TEXTS ON MUSIC IN ENGLISH
School of Music
University of Nebraska--Lincoln
Lincoln, NE 68588-0100
(phone:  472-2507; Internet: email@example.com)
Data entry: William Renwick
Checked by: Peter M. Lefferts, Peter Slemon
Approved by: Peter M. Lefferts
Fn and Ft: RAVBD_TEXT
Author: Ravenscroft, Thomas
Title: A Briefe Discourse
Source: Thomas Ravenscroft, A BRIEFE DISCOVRSE Of the true (but neglected) vse of Charactering the Degrees by their Perfection, Imperfection, and Diminution in Measurable Musicke, against the Common Practise and Custome of these Times (London: Edward Allde for Thomas Adams, 1614; reprint ed., with an introduction by Ian Payne, Clarabricken, Kilkenny, Ireland: Boethius Press, 1984) [STC 20756].
[-f.P1r-] A BRIEFE DISCOVRSE Of the true (but neglected) vse of Charact'ring the Degrees by their Perfection, Imperfection, and Diminution in Measurable Musicke, against the Common Practise and Custome of these Times.
Examples whereof are exprest in the Harmony of 4. Voyces, Concerning the Pleasure of 5. vsuall Recreations. 1 Hunting, 2 Hawking, 3 Dauncing, 4 Drinking, 5 Enamouring.
By Thomas Rauenscroft, Bachelor of Musicke.
LONDON Printed by Edward Allde for Thomas Adams 1614. Cum priuilegio Regali.
[-f.P2r-] [The Epistle Dedicatorie.]
To the Right Worshipfull, most worthy Graue Senators, Guardians, of Gresham Colledge in London.
Senator Stephen Soames. Senator John Garret. Senator Thomas Lowe. Senator William Crauen. Aldermen
Maister Cornelius Fish. Chamberlaine
Senator Thomas Bennet Maister Thomas Bennet Sheriffe. Aldermen Senator Baptist Hicks Maister William Quarles Maister Edward Barnes Maister Iohn Gardiner Maister William Ferrers And the 2. Wardens Of the Mercers Company.
And to the Right Worshipfull Sir Iohn Swinerton and Sir Thomas Hayes Knights and Aldermen, most True and honourable affectors of Musicke.
AS I doe account it a great portion of happines to haue receiu'd first Instructions, Exercise, and Encouragement of my Studies in this Auncient and most Famous City: So am I thereby bound, and doe (willingly) endeuour my best part and power, both to testifie and augment the Life and Honour of this Liberall Science which I [-f.P2v-] professe, to the benefit of all Students therein, and the contentment of all Affectors thereof in this my natiue Country and especially in this the Metropolis thereof, which gaue first life and breathing to my poore Endeauours. And herein I must, and doe acknowledge it as a singular helpe and benefit, that I haue receiu'd diuers Instructions, Resolutions, and Confirmations of sundry Points, and Praecepts in our Art, from the Musicke Readers of that most famous Colledge, founded and erected by the euer praiseworthie, and iustly renown'd Senator Senator Thomas Gresham; who bearing his neuer dying Name, as a Praesident and Patterne to his Co-Citizens, to shew them the right way to aeternize their names to future posteritie, by being kinde Nursing Fathers to good Literature, Reuiued the liberall Arts and Sciences, especially the Mathematickes, which were somewhat neglected euen in the Vniuersities; and endowed them with such Maintenance and exhibition, that (their worldly wants being more then meanly supply'd) they haue and doe continually striue with highest Art and Industry, so to explaine them to the world by way of Lecture, and otherwise, that much good from thence redoundeth to many desirous of those Knowledges, and more and more will, as time and occasion shall serue. What fruits my selfe in particular haue receiu'd [-f.P3r-] by that one particular Lecture of Musicke (whereof I was an vnworthie Auditor) I dutifully acknowledge to haue proceeded from that Colledge; and doe heere Commende and Dedicate them to your Worshipps, Who are Visitors and Guardians of that most famous Foundation, from whence I haue receiu'd such benefit in these my studies. For as I haue beene encouraged by your Noblenes to trauaile in these Studies, so by Dutie they belong to You, from whome they had their Animation. May it therefore please your Worships to accept this my Discourse of Musicke with some Harmonicall Examples thereof, as a Simple Sacrifice, in part of that deuotion and seruice which I owe, vpon promise and full intendment by your wonted goodnes and asistance, to search for Richer and riper Discoueries in this Musicall Continent. So wishing the long Continuance of your carefull Loue, and louing Care to al good Learning, especially to Musicke, the earthly Solace of Mans Soule, I euer Remaine
The Honourer, and sincere Affector of your Approued good Mindes
PLutarch in his Booke of Musicke saith, that Pherecrates the Comicall Poet presented Musicke in forme and habite of a Woman, her body pitteously scourged and mangled; Iustice demaunding the reason, she in her complaint made answere, that Melanipides, Cynesias, Phrynis, and Timotheus had through certaine vncertaine Opinions and Changes, wrought her so much woe.
If Pherecrates had now liued, well and truely might he haue haue presented her * [*Terentius. in marg.] Pannis annisque obsitam, with scarce Ligatures left to preserue the compacture of her Body, so much is she wrong'd, dilacerated, dismembred, and disioynted in these our daies; she scarcely hath Forme or Habite left, but e'ne as a Sceleton, retaines onely a shape, or shadowe, of what she was in her former purity.
Now may she sit complayning, O woe is me, that was ordain'd for the welfare of all vertue in Man; O woe is me, that to whome I brought so much goodnesse, by him I should be vilified, and so ill intreated; O woe is me, that for whome, and for whose best good I ordain'd Lawes and Praecepts, by him, and onely him, I should be thus abus'd, my Lawes violated, my Precepts reiected, and my selfe made a laughing stocke; O woe is me, that e're I was, or did so much good for him that sets so light by me.
And (if euer) this braine-sicke Age wherein we liue, may best testifie her misery; for neither Her selfe, nor her Lawes are regarded euen of her Children, but most led by their stragling passions runne after their owne rebellious Imaginations; which doth breed a misery of miseries vnto Her, great griefe and sorrow to her true borne Children, and to all, a base wretched Estimation, aswell amongst those who know her Eminencie, as those who neuer knew Her, nor any other vertue.
And if we shall finde (as certainly finde we shall) in one member of Her, in one little part of her Praecepts, so many erroneous and repugnant Absurdities committed, what should we meete with, if we did search into her whole Body? surely such a contumelious Insurrection, that either for Ignorance or shame in so much wronging Her, we must stand obstinate, and set Her at defiance, or with peaceable vnderstanding submit our selues to Her Censure, checking our [-f.P4v-] wilfull Nature, correcting our Ignorance, reforming all offences, with submissiue obedience to follow the Lawes and Praecepts by Her ordain'd, whereby we shall returne into grace and fauour with Her, and be graced and fauoured of all Hers; for she commendeth her Founders and Fauourers, and she honoureth all those who entertaine Her.
And now in the behalfe of my Mother Musicke, as a dutiful childe to condole, and (to my power) to minister a Medicine to Her Maladies, haue I oppos[']d my selfe against a Capitall Rebell Common Practise, or Custome, which long since seditiously resisted, and through arrogancy and jgnorance hath incenst against Her, and drawne away the most part of her Children from their due allegeance; whereby I entend either to right Her, by reclaiming them to the Line of her Lawes and Praecepts, or to make knowne vnto the world all her Spurious and Illegitimate Children, that doe thus vnnaturally oppose themselues against Her.
For Iudges whereof on Musickes behalfe, I haue chosen most worthy and Iuditious Senators of Her Common-wealth, who following her Praecepts and Lawes from their Infancy, haue sought (as their Ensamples testifie) to the vt'most of their powers, to reduce all to Her gouernment.
For Iudges on their side, although I could nominate many, and those Capitall Maisters too (for so they are accounted of the Rebellious Rowte, whom in regard of ignorant estimation of their worth, or worthlesse estimation, I forbeare to name;) yet may they be knowne to all, because they will be the first that will oppose, and the last and least that will, or can alleadge Reason for their Tenents; only they will vrge effaeminately their owne Will, or passionately their owne Fancy, or that they haue seene the contrary, and their Ensamples in Print; but true Iudgement will be able to conuince such Humorists, and to sift out the flowre of Truth from the huskes of Error in this Musicall Monomachie. For as it is sufficient commendations for an honest Cato, if he be disparaged in his reputation but by some dissolute, disordered Clodius, or Cataline: so can there be no greater approbation of any Facultie, or Science whatsoeuer, then to be oppung'd and discommended by an Ignorant Artist, or some rawe Professor of the same Mysteries.
And such be they (if there be any, as I doubt too many) for the most part, whome Horace termes Humorous Singsters, such as [-f.PP1r-] Arcabius was, saying of such,
(1) [(1) Horatius Satyrae 3. liber I. in marg.]
Vt nunquam inducant animum cantare, rogati,
Iniussi nunquam desistant:
Thus Englished by Doctor Case, a Maecenas of Musicke,
(2) [(2) Praise of Musicke to the Reader. in marg.]
That being prai'd to sing and shew their skill,
Cannot induced be, say what thou list:
But vnrequested keepe a chaunting still,
And from their folly neuer will desist.
(3) Glareanus termes them Common Cantors or Chaunters [(3) Glareanus Dodechachordi. liber 3. capitulum 8. Ibidem liber 3. capitulum 9. in marg.], of whom (4) Plutarch (according to the Prouerbiall verse) saith [(4) Plutarch Simposiackes liber I. in marg.],
A Begger can no Begger well abide,
And Chaunters one by th'other is enuy'de:
And by diuers others they are term'd Customable Composers; But (5) Ornithoparchus saith [(5) Ornithoparchus liber 2. capitulum 8. in marg.], they entitle themselues the Musitians of Musitians, per excellentiam, who being ignorant of all things in our Art, yet brag of their generall Knowledge; and one discouering such Natures saith,
Such doe contend without the cause discerning,
And argue most of that they haue no learning.
But let their owne fancies and arrogancies either Confirme, or Confute them; for by their meanes, (and onely them) is grounded in the heart of Greatnes, that our Arts Greatnes is great onely in a Base, whereby she is fallen to such Vilitie, that the Learned are weary thereof, the Ignorant ashamed, Themselues despis'd, made a mockery, and a Iesting stocke, onely seruing (and good) for no other vse, then to satisfie their Barbarous affections, which are like those of the (6) Polititian Archidamus [(6) Praise of Musicke folio 27. in marg.], (or such like Secretaries) whose Belly was his Idoll, made more account of a Caterer, then a Cantor.
But the more the pitty, too too many such Polititians there are in these dayes, who esteeme of Musicks Professors no otherwise (nay scarce so much) then they doe of Hunters and Faulkeners, and to deserue (at the most) no better to be rewarded, or regarded.
These are no better then Monstra Hominum; with Lucinus the [-f.PP1v-] Emperour they esteeme Learning and all Vertue to be the Bane and plague of a Common-wealth: And yet (forsooth) these Archidamuses will seeme to countenance and entertaine Musicks Professors; But alas it is vpon Colour and Praetext, to make shew vnto the world that there is in them a Musicall Genius, and a religious disposition; they make this their vertue, to shadow such inhumane desires, for the better accomplishing of their priuate ends. And when their humours are to be besotted with the Soule-rauishing pleasure and content of melodious Harmony, they seeke either by dissembling Commendations, or grosse Flattery, or the like, (by any ordinary capacity quickly conceiued) to grieue and discontent those outwardly, who affoord them delight, and contentment inwardly.
What pollicies are vs'd in the Entertaining of these Professors, in the Retaining of them, and in their small Salaries and Pittances (which they terme Competencies) I forbeare at this time to disclose; But let such Golden Sheepe, who are better Clad then Taught, and wanting an ingenuous and generous disposition, are willing to prostitute themselues to Daunce after euery mans Pipe, or to Fiddle at euery mans Whistle, be as they deserue; I could wish and aduice al Students of our Art, or any other noble Science and Speculatiue Facultie whatsoeuer, to account of Such as they account of Them, and to stand firme for the honour and estimation of Learning.
