Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] Abbate, Carolyn. "Tristan in the Composition of Pelléas." 19th-Century Music 5 (Fall 1981): 117-41.

The model for the composition of Pelléas is Tristan und Isolde. The intent is to avoid the recollection of Wagner, but numerous recollections are present. These recollections take the form of orchestration and of musical material. Quotations of Wagner occur most often in the interludes (pp. 138-140). Debussy is viewed as a commentator on Wagner both in the way he used certain Wagnerian lois (especially the system of metaphorical tonality in which the order and choice of keys rests upon textual and not upon functional harmonic exigency, pp. 129-32) and in the way he alluded to the earlier works.

Works: Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande.

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Abraham, Gerald. "Operas and Incidental Music." In The Music of Tchaikovsky, ed. Gerald Abraham, 124-83. 2d ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Abraham, Gerald. "The Folk-Song Element." Chap. in Studies in Russian Music. London: W. Reeves, [1935].

In the use of folk tunes, Glinka was concerned with nothing more than stringing them together into frankly popular fantasias. Efforts of later composers to fuse these tunes into complicated musical organisms (sonata-form on the symphonic scale) failed, according to Abraham, (1) because folk songs are not suited to such treatment and (2) because these composers had a fundamentally wrong conception of Russian folk music as homophonic. The discovery of the polyphonic nature of a great deal of Russian folk-music came just too late to influence the development of Russian art music. The only successful symphonic handling of folk tunes was a matter of "good taste," being shown in the avoidance of virtuosity in the treatment of the material and in not making it an excuse for "talking about oneself." To absorb a great deal of the folk idiom (as Mussorgsky did) and invent original themes from that root was a more successful way to get around the implications of using an original folk tune.

Works: Borodin: Prince Igor (46); Tchaikovsky: String Quartet No. 1 (47), Symphony in F Minor (48f), 1812 Overture (48); Rimsky-Korsakov: Hundred Russian Folk-Songs, Op. 24 (47f), Overture on Russian Themes (48), Easter Festival Overture (54), Capriccio Espagnol (54), Sinfonietta, Op. 31 (55); Balakirev: Overture on Three Russian Themes in B Minor (48), A Thousand Years (52f.); Beethoven: String Quartet No. 8 in E Minor, Op. 59, No. 2 (55); Mussorgsky: Boris Godunov (55).

Sources: Sidel Vanyz (47), Vo pole bereza stoyala (48), "Over the field creeps the mist" (56).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Abraham, Lars Ulrich. "Trivialität und Persiflage in Beethovens Diabelli-Variationen." In Neue Wege der musikalischen Analyse. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Neue Musik und Musikerziehung Darmstadt 6, 7-17. Berlin: Merseburger, 1967.

Works: Beethoven: Thirty-Three Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli, Op. 120.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Alexander, Michael J. The Evolving Keyboard Style of Charles Ives. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Keele, 1984. Reprinted verbatim, New York and London: Garland, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Alfeld, Anna Poulin. "Unsung Songs: Self-Borrowing in Amy Beach's Instrumental Compositions." M.M. thesis, University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music, 2008.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Altmann, Wilhelm. "Ist Bruckners sogenanntes Choralthema seine eigene Erfindung?" Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung 47 (February 1920): 100.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Anthony, John Philip. "The Organ Works of Johann Christian Kittel." 2 vols. Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "From J. C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright, and Cultural Context." North Carolina Law Review 84 (January 2006): 547-645.

Current copyright laws do not adequately support the forms of musical borrowing prevalent in hip-hop. The use of pre-existing recordings in hip-hop samples simultaneously violates the protected rights of both the existing musical composition and the recording of that musical composition. Sampling continues to be viewed as theft rather than a source of innovation within music. Aesthetic values prevalent in hip-hop, such as oral tradition, textual emphasis, repetition, polyrhythm, and borrowing, need to be situated in a broader context of musical aesthetics and, consequently, legal treatment of borrowing practices. Treating hip-hop as theft or plagiarism robs it of its rightful place within the historical context of musical borrowing in many different kinds of music. Modifications to current copyright laws, such as payment structures and differentiation of different types of sampling, are necessary to address the legality of hip-hop sampling.

Works: Irving Gordon (songwriter), Natalie Cole (performer): Unforgettable (562); Beastie Boys: Pass the Mic (570-72); N.W.A.: 100 Miles and Runnin' (574-76); Biz Markie: Alone Again (580-81); Handel: Israel in Egypt (601-603, 610).

Sources: James Newton: Choir (570-72); George Clinton (songwriter), Funkadelic (performers): Get off Your Ass and Jam (574-76); Gilbert O'Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (580-81); Dionigi Erba: Magnificat (601-603, 610).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Auh, Mijai Youn. "Piano Variations by Brahms, Liszt and Friedman on a Theme by Paganini." D.M. diss., Indiana University, 1980.

An introduction to Paganini's place in history and his contributions includes background information on the 24th Caprice of Op. 1, an analysis of its theme, and a list of works (p. 28) based on this theme. Auh provides introductions and analyses of Liszt's sixth Grande etude, Brahms's Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35, and Friedman's Studies on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 46b, and compares the elements of retention and variability of the original theme, variation technique, grouping for performance, and technical musical difficulties. Almost all of the variations assume the basic structure and given harmony of Paganini's theme; thus the variation techniques used are mainly of harmony, rhythm, and character.

Works: Johannes Brahms: Variations on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 35; Ferrucio Busoni: An die Jugend (7); Ignaz Friedman: Studies on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 46b; Franz Liszt: Etudes d'execution transcendente d'après Paganini (7), Grosse Paganini-Etuden; Robert Schumann: Studies after Caprices of Paganini, Op. 3 (7), 6 Concert Etudes after Caprices of Paganini, Op. 10 (7).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Banks, Paul. "The Early Social and Musical Environment of Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., St. John's College, 1980.

See especially "Folk Music in Iglau," in which Mahler's allusions to folk tunes and folk types are discussed.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Barford, Philip T. "Mahler: A Thematic Archetype." The Music Review 21 ([November] 1960): 297-316.

