proportions and the Consonants which arise of them, talketh of quadrupla, tripla, dupla, sesquialtera, and sesquitertia, which make disdiapason, diapente cum diapason, diapason, diapente, and diatessaron, or as we say, a fifteenth, a twelfe, an eight, a fift, and a fourth. But why they should make diatessaron a Consonant, seeing it mightily offendeth the eare, I see no reason, except they woulde make that Geometricall rule of paralell lines true in consonants of musicke: Quae sunt vni et eidem parallelae, sunt etiam inter se parallelae, and so make those sounds which to one and the selfesame are consonants, to be likewise consonantes amongste themselues. But if any man would aske me a reason why some of those consonants which we vse are called perfect, and othersome vnperfect, I can giue him no reason, except that our age hath tearmed those Consonantes perfect, which haue beene in continuall vse since musicke began: the others they tearme vnperfect, because they leaue in the minde of the skillful hearer, a desire of comming to a perfect chord. And it is a ridiculous reason which some haue giuen, that these be vnperfect cordes, because you may not begin nor ende vpon them. But if one should aske why you may not begin nor end vpon them, I see no reason which might be giuen except this, that they be vnperfect chords: so that in mine opinion, it is a better reason to say you may not begin nor end vpon them, because they be vnperfect chords, then to say that they be vnperfect, because you may not begin nor end vpon them. And if the custome of musicians should suffer it to come into practise, to begin and end vpon them, should they then becom perfect chords? No verily. For I can shew many songes composed by excellent menne (as Orlando de lassus, Master White, and others) which begin vpon the sixt: and as for the thirde, it was neuer counted any fault, either to begin or end vpon it: and yet will not any man say, that the third is a perfect chord. But if mine opinion might passe for a reason, I would say that al sounds contained in habitude of multiplicity, or superparticularity, were of the olde musicians esteemed consonantes, which was the cause that they made the diatessaron a Consonant, although it were harsh in the eare. The tonus or whole note is indeed comprehended vnder superparticular habitude, that is sesquioctaua, but it they counted the beginning of consonance, and not a consonant it selfe. The sesquitonus, ditonus, semitonium cum diapente, and tonus cum diapente, (that is our flat and sharp thirdes and sixes) they did not esteeme consonants, because they were not in habitude of multiplicity or superparticularity, but vnder superpartients: the first and second between sesquitertia and sesquiquarta, the third and fourth betweene sesquialtera and dupla. But of this matter enough in this place, if anye desire more of it, let him read the third booke of Iacobus Faber stapulensis his musicke. The second part of Zarlino his harmonicall institutions, and Franchinus his Harmonia instrumentorum. As for singing vppon a plainsong, it hath byn in times past in England (as euery man knoweth) and is at this day in other places, the greatest part of the vsuall musicke which in any churches is sung. Which indeed causeth me to maruel how men acquainted with musicke, can delight to heare such confusion as of force must bee amongste so many singing extempore. But some haue stood in an opinion which to me seemeth not very probable, that is, that men accustomed to descanting will sing together vpon a plainsong, without singing eyther false chords or forbidden descant one to another, which til I see I will euer think vnpossible. For though they should all be moste excellent men, and euery one of their lessons by it selfe neuer so well framed for the ground, yet is it vnpossible for them to be true one to another, except one man shoulde cause all the reste sing the same which he sung before them: and so indeed (if he haue studied the Canon before hand) they shall agree without errors, else shall they neuer do it. It is also to be vnderstood, that when they did sing vpon their plainsongs, he who sung the ground would sing it a sixt vnder the true pitche, and sometimes would breake some notes in diuision, which they did for the more formall comming to their closes: but euery close (by the close in this place, you must vnderstand the note which serued for the last syllable of euery verse in their hymnes,) he must sing in that tune as it standeth, or then in the eight below: and this kind of singing was called in Italy Falso bordone, and in England a Fa burden, whereof here is an example, first the plainsong, and then the Faburden.