But to our former discourse: Most men respect Parasites most, who soothingly feede, and flatter them in their naturall affections, but reiect and despise those Tell-troths who discouer their follies. Let Common Practise and her Complices censure me as they please, building vpon a good foundation I am prepar'd; For 'tis neither Vaine-glory, nor Ambition that I ayme at, but onely the Honour of our Art, to vindicate Her from these Solaecismes, and Barbarismes, wherewith she is now pestred. I loue and reuerence the vnderstanding Artist and naturall Affector, as life; but detest the selfe-conceited pertinacious Ayrist, and politick Fauourite as death; and both shall be knowne by their affecting, or censuring of me.
It is an easie matter (saith one) to finde fault; and an ordinary matter (say I) 'tis to commit a fault, and there is no reason but faults (especially great ones as these are) should be corrected.
(1) Franchinus obserued these errors in the Common Practise, and reiected them. [(1) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 8. in marg.]
[-f.PP2r-] (2) Glareanus likewise sought to reforme them.[(2) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 11. in marg.]
(3) Morley acknowledged them for errors; but was loath to break the Common Practise, or receiued Custome [(3) Morley Annotations on Tripla-proportion. in marg.]; yet if any would change, he would be the first that should follow.
The Ice is broken, and the Foot-path found; and I hope to finde many Morleyes aliue, though He (who did shine as the Sunne in the Firmament of our Art, and did first giue light to our vnderstanding with his Praecepts) be long since come to the Close and Period of his Time; But his posterity, as Starres, receiuing light and benefit from his Labours, will (I hope) according to his desire and wishes, entertaine and embrace such Opinions, as he himselfe acknowledg'd to be true.
In this little Treatise I haue not obseru'd onely the Writings of Authors (because I found them various and differing among themselues; Some obseru'd the custome of the Common Practise: Others not onely the Practise, but the Reason of each particular Praecept: A third, well vnderstanding neither Theory nor Practise, drew out certaine Rules from both the former, and according to their owne Imaginations deliuer'd absurd Opinions) but I haue search't the very Originall of our Art, and Etimologie of each proper Terme; how, and wherto each thing is appropriated; I haue compar'd the Practise with the Theory, Nature with our Art, and it with other Arts, and I finde it a Subordinate Mathematicke, extracted from the Quintessence of Arithmetick in the Rules and Praecepts.
So that then (Courteous Reader) if thou find'st Reason and Authority for my Assertions, neither misconstrue me, nor condemne me without better Reason, Proofe, and Authority, then heere I alleadge; And although diuers may produce Authors (and happily the selfe same which I alleadge) yet shal they finde that those Authors themselues acknowledge to haue receiu'd them from the Common Practise, and not from the Fundamentall Reasons of the Grounds and Rules of our Art; But till then, if thou accept and entertaine them, my desires and labours haue their accomplish'd and wish'd for, rewards.
If any obiect, that those former Harmonies by mee published in my Infancy are contrary to these my obiections; I answere, I did then as a Childe; I did follow Ensamples more then Reasons; and those Workes for the most part were not Compos'd by My selfe, but by diuers and sundry Authors, which I neuer the lesse compil'd together, in regard of the generall delight men tooke in them; [-f.PP2v-] And although very many of them were Defectiue in their Composition when they came to my hands: yet according to my knowledge then, I corrected them and commended them to the world, and had the Printer and Presse-Corrector discharg'd their office with care, they had appear'd without any defect in their Cliffes, Notes, and Ditties, though most part of their Measures in the Prolation and Diminutions (following the Common Practise) are falsely Character'd; the which, by this fourth and last worke of Ionick Harmonies, may be corrected.
The Forraine Artist saith, that an Englishman is an excellent Imitator, but a very bad Inuentor; and indeed it should so appeare; for we obseruing such Inuentions which they ensample to vs, as Madrigalls, Pastoralls, Neapolitanes, Ballads, and diuers other light Harmonies, doe bend our courses onely to surpasse the tuning of such Strings; Among whome if diuers excellent Composers haue exceeded their Ensamples, why should not we (seeing our Art is as copious and ample, our Clymate not exceeding moist, and our Artists (as they confesse) farre surpasse them in the accuratenes thereof, which is vpon the Plaine Song, and multiplicity of Parts, wherein they doe admire vs,) finde some Inuention to set them on worke? Surely, the fault is in our slothfull Natures, either not aiming at the foresaid Perfection, or not making Vse of those knowledges for Inuention, which they would direct vs vnto.
Wherefore let vs for the honour of our Art, of our Selues and Countrye, (especially those whome she maintaines) endeauour to bring Her vnto that Life, Reputation, Estimation and honour, which she formerly did sustaine; so shall wee acknowledge our selues her True-borne Children, and knowe Her selfe to be a vertuous Mother and Nurse, and the World will esteeme Her according to her Desire, and reward vs according to our Deserts, and all receiue Comfort and Contentment, according to that power, which she affoordeth.
[-f.PP3r-] In Approbation of this Worke.
IN former Age, among Musitians rare,
Regard was had of Measures then in vse
And Characters; ordain'd by speciall care,
Least after-Commers should the same abuse;
But for as much as those Composers Sage
Occasion had not to apply each thing
Vnto the diuers Humours which this Age
Hath studied out, and to the world doth bring:
I well approue this Authors Diligence,
Who by his Labour Characters hath found,
To shew what heretofore by negligence
Hath beene omitted, and for certaine ground
To make that plaine, that wanting was before
In Measures, Times, Prolations well obseru'd.
Wherein his Commendations is the more,
His Songs, and Skill high Praise hath well deseru'd.
Nathaniell Gyles Bachelar of Musicke, Maister of the Children of his Maiesties Chappels, of Household, and Windsor.
Of this Ensuing Discourse.
Markes that did limit Lands in former times
None durst remoue; so much the common good
Preuail'd with all men; 'twas the worst of crimes.
The like in Musicke may be vnderstood.
For That the treasure of the Soule is, next
To the rich Store-house of Diuinity:
Both comfort Soules that are with care perplext,
and set the Spirit Both from passions free.
[-f.PP3v-] The Markes that limit Musicke heere are taught,
So fixt of ould, which none by right can change,
Though Vse much alteration hath wrought,
To Musickes Fathers that would now seeme strange.
The best embrace, which herein you may finde,
And th'Author praise for his good Worke, and Minde.
Iohn Dowland Bachelar of Musicke, and Lutenist to the Kings Sacred Maiestie, in commendation of this Worke.
FIgurate Musicke doth in each Degree
Require it Notes, of seuerall Quantity;
By Perfect, or Imperfect Measure chang'd:
And that of More, or Lesse, whose Markes were rang'd
By Number, Circle, and Poynt: but various vse
Of vnskild Composers did induce
Confusion, which made muddy and obscure,
What first Inuention fram'd most cleere, and pure.
These, (worthy Ravenscroft) are restrain'd by Thee
To one fixt Forme: and that approu'd by Me.
In the most iust praise of Musicke, this praise-worthy Worke, and my deare, vertuous, and right expert friend, the most iudicious Author.
THe ten-fold Orbes of Heauen are said to moue
By Musicke; for, they make Harmonious din:
And all the Powres subordinate aboue
Spend Time, nay, spend Aeternity therein.
[-f.PP4r-] If Musicke then, moue all that All doth moue;
That's not compriz'd in ALL that spights her State:
If not ALL, it's nought; which who doth loue
ss worse then nought, to loue what Heau'n doth hate:
For, NOVGHT is nothing; sith it was not made
By that great WORD, without which made was nought:
Then, if that nought but NOVGHT doe here inuade,
Like God, her goodnesse is surmounting THOVGHT!
But no man is so ill that hath no good;
So, no man in the Abstract can be nought:
Then 'tis no man that hates sweete Musickes moode,
But Some-thing worse then all that can be thought.
A Beast? O no: A Monster? neither. Then
Is it a Deuill? Nothing lesse: for, these
Haue Beings with an Angell, or a Man;
But that exists not, that sweete Notes displease.
FORMES, Essence giue to Man, Beast, Fish, and Fowle;
Then Men WERE not, had they no Soule (their Forme)
But Musickes haters haue no Forme, nor Soule:
So, they (like Sinne) exist but to enorme,
For, had they Soules produc'd in Harmony,
Or rather Are it selfe (some Wise auouch)
They would be rauisht with her Suauity,
And turn'd Coelestiall with her Heauenly Touch!
But, let them goe as more than mortall Sinne
'Gainst Wisedomes Spirit, not to be forgiuen:
While thou dost wooe the Soules, which thou dost winne
With thy sweet Notes (deere Friend) to mind but Heau'n.
Thy Nature, Manners, and thy Notes doe make
A Three-fold-Cord, to drawe all hearts it gaines:
Thy Musickes Cordes hold Eares and Eyes awake
(Yet lullaby in pleasure) with their Straines.
So, then this latter Musicke (though alone)
'Twixt Fame and Thee doth make an Vnison,
Through which consent, though Deaths clouds thee o'rerun
Thy glory still shall shine, and cloud the Sun.
Iohn Dauies. Hereford
[-f.PP4v-] In Approbation of this ensuing Discourse, and the Author therof my deare friend, Maister Thomas Ravenscroft.
ARts are much alt'red from their Pristine State,
Humors and Fancies so praedominate.
Ould Artists though they were Plaine, yet were Sure,
Their Praecepts and their Principles were Pure:
But now a dayes We scarce retaine the Grounds,
W'are so Extrauagant beyond our Bounds.
Among the Rest, Musicke (that noble Art)
In this sad Elegie must beare a Part;
Whose Purity was such in times of yore,
(When Theory the Practise went before)
That then She was had in as great Esteeme
As now of Her the Vulgar basely Deeme.
Errors in Figures, Characters, and Note
Doe Now cause many Teach, and Learne by rote.
This my deare Friend doth seeke heere to amend;
Wherein he trauail'd farre, great paines did spend
To right his Mother; he seekes to reduce
Her to her auntient Grounds, and former Vse,
To beate downe Common Practise, that doth range
Among the Commons, and her Praecepts change.
Heere shall you finde of Measures diuers sorts,
For Church, for Madrigalls, for sundry Sports;
Heere shall you finde true Iudgement, store of reading,
All for the Ould true Rules of Musicke pleading.
Numbers of 3. among the Meane respected
Are hence exil'd, and (worthily) reiected,
As being crept in by Custome, and Vse
Among the Vulgars, which the Wise refuse.
Much might be said more of this little Booke:
But let the Reader iudge that on't shall looke.
[-f.PPP1r-] This of the Author onely I will say,
That in One poynt to no man he giues way;
Composing of a Song vnto some Ditty
He is so Iudicious and so Witty,
That waighing first the Nature of each Word
He findes fit Notes, that thereunto accord,
Making both Sound and Sence well to agree;
Witnesse his sundry Songs of Harmonie.
What shall I say more? this Worke I approoue,
And for his Skill, and Paines the Author loue.
Bachelar of Musicke.
To him that reades.
COncord and Discord still have beene at ods
Since the first howre the Heathens made them Gods.
In euery Profession, Trade, or Art
They draw their swords, and each Wit takes a part.
There's neither Starre that moues, nor Hearbe that growes,
But they Dispute vpon't with Words, or Blowes.
'Mongst which Musitians, hanging vp their Harpes
Doe growe to fall Flat out, for Flats and Sharpes,
And by their Discord make that Art vneuen,
Whose Concord should expresse that Peace in Heauen:
But heere is One, whose Doue-like Pen of Peace
Striues to out-flie such Strife, and make it cease;
And Discord brings with Concord to agree,
That from their Strife he raises Harmonie.