A pentatonic archetypal theme is found in Mahler's music. The archetype may be considered as a private symbol, the "musical expression of some recurrent pattern of exprience." Ninety-two examples of the archetype, often in varied form, are presented. Buddhism and Hegel's concept of das unglückliche Bewusstsein may account for the ubiquity of the idea.

Works: Mahler: Songs of a Wayfarer (310), Das Lied von der Erde (311-12, 314-15), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (313).

Sources: Anonymous: La bergère que je sers (310), Frère Jacques (313).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Beardsley, Theodore. "The Spanish Musical Sources of Bizet's Carmen." Inter-American Music Review 10, no. 2 (Spring/Summer 1989): 143-46.

Before composing Carmen, Bizet had already shown strong interest in Spanish music. His adaptation of Spanish music in his opera Don Quichotte and symphonic ode Vasco de Gama is evident. The experience of a school-day friendship with Pablo Sarasate provided him an easy channel to Spanish sources. In Carmen, Bizet borrowed genuine Spanish folksongs, local rhythms, and tunes composed by Spanish composers Sebastián Yradier and Manuel Garcia. The pieces of Spanish origin in Carmen include the famous "Habañera"; Carmen's aria "Séguidille, séguidille, séguidilla," and "Choeur des gamins" in Act I; Carmen's aria "Chanson bohème," and "Toreador Song" in Act II; and both of the preludes to Act III and IV. The most interesting borrowing is Carmen's leitmotif, the Fate theme, which is used repeatedly throughout the opera in two patterns, one for Carmen, and the other for Don José. This theme is derived from an Andalusian Saeta (flamenco music). Bizet's familiarity with authentic Spanish music is underestimated, and the extent of Spanish influence on the score of Carmen is more complex than usually recognized.

Works: Bizet: Carmen.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Beaumont, Antony. Review of Albrecht Riethmüller's Ferruccio Busonis Poetik.Music and Letters 70 (1989): 571-74.

Riethmüller aims to outline Busoni thought patterns by analyzing two works, the Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a, completed in 1898, and the Improvisation for Two Pianos on Bach's Chorale-Song 'Wie wohl ist mir,' composed in 1916. The Improvisation reworks material from the Second Violin Sonata. The structure of the variations in the third movement of the violin sonata is modeled on Beethoven's Piano Sonata, Op.109. Riethmüller misses the fact that the opening notes of the Bach chorale are identical to the bass line of Beethoven's variation theme, and hence serve in Busoni's sonata as a good example of Busoni's idea of "the Oneness of Music." Riethmüller points out the "latent characteristic of quotation in Busoni's music," and discovers the borrowing of sketches for an unfinished piano work in the chorale variations and the borrowing from Bach's Trauerode, BWV 198 in the opening of Busoni's third movement. Riethmüller analyzes the Improvisation in terms of borrowing from the violin sonata, calling it obscurer, more aggressive, and more enigmatic. But the relationship of the two works is more like "that of a healthy mother to a very sickly child," since the average listener does not know its antecedent in detail and since some passages are incoherent and illogical.

Works: Busoni: Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a, (571-73), Improvisation for Two Pianos on Bach's Chorale-Song 'Wie wohl ist mir' (573).

Sources: J.S. Bach: "Wie wohl ist mir" from Notenbuch für Anna Magdalena Bach (571), Trauerode, BWV 198 (572), Beethoven: Piano Sonata, Op. 109 (571), Busoni: Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a (573).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Bekker, Paul. Gustav Mahlers Sinfonien. Berlin: Schuster &Loeffer, 1921.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Berlioz, Hector. "Paganini." Trans. The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 7, no. 154 (December 1855): 147-49.

Within a biographical account of Paganini and a discussion of his compositional techniques, Paganini's Prière de Moïse, an arrangement of "Dal tuo stellato soglio" from Rossini's opera Moïse, serves as an example of orchestration. Paganini improved on Rossini's use of the drum, changing its placement to reflect the accentuation of the melody rather than to merely follow metrical conventions.

Works: Paganini: Prière de Moïse (149).

Sources: Rossini: Moïse (149).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Berman, Laurence David. "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun and Jeux: Debussy's Summer Rites." 19th-Century Music 3 (March 1980): 225-38.

The plots of both works are similar so that Debussy's method of translating poetry into music can be compared. The retrospective character of the prelude is apparent in the evocation of (1) Tristan, (2) Chopin's Nocturne No. 8 in Db major, (3) Saint-Saëns's Mon coeur s'ouvre à ta voix, and (4) the love music of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet.

Works: Debussy: Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (227-32), Jeux (232-38).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (232), Chopin: Nocturne No. 8 in D flat (232), Saint-Saëns: Mon coeur s'ouvre à ta voix (232), Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet (232).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Bernier, Kiyono Monique. "Disparate Measures: Two 20th Century Treatments of the Paganini Theme." DMA diss., University of Arizona, 2000.

Niels Viggo Bentzon's Variationer for klaver, Op. 241, and Robert Muczynski's Desperate Measures (Paganini Variations) participate in a long tradition of variations in general and variations on Paganini's Caprice No. 24, and their contributions to the latter tradition exhibit divergent approaches to variation technique. Bentzon obscures all melodic references to Paganini's theme and does not label variations, preferring instead to make subtle allusions to Paganini's harmonies and rhythms within the context of Bentzon's own language. Muczynski's Desperate Measures, on the other hand, is a work conceived of as entertainment, and references to Paganini's melody remain clear within a more traditional approach to variations and tonality, to which Muczynski adds modern dance idioms.

Works: J. S. Bach: Goldberg Variations (11-13); Mozart: Variations in F Major, "Salve tu Domine," K. 398; Beethoven: Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (14); Chopin: Twelve Concert Etudes, Op. 10 (18); Liszt: Grandes études de Paganini, Op. 6 (28, 30-32, 101); Busoni: Paganini-Liszt Theme mit Variationen, Etüden, No. 6 (28-32); Lutosławski: Variations on a Theme of Paganini (28, 32); Brahms: Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35 (28, 32-33, 101); Rachmaninov: Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43 (28, 32-33); Niels Viggo Bentzon: Variationer for Klaver, Op. 241 (29, 34, 37-62, 65, 98-101); Robert Muczynski: Desperate Measures (Paganini Variations) (29, 65-98, 100-102).