[Morley, Introduction, f.(:.)1r; text: Hymnus: Conditor alme syderum. The faburden of this hymne] [MOR1597D 06GF]

And though this be prickt a third aboue the plainsong, yet was it alwaies sung vnder the plainsong. Other things handled in this part of the booke, are of themselues easily to be vnderstood. Therefore I will cease to speak any more of them, and proceed to the explanation of other things as yet vntouched.

[-f.(:.)1v-] Vpon the third part.

[Annotation 24] Page 147. verse 17. The eight tunes) The tunes (which are also called modi musici) the practitioners do define, to be a rule whereby the melodie of euery song is directed. Now these tunes arise out of the tunes of the eight, according to the diuersity of setting the fift and fourth together, for the fourth may be set in the eight, either aboue the fift, which is the harmonicale diuision or mediation (as they tearme it) of the eight, or vnder the fift, which is the Arithmeticall mediation: and seeing there be seauen kindes of eights, it followeth that there be 14. seuerall tunes, euery eight making two. But of these fourteene (saith Glareanus) the musicians of our age acknowledge but eight though they vse thirteen, some of which are in more vse, and some lesse vsual then others. And these eight which they acknowledge, they neither distinguish trulie, nor set downe perfectly, but prescribe vnto them certaine rules which are neither generall, nor to the purpose, but such as they be, the effect of them is this. Some tunes (say they) are of the odde number, as the first, third, fift, and seuenth: others of the euen number: as the second, fourth, sixt and eight: the odde they call Autentas, the euen Plagales. To the autentas they giue more liberty of ascending then to the Plagale, which haue more liberty of descending then they, according to this verse,

Vult descendere par, sed scandere vult modus impar

Also for the better helping of the schollers memory, they haue deuised these verses following.

Impare de numero tonus est autentas, in altum
Cuius neuma salit, sede a propria diapason
Pertingens, à qua descendere vix datur illi;
Vult pare de numero tonus esse plagalis in ima
Ab regione sua descendens ad diatesron,
Cui datur ad quintam, raróque ascendere sextam.