He that for Loue doth This, and not for Gaine,
Must needes haue Praise, the proper due for Paine.
[-f.PPP1v-] To my deare Friend Maister Thomas Ravenscroft, vpon this Worke.
I Prophesie (deare Friend) that thou which giu'st
The Dead deserued Bayes, shalt while thou liu'st
Neuer want Garlands of that Sacred Tree
To Crowne thee in AEternall memorie:
Thou that hast made the dying Coales to Glowe
Of ould Edward Piers his name; which now shall growe
('Gainst all that enuious or malicious bee)
In high Opinion 'mongst Posteritie;
Nor shall they touch Worth without Reuerence,
In whome once dwelt such perfect Excellence
In Heaun'ly Musicke; I may call it so,
If ould Pythagoras said truely, who
Affirm'd that the Sphaeres Caelestiall
Are in the Motion truly Musicall:
And Man, in whome is found a humane Minde,
(Then Whome, (Angells except) who e're could finde
A Nobler Creature) some affirme consisteth
Onely of Harmony, wherein existeth
The Soule of Musicke; and yet (but for Thee)
This Man had dy'd to all mens memorie;
Whose Name (now cleans'd from rust) this Worke of thine
(While there are Times or Men) I doe deuine
Shall keepe Aliue; nor shall thy owne Name die,
But by this Worke liue to AEternitie:
And from it men hereafter shall pull out
Scourges, to lash the base Mechanicke Rout
Of Mercenary Minstrels, who haue made
(To their owne scorne) this Noble Art, a Trade.
[-f.PPP2r-] In Laudem huius opusculi.
NI bona (prisca licet) non consuetudo ferenda;
Dirue, quod rectum ius negat esse suum.
Sit speciosa licet tua, si sit adultera forma,
Vera magis grata est, altera fucus erit.
Iste Notas pariterque Nothas dat (perlege Lector)
Queis misere est rudibus Musica laesa Liber,
Est dignus quem saepe legas facilisque paratu est:
Multus in Authorem sit tuus ergo fauor.
De ingenuo Iuvene Thomas Ravenscroft (annos 22. nato) Musicae Studiosissimo, huius Libelluli Authore.
Rara auis Arte Senex Iuvenis; Sed rarior est, si
Aetate est juvenis, Moribus ille Senex.
Rara auis est Author; (poene est pars (1) Nominis vna) [(1) Rauenscroft. in marg.]
Namque annis juvenis, Moribus, Arte Senex.
(2) Non vidit tria Lustra Puer, quin Arte probatus,
[(2) Ad annos 14. Creatus est Baccalaureus facultatis Musicae in Academia Cantabrigiensis]
Vita laudatus, Sumpsit in Arte Gradum.
Quale fuit studium, Liber hic testabitur; in quo
Vim, Vitam Numeris reddidit ille Nouam.
Quam bene castigat, male quos induxerat Vsus
Errores, Priscas hic renouando Notas?
Arte Senex, Virtute Senex, aetate Adolescens
I bone Rara auis es; Scribe bonis avibus.
R. LL. Theo-muso-philus.
[-f.A1r-] THE PREFACE.
MVsicke in ancient times, was held in as great Estimation, Reuerence, and Honour, by the Best vnderstandings and Noblest Bloods, as any Science Liberall whatsoeuer. The Graue Philosophers reputed it an Inuention of the Gods, which they had bestowed on Men, to make them better conditioned, then bare Nature affoorded: And the Wise Grecians therefore educated their children in it, that by meanes of it, they might temper their mindes, and fully settle therein, the Vertues of Modestie and Honesty: and, (in a word) all of worth euer held it, a very Direct and Necessary course, for the best Institution of Life, and Correction of ill manners.
The Causes then of that Disrepute, and ouer lowe Estimation, which Musicke in these dayes, (for the most part) sustaines, and whether they proceed from Corruptions of Nature, or Art, or both, as long since I began to meruaile at, so had I now vttered some obseruations thereabout, had not counsaile, and discretion perswaded me a while for a further exact suruay.
I had then (amidst other things) vnfolded on the one side, both the Naturall, and also the Politick Affector and [-f.A1v-] Entertayner of our Art, and on the other side, the strange imbecillity of our Professors, a great part of them Profest Generall Maisters, able (they will vndertake) fully to teach both precepts and Practise of our Art, in one poore yeare, (or lesse if you will:) and yet (spoken it shall be without offence) the most of them, not well vnderstanding the very Nature of a Sound, or the Difference of Properties, the Distinction of Tones, the Diuision of Numbers and Measures, the inaequalitie of Proportions, nay, scarse Defining the nature of that Instrument, Maisters whereof they professe themselues to be.
I had likewise poynted at some other abuses, committed and suffered by Musicks Professors, as well in Ecclesiasticke as Common Seruice, whereby the one, findes his Due Right empayred; and the other, his Estimation; and both, their Abilities.
As for those common kinde Practitioners, (truly ycleped Minstrells, though our City makes Musitians of them) who making account forsooth to doe the Art Honour, now in these daies of the ill opinion, and small credit it beares, haue (fairely) brought it downe from a cheife Liberall Science, to the basest almost of Mechanick Functions: I make no question, but in good time it may returne vpon their owne necks, and their Desert be rewarded, as Statute in that case hath already (most worthily) prouided.
Besides, I suppose I should hardly haue omitted the Beleefe (whereof I finde some Aery or Instrumentall Composers and Practitioners to be) concerning certain Vices, which their Ignorance is perswaded, our Art receiues helpe by, how disagreeing soeuer, both to Nature and Reason, which is the soule of all Arts.
And then for amends of all, I should at last, haue affoorded somewhat in the generall precepts, both of Plaine, and Measurable Musick, in the many Diuersities, which the Nature of Compositions giue vs, from the very originall of them, to [-f.A2r-] that excellencie, wherein the Art is now to be found, and in divers other particulars tending to the same effect.
But now in the meane time, let the Affector shew his Disposition, and the Professor his Art, to both whome I promise, that when e're I proceed in it, I will be free and impartiall, as Rule and Reason onely giues me, laying my Obseruations, and so desiring (if it may be) the restitution of our Science, to Due, and ancient Honour.
And till then (if at all they loue the Art) they shall well accept of my good will, and (with me) take in good worth, these various Sprightfull, Delightfull Harmonies, which now I bring them. Their Composure I dare warrant, 'tis not onely of Ayre, made for some small tickling of the outward Sence alone, but a great deale more solide, and sweetly vnited to Number, Measures, and Nature of the Ditty. The earnest affections which a man hath, in the vse of such Recreations as they are made for, are so fully exprest in them, for Tact, Prolation, and Diminution, that not onely the Ignorant Eare must needs be pleased with them, for their Variety of Sweet Straynes and the Humorous Fantastick eare satisfied, in the Iocundity of their many Changes, but also the Iudicious hearer will finde that in them, which passes the Outward sence, and strikes a rare delight of Passion vpon the Mind it selfe, that attends them.
I will take so much Iudgement vpon me, as to affirme, I finde a great part of them so, though (without any tryall) the very Naming of those two Worthies in their Art, and Times, (and especially in these kinds) who first Composed that part I now speake of, is warrant inough for such a Beleefe of them. Maister Edward Pearce the first, sometimes Maister of the Children of Saint Paules in London, and there my Maister, a man of singular eminency in his Profession, both in the Educating of Children for the ordering of the Voyce so, as the Quality might afterward credit him and preferre [-f.A2v-] them: And also in those his Compositions to the Lute, whereof, the world enioyes many, (as from the Maister of that Instrument) together with his skilfull Instructions for other Instruments too, as his fruits can beare him witnesse.
The second I name, as partner in this worke, is Maister Iohn Bennet, a Gentleman admirable for all kindes of Composures, either in Art, or Ayre, Simple or Mixt, of what Nature soeuer. I can easily beleeue he had somwhat more then Art, euen some Naturall instinct or Better Inspiration, by which, in all his workes, the very life of that Passion, which the Ditty sounded, is so truely exprest, as if he had measured it alone by his owne Soule, and inuented no other Harmony, then his owne sensible feeling in that Affection did affoord him.
As for this little worke, and the Diuersities therein, they appertayne all, to the common Recreations that men take, and therein vtter that Passion which men discouer in the vse of those Recreations: As are
1 Hunting 2 Hawking 3 Dauncing 4 Drinking 5 Enamoring:
All which are here as liuely Characteriz'd, as euer were any of the kind yet among vs, withall Measure, and Rule to Art appertayning.
HHunting and Hawking haue the first place, as the most generous and worthy kindes of Recreations. In the performance of both which, such are the Times, Numbers, and Measures, obseruable, not in Man alone that vses the Pastime, but euen in the Creatures also, that either make the Game, or pursue it, [-f.A3r-] as being duely Composed, beget an excellent Harmony, and require the Singers skill to vtter them, as if he were then abroad at the performing of them.
The next we present is Dauncing, but that with some difference from the common Exercise now a daies of it, in our Maskes and Reuells: As not grounded on the Dauncing of Measures, and accordingly bound to some particular Rules and Numbers, proper to the Nature of that Daunce onely, which then is afoot: But fashioned like those Antique Daunces, which the Poets would haue vs beleeue, the Fayries, and the Satyres, and those other Rurall Natures frequented, and hauing in them, much more variety and change then any other Composition, and withall so expressing our imperfect Moods and Measures, for their Tact, Prolation, and Diminution, that in singing, cunningly and Sprightfully to resemble them, must needs giue the performance high commendation, and the Hearer the most pleasing delight that may be.
Drinking is our fourth Recreation. For so 'tis become (at least, if not the first) by the vse and Delight that men now take in it, and so, for their sakes, I am content now to terme it. And among all the rest, for theirs Especially, that in the Aery part of our Faculty, for want of Skill and Reason in that which they performe, set their Strength and Spirits to search it out of the other Elements, chiefely out of those two, that the Ayre is enuironed with, Fire and Water, well compos'd and Brew'd together, wherein they are resolued to grow exceeding skilfull, or else it shal cost their Braines a fiering, and their Bowells a drowning. The Earth indeed they looke least after, t'is base that they account, and for Mechanick Spirits to runne so lowe, The Note they sing [-f.A3v-] is of a higher Strayne, their Recreation lies in a brauer Element, wherein they houer, so vnlike Men, so long, so desperatly, that at last, in their miserable ends, they scarce get the Earth honestly to couer them.
'Tis not then either for Direction or Incouragement herein, that I would be thought to bring this part; they that take me so, much mistake me, who can better hope, that the perfect presentation of this illaudable demeanour, will turne this Sport into so much Earnest, as shall teach the Innocent Auditor to loath them, if perhaps not reclayme the guilty.
OVr last Recreation heere, is, that they terme Enamoring, a Passion as (more or lesse) possessing and affecting all, so truely exprest by none, but Musick, that is, Song, or Poetry: the former whereof, giues herein both a relish, and a beauty to the latter, inasmuch as Passionate Tunes make Amorous Poems both willinglier heard, and better remembred. I haue heard it said, that Loue teaches a man Musick, who ne're before knew what pertayned thereto: And the Philosophers three Principall Causes of Musick, 1. Dolour, 2. Ioy, 3. Enthusiasme or rauishing of the Spirit, are all found by him within Loues Territories. Besides, we see the Soueraignty of Musicke in this Affection, by the Cure and Remedy it affoords the Dispassionate, and Infortunate Sonnes of Loue, thereby to asswage the turmoyles, and quiet the tempests that were raised in them.