Sources: Anonymous: Ich bin so lang nicht bei dir g'west (12), Kraut und Rüben (12); Paisiello: "Salve tu, domine" from I filosofi immaginarii (13); Anton Diabelli: Waltz (14); Paganini: 24 Caprices, Op. 1 (26-29); Liszt: Grandes études de Paganini, Op. 6 (30).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Berry, Paul. "Old Love: Johannes Brahms, Clara Schumann, and the Poetics of Musical Memory." The Journal of Musicology 24 (Winter 2007): 72-111.

In the works of Johannes Brahms, the use of musical allusions as a compositional procedure is most pronounced in his private genres of song and chamber music. Alte Liebe (1876) is a fascinating example of using musical allusion to create personal connection between words and music, to reveal the composer's private thoughts, and to stir the memory of particular audience, Clara Schumann in this case. Brahms incorporated in the song a six-note melodic segment from a solo piano piece in F-sharp minor that he had presented to Clara five years earlier (later revised and published as Capriccio, Op. 76, No.1). He then asked Julius Stockhausen to sing it to Clara, together with another song (Unüberwindlich), designating her to be the "best to hear them." Unüberwindlich, on Goethe's text describing a drunken man and his lost love, also incorporates an allusion, a literal quotation of the opening of Domenico Scarlatti's keyboard sonata in D major, K. 223. The two songs represent opposite sides of the same coin: one private and melancholically nostalgic and the other public and self-mockingly humorous. Seen from the same light, the former represents a female protagonist, while the latter a male. Both songs parallel recurrences of borrowed melodic segments with resurgences of old Romantic feelings.

Works: Brahms: Alte Liebe, Op. 72, No. 1 (79-111), Unüberwindlich, Op. 72, No. 5 (81-89, 101-6).

Sources: Brahms: Capriccio in F-sharp Minor, Op. 76, No.1 (72-81, 84-85, 88-89, 95-101, 104-11); Domenico Scarlatti, Keyboard Sonata in D Major, K. 223 (81-82, 101-4).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Beyer, Richard. "Das musikalische Selbstzitat: Eigene Musik in anderen Werken nochmals verwendet." Das Orchester: Zeitschrift für Orchesterkultur und Rundfunk-Chorwesen 49 (2001): 20-24.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Birchler, David Carl. "Nature and Autobiography in the Music of Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Biron, Ferand. Le chant gregorien dans l'enseignement et les oeuvres musicales de Vincent d'Indy. Ottawa: Les Editions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 1941.

Vincent d'Indy was heavily influenced by Gregorian plainsong, and this influence was clearly reflected in his musical philosophies, teaching, and compositions. D'Indy's music quotes, paraphrases, or alludes to the style of Gregorian chant in several ways. These are organized according to compositional genre. The use of Gregorian chant fits into d'Indy's musical aesthetic in several ways.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Black, Leo. "Schubert and Fierrabras: A Mind in Ferment." The Opera Quarterly 14 (Summer 1998): 17-39.

The many instances of self-borrowing in Franz Schubert's last completed opera Fierrabras (1823) may be seen as the composer's fervent effort to select the best melody from his repertoire to fit the dramatic situation. For instance, in the first act alone, the overture resembles an earlier song Himmelsfunken, a recurring motive in the opera echoes a similar motive used in the unfinished cantata Lazarus, and many passages resemble passages from Rosamunde and the song cycle Die schöne Müllerin, which were both written around the same time as the opera. Many of these passages are not direct quotations, but rather allusions or slight resemblances to earlier works. Additionally, these cross-references often serve a poetic purpose. For example, the melodic allusion to Blumenlied and Die Forelle in Act I of Fierrabras is an appropriate reference because of the innocence evoked in all three passages. The various quotations, cross-references, and allusions are indicated within a detailed discussion of the musical material of each number.

Works: Schubert: Fierrabras (17-37).

Sources: Schubert: Himmelsfunken (19-20), Lazarus (cantata) (21, 26, 35), Rosamunde (21, 35), Die schöne Müllerin (21-22, 27-28, 35-36), Die Forelle (22, 27), Blumenlied (22, 27), Die abgeblühte Linde (23-24), Abendröthe (24-26, 28), Piano Trio No. 1 in B-flat Major, D. 898 (26-27), Symphony No. 9 in C Major (Great) (26-27, 29, 35-36), Piano Sonata in A Minor, D. 784 (30-31), Sonata for Piano Duet in B-flat Major, D. 617 (32-33), Three Piano Pieces, D. 946 (32-33, 35), Ins stille Land (33-34), Lied der Mignon, D. 877 (33-34), Sonata in A Minor for Arpeggione and Piano, D. 821 (33-34), Totengräbers Heimweh (33, 35).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Blezzard, Judith H. Borrowings in English Church Music, 1550-1950. London: Stainer &Bell, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Block, Adrienne Fried. "Dvorak's Long American Reach." In Dvorak in America, 1892-1895, ed. John C. Tibbetts, 157-81. Portland, Ore: Amadeus, 1993.

Dvorák had a wide-ranging impact on the creation of an American nationalism in music. His ideas about a national American music fall into three different categories, each dealing with a style of folk music. Dvorák felt that American composers should look toward these three folk styles as foundations for their compositions, following the model of his own New World Symphony from 1893. The first category of national American music is Native American music. Composers continued to follow Dvorák's ideas by collecting the music, using previous collections made by ethnologists, and alluding to the culture of the Native American in symphonic and chamber music and opera. The second folk style Dvorák discussed is African-American music. Composers broke into two categories of African-American music, yet they all still were following many of the ideals set forth in the writings of Dvorák. Many composers looked towards the traditions of the Creole people in the South, while others focused mainly on spirituals and other slave songs for the inspiration of various compositions. Finally, composers began looking toward Anglo-American folk traditions, which was the final type of folk music briefly discussed by Dvorák as a basis for a national music. Dvorák was a significant influence on the creation of American music from his entrance into the country until mid-twentieth century.