Now these tunes consisting of the kinds of diapason or eights, it followeth to know which tunes ech kind of diapason doth make. It is therefore to be vnderstood, that one eight hauing but one diapente or fift, it followeth, that one diapente must be common to two tunes, the lowest key of which diapente ought to be the finall key of them both. It is also to be noted, that euery autenta may go a whole eight aboue the final key, and that the Plagale may go but a fift aboue it, but it may goe a fourth vnder it, as in the verses nowe set downe is manifest. So then the first is from dsolre to dlasolre, his fift being from dsolre to Alamire. The second tune is from Alamire to Are, the fift being the same which was before, the lowest key of which is common finall to both. In like maner, the third tune is from elami to elami, and the fourth from b fa b mi to [sqb] mi, the diapente from elami to b fa b mi, being common to both. Now for the discerning of these tunes one from another, they make three waies, the beginning, middle, and ende: and for the beginning say they, euery song which about the beginning riseth a fift aboue the finall key, is of an autenticall tune: if it rise not vnto the fifth it is a plagall. And for the middle, euery song (say they) which in the middle hath an eight aboue the final keye, is of an autenticall tune: if not it is a plagal. And as for the ende, they giue this rule, that euery song (which is not transposed) ending in G sol re vt, with the sharpe in b fa b mi, is of the seuenth or eighth tune in f fa vt of the fifth or sixth tune, in elami of the thirde or fourth tune, in dsolre is of the firste or second tune. And thus muche for the eight tunes, as they be commonly taught. But Glareanus broke the yce for others to follow him into a further speculation and perfect knowledge of these tunes or modi, and for the means to discern one from another of them, he saith thus. The tunes or modi musici (which the Greeke writers call [armonias], sometimes also [nomous kai tropous], are distinguished no otherwise then the kinds of the diapason or eight from which they arise, are distinguished, and other kindes of eightes are distinguished no otherwise then according to the place of the halfe notes or semitonia conteined in them, as all the kindes of other consonants are distinguished. For in the diatessaron there be foure sounds, and three distances (that is two whole notes and one lesse halfe note) therefore there be three places where the halfe note may stand. For either it is in the middle place, hauing a whole note vnder it, and another aboue it, and so produceth the first kind of diatessaron, as from Are to dsolre, or then it standeth in the lowest place, hauing both the whole notes aboue it, producing the second kind of diatessaron, as from [sqb] mi to elami, or then is in the highest place, hauing both the whole notes vnder it, in which case it produceth the third and last kind of diatessaron, as from c faut to effaut, so that how many distances any consonant hath, so many kindes of that consonant there must be, bicause the halfe note may stand in any of the places: and therefore diapente hauing fiue soundes and foure distances (that is three whole notes and a halfe note) there must be foure kindes of diapente: the first from dsolre to Alamire, the second from elami to bfabmi, the third from F faut to c solfaut, the fourth and laste, from g solreut to dlasolre. If you proceed to make any more, the fift will be the same with the first, hauing the halfe note in the second place from below. Now the diapason conteining both the diapente and diatessaron, as consisting of the coniunction of them together, it must follow that there be as many kinds of diapason as of both the other, which is seuen. Therefore it is manifeste that our practitioners haue erred in making eight tunes, separating the nature of the eight from that of the firste, seeing they haue both one kinde of diapason, though diuided after another maner in the last then in the first. But if they wil separate the eight from the first, because in the eight the fourth is lowest, which in the first was highest: then of force must they diuide all the other sortes of the diapason, likewise after two maners, by which meanes, there will arise fourteene kindes of formes, tunes, or modi. And to begin at the first kind of diapason (that [-f.(:.)2r-] is from are to alamire) if you diuide it Arithmeticaly, that is, if you set the fourth lowest, and the fift highest, then shall you haue the compasse of our second mood or tune, thogh it be the first with Boethius, and those who wrote before him, and is called by them Hypodorius: also if you diuide the same kind of diapason harmonically, that is, set the fift lowest and the fourth highest, you shal haue the compasse of that tune which the ancients had for their ninth, and was called aeolius, though the latter age woulde not acknowledge it for one of the number of theirs. Thus you see that the first kind of the diapason produceth twoe tunes, according to two forms, of mediation or diuision. But if you diuide the second kind of diapason Arithmetically, you shal haue that tune which the latter age tearmed the fourth, and in the old time was the second called hypophrygius: but if you diuide the same harmonically, setting the fift lowest, you shall haue a tune or mood which of the ancients was iustly reiected: for if you ioine [sqb] mi to F faut, you shal not make a ful fift. Also if you ioine F fa vt to b fa b mi, you shall haue a tritonus, which is more by a great halfe note then a fourth. And because this diuision is false in the diatonicall kind of musicke (in which you may not make a sharpe in F fa vt) this tune which was called hyperaeolius arising of it was reiected. If you diuide the third kind of diapason from Cfaut to csolfaut Arithmetically, you shal haue the compasse and essential bounds of the sixt tune, which the ancients named hypolydius: if you diuide it harmonically, you shal haue the ancient Ionicus or Iastius, for both those names signifie one thing. If you diuide the fourth kind of diapason from D. to d Arithmetically, it wil produce our eight tune, which is the ancient hyperiastius or hypomixolydius: if harmonically, it is our first tune and the ancient dorius, so famous and recommended in the writinges of the Philosophers. If the fift kind of diapason from Elami to elami, bee diuided arithmeticallie, it maketh a tune which our age wil acknowledge for none of theirs, though it be our tenth indeed, and the ancient hypoaeolius, but if it be harmonically diuided, it maketh our third tune, and the olde phrygius. But if the sixt kind of the diapason be diuided arithmetically, it will produce a reiected mood, because from Ffaut to b fa b mi, is a tritonus, which distance is not receiued in the diatonical kind, and as for the flat in b fa [sqb] b mi, it was not admitted in diatonicall musicke, any more then the sharpe in F fa ut, which is a moste certain argument that this musicke which we now vse, is not the true diatonicum, nor any species of it. But againe to our deuision of the eights. If the sixt kind be diuided harmonicallye, it is our fift tune and the auncient lydius. Lastly, if you diuide the seuenth kind of diapason (which is from G to g) arithmetically, it wil make the ancient hypoionicus or hypoiastius (for both those are one) but if you diuide it harmonically, it wil make our seauenth tune, and the ancient mixolydius. Thus you see that euery kind of diapason produceth two seueral tunes or moods, except the second and sixt kinds, which make but one a peece, so that now there must be twelue and not only eight. Now for the vse of them (specially in tenors and plainsongs, wherein their nature is best perceiued) it is to be vnderstood, that they be vsed either simply by themselues, or ioyned with others, and by themselues sometimes they fill all their compasse, somtimes they do not fill it, and somtime they exceed it. And in the odde or autenticall tunes, the church musicke doth often goe a whole note vnder the finall or lowest key, and that most commonly in the first and seuenth tunes: in the third it commeth sometimss two whole notes vnder the finall key, and in the fift bnt a halfe note. But by the contrary in plagall tunes, they take a note aboue the highest key of the fift (which is the highest of the plagal) as in the sixt and eight, in the second and fourth, they take bnt halfe a note, though sildome in the second, and more commonly in the fourth. But if any song do exceed the compasse of a tune, then bee there two tunes ioyned together, which may be thus: the first and second, the third and fourth, et cetera an autentical still beeing ioyned with a plagal, but two plagals or two autenticals ioyned togither, is a thing against nature. It is also to be vnderstood that those examples which I haue in my booke set downe for the eight tunes, bee not the true and essentiall formes of the eight tunes or vsuall moodes, but the formes of giuing the tunes to their psalmes in the Churches, which the churchmen (falsly) beleeue to be the modi or tunes, but if we consider them rightly, they be all of some vnperfect mood, none of them filling the true compas of any mood And thus much for the twelue tunes, which if any man desire to know more at large, let him read the 2 and third bookes of Glareanus his dodecachordon, the fourth booke of Zaccone his practise of musicke, and the fourth part of Zarlino his harmonicall institutions, where hee may satisfie his desire at full, for with the helpe of this which here is set downe, he may vnderstand easily all which is there handled, though some haue causelesse complained of obscuritie. Seeing therfore further discourse wil be superfluous, I wil heere make an ende.