ANd here now, 'twere high time for me to make an end of Prefacing, did I not foresee, that the different Character which herein I giue the Time of these Compositions, may perhaps seeme strange to the Performer, because, how'ere the Tact, according to the seuerall Motions, is vulgarly knowne, yet is it altogether vn-art-like Charactered, [-f.A4r-] and accordingly the Practise of them, (amongst vs especially) not aright exprest. To approue them therefore to the Muses, and to warrant them, for the true Forme of Charactering the Time, both in imperfect and perfect Measures: As also to preuent the Ignorant, that they venture not, (without better Reason of the Art, then I shall giue them) praeiudiciously to draw the common Practise for an Argument against me, I will now, in as few words as well I may, praemise some particular Notions and Rules in the Measurable part of Musick, to which alone (and not to the other, the Playne and Simple Part:) the Resolution of these doubts may in this case be thought necessary.
[-1-] The Definitions and Diuisions of Moode Time, and Prolation in Measurable Musick.
MEnsurabilis Musice is defined to be a Harmony of diuers sortes of Sounds, exprest by certaine Characters or Figures called Notes, describd on Lines and Spaces, different in Name, Essence, Forme, Quantity, and Quality, which are sung by a Measure of Time; or as (1) Iohn Dunstable [(1) Iohn Dunstable Mensurabilis Musica cap I. in marg.], (2) the man whom Ioannes Nucius in his Poeticall Musicke (and diuers others) affirme to be the first that inuented Composition) saith [(2) Iohannes Nucius musica Poatica capitulum I. in marg.], it hath his beginning at an Vnite, and increaseth vpward by two and by three infinitely, and from the highest decreaseth in like manner downe againe to an Vnite.
Measure in this Science is a Quantity of the length and shortnes of Time, either by Naturall sounds pronounced by Voice, or by Artificiall, vpon Instruments.
Of this Musick, Franchinus de Colonia was the first Inuentor; and to guide our knowledge the better, obseruing the same course that Guido Aretinus did, (who instituted the form of Plaine, or Simple Musick) He made Scales or Tables, in the which all things pertaining to the diuision of Perfect and Imperfect Measures are contained, and by the which we may by degree attaine to the perfection of this Knowledge.
The Scales or Tables (by him instituted) of diuers are vulgarly termed Moodes, by some of better vnderstanding, Measures; and consist of Notes, Pauses, Degrees, Signes, Perfection, and Imperfection.
[-2-] Of the Inward Signes.
A Note is a Signe, or Character repraesenting either a Naturall, or Artificiall Sound: and it is two fold:
Simple Notes (Like Nowne Substantiues) require none other to be ioyned with them, to shew their signes, or significations; of which there are 8. (1) [Glareanus, Dodecachordi, liber 3. capitulum 4. in marg.] the first fiue are cal'd Essentiall the last 3. Collaterall. 1. Large, 2. Long. 3. Breue 4. Semibreue. 5. Minime. 6. Crotchet. 7. Quauer. 8. Semiquauer.
Compound Notes (Like Nowne Adiectiues) cannot stand by themselues, but require another to be ioyned with them to shew their signes and significations and arise from the 4. first simple Notes. Larg, Long, Breue, and Semibreue; which being fitly conioyn'd one with another, we terme Ligatures; of which, those that are with (2) plikes or strokes in Quadrate formes are called Rectes [(2) Iohn Dunstable Musica capitulum 12. in marg.], [Lig2dv] those that are by crooked ones (3) Obliques, [Lig2cssndv] either ascending or descending [(3) Iohn Dunstable Musica capitulum 12. in marg.]; in the Charactering of which, that at the beginning, that in the Middle, and that at the latter end must specially be obserued.
For ensamples, I refer all to those forraine Authors, that haue at large discourst of the particular praecepts of this part of Musicke: but domestically to (4) Master Thomas Morley who will satisfye any curious obseruer. [(4) Thomas Morley liber 1. folia 9. 10. 11. in marg.]
These Ligatures were inuented for two respects: 1. for the Ditties sake 2. (without Ditty) for breuity of Pricking. But in regard the Notes now in vse are not of so long a quantity, as when the Perfect Moodes were vsed, the most part of the Notes Ligatur'd, and Ligatures themselues are layd aside, except the Breue and Semibreue, which yet are retayned for the causes afore mentioned.
[-3-] The 4 last simple notes, Minime, Crotchet, Quauer and Semiquauer are therfore not Ligable, because they are not Measured; for the (1) Minime is the first Note that Measureth (being in it selfe indiuisible) and the Semibreue the first note Measured [(1) Iohn Dunstable Mensurabilis Musica capitulum 16. in marg.]; and therefore the first Note ligable; And for the other 3. Crotchet, Quauer, and Semiquauer, they are neither augmented nor diminished, but keepe one continuall quantitie.
The first 4. simple Notes (2) Franchinus Inuented [(2) Ibidem capitulum 3. in marg.]; and although part of their formes were not in the originall as now they are charactered, yet their Measures were all one: hee was also the first that deuided the Largs into 3. Longs, and the Long into 3. Breues, and the Breue into 3. Semibreues, (further then which in those dayes the Measure tended not) and all of them into 2. likewise; whereby he was the first that Inuented Perfection, and Imperfection.
The Minime (3) Philippo Vitriaco (the Flowre of Musitians of all the world in his time) inuented [(3) Ibidem cap 6. in marg.], obseruing the same forme that Franchinus did, deuiding the Semibreue into 3. Minimes, and into 2. at the least, and term'd it Prolation; but as for the Minime, not counting otherwise of it then as of an Vnite, or a Poynt in Geometry, he reckoned it no Time, but the beginning of Time, and the very beginning of Measurable Musicke; and so in these dayes further then the Minime the Measure tends not, it being the first and shortest Note that any Measure can begin on; as contrarywise the Large is the last and longest Note, that the voyce of man with one Breath can deliuer.
And as for our Crotchets, Quauers, and Semiquauers, I yet finde not the Inuention of them; and therefore I suppose no great heede was taken of the Inuentor, yet they were accepted vpon sufferance; yet so, as that we now differ from the auntient in the naming of them, (4) for that which we terme our Quauer, they term'd a Crotchet [(4) Ibidem. capitulum 6. in marg.], and that which [-4-] we terme a Crotchet, they term'd a Semi-Minime, the halfe of our Minime, as the Semibreue is the halfe of the Breue. And these Simple and Compound Notes are they, which wee commonly call the Inward signes of Measurable Musicke.
Of Pauses, or Rests.
PAuses, or Rests are silent Characters, or an Artificiall omission of the voyce, repraesenting the quantity of the Inward notes, or Signes, as they are Measured by the outward Signes, which were Inuented for 3. causes. 1. For Closes, 2. for Fuges, 3. for avoyding of Discords, and disallowances.
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 4; text: Examples of Inward signes and rests. Large, Longe, Breue, Semi-breue, Minime, Crotchet, Quauer, Semi-quauer.] [RAVBD 01GF]
DEgrees were inuented to expresse the value of the aforesaid principall Notes, by a Perfect and Imperfect Measure. Perfect Measure is when all goe by 3.
Imperfect Measure when all go by 2. And Degrees are three-fold:
[-5-] (1) As all other things haue a Moode (saith Glarean) so hath Musicke [(1) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 5. in marg.]; and Modus signifieth a manner of something to be repraesented; and heere are all Notes of a Square Quadrat forme, and thereby are appropriated as Largs and Longs, measured by the least of this forme, the Breues.
Tempus signifieth a Time, (2) which is ordained by order [(2) Plutarch. in marg.], hauing a iust Measure, set Limits and Bonds: and here is a figure or Note of a (3) Rhombus or Circular forme [(3) Glareanus liber 3. capitulum 1. Sebald Heyden liber 3. capitulum 1. in marg.], which we terme the Semi-breue; but the reason why the Time is appropriated to the Breue is in regard of the Perfect Measure of the Breue by this Circular Note, though in the forme it is applyed to the Semi-breue.
Prolation signifieth an extending or putting foorth; and it is of the Degrees from the first measuring Note to the last measured, through the Perfect and Imperfect figures; vnto which terme Prolation is applyed, a Note of a Circular body, but with a Stroke, as a head ioyned to that Body, which is term'd the Minime; (which (4) Minime measuring the Semi-breue) thereby comes it [(4) Seybald Heyden liber 2. capitulum 2. Gla. liber 3. capitulum 5. in marg.], that the Tearme Prolation is appropriated to the Semi-breue, as being the first Note measured by the Prolationate, or extending Note.
And all three of these Degrees, are 2. fold, (5) Maior and Minor [(5) Iohn Dunstable Mensurabilis Musica. capitulum 16. in marg.]:
The Greater Moode perfect is, when a Large containes 3. Longs.
The Lesse Moode perfect is, when a Long containes 3. Breues.
The Greater Moode Imperfect is, when a Larg containes 2. Longs.
The Lesse Moode Imperfect is, when a Long containes 2. Breues.
Time perfect is, when a Breue containes 3. Semi-breues.
Time Imperfect is, when a Breue containes 2. Semi-breues.
Prolation perfect is, when a Semi-breue containes 3. Minimes.
Prolation Imperfect is, when a Semi-breue containes 2. Minimes
[-6-] Of Outward Signes.
TO these Degrees there were added certaine Outward Signes, the better to distinguish the Perfection and Imperfection of Moode, Time, and Prolation.
To the (1) Moode expressing the perfection of it is attributed a Ternary number thus: 3. [(1) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 6. in marg.]
To the (2) Imperfection the Binary exprest thus 2. [(2) Sebaldus Heydon. liber 2. capitulum 1. Ornithoparchus liber 2. capitula 4. 5. in marg.] (3) or the Ternary omitted. [(3) Morley. liber 1. folio. 4. in marg.]
But in the first Age of the Inuention of this Art, it was exprest by Rests or Pauses of their Notes, and in regard of the little vse of the Moodes, and the Practicall occasion of such Rests for Closes, and comming in of Fuges, they were layd aside, and these Numbers aforesaid accepted.
The Perfection of Time (4) (as growing out of Circular motion) is exprest by a Round Circle, thus [O]. [(4) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 6. in marg.]
The Imperfection of it by a Semicircle thus [C] (5) [(5) Ibidem. liber 3. capitulum 8. in marg.] As for those that would haue the Number signifie the Time, and the Circle the Moode, Franchinus, Glareanus, and diuers auncient Theoriks Iustly reprehend them.
To Prolation, for the expressing of the perfection therof is atributed a Poynt or prick, signifying the indiuisibility of the Measure which is placed in the midst of the Circle thus [Od] or the Semicircle thus [Cd] as by it presence it causeth Perfection; so by the absence thereof it causeth Imperfection; But those slender Artists, which would haue the Ternary number signifie the Perfect Prolation, and the Binary the Imperfect, (and so onely appropriated) the aforesaid Authors condemne, as most ignorant of these Measures.
Furthermore these aforesaid Degrees are deuided into 4. Tables, by some term'd Moodes, by others 4. Prolations, (but wrong by both, for of Moodes and Prolations there are but 2. the Great and the Lesse) but by the best vnderstandings, [-7-] 4. manner of Figures are approued to distinguish the Perfection and Imperfection of these Degrees, by which all Song in this kinde is measured.
Example of the 4. Figures.
1 Perfect of the more [Prolation]
2 Perfect of the Lesse [Prolation]
3 Imperfect of the more [Prolation]
4. Imperfect of the Lesse. Prolation.
1 PErfect of the more Prolation in his proper forme, is, when there is Perfect Moode, Perfect Time, and Perfect Prolation, and is thus Charactered.
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 7; text: Example. Large, Longs, Breues, Semibreues, Minimes, Crotchets, Quauers, Semiquauers, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 18, 24, 27, 36, 54, 72, 81, 108, 162, 216, 324, 648] [RAVBD 01GF]
This Table, and the rest following expresse all perfection, and imperfection, and the quantity of the Diuisible and Indiuisible Notes, how many goeth to a Large.
[-8-] Before the former example, this Character of the Perfect of the More Prolation should be plac'd thus. [Od over 3/1].