Works: Works: Dvorák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (158-59); MacDowell: Indian Suite (163); Loomis: Lyrics of the Red Men (163-64); Nevin: Poia (164); Farwell: The Hako (164); Griffes: Two Sketches Based on Indian Themes (164-65); Beach: String Quartet, Op. 89 (165-66); van Brockhoven: Suite Creole (169); Gilbert: Dance in Place Congo (169); Beach: Cabildo (169); Shelly: Carnival Overture (170); Schoenefeld: Suite, Op. 15 (170); Goldmark: Negro Rhapsody (171); Gilbert: Negro Episode (171); Mason: String Quartet in G Minor on Negro Themes (172); Cook: Uncle Tom's Cabin (173); Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (174).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Block, Adrienne Fried. “A ‘Veritable Autobiography’? Amy Beach’s Piano Concerto in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 45.” The Musical Quarterly 78 (Summer 1994): 394-416.

When Beach claimed that a composition may be “a veritable autobiography,” she may have had her Piano Concerto in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 45 in mind, as it borrows from three of her own songs. The text, dedications, and dates of composition suggest that Beach was unhappy with socially constructed constraints on women in music. As a virtuosic pianist, she preferred to be a performer; however, her mother and her husband favored a more private lifestyle and strove to withhold Beach from performing. Her husband in particular advocated that Beach focus on composition instead. Consequently, by 1897 when the piano concerto was composed, Beach was one of America’s foremost composers. The text of the three songs used in the piano concerto, Jeune fille et jeune fleur, Empress of Night, and Twilight, was crucial in Beach’s formation of the melodies; she would repeat the texts until music formed from the words. Thus, the meanings of the texts used in a concerto on the instrument Beach was forbidden to play in public can create a hermeneutical extramusical reading of her piano concerto.

Works: Amy Beach: Piano Concerto in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 45.

Sources: Amy Beach: Jeune fille et jeune fleur, Op. 1, No. 3 (401-4), Empress of Night, Op. 2, No. 3 (404-7), Twilight, Op. 2, No. 1 (406-11).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux

[+] Bloom, Peter Anthony. "'Orpheus' Lyre Resurrected: A Tableau Musical by Berlioz." The Musical Quarterly 61 (April 1975): 189-211.

Berlioz re-used the final adagio of his 1827 entry for the Prix de Rome, the cantata La Mort d'Orphée, in at least five other pieces, each in a slightly altered manner. The unique orchestration of the passage shows Berlioz's expert ability in the combination of instrumental colors for dramatic effect: here, the orchestral suggestion of the sounds of the aeolian harp and its accompanying sense of melancholy. An examination of the first and subsequent versions reveals that one of the more enigmatic features of the work, the inclusion of a dominant 7th in the final chord, is the result of Berlioz's conscious attempt to incorporate musical "fragments" or "shadows" which leave a sense of longing and lack of resolution at the end of the work.

Works: Berlioz: Le Retour à la vie (198-204), Lélio ou Le Retour à la vie (201-4).

Sources: Berlioz: La Mort d'Orphée (esp. 194-98).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Blume, Friedrich. "Bach in the Romantic Era." Translated by Piero Weiss. The Musical Quarterly 50 (July 1964): 290-306.

The revival of Bach's music in the Romantic era is of overwhelming historical significance. The stature of his music continues to grow in the twentieth century. Mention is made of two works based upon the theme B-A-C-H: Schumann's six fugues on B-A-C-H (1845) and Liszt's prelude and fugue on the name of B-A-C-H (1860). Liszt also made an organ arrangement of sections of Bach's Cantata No. 21 in 1855. The more general influence of Bach is evident in Mendelssohn's St. Paul (1836) and Elijah (1846) and in William Sterndale Bennett's oratorio The Woman of Samaria (1867).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Bockmaier, Claus. "Beethoven als Finstere Macht? Zum c-Moll-Allegro der Arie des Max aus Webers 'Freischütz.'" Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 61, no. 2 (2004): 106-16.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Bollard, David. “An Introduction to Liszt’s Weinen, Klagen Variations.” Studies in Music 22 (1988): 48-64.

Franz Liszt’s Weinen, Klagen Variations for piano, published in 1864, are an important example of his piano technique and mature compositional style. The Weinen, Klagen Variations display Liszt’s skillfulness in motivic manipulation, as he transforms and fragments Bach’s original chromatic bass line from Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Sagen, BWV 12, in a multitude of different ways. Liszt also explores various key areas and occasionally obscures the piece’s tonality, exemplifying the composer’s development of a more chromatic harmonic language by the 1860s. Furthermore, Liszt transforms Bach’s original chaconne form into a larger, multipart narrative form typical of his own piano works.

In addition to Bach’s chromatic bass line, Liszt also borrows the chorale tune from the final movement of BWV 12, Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan. The presentation of the tune, however, begets a variety of influences, including church organ, orchestral program music, and Liszt’s own virtuoso pianism. Liszt’s thorough manipulation of the chorale tune may have influenced Alban Berg’s elaborate treatment of the chorale Es ist genug in his Violin Concerto of 1935.

Works: Liszt: Variationen über das Motiv von Bach: Basso continuo des ersten Satzes seiner Kantate ‘Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen’ und des Crucifixus der H-moll Messe (48-64); Alban Berg: Violin Concerto (55).

Sources: Johann Sebastian Bach: Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Sagen, BWV 12 (48-50, 52-53); Liszt: Variationen über das Motiv von Bach: Basso continuo des ersten Satzes seiner Kantate ‘Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen’ und des Crucifixus der H-moll Messe (55).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Bomberger, E. Douglas. "Chadwick's Melpomene and the Anxiety of Influence." American Music 21 (Autumn 2003): 319-48.