[Errata 1] Page. 9, line .1. read tuning.

[Errata 2] line. 20. read the rests (or as you, et cetera

[Errata 3] line 21. dash out them.

[Errata 4] Page 12. line 2. read vnderstand

[Errata 5] line 21. read speculation.

[Errata 6] page 31. line 3. from below 12.

[Errata 7] page 45. [recte: 54] line 8 read retorted.

[Errata 8] line 14. read three.

[Errata 9] page 70. line 29. blot out of.

[Errata 10] Page 74 line 12. read had.

[Errata 11] page 75. line 6. dash out the second it.

[Errata 12] line 15. read twelfth.

[Errata 13] line 18 read descant.

[Errata 14] page 78. [line 41] blot out as.

[Errata 15] line 42. read for a semibriefe.

[Errata 16] page 84. line 8 read take not aboue, et cetera

[Errata 17] page 88. line 3. read so far.

[Errata 18] page 89. line 7. read came to sing.

[Errata 19] line 11. read were disposed.

[Errata 20] page 110 line 4. blot out, and

[Errata 21] page 115. line 8. read present instruction.

[Errata 22] page 116. line 24. read so far.

[Errata 23] page 120. line 17. read Pol.

[Errata 24] page 125. line 2. read to be don.

[Errata 25] page 129. line 3. blot out the.

[Errata 26] 142. line 18. read infinity.

[Errata 27] page 143. line 11. read. two.

[Errata 28] page 145. line 4. blot out the last the.

[Errata 29] page 150 line 9. blot out one.