Perfect of the lesse Prolation or the lesse extenuation in the lesse Perfect Moode in his proper forme (according to those, whose ensamples ought to be the same with their reasons) in my opinion should be thus Charactered [O over 32] but with diuers it is thus [O], thus [O over 2], and thus [O over 3]; according to which differences, wee finde great Maisters in their workes (especially in their ensamples) much ranging, although the most of them confesse this (1) Perfect of the lesse Prolation to be the lesse Moode Perfect [(1) Sebaldus Heyden liber 2. capitulum 1. Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 5. Iohn Dunstable capitulum 10. Ornithoparchus liber 2. capitulum 4. Morley liber 1. folio 13. in marg.]: Time perfect, and the great Moode, (which is 3. Longs to the Large) and perfect Prolation (which is 3. Minimes to the Semi-breue) to bee Imperfect, and that Perfection is by 3. and Imperfection by 2. Why? either the omitting of the Numbers, and the Binary Number signifying Imperfection, or the single Ternary, although in the Perfect of the more Prolation, the single Ternary noteth the Perfection of both moodes, (2) and wheresoeuer the Greater is there is the Lesse, but not contrarily [(2) Ornithoparchus liber 2. capitulum 5. in marg.]; by which reason it makes good the aforesaid Charactering, and allowes vs for the signifying of the greater Moode Imperfect the Binary Number, for the Lesse Moode perfect the Ternary, for the Time perfect the Round Circle, and for Prolation Imperfect, the absence of the Point or pricke; Example. [O over 2.3.]
[-9-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 9; text: Example of the Perfect of the Lesse Prolation in the Measure and diuision of the Notes. Large. Long, Breues, Semibreues, Minimes, Crotchets, Quauers, Semiquauers, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 6, 18, 24, 36, 46, 48, 72, 144, 288] [RAVBD 02GF]
THese 2. Perfect Moodes in these dayes are of little or no vse, and therefore I haue little to say to them concerning their Diminutions; only I finde that the Auncients exprest them by Stroks drawn through their Circles: In the Perfect of the More for the great Diminution thus, (1) [Oddim] [(1) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 11. in marg.] for the Lesse thus (2) [Odrvrh] [(2) Sebaldus Heydon liber 2. capitulum 6. Lossio Senior. liber 2. capitulum 6. Morley liber 1. folio 25. in marg.] In the Perfect of the Lesse for the great thus (3) [Odim] [(3) Ibidem. in marg.] for the Lesse (4) [Orvrh] [(4) Ibidem. in marg.] but these for the most part are out of vse, only we find in diuers Church and Madrigall Compositions, the Perfect of the Lesse in his great Diminution expressing Sesqui-altera Proportion thus Charactered (5) [Od 3/2] [(5) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 11. in marg.] and by diuers examples for Triple proportion thus (6) [O 3/1] [(6) Seybaldus Heyden liber 2. capitulum 6. in marg.]. but because these 2. Imperfect Moodes following are now only in vse, I will somewhat speake of the absurdities committed in the Charactering of their Measures, especially for the Prolations and Diminutions; whereby wee may discouer what things are necessarie and Art-Like, and reiect those Vn-Art-Like Formes which by Ignorance are crept in.
IMperfect of the More Prolation (which is the extenuation of the perfect prolation through the Imperfect Moodes and [-10-] Time) in the proper forme of it is, when wee haue Imperfect Moodes, Imperfect Time, and Perfect prolation, all Notes Measured by 2. (save the Semi-breue which is by 3. and by all approued Theorickes thus Character'd. [Cd]
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 10; text: Example of the Imperfect of the More Prolation. Larg, Longs, Breues, Semibreues, Minimes, Crotchets, Quauers, Semiquauers, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192] [RAVBD 02GF]
BVt now Practise hath so infected this Measure, especially in the Prolation and Diminution of it, that when a Perfect Artist comes to sing a song of such Practicall Charactering, (supposing it to bee Character'd according to the iust Perfection and Imperfection of the Degrees) hee shall bee (almost) as far to seeke for the Measure intended, as were they that Compos'd it to seeke for the true Charactering of that Measure, they would haue exprest. For that I may giue instance herein, I finde it by them thus exampl'd [Cd3] or thus [Cd over 3], the which indeed I must confesse is the Imperfect Time, and the More Prolation; But then I demaund to what end tends that Ternary Number? Hereto they will answere (especially those who in conceyt are Masters, that it is to signifie a Triple Proportion, by which the Song before which it is set, [-11-] must be sung; and that is (say they) 3. to one. True; but then aske them what three to one? and they will tell you, 3. Minimes to one Semi-breue; O most Vnproportionate Customable Compositors, whose Art serues them not so much as to distinguish Prolation from Proportion! For Prolation is, when 3. Minimes goe to one Semi-breue, and Triple Proportion is, when 3. Semi-breues to one Semi-breue, as being a Proportion of the Greater Inaequality, and (as wee terme it) Multiplicis generis, that is when a Greater Number is compar'd with a Lesser, and containeth the Lesser many Times as 3/1 6/2 9/3 et cetera. It is euident then, that this single Ternary Number cannot stand for a Triple Proportion, seeing it wants a Lesser Number to bee compar'd with all; and beside that, were there a Number adioyn'd, yet the signe of the Imperfect Time, the Perfect Prolation, (1) [(1) Ornithoparchus liber 2. capitulum 8. in marg.] (and Number cannot work vpon Prolation so long as the Circle retaines the Poynt,) the Charactering of the Note in white, the breaking of the Measur'd Notes, and the Measure of a Lesser Quantity and Quality to the Tact, would all resolue vs, 'tis no Triple Proportion.
Others then being beaten from that opinion, and yet not doubting but to hit the marke, make answer; Some, that the Number is there set to signifie, that 3. Minimes went to a Semi-Breue, in their idle conceites neuer remembring that the Poynt in the Semi-Circle signifies that sufficiently: Some, that it is to signifie the Moode, not regarding that the Measure it selfe confutes them, in as much as this Ternary Number signifieth Perfection, and the Moodes in this Measure are Imperfect. And lastly, Some (rather then faile) will haue it signifie Time, quite forgetting (as good Authors obserue) that 'tis the Circle which signifies it, which being broken in this Measure, makes it therefore Imperfect.
May I not then wel conclude, that seeing this Number signifieth neither Proportion, nor Prolation, nor Imperfect moods, [-12-] nor Time, 'tis but an Intruder, and by right must be wholy left out in the Measure of the Perfect Prolation? which being graunted, I will say no more of it, as making account that it is a thing generally knowne.
The vse of this Perfect Prolation is, in Seruice Divine for Iubilees and Thankesgiuings, and otherwise for Galliards in Reuellings.
But in this Measure, I obserue another great error committed by them, which expresse the Sesqui-altera-Proportion with 3. White Semi-breues, belike not vnderstanding, that herein a White Semi-breue contaynes 3. Minimes, if it be not Imperfected by a Lesse Note going before, or following; Yet will they (forsooth) haue 3. of these White Semi-breues goe to the Tyme of 2. Tacts or Strokes; whereas, in all nature of Proportions, it (contrariwise) ought to bee exprest with 3. Semi-breues Denigrated, and so signifying Diminution; which then containe the quantity that they ayme at, of two Strokes in this Perfect Prolation,
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 12; text: Example. Error, Truth] [RAVBD 03GF]
VNto this perfect Prolation, there pertaines a 2. folde Diminution, the Greater and the Lesser; signified by Internall, and Externall Signes.
(1) Internall by the Denigrating or blacking of the Inward or simple White Notes without the Externall Signe [(1) Iohnnes Magirus de Arte Musicae. in marg.], Diminishe the Tact, as much as the Externall Signe it selfe of the Great Diminution: Examples of which wee [-13-] finde Diuers, in Church songs, Madrigalls, and such like as thus:
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 13, 1] [RAVBD 03GF]
And diuers others there are both in the Perfect and Imperfect Measures, all pertayning to the Great Diminution.
The Externall Signes are those which are set, at the beginning of Songs, and are the Characters of the Degrees, for the Diminishing of the White and Blacke Notes, by Dash and Retort, in the Great and Lesse Motion of the Tact.
The Great Diminution and the Externall Signe to signifie it in White, is by a retort of the Semi-Circle with the Character of Prolation thus
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 13, 2; text: Example. Perfect Prolation, Great Diminution.] [RAVBD 03GF]
Otherwise ioyning the Externall and the Internall Signes together, 'tis thus signified,
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 13, 3] [RAVBD 03GF]
[-14-] Whereas the common practise (in Composition for Church Songs, Madrigalls, Pastoralls, Ballads, et cetera) charactereth this Diminution with denigrated Notes, and the Outward signe by the Ternary Number thus:
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 14] [RAVBD 04GF]
THey seeme to drawe their Reasons (as some Masters haue affirm'd) from the 3. swift feete in Poetry, Trochaeus, Iambus and Tribrachius, in regard of the Notes that are Diminished.
But then why it should bee apply'd more to this Diminution then to the Perfect Prolation I see no Reason at all; by cause how e're the Tact of this Diminution be of a swifter Motion, yet the Measures are all one in the diuiding of the Semi-breue, according to those feete. As 1. Trochaeus, which is one long and the other short, a Semi-breue and a Minime. 2. for Iambus, which by way of Retort to the former is one short and the other long, a Minime and a Semi-breue. 3. for Tribrachius, which is three short, the Semi-breue diuided into 3. Minimes; which diuision (say they) pertaines only to the Diminution and not to the Perfect Prolation; How beit many meane Practitioners are able to contrary that, and they who aright vnderstand Poetry, and Musicke shall be Iudges, who knowe the Measure to bee all one, and the differences of the Motion to bee according to each Rule, or according to the discretion of them that Sing, or Reade them.
But the matter here we chiefly stand vpon is, that the Ternary Number ought vtterly to be reiected, as hauing no manner of interest either in the Perfect Prolation, or the Diminutions therof: The Perfect Prolation we spake of before; and now for the Diminution thus I say, that if by their Trochaick reason they will bring this Ternary Number in, to signifie [-15-] this Diminution, they may as well, yea they must necessarily, to euery diuision of the Semi-breue, which may bee as diuers, as is the Composers Inuention) set a seuerall Character to signifie it, and their applications of it to the feete, by which it is Measured: But what a confusion would that be to the Performer, (besides the euidence of their ridiculous ignorance) to charge each Diuision with a particular Character, when only the Externall and Internall Signes set at the beginning of Harmonyes are thereto sufficient? And if it bee vnnecessary to Charactere all, I see as little reason that they should Charactere any one: Or if yet they needs will, that one be Charactered, then let them show me, why the Measure of these other feete, which belong to the Diuision of the Imperfect Prolation and the Diminutions therof, (as Spondaeus, Pyrrychius, Anapaestus, Bacchius, Antibacchius, et cetera) should not aswell be Character'd by them, as these that belong to the diuision of the Perfect Prolation, and the Diminutions of it. For it they hold that a thing needlesse and superfluous to be done in a case so common and obuious: the consequence will be altogether as good against this their Poeticall, phantasticall Charact'ring with the Ternary Number.
But see how one error begets another; It is that which I haue obserued as a most grosse Absurditie in the pricking of the Internall Signes of this Diminution, and yet is to be found among those, whome our Vulgar Practitioners account approued Masters, and in that opinion haue followed their Vn-art-like Example; which is, the setting of it with a White Minime and a Crochet, and the Tact charactered with the aforesaid Ternary Number; as thus
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 15] [RAVBD 04GF]
Their Apologie (vpon exception taken) prooued [-16-] like their ensample, both fond, and sencelesse; to witt, that they might Character the Sounds in that forme it pleased them, and needed not to be bound to follow the Lawes and Rules of Art, which they found were herein wholy against them.