Composers of the Second New England School sought to compose music that would satisfy conservative American audiences but also sound unique to the United States. George Chadwick's unacknowledged borrowing from Wagner's Tristan und Isolde in his dramatic overture Melpomene can be analyzed in terms of Harold Bloom's The Anxiety of Influence. Chadwick engages in the first two of Bloom's categories: clinamen (a clear allusion to another work which then swerves into new territory) and tessera (the antithetical completion of another composer's work). For example, Chadwick uses a slow tempo, English horn, and the Tristan chord in the passages that open and close Melpomene, but the middle section is Allegro agitato and contains a sense of urgency not present in Tristan. In Bloom's terms, Chadwick completed what Wagner left incomplete in order to free himself of the burden of his predecessor's influence.

Works: Chadwick: Melpomene (319-23, 329-30, 333-44).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (320-23, 330-44).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Bonds, Mark Evan. "Sinfonia anti-eroica: Berlioz's Harold en Italie and the Anxiety of Beethoven's Influence." Journal of Musicology 10 (Fall 1992): 417-63.

Critics have often noted the structural similarities between the opening of Berlioz's Harold en Italie and that of Beethoven's Ninth. At the opening of the finale, both works reprise then reject themes from earlier movements. Unlike other composers who use this device (Brahms, Bruckner, Mahler, Franck), Berlioz does not conclude with a triumphant chorale-like theme. In fact, the viola protagonist remains passive to events throughout, much in the manner of Byron's Childe Harold. Yet Berlioz is in fact confronting the legacy of the "terrifying giant" Beethoven, following Harold Blooms's notions of the "anxiety of influence." Although other of Berlioz's works (Symphonie fantastique, Lélio, Roméo et Juliette, Symphonie funèbre et triomphale) bear the influence of Beethoven, Harold en Italie shows Berlioz's strongest confrontation with Beethoven's legacy.

Works: Berlioz: Harold en Italie.

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 9.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Borer, Philippe. The Twenty-Four Caprices of Niccolò Paganini: Their Significance for the History of Violin Playing and the Music of the Romantic Era. Zürich: Stiftung Zentralstelle der Studentenschaft der Universität Zürich, 1997.

Within a historical, analytical, and archival study of Paganini's 24 Caprices, Op. 1, is an examination of their influence on contemporaneous pianists and on later composers of violin caprices. Sigismund Thalberg, Robert Schumann, and Franz Liszt all sought to transfer Paganini's 24 Caprices or distinctive techniques from a specific caprice to the piano. In contradistinction, Chopin did not attempt to transfer Paganini's idiom to the piano, although Paganini's Op. 1 may have provided inspiration for his own twenty-four etudes, Op. 10 and Op. 25. Similarly, although Paganini's 24 Caprices exerted influence on later nineteenth-century violin caprices, these works generally do not model the 24 Caprices' serious affect and instead include special effects that suggest the influence of his less serious and often unnotated concert works. Extensive lists of compositions dedicated to Paganini and compositions influenced or based upon his works are included, as well as a facsimile of the autograph manuscript of the 24 Caprices.

Works: Sigismund Thalberg: Prière de Moïse (15-16); Chopin: Etude, Op. 10, No. 1 (19-20), Etude, Op. 10, No. 5 (19-20), 12 Etudes, Op. 25 (19-20); Robert Schumann: 6 Etudes pour le pianoforte d'après les caprices de Paganini, Op. 3 (24-25), 6 Etudes de concert . . . d'après des caprices de Paganini, Op. 10 (24-25, 195-96); Liszt: Grandes Études de Paganini transcrites pour le piano et dédiées à Clara Schumann (30-31).

Sources: Paganini: Introduction and Variations on 'Nel cor più non mi sento' from Paisiello's "La molinara" (15-16), 24 Caprices, Op. 1 (18-20, 24-25, 30-31, 195).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Boyd, Malcolm. "Dies Irae: Some Recent Manifestations." Music and Letters 49 (October 1968): 347-56.

Amplification of Gregory 1953. Quotation of the Dies Irae has been overdone, but some modern works have enriched the symbolism grown around the ancient plainchant melody. Russia especially has most closely associated this melody with the death of a revolutionary hero. Khatchaturian, in his Second Symphony, uses it in the general expresion of mourning of the war 1914-1918. Tchaikovsky's Suite No. 3 lacks a program to explain the chant's presence. In Respighi's Impressioni Brasiliane, the chant portrays the physical characteristics and deadly qualities of snakes. Dallapiccola's Canti di Prigionia uses the chant structurally in an outcry against tyranny and oppression. Pierres and Stevenson use it for similar effect. Some borderline cases are Rachmaninoff's Isle of the Dead and Mahler's Second Symphony. A list (pp. 355-56) of some secular references to the Dies Irae is provided.

Works: Bantock: Macbeth (355); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (347, 348, 355); Dallapiccola: Canti di Prigionia (351, 352, 355); Peter Maxwell Davies: St. Michael (355); Khatchaturian: Symphony No. 2 (348, 350, 355); Kraft: Fantasia Dies Irae for Organ (355); Liszt: Totentanz (351, 355); Mahler: Das klagende Lied (355), Symphony No. 2 (354, 355); Medtner: Piano Quintet (356); Miaskovsky: Symphony No. 6 (348-350, 356); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death, #3 (356); Pierres: A Litany for the Day of Human Rights (352, 356); Pizetti: Requiem (348); Rachmaninoff: The Isle of the Dead (353, 354, 356), The Bells (353, 356), Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (354, 356), Symphonic Dances (354, 356); Respighi: Impressioni brasiliane (351, 356); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (356); Schelling: Victory Ball (356); Sorabji: Variation upon Dies Irae (356), Sequentia cyclica (356); Stevenson: Passacaglia on DSCH (352, 356); Stravinsky: Three Pieces for String Quartet (356); Tchaikovsky: In Dark Hell (356), Suite No. 3 (356); Vaughan-Williams: Five Tudor Portraits (356); Bergman film: The Seventh Seal (356); Fernandel film: The Sheep has Five Legs (356).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Brancaleone, Francis. "Edward MacDowell and Indian Motives." American Music 7 (Winter 1989): 359-81.