[Errata 30] page 151. line 41. [recte: 14] read cite.

[Errata 31] page 155. [recte: 157] line 13. read Phi.

[Errata 32] Page 158. line 40. read way,

[Errata 33] Page 166. line 21. read vnsweet.

[Errata 34] page 167. line 4 read are.

[Errata 35] page 170 line 1 read here be good instrucions.

other small faults there be, both in the matter and musicke, which the attentiue reader may by himselfe easely espie and amend.

[-f.(:.)2v-] [Morley, Introduction, f.(:.)2v; text: Altus. Tenor. quatuor vocum. Domine fac mecum misericordiam tuam propter nomen tuum quia suauis est misericordia tua.] [MOR1597D 07GF]

[-f.(:.)3r-] [Morley, Introduction, f.(:.)3r; text: Cantus, Basis. quatuor vocum. Domine fac mecum misericordiam tuam propter nomen tuum quia suauis est misericordia tua.] [MOR1597D 08GF]

[-f.(:.)3v-] [Morley, Introduction, f.(:.)3v; text: Altus. Tenor. Quatuor vocum. Agnus dei qui tollis peccata mundi miserere nostri.] [MOR1597D 09GF]

[-f.(:.)4r-] [Morley, Introduction, f.(:.)4r; text: Cantus. Bassus. Quatuor vocum. Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi miserere nostri.] [MOR1597D 10GF]

[-f.(:.)4v-] Authors whose authorities be either cited or vsed in this booke.

Such as haue written of the Art of Musicke.

Late Writers.

Jacobus faber stapulensis.

Franchinus Gaufurius

John Spataro.

Peter Aron.

Author quatuor principalia


Robertus de Haulo.

Andreas Ornitoparchus.

Incertus impressus Basileae

Ludouicus Zaccone.

Iosepho Zarlino.

Henricus loritus Glareanus

Lucas Lossius.

Ioannes Listenius.

Ioannes Thomas freigius.

Fredericus Beurhusius.

Sethus Caluisius.

Andreas Rasselius.

Nicolaus Faber.

Joannes Magirus.

Manfredus Barbarinus Coregiensis.

Ancient Writers.



Ptolomaeus. [Cited by Franchinus. in marg.]

Aristoxenus. [Cited by Franchinus. in marg.]

Guido Aretinus. [Cited by Franchinus. in marg.]

Practicioners, the moste parte of whose workes we haue diligently perused, for finding the true vse of the Moods.


Johannes Okenheim

Jacobus Obrecht

Clement Janequin

Petrus Platensis

Nicolas Craen

Johannes Ghiselin

Antonius Brumel

Johannes Mouton

Adamus a Fulda

Lutauich senfli

Iohannes Richaforte


Sixtus dietrich

De orto

Gerardus de salice


Nicolas Payen


Francoys lagendre

Andraeas syluanus

Antonius a vinea

Grogorius Meyer

Thomas Tzamen

Iacques de vert

Jacques du pont

Nicholas Gomberte

Clemens non papa


Damianus a goes

Adam Luyre

Iohannes vannius


Rinaldo del mel

Alexander Vtendal

Horatio ingelini

Laelio Bertani

Horatio vecchi

Orlando de Lassus

Alfonso Ferrabosco

Cyprian de rore

Alessandro striggio

Philippo de monte

Hieronimo Conuersi.

Jouanni Battista Lucatello

Iouanni pierlulgi palestina

Stephano venturi

Ioanne de macque

Hippolito Baccuse

Paulo quagliati

Luca Marenzo


Master Pashe.

Robert Iones.

Iohn Dunstable

Leonel Power

Robert Orwel

M. Wilkinson.

Iohn Guinneth

Robert Dauis

Master Risby.

Doctor Farfax.

Doctor Kirby.

Morgan Grig

Thomas Ashwell.

Master Sturton.







Sir Iohn Mason.












Doctor Tie.

Doctor Cooper

Doctor Newton

Master Tallis.

Master White.

Master Persons

Master Byrde.

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