THe Lesser Diminution, (which is vulgarly call'd (1) Diminution of Diminution, or the Double Diminution of the Perfect Prolation [(1) Morley liber 3. folio 15. in marg.]) is the swiftest Motion that any Tune is Composed of vnder this Measure, as Country Daunces, Bran'sls, Voltos, Courantos, and such like: And it likewise we find character'd, to signifie the Tact of it, with the Ternary Number, which is yet of all the rest the greatest Absurdity: For herein there are sixe Notes Measured to one Tact, (whereas afore but 3.) and Their Ternary Number is made to signifie no lesse then Perfect Prolation, Great Diminution, and Lesse Diminution, and all vpon the bare and groundlesse warrant of Common Practise, which say they, hath so receiu'd it, and therefore they vse it.
But what a confusion will this be when they haue a Song or Tune composed of all these Tacts, (as diuers there are in vse for Maskes and Reuells) and shall finde but onely one Character to expresse all Motions? how can that worke be perform'd in his proper nature, except the Composer shall either Demonstrate by a Canon what his meaning is, or himselfe personally be there to explaine his Forme intended? Therefore the Authors of our Art, foreseeing the Diuersities (and there by the Absurdityes) which heerein would be inuented concerning the Diminutions of the Tact, agreed vpon certaine Rules and Characters together, to Demonstrate euery particular Motion by, of what kinde of Diuision soeuer the Tact was. But now in regard that those Canons and Proportionate Rules are out of vse, I see no reason why wee should vse their Characters, but rather be led by that Rule, whereof now in these dayes our practise [-17-] consists, which is the Circular Rule, and by which this lesser Diminution of the Perfect Prolation (the Internall Notes being Denigrated) is thus Charactered.
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 17, 1] [RAVBD 04GF]
As for any motion of Tact swifter then this Lesser Diminution if there should bee need thereof, it should be either thus Charactered [Cdrvrh] or by the former Retorted thus [CLddim] Wherein the Stroke drawne through the Semi-circle and the Prick in it, doe signifie a Coniunction of both Prolations by a double Diminution of the Perfect and Imperfect Measures of the Tact. And thus much shall suffise for the banishing of the Ternary Number, and the placing in steed thereof the true Character of the perfect Prolation, with the Diminution of it by the Circular Rule.
THe Imperfect of the Lesse Prolation; in the proper forme of it is, when there is Imperfection of all notes Measurable, from the Larg to the Minime; and is thus Truely Character'd [C] and vnder it are composed, as Diuine Seruices for the Church, so also Mottets, Madrigals, Pauins, and such like for other vses.
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 17, 2; text: C, Example of the Imperfect of the Lesse Prolation. Large. Longs, Breues, Semibreues, Minimes, Crotchets, Quauers, Semiquauers, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128] [RAVBD 04GF]
[-18-] NOw as before I did in the former, so in this Measure also haue I obserued diuers absurdityes committed, by not distinguishing the Lesse Prolation from his Diminutions.
For vnto this Time and Prolation there pertaines a 2. folde Diminution (by (1) some termed Semi-dity [(1) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 10. Frederichus Berhusius capitulum 12. Ornithoparchus liber 2. capitulum 8. in marg.]) the Greater, and the Lesser.
The Greater Diminution is rightly thus Charactered (2) [Cdim] [(2) Seybaldus Heyden liber 2. capitulum 6. Frederichus Berbusius capitulum 12. in marg.] or (by Retort of the aforesayd Imperfect Circle) thus [CL]; though diuers there be, that from the Proportionate Rule (forsooth) will haue it this [C2.] but for as much as in this Measure there is vs'd no Denigration, and all Proportions are out of vse saue Sesqui-altera, I haue sayd sufficiently for confutation thereof, before.
Vnder this Diminution are compos'd Almayns, Free Mens Songs, Ayres and such like, and (accordingly) among our Minstrells, 'tis knowne by the name of Almayne Time, and is as a Duple to the Lesse Prolation; that is, a Motion as swift againe, as the Lesse Prolation is of, in his owne Naturall Tact.
The Lesse Diminution we finde to bee thus Character'd (3) [Crvrh] [(3) Morley liber 1. folio 15. in marg.] , or with Retort of the Great Diminution thus (4) [CLdim] [(4) Seybaldus Heyden liber 2. capitulum 6. Nicholas Lestenij lib 2. capitulum 4. in marg.]; and this is the swiftest Motion that vnder this Measure is Compos'd; and such are all those Compositions which are vnder it, as Iiggs, and the like.
But heerein now the Ignorance of our times is such, not knowing the differences of this Imperfect Prolation and the Diminutions therof, that they commonly Charactere the Church Songs, and Mottets, with the Greater Diminution thus [Cdim]; according whereunto if those Songs should be sung, it would not only alter the nature of those Harmonies, but also make them seeme rather some Dauncing or Reuelling Measure, then a religious Note to be vsed in Gods Seruice.
'Tis then the Lesse Prolation (thus [C]) wherewith all such [-19-] Diuine Compositions (especially those which are with Fuges) ought to bee Character'd, and that is the slowest and grauest Measure now in vse.
And so againe for those Madrigalls, Pastoralls, Pauens, and such like, which are Character'd with this Great Diminution, should they be sung according to the Tact thereof, they would make such a confusion, that the Performers would surely bee taken for mad-men, and the Songs themselues would seeme no better then common Iigs to the hearers.
Wherefore it concernes the Composer to vnderstand the differences of these Tacts, and according to the nature of the Composition discreetly to Charactere them, that both Himselfe, and his Workes may haue their due commendation.
And thus much breifly for the true Charactering of the 4. Figures or Measures, concerning the Perfection, Imperfection, and Diminutions of Moode, Time, and Prolation. Onely thus much more of Diminution it selfe I must craue leaue to adde, namely, the Description and Vse of it, that it is a certaine (1) Decreasing of the Quality (and not of the Quantity) of the Notes and Rests, by Internall and External Signes [(1) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 8. in marg.]: or (2) when the Element is abated in the Greater, or Lesser of the Nature of it [(2) Iohannes Magirus capitulum 12. in marg.]; and it was inuented to hasten the Tact, for a reuiuing of the Eare, when it is dul'd and wearied with a slow Motion; (3) Not that the Number or value of the Notes is thereby Diminished, but only that the Tact for the Motion of it is hastened, both in the Perfect and Imperfect Measure. [(3) Ornithoparchus lib 2. capitulum 8. in marg.]
And this by the Ancients was obserued 3. wayes.
1 By a Canon.
2 By Proportionate Numbers.
3. By Retort of the Semi-Circle and a Dash.
1 Now the Canon being cleane out of vse, we haue nothing at this time to speake thereof: and the like also for
[-20-] Proportionate Numbers; in regard common practise hath disused all proportions saue Sesqui-altera we haue little to say of them.
As for the Ternary and Binary Numbers which should be brought in by way of this Proportionate Diminution, expressed by Glareanus [(1) Glareanus Dodecachordi liber 3. capitulum 11. in marg.] with these examples (as from the common practise in those dayes) [Cd over 3] [Cd3] [C3] [C2] and thus with a Ternary Number alone 3; He and diuers other auncient Theorists affirme (in regard of the Diminutions of the Degrees) that they are nothing but fancies of the ignorant Vulgar Practitioners; for saith he (speaking of the Diminution of the Degrees, and therby of the Circular Rule) what needs there to expresse the Diminutions of the Degrees, any more, then onely the Retort and the Dash, and so reiect all the rest, that the common Cantors should not be confounded in these rules, himselfe and diuers others giuing these examples [Oddim]. [Odrvrh]. [Odim]. [Orvrh]. [Cd]. [CLd]. [Cddim] [CLddim] or thus [Cdrvrh]. [C]. [CL] or thus [Cdim]. [CLdim] or thus [Crvrh]: to which as very resonable and onely necessary, for the practise of these Times (all others being contrary) I subscribe.
Tact, Touch or Time, is, a certaine (2) [(2) Seybaldus Heyden liber 2. capitulum 5. (1) Morley lib 1. folio 9. Nichola Listenij capitulum 10.] Motion of the hand (whereby the quantity of Notes and Rests are directed) by an equall Measure, according to the properties of the Signes of the Degrees. The Auncients obserued three
1 The Greater.
2 The Lesse.
3 The Proportionate.
[-21-] But these our dayes obserue but two, and those deriued from the former obseruations.
The first is the Perfect Diuision of the Semi-breue which is by 3. the which we call Minime Time, and as some say, from the Proportionate Rule.
The second is the Imperfect Diuision of the Semi-breue which is by 2. the which we terme the Semi-breue Time, and as some say, from the Diminished Breue.
All which Tact or Time according to the discretion of the Singer (and according to the Measure) may be sung swifter, or slower.
Besides all these, vnto these foure foresaid Figures or Measures, there appertaine diuers other Rules; As Augmentation, Sincopation, Imperfection, the Pricks of Perfection, Addition, Diuision, Alteration, and such like; All which serue to distinguish the Diuision, Alteration, and Augmentation of Perfect and Imperfect Notes; but because we haue little or no vse of the most of them, saue the Pricke of Addition, ((2) which some terme that of Perfection, others of Augmentation, making little difference betweene them [(1) Morley Anotations folio 5. in marg.]) at this time I'le speake of it onely, and not of the rest.
A Prick is a Signe of an indiuisible Quantity placed either before, after, on the vpper, nether ends, or sides of a Note, and there seruing for the aforesaid distinctions.
This Pricke of Addition placed on the right side of a Note, (thus [Bv,pt,Scsv,pt,Scs,pt,]) in Perfect Time, and Perfect Prolation if a Minime or a Lesse Note follow, causeth the same to be Perfect; and in Imperfect Time it maketh the said Note, if a Breue or Semi-breue, to be Perfect, but as for Lesse Notes, being Indiuisible, it doth Augment the same to be halfe so long againe, as the Quantity of it affoorded.
[-22-] ANd last of all, as necessary to all Harmonies, pertaine certaine Signes for diuers vses, as Repetitions, thus Charact'red.
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 22,1] [RAVBD 05GF]
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 22,2] [RAVBD 05GF]
Concordances, or Cardinalls thus
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 22,3] [RAVBD 05GF]
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 22,4] [RAVBD 05GF]
Connexions, when two Notes are ioyn'd together both for the better ordering of Discords, and the applying of the Note to the Ditty thus
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 22,5] [RAVBD 05GF];
all which this worke is full of.
Index or Director thus
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 22,6] [RAVBD 05GF]
And these Signes, let me entreate all those which would performe these Harmonies in their proper Nature, strictly to obserue; which if they will doe, with the Distinctions of the Prolations and Diminutions, they shall doe the Authors much right, and no doubt giue themselues and the hearers good contentment.
This then is it I had now to say concerning the necessary Rules of this part of our Art, as pertaining to the vse of our Common Practise. If my Labours herein proue as Acceptable as they are True and Necessary, it will giue me much incouragement to proceed further in a generall Suruey by me intended; if not, I shall perhaps become loath to bestow my Talent in such a Fruitlesse Soile.
[-23-] Errata in the Harmonies.
3. for Pierce read Peirs.
4. Treble. at ware haunt [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 23,1; text: for, thus] [RAVBD 05GF]
5. Tenor. at hey lo. the Cliffe for [ClefC3 on staff5] thus [Clef C1 on staff5]
7. Basis. at humble Siluans for [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 23,2; text: thus] [RAVBD 05GF]
9. Tenor. at the second line the Cliffe for [ClefG2 on staff5] thus [ClefC2 on staff5]
13. Basis. for the Cliffe thus [ClefC3 on staff5] thus [ClefC4 on staff5]
Errata in the Discourse.
In diuers of the bookes, in the Rule of the Perfect of the Lesse his Character is thus, folio 8. [Od over 23] [Od] [Od over 2] [Od over 3], but should be thus [O over 23] [O] [O over 2] [O over 3]
folio 13. in the fourth Example of Internall Signes.
[Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, 23,3; text: for, thus] [RAVBD 05GF]
folio 17. for Direction 'Tis, read Now.
folio. 20. line 7. for the Characters of the Imperfect of the Lesse [C over 3] [C3]. thus [C3] [C2].
[-f.A1r-] Hunting, and Hawking,
[-f.A1v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.A1v; text:  A Hunts vp. Tenor. Iohn Bennet. 4. Voces, Chorus, THe hunt is vp, sing merrily wee, verse, The Birds they sing, the Deare they fling, hey nony nony nony no, the Hounds they crye, the Hunters they flye, hey trolilo, trololilo, hey trololilolililo. vt supra. 2 The Woods resounds To heere the Hounds: The Rocks report This merry sport, hey, trolilo trololilo. 3 Then hye apace Vnto the chase Whilst euery thing Doth sweetly sing, hey troli-lo trololy-lo.] [RAVBD 06GF]
[-f.A2r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.A2; text: A Hunts vp. Iohn Bennet. MEDIVS. 4. Voces, Chorus, THe hunt is vp, sing merrily wee, verse, Hey downe, TREBLE. et cetera. vt supra.] [RAVBD 07GF]
[-f.A2v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.A2v; text: 2 For Hunting. Edward Piers. TREBLE. 4. Voces, HEy trola, boyes there hoicka, hoick, whoope Crie there they goe, they are at a fault, Boy winde the Horne, TENOR. whoop: crye] [RAVBD 08GF]
[-f.A3r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.A3; text: For Hunting. 2, Edward Peirs. MEDIVS. 4. Voces, HEy trola, trola, there boyes there, hoicka hoick, whoop crye there they goe, they are at a fault: Boy, winde the horne, BASIS.] [RAVBD 09GF]
[-f.A3v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.A3v; text: The Hunting of the Hare. Edward Peirce. TREBLE. 4. Voces, Horne, Sing tiue, Now in full crie, with yeeble yable, gibble gabble, hey, the Hounds doe knocke it lustily, with open mouth and lustie crye. TENOR. geebble] [RAVBD 10GF]
[-f.A4r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.A4; text: the Hunting of the Hare. Edward Peirce. MEDIVS. 4. Voces, horne, sing tiue, now in full crye, with yeeble yabble, gibble gabble, hey: the Hounds doe knocke it lustily, with open mouth and lustie crye. BASIS.] [RAVBD 11GF]
[-f.A4v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.A4v; text: 3 A Hawkes-vp, for a Hunts vp. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. MEDIVS. 4. Voces, verse, AWake, the day doth break, our Spanyels couple them: our Hawkes shall flye lowe, meane, or high, and trusse it if they can, Chorus: hey troly lolly, lylolylylo, hey troly ly hey if you can. Then rise, arise, for Phoebus dies (in golde) the dawne of day, And Coveyes lye, in Feilds hard by, then Sing we care away. then sing wee care away. TENOR.] [RAVBD 12GF]
[-f.B1r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.B1; text: A Hawkes vp, for a Hunts vp. 3, TENOR. 4. Voces, lolly lo hey, hey troly loly lo, and trusse it if you can. TREBLE. Awake, Chorus BASIS] [RAVBD 13GF]
[-f.B1v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.B1v; text: 4 Hawking for the Partridge. MEDIVS. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. 4. Voces, SIth Sickles and the sheering Sythe, hath shorne the Feilds of late, now shall our Hawkes and we be blythe, Dame Partridge ware your pate: our murdring Kites, in all their flights, wil fild or neuer feld or neuer misse, To trusse you euer, and make your bale our blisse, whur ret Duty, whur ret Beauty ret, whur ret Loue, whur ret, hey dogs hey, TENOR. whur ret Cater, ret Trea,] [RAVBD 14GF]
[-f.B2r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.B2; text: Hawking for the Partidge. 4, TREBLE. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. 4. Voces, SIth Sickles, whur ret, Quando ret, Nimble ret, hey dogs, BASIS. Trauell ret, Trouer ret, whur ret Iew, whur ret, Damsell] [RAVBD 15GF]
[-f.B2v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.B2v; text: 4 Hawking for the Partridge. MEDIVS. 4. Voces, ware haunt, hey Sempster, ret Faver, ret minx, ret Dido, ret Ciuill, ret Lemmon, ret, whur, let flie O well flowne eager Kite, marke, O marke belowe the Ley, this was a fayre, most fayre and Kingly flight, Chorus, we Falkners thus make sullen Kites yeeld pleasure fit for Kings, and sport with, TENOR. hey Callis ret Douer, ret Sant, ret Cherrie, ret Caruer, ret Courtyer ret, whur, verse, we Faulkners yeild] [RAVBD 16GF]
[-f.B3r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.B3; text: Hawking for the Partridge. 4. TREBLE. 4. Voces, ware haunt, hey Wanton ret, Sugar, ret, Mistris ret, Tricker ret, Crafty ret, Minion ret, whur let flie O well flowne flown, eager Kyte, marke, verse, Chorus, we Falkners thus make sullen Kites, yeeld pleasure fit for Kings, BASSIS, Dauncer ret, Ierker ret, Quoy ret, Stately ret, Ruler ret, Ierman ret, let flye let flye Kite, wee Faulkners thus,] [RAVBD 17GF]
[-f.B3v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.B3v; text: 4 Hawking for the Partridge. MEDIVS. 4. Voces, them and in those delights, and oft in other things. TENOR. sport with them, 5 For the Hearne and Ducke. TREBLE. Iohn Bennet. 4. Voces, LVer Faulkne[r]s luer giue warning to the Feild, let flye, make mounting Hearnes to yeilde. TENOR. let fllye to yeild.] [RAVBD 18GF]
[-f.B4r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.B4; text: Hawking for the Partridge. 4 Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. TREBLE. 4. Voces, and sport with them in those delights, and oft in other things, BASIS. For the Hearne and Ducke. 5 MEDIVS. LVer Falkners luer, giue warning to the Feild, let flye, make mounting Hearnes to yeild. BASIS.] [RAVBD 19GF]
[-f.B4v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.B4v; text: 5 Of the Hearne and the Ducke. TREBLE. 4. Voces, Dye fearfull Duckes, and climbe no more so high, The Nyas Hauke will kisse the Azure Skie. But when our Soare Haukes flye, and stiffe windes blowe: then long to late we Faulkners crye hey lo. et cetera. TENOR. and swift windes blowe, hey ho] [RAVBD 20GF]
[-f.C1r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.C1; text: Of the Hearne and Ducke. 5 MEDIVS. 4. Voces, Dye fearfull Duckes and climbe no more so high, The Nyase Hauke will kisse the Azure Skye, But when our Soare Haukes flye and stiffe windes blowe, then long to late we Faulkners crye, hey lo. et cetera. BASIS.] [RAVBD 21GF]
[-f.C1v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.C1v; text: Dauncing. 6 The Fayries Daunce. TREBLE. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. 4. Voces, DAre you haunt our hallowed greene, none but Fayries heere are seene, downe and sleepe, wake and weepe: pinch him blacke, and pinch him blew, that seekes to steale a louer true. When you come to hear vs sing, or to tread our Fayrie ring, O, TENOR. treade] [RAVBD 22GF]
[-f.C2r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.C2; text: The Fayries Daunce. 6, Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. MEDIVS. 4. Voces, DAre you haunt our hallowed greene, none but Fayries here are seene: Downe and sleepe, wake and weepe, pinch him blacke and pinch him blew, that seekes to steale a Louer true. When you come to heare vs sing, or to tread our Fayrie ring, O, yee BASIS.] [RAVBD 23GF]
[-f.C2v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.C2v; text: 6 The Fayries Daunce. TREBLE. 4. Voces, thus our nayles shall handle you. TENOR. 7 The Satyres Daunce. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. ROund a round keep your ring to the glorious Sunne, we sing Hoe! hoe! he that weares the flaming rayes, and the Imperiall Crowne of Bayes, him with him, with shoutes and songs we praise,] [RAVBD 24GF]
[-f.C3r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.C3; text: The Fayries Daunce. 6, MEDIVS. 4 Voces, thus our nayles shall handle you. BASIS. The Satyres Daunce. 7 ROund a round keepe your ring, to the glorious Sunne we sing. Hoe!, hoe! he that weares the flaming rayes, and the Imperiall Crowne of Bayes, him with him, with shoutes and songs, we praise, keep] [RAVBD 25GF]
[-f.C3v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.C3v; text: 7 The Satyres Daunce. TREBLE 4. Voces, hoe! that in his bountie would vouchsafe, to grace the humble Syluans and their shaggy race. TENOR, Sylvanes 8 The Vrchins Daunce. BY the moone we sport and play, with the night begins our day, as we friske the dew doth fall, trip it, little Vrchins all] [RAVBD 26GF]
[-f.C4r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.C4; text: The Satyres Daunce. 7, MEDIVS. 4 Voces, hoe! that in his bountie would vouchsafe, to grace the humble Syluanes and their shaggy race. BASIS. ho! bounty 8 The Vrchins Daunce, BY the Moone we sport and play, with the night begins our day, as we friske the dew doth fall, trip it, little Vrchins all, BASSIS. sporte] [RAVBD 27GF]
[-f.C4v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.C4v; text: 8 The Vrchins Daunce. TREBLE. 4. Voces, lightly as the little, little bee, two by two, and three by three, and about goe wee, we. TENOR.] [RAVBD 28GF]
[-f.D1r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.D1; text: The Vrchins Daunce. 8, MEDIVS. 4. Voces, lightly, as the little Bee, two by two and three by three, and about goe we. BASIS.] [RAVBD 29GF]
[-f.D1v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.D1v; text: 9 The Elues Daunce, TREBLE. Iohn Bennet. 4. Voces, ROund about in a faire ring a, thus we daunce and thus we sing a, trip and trip and goe, too and fro and fro, ouer this greene a, all about, in and out, et cetera. TENOR.] [RAVBD 30GF]
[-f.D2r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.D2; text: The Elues Daunce. 9, MEDIVS. 4 Voces, ROund about: in a faire ring a, Thus we daunce, and thus we sing a, trip and goe, too and fro, over this greene a, All about, in and out, et cetera. BASIS. 0ver this green a] [RAVBD 31GF]
[-f.D2v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.D2v; text: 10 Drinking. TREBLE. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. 4. Voces, TRudge away quickly and fill the black Bole, deuoutly as long as wee bide, now welcome good fellowes, both strangers and all, let madnes and mirth set sadnes aside. Verse, Of all reckonings I loue good cheere, with honest folkes in company: and when drinke comes my part for to beare, for still me thinks one tooth is drye. 2 Loue is a pastime for a King, if one be seene in Phisnomie: But I loue well this pot to wring, for still me thinkes one tooth is drie. 3 Masters this is all my desire, I would no drinke should passe vs by: Let vs now sing and mend the fier, for still me thinkes one tooth is drie. TENOR. We bide,] [RAVBD 32GF]
[-f.D3r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.D3; text: Of Drinking. 10, MEDIVS. 4. Voces, TRudge away quickly and fill the black Bole, deuoutly as long as we bide, now welcome good fellowes both strangers and all, let madnes and mirth set sadnes aside. verse, for still me thinks one looth is drye. 4 Maister Butler giue vs a taste, of your best drinke so gently: A Iugge or twaine and make no waste, for still me thinkes one tooth is drie. 5 Maister Butler of this take part, ye loue good drinke as well as I: And drinke to mee with all your hart, for still mee thinkes one tooth is drie. Chorus: et cetera. BASIS] [RAVBD 33GF]