MacDowell made frequent use of motives associated with music of the American Indians, although he disavowed the notion that this practice amounted to the creation of an American national music. His principal source of Indian melodies was Theodore Baker's German dissertation Über die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden. MacDowell seems to have been particularly drawn to a "dirge" motive derived from a "Kiowa song of a mother to her absent son" appearing in the Baker, for the motive appears in several works. Compared to similar efforts by his contemporaries, MacDowell finds a method of incorporating Indian motives in his music that is not contextually incongruous and that avoids overwhelming the melodies through over-harmonization.

Works: MacDowell: Sonata tragica, Op. 45, Suite No. 2, "Indian," Op. 48, Woodland Sketches, Op. 51, Sonata No. 3, "Norse," Op. 57, Sea Pieces, Op. 55, Fireside Tales, Op. 61, New England Idyls, Op. 62.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Braun, Hartmut. "Ein Zitat Beziehungen zwischen Chopin und Brahms." Die Musikforschung 25 (July/September 1972): 317-21.

In mm. 63-64 of his Intermezzo, Op. 116, No. 2, Brahms quotes and at the same time distills mm. 33-40 from Chopin's Mazurka, Op. 7, No. 2. Although both harmony and melody correspond only partially, this is a clear case of quotation, in which the two measures point to the complete model: Brahms used the motivic material in question at formally similar places as Chopin and also the key schemes correspond.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Briscoe, James Robert. "Debussy d'après Debussy: The Further Resonance of Two Early Melodies." 19th-Century Music 5 (Fall 1981): 110-16.

A knowledge of Debussy's earliest works is important to the understanding of the development of his personal style. One can compare the first conception of an idea to its further realization in a later work. Two examples are considered: (1) Fête galante (a mélodie of 1882) and its later revision as the menuet of the Petite Suite (1889); and (2) La Fille aux cheveux de lin (a mélodie of ca. 1882-84) and the prelude for piano (Book I, 1910) of the same title. These works demonstrate that Debussy's personal style is already implicit in his earliest works.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Brixel, Eugen. “Original Band Compositions vs. Transcriptions: A European View.” Journal of the World Association for Symphonic Bands and Ensembles 4 (1997): 5-22.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Brodbeck, David. "Primo Schubert, Secondo Schumann: Brahms's Four-hand Waltzes, Op. 39." Journal of Musicology 7 (Winter 1989): 58-80.

Brahms's models for Opus 39 came from Schubert's Twelve Ländler (Op. 171) and Schumann's Davidsbündlertanze. Brahms acknowledged the debt to Schubert, as seen in examples of harmonic similarities and the introduction of counterpoint into simple dance forms. The bipartite division and "double ending" of Opus 39 seems to have been inspired by Schumann's Davidsbündlertanze, which was comprised of two sets of dances ending with two conclusive pieces.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Brooks, William. "Pocahontas: Her Life and Times." American Music 2 (Winter 1984): 19-48.

The 1855 burlesque Pocahontas by John Brougham and James G. Maeder, although laden with humor, including extensive parody, exemplifies both a respect for masterpieces of the past and a newly-developed historical consciousness. Although this is most readily ascertainable through the text of the burlesque, as the music has been lost, reconstruction of the likely musical parodies reveals wit and rapid juxtapositions of high and low genres, intermixed with a sense of a false history. Includes an extensive table of probable sources for the songs in Pocahontas (33).

Works: John Brougham and James G. Maeder: Pocahontas (28, 31, 34, 35-36, 28-43).

Sources: Samuel Lover: Widow Machree (28); Anonymous: Rosin the Bow (31), Hot Corn (36), Wait for the Wagon (36); Bellini: La Sonnambula (34, 37); Verdi: Ernani (35, 38); Stephen Foster: Massa's in de Cold Ground (38, 43), Old Folks at Home (38, 43), Oh! Boys, Carry Me 'Long (38); William Vincent Wallace: Maritana (38, 44); Daniel D. Emmett: De Boatman Dance (38).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Brown, A. Peter. "The Creation and The Seasons: Some Allusions, Quotations, and Models from Handel to Mendelssohn." Current Musicology, no. 51 (1993): 26-58.

Haydn's late oratorios The Creation and The Seasons were performed all over Europe soon after their premieres and became immensely popular throughout the nineteenth century and beyond. Haydn borrowed from some previous traditions and predecessors, and the two oratorios were in turn sources of allusions, quotations, and models to many composers in the German-speaking lands, such as Beethoven, Schubert, Weber, and Mendelssohn, providing many musical, textual, and rhetorical relationships. Haydn borrowed from specific works of Handel, Mozart, and himself, as well as from the general stylistic conventions of opera seria and the Singspiel. The famous representation of chaos leading to the appearance of light employed in The Creation was particularly influential for the next generation of composers, with Beethoven prominent among them. Further source materials were provided by the pastoral setting of both oratorios, spinning choruses, and general representations of nature such as storms and sunrises.

Works: Haydn: The Creation (28-30, 35-39), The Seasons (31-39); Beethoven: The Creatures of Prometheus (40), Fourth Symphony (41), Fifth Symphony (41, 50), String Quartet in C Major, Op. 59, No. 3 (42); King Stephan, Op 117 (42); Leonore Overture No. 3, Op 72 (44), Sixth Symphony (44-47, 50), Second Symphony (48-49), Fidelio (50), Choral Fantasy, Op. 80 (50), Ninth Symphony (50-51); Schubert: "Tragic" Symphony, No. 4, D. 417 (52), "Great" C-Major Symphony, D. 944 (50); Weber: Der Freischütz (52); Mendelssohn: Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream (53).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Luiz Fernando Lopes

[+] Brown, Julie Hedges. "Higher Echoes of the Past in the Finale of Schumann's 1842 Piano Quartet." Journal of the American Musicological Society 57 (Fall 2004): 511-64.