[-f.D3v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.D3v; text: 11 Of Drinking. TREBLE. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. 4. Voces, Chorus, TOsse the pot, let vs be merry, and drinke till our cheeks be as red as a Cherry. Verse, We take no thought we haue no care, for still we spend, and neuer spare, till of all money our pursse is bare, we euer tosse the pot. Chery, 2 We drinke Carouse with hart most free, A harty draught I drinke to thee: Then fill the pot againe to me, and euer tosse the pot, et cetera. 3 And when our mony is all spent, Then sell our goods, and spend our rent, Or drinke it vp with one consent, and euer tosse the pot. TENOR. cheekes] [RAVBD 34GF]
[-f.D4r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.D4; text: Of Drinking. 11, MEDIVS. 4. Voces, Chorus, TOsse the pot let vs be merry, and drinke till our cheekes be as red as a Cherry. verse, et cetera. 4 When all is gone we haue no more, Then let vs set it on the score, Or chalke it vp behind the dore, and euer tosse the pot. 5 And when our credit is all lost, Then may we goe and kiss the post, And eat Browne bread in steed of rost, and euer tosse the pot. 6 Let vs conclude as we began, And tosse the pot from man to man, And drinke as much now as we can, and euer tosse the pot. BASIS.] [RAVBD 35GF]
[-f.D4v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.D4v; text: 12 Of Drinking, Ale and Tobacco. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. TREBLE. 4. Voces, TObacco fumes away all nastie rheumes, but health away it neuer lightly frets, And nappy Ale makes mirth (as Aprill raine doth Earth) Spring like the pleasant spring, where ere it soaking wets. Chorus, But in that spring, et cetera. One cleares the braine, the other glads the hart, which they retaine, by nature and by art: The first by nature cleares, by Arte makes giddy will, the last by nature cheares, by Art makes heady still. So we whose braines, et cetera. TENOR.] [RAVBD 36GF]
[-f.E1r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.E1; text: Of Drinking. 13, Ale and Tobacco. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. MEDIVS. 4. Voces, TObacca fumes et cetera. Chorus. So we whose Braines els lowe, swells high with Crotchet rules, feede on these two as fat, as heddy giddy fooles. BASIS. TObacco] [RAVBD 37GF]
[-f.E1v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.E1v; text: 12 Of Drinking, TREBLE. 4. Voces, Chorus, But in that spring of mirth, such madnes hye doth growe, as fills a foole by birth, with crotchets, with Ale and Tobacco. Chorus, So we, whose Braines els lowe swell hye with crotchet rules, Feed on these two, as fat as headdy giddy fooles. TENOR.] [RAVBD 38GF]
[-f.E2r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.E2; text: Of Drinking. 12, MEDIVS. 4. Voces, But in that spring of mirth, such madnes hye doth growe, as filles a foole by birth, with crotchets with Ale and Tobacco. BASIS.] [RAVBD 39GF]
[-f.E2v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.E2v; text: 13 Enamoring. TREBLE. Iohn Bennet. 4. Voces, WHat seekes thou foole in this place? verse, gay cloaths and a purse of gould, foole whom a woman sets to schoole, et cetera. TENOR., the bable of a foole, seeks] [RAVBD 40GF]
[-f.E3r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.E3; text: Of Enamoring. 13, MEDIVS. 4. Voces, WHat seekes, et cetera thou foole, verse, a womans stouborne will, in this place? foole whom a woman sets to schoole. BASIS. et cetera] [RAVBD 41GF]
[-f.E3v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.E3v; text: 14 Of Enamouring. The Seruant of his Mistris. MEDIVS. 4 Voces, Iohn Bennet. MY Mistres is as faire as fine, milk-white fingers, Cherry nose, like twinckling day-starres lookes her eyne, lightning all thinges where she goes, Faire as Phoebe though not so fickle: smooth as glasse though not so brickle. My heart is like a Ball of Snowe, melting at her luke-warm sight: Her fiery Lips like Night-worms glowe shining cleere as Candle-light. Neat she is, no Feather lighter: Bright she is, no Dazie whiter.] [RAVBD 42GF]
[-f.E4r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.E4; text: Of Enamouring. 14, The Seruant of his Mistris. TREBLE, Iohn Bennet. 4. Voces, MY Mistris is et cetera. TENOR. as faire as fine, BASIS.] [RAVBD 43GF]
[-f.E4v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.E4v; text: 15 Of Enamoring. Edward Peirs. TREBLE. 4. Voces, LOue for such a cherry lip, would be glad to pawne his Arrowes, Venus heere to take a sip, would sell her Doues and teeme of Sparrowes, but shee shall not so, see, hey no no ny no ny no, none but I this lip must owe, hey nony nony nony, hey, hey nony no. Did Ioue see this wanton eye, Ganimed should wayte no longer: Phebe heere one night to lye, would change her face, and looke much yonger. TENOR. et cetera.] [RAVBD 44GF]
[-f.F1r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.F1; text: Of Enamoring. 15, The Mistris of her Seruant. Edward Peirs. MEDIVS. 4 Voces, LOue for such a chery lip, et cetera. BASIS.] [RAVBD 45GF]
[-f.F1v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.F1v; text: 16 Their Mariage Zolemnized. TREBLE. Thomas Ravenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke. 4. Voces, Chorus, LEaue of Hymen, and let vs borrow to bid the Sunne good morrow. verse, See the Sunne cannot refraine, but doth rise and giue againe, that which you of Hymen borrow, and with smiling bidst good morrow to the Sunne, and to our Brides good-night to your sweet Beauties touch your side. MEDIVS.] [RAVBD 46GF]
[-f.F2r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.F2; text: Their Mariage Zolemnized. 16, TENOR. 4. Voces, Chorus, LEaue off Hymen and let vs borrow, to bid the Sunne good morrow, verse, BASIS.] [RAVBD 47GF]
[-f.F2v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.F2v; text: 17 Of Enamouring, Hodge Trillindle to his Zweet hort Malkyn. Vurst bart. DENOR. 4. Voces, COame Malkyn, hurle thine oyz at Hodge Trillindle, And zet a zide thy Distaue and thy Zpindle, a little little tyny let a ma brast my minde, to thee which I haue vownd as ghurst as ghinde, yet loaue ma (Zweet, Zweet, Zweet,) a little tyny vit, and wee a little little Wedelocke wooll gommit, a little little tyny Wedelocke wooll gommit, y vaith wooll wee, that wee woll y vaith lo. Zegund bart vollowes. DREBLE. verse, et cetera.] [RAVBD 48GF]
[-f.F3r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.F3; text: Of Enamouring. 17, Hodge Trillindle to his Zweet hort Malkyn. Vurst bart. DREBLE. 4. Voces, Zegund bart vollowes. MEDVZ. COame Malkyn, et cetera. BAZIS.] [RAVBD 49GF]
[-f.F3v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.F3v; text: 18 Malkinz anzwer to Hodge Trillindle. DRELE. Thomas Ravenscroft Bachelar of Musicke. 4. Voces, Zecund bart. YO tell ma zo: but Roger I cha vound your words but wynde: thon not for vorty bound, wool I beeleaue yo vurther thon Ich zee your words and deeds loyke Beeans and Bacoan gree: But if yol loave ma long a little little vit, Thon wedlocke Ich a little wool gommit, A little little tyny wedlocke wool gommit y vayth wooll I, thot ich wooll I vayth lo. D thurd bart vollowes. MEDUZ. Zecund bart. et cetera.] [RAVBD 50GF]
[-f.F4r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.F4; text: Malkinz anzwer to Hodge Trillindle. 18, MEDIVS. 4. Voces, D thurd bart vollowes, Zecund bart., DENOR. YO tell yo tell ma zo, et cetera. BAZIS.] [RAVBD 51GF]
[-f.F4v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.F4v; text: 19 Of Enamoring. Their Goncluzion. Malkyn. DREBLE. 4 Voces, ICh con but zweare, et cetera. Thon Roger zweare yo wooll be virmer thon yo weare: zo Roger zweare an oape hold Hodge O hold, oie to wyd yo gape, thowlt byte I zweare my wozen. verse, Ich do good Hodge thon zweare no more, Ich wooll bee thoyne and God a bee vore, Ich be thoyne, and God a beevore. Chorus, MEDVZ.] [RAVBD 52GF]
[-f.G1r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.G1; text: Of Enamoring. Their Goncluzion. 19, DENOR. 4. Voces, ICh con but zweare (ond thot I chill) vnbonably to loaue atha ztill, thot wool I lo. verse, By thease ten Boans by Ia- Iawhay thou beleaue ma whon Ich zweare, zo do thou. Chorus, BAZIS. et cetera.] [RAVBD 53GF]
[-f.G1v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.G1v; text: 17 Of Enamoring. The Goncluzion. Dhurd bart. DREBLE. 4. Voces, Chorus, Thon geat wee Growdes ond Boagbipes, Harbes ond Dabors to leead vs on to eand ower loaues great labors, MEDVZ. Growds, Harbs] [RAVBD 54GF]
[-f.G2r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.G2; text: Of Enamoring. 17, Their Goncluzion. DENOR. 4 Voces, Chorus, Thon geat wee Growds ond Boagbipes and Harbs and Dabors to leead vs on to eand ower loaues great labors. BAZIS. Boagbips] [RAVBD 55GF]
[-f.G2v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.G2v; text: 20 Of Enamoring. Their Wedlocke. Iohn Bennet. DREBLE. 4. Voces, A Borgens a borgens, che hard long a goe bee merry merry ond a vig vor woe, verse, O tis faliant zport, then let this Burden zweetly zung be ztill, A Borgens a Borgen bee't good be it ill, DENOR. cha hord, be] [RAVBD 56GF]
[-f.G3r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.G3; text: Of Enamoring. 20, Their Wedlocke. MEDVZ. 4 Voces, A Borgens a Borgen cha hord long agoe be merry merry ond a vig vor woe, verse, Zing gleare zing zweet and zure, ower Zong zhall bee but zhort Muzicke foice, ond daunzing, verse, BAZIS.] [RAVBD 57GF]
[-f.G3v-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.G3v; text: 20 Of Enamoring. Their Wedlocke. DREBLE. 4. Voces, A Borgens a Borgen, vor weale or vor woe. So euer led dis bleasing Borden goe, Burden DENOR. zo, burdon,] [RAVBD 58GF]
[-f.G4r-] [Ravenscroft, Briefe Discovrse, f.G4; text: Of Enamoring. 20, Their Wedlocke. MEDVZ. 4 Voces, Borgens a Borgen vor weale or vor woe, zo euer let dis bleasing burden goe, burdon, so, bordon. BAZIS] [RAVBD 59GF]
[-f.G4v-] A TABLE OF ALL THE Harmonies Contained in this Booke.
1 A Hunts vp. Iohn Bennet.
2 A Hunting Song. Edward Peirs.
3 A Hawks vp for a Hunts vp [Thomas Ravenscroft Bachelar of Music]
4 For the Partridge. Thomas Ravenscroft Bachelar of Music
5 For the Hearne and Duck. Iohn Bennet.
6 Fayries Daunce. [Thomas Rauenscroft Bachelar of Musicke.]
7 Satyres Daunce. Thomas Rauenscroft Bachelar of Musicke.
8 Vrchins Daunce.
9 Elues Daunce. Iohn Bennet.
10 Of Beere. [Thomas Rauenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke.]
11 Of Ale. [Thomas Rauenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke.]
12 Of Ale and Tobacco. Thomas Rauenscroft. Bachelar of Musicke.
13 Three Fooles. [Iohn Bennet.]
14 The Seruant of his Mistris. Iohn Bennet.
15 The Mistris of her Seruant. Edward Peirs.
16 Their Mariage solemnized. [Thomas Rauenscroft Bachelar of Musicke.]
17 Hodge Trillindle to his sweet hort Molkyn [Thomas Rauenscroft Bachelar of Musicke.]
18 Molkyns answer to Hodge Trillindle. [Thomas Rauenscroft Bachelar of Musicke.]
19 Their Gonglusion. [Thomas Rauenscroft Bachelar of Musicke.]
20 Their Wedlocke. Thomas Rauenscroft Bachelar of Musicke.