After 1840, the music of Robert Schumann shifted in focus from idiosyncratic piano music toward more traditional instrumental works, reflecting the influence of the composer's past. One movement in particular, the finale of his Piano Quartet in E-flat Major, draws upon more traditional sonata-form techniques and reworks them in unique ways, all while alluding to and subverting earlier works by Schubert, Beethoven, and Schumann himself. For instance, the self-contained arabesque that interrupts the recapitulation is similar to a technique used in Schumann's Piano Fantasy, Op. 17: they both show Schumann challenging (and perhaps usurping) earlier Beethovenian models of sonata form by inserting a discontinuous character piece. Additionally, this unique take on sonata form in the finale recalls the "parallel forms" present in some of Schumann's 1830s piano sonatas, as well as in some earlier models by Schubert including first movement of the Impromptu in F Minor and the finale of the Piano Trio in B-flat major. The subject of Schumann's fugato also seems to draw upon a similar fugal melody from Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata. Finally, there is a musical allusion to the fifth movement of Schumann's own Novelletten, which is particularly meaningful because both works are closely tied to Schumann's relationship with his wife Clara. These reflections of the past taken together are seen as Schumann's way, not of battling with his predecessors, but rather of working with them to create his own unique style.

Works: Robert Schumann: Piano Quartet in E-flat Major, Op. 47 (516-60), String Quartet in A Major, Op. 41 (534), Piano Quintet in E-flat Major, Op. 44 (534).

Sources: Robert Schumann: Fantasie, Op. 17 (519-25, 533, 543-45), Piano Sonata in G Minor, Op. 22 (533-34), Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 14 (533-34), Piano Sonata in F-sharp Minor, Op. 11 (533-34), Novelletten, Op. 21 (545-60); Schubert: Impromptu in F Minor, D. 935 (534-43), Piano Trio in B-flat Major, D. 898 (534-43); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Op. 106 (Hammerklavier) (543).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Brown, Maurice J. E. "Schubert's 'Wanderer' Fantasy." The Musical Times 92 (December 1951): 540-42.

Franz Schubert's Piano Fantasy in C Major, Op. 15 (1822) was given the nickname "Wanderer" because of an apparent borrowing of his famous earlier song Der Wanderer (1816); however, the musical support for this borrowing has never been evaluated. There exists no written evidence of the Fantasy having any connection to the song during Schubert's lifetime, or even almost fifty years after his death. It was not until 1873 that the first published record of the borrowing can be found. The moniker stuck because at this time, the whole work was viewed as a cyclic development of the second movement Adagio theme, which itself had motivic similarities to the song. However, the character of the Adagio theme and the song theme differ slightly, and the C-sharp minor tonality of both melodies may be seen as a result of Schubert's fondness for semitonal key relationships rather than a deliberate quotation. Judging the borrowing as accidental rather than intentional then calls into question analyses that incorporate the song's mood into a discussion of the Fantasy.

Works: Schubert: Fantasy in C major, Op. 15, D. 760 (Wanderer) (540-42).

Sources: Schubert: Der Wanderer, D. 493 (540-42).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Brown, Thomas Alan. The Aesthetics of Robert Schumann. New York: Philosophical Library, 1968.

A number of major Romantic authors, including Jean Paul, Wilhelm Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck, and E. T. A. Hoffmann, had a profound influence on Robert Schumann’s aesthetics. Schumann embraced numerous Romantic concepts as articulated by these authors, including the Romantic genius, the transcendent power of music, and fascination with the historic past. In some form or another, Schumann’s music, writings, and overall philosophy from the early to the mid-1830s reflect these concepts.

As a writer, Schumann echoed Herder and Schiller in his beliefs that the musical genius acts as a cultural critic who improves art and society by exalting other geniuses, while also attacking “musical Philistinism.” Additionally, he draws upon the Romantic writers in his emphasis on musical feeling and sentiment, as well as inspiration over planning when composing. Schumann actively promoted these Romantic-inspired musical aesthetics, especially through his Davidsbund and the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, which greatly impacted the German-speaking music world.

Schumann’s piano music serves as a useful case study for his Romantic aesthetic stance. He actively absorbed and emulated styles of past masters, as seen in the Bachian counterpoint of Novelletten, Op. 21, No. 1. Furthermore, he promoted both past and contemporary geniuses by transcribing or arranging their works, or by borrowing and reworking their melodies. Jean Paul also greatly informed Schumann’s stance on program music and the interaction of music and text, as reflected in works such as Papillons and Carnaval. However, Schumann’s music after 1840 demonstrates a reaction against these Romantic influences, as he begins to favor Classical forms and genres to a much greater degree.

Works: Robert Schumann: Allegro, Op. 8 (34-37), Kinderszenen, Op. 15 (36, 177-79), Fantasiestücke, Op. 12 (36, 54-55), Intermezzos, Op. 4 (36-41, 142, 149), Papillons, Op. 2 (36-38, 70-73, 142, 146, 154-55, 166, 168-74), Davidsbündlertänze, Op. 6 (38-40, 54-56, 91-93), Fantasie in C, Op. 17 (38-42, 67-68), Carnaval: Scènes Mignonnes sur Quatre Notes, Op. 9 (42-43, 70-73, 77-78, 91-94, 142, 148, 164-67, 174-77), Faschingsschwank aus Wien, Op. 26 (73-74), Impromptus, Op. 5 (77, 81-82, 142-43), Album für die Jugend, Op. 68 (77, 84), Studien für das Pianoforte nach Capricen von Paganini, Op. 3 (86-90), Variationen über den Namen Abegg, Op. 1 (91-92), Novelletten, Op. 21 (142, 144-45), Symphonische Etüden, Op. 13 (142, 147), Kreisleriana, Op. 16 (142, 150-51, 178-79), Klavierstücke, Op. 32 (142, 152), Sonata in F-sharp Minor, Op. 11 (157-59), Sonata in F Minor, Op. 14 (157-59), Sonata in G Minor, Op. 22 (159-60).

Sources: Robert Schumann: An Anna II (36), Im Herbste (36), Der Hirtenknabe; Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (73); Anonymous: Groβvater-Tanz (77); Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat Major, Op. 73 (77), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 55 (77), Symphony No. 1 in C Major, Op. 21 (77), Violin Sonata in F Major, Op. 24 (77, 85); Paganini: Caprices, Op. 1 (86-89); Robert Schumann: Intermezzos, Op. 4 (91), Carnaval: Scènes Mignonnes sur Quatre Notes, Op. 9 (91-93), Papillons, Op. 2 (91, 94).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Browner, Tara. "'Breathing the Indian Spirit': Thoughts on Musical Borrowing and the 'Indianist' Movement in American Music." American Music 15 (Fall 1997): 265-84.

The "Indianist" composers of the period 1890-1920 took two approaches to the Native melodies that they used: music as raw material, and music as culture. Edward MacDowell used the Native melodies collected by Theodore Baker in his ‹ber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden (1882). For MacDowell, these tunes were strictly raw musical material, with no reference or attention to tribal sources. Whatever cultural interpretation he made of the music is a generic one based on Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of "cultural evolutionary stages." Arthur Farwell's source of Native melodies came from the work of Alice Fletcher and Francis LaFlesche, whose research focused on the Omaha nation and dealt extensively with cultural context. Ultimately, the Indianist composers sacrificed cultural authenticity as a result of their attempt to make the music accessible for a consumer culture.

Works: Edward MacDowell: Second ("Indian") Suite, Op. 48 (268-71), Second Sonata (Eroica), Op. 50 (271); Arthur Farwell: American Indian Melodies: "The Old Man's Love Song" (277, 279).

Sources: Kiowa melody, collected by Theodore Baker: "Kiowa Song of a Mother to Her Absent Son" (269-71); Omaha melody, collected by Alice Fletcher: "Be-Thae Wa-An" (277-78).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Bruna, Ellen Carole. "The Relationship of Text and Music in the Lieder of Hugo Wolf and Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Budden, Julian. "Verdi and Meyerbeer in Relation to Les vêpres siciliennes." Studi verdiani 1 (1982): 11-20.

Although some scholars claim that in Les vêpres siciliennes Verdi's compositional voice is lost as he engages with Meyerbeer, Verdi's work ultimately suggests inspiration by, rather than surrender to, Meyerbeer. Although Meyerbeer had influenced some of Verdi's operatic works in terms of music-dramatic techniques, Verdi remained at odds with Meyerbeer in terms of approach to structure, as Meyerbeer's strength was not in large-scale development, but in small numbers. With Les vêpres siciliennes, Verdi faced direct comparison to Meyerbeer, as the work was in French and as the libretto was typical of that used by Meyerbeer. In particular, the Sicilienne and the Mélodie from the last act demonstrate Verdi's successful tackling of Meyerbeerian miniatures.

Works: Verdi: Les vêpres siciliennes (11-12, 15-20), Attila (15); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (13).

Sources: Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (11-13, 16), Robert le Diable (15); Martin Luther: Ein Feste Burg (13); Donizetti: Le Duc d'Albe (15-17, 19).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "'Quotation' and Emulation: Charles Ives's Uses of His Models." The Musical Quarterly 71 ([Winter] 1985): 1-26.

It has long been known that Charles Ives borrows from other composers and from himself. These borrowings have generally been labeled quotations. However, quotation is not the only technique Ives uses when he is alluding to other pieces. Others include modeling (emulation), paraphrasing, cumulative setting, and quodlibet. The emphasis of this article is on Ives's use of models since this has not yet been discussed. If a composer models his piece on another, he borrows the structure or reworks musical material to build the framework of the composition. The use of models is the most important factor to consider in tracing the compositional process. Motivic borrowings are only the most visible part of a deeper dependence on the sources, allusions that lead us to the pieces on which Ives modeled his compositions.

Works: Ives: Holiday Quickstep, Slow March, Turn Ye, Turn Ye, Waltz, Study No. 20 for Piano, The One Way, Charlie Rutlage, Serenity, On the Counter, The Celestial Country, West London.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "Charles Ives the Avant-Gardist, Charles Ives the Traditionalist." In Bericht über das Internationale Symposion "Charles Ives und die amerikanische Musiktradition bis zur Gegenwart," Köln 1988, edited by Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller, Manuel Gervink, and Paul Terse, 37-51. Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung, Vol. 164. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "Ives and the Four Musical Traditions." In Charles Ives and His World, ed. J. Peter Burkholder, 3-34. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "Ives and the Nineteenth-Century European Tradition." In Charles Ives and the Classical Tradition, ed. Geoffrey Block and J. Peter Burkholder, 11-33. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Expanded version of "Charles Ives the Avant-Gardist, Charles Ives the Traditionalist."

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "The Evolution of Charles Ives's Music: Aesthetics, Quotation, Technique." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "The Organist in Ives." Journal of the American Musicological Society 55 (Summer 2002): 255-310.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. All Made of Tunes: Charles Ives and the Uses of Musical Borrowing. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. Charles Ives: The Ideas Behind the Music. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Busoni, Ferruccio. The Essence of Music. Translated by Rosamond Ley. London: Rockliff, 1957.

Busoni's "young classicism" views music as a simultaneous mixture of old and new styles, "the mastery, the sifting and the turning to account of all the gains of previous experiments and their inclusion in strong and beautiful forms." He believed (pp. 85-95, 150-51) that Liszt's operatic fantasies are different from the "plebeian pot-pourri" and that the transcription is a legitimate art form, because (1) Bach, Beethoven, Liszt, and Brahms wrote quality transcriptions, (2) notation itself is the transcription of an abstract idea, (3) performances are all transcriptions, (4) some great compositions sound like transcriptions, and (5) transcriptions are like variations, which also change original music.

Works: Liszt: Don Juan Fantasy (89-95), transcription of Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique (151).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Cadenbach, Rainer. "'Das Werk will nur Musik sein': Zitate in Max Regers Kompositionen." Reger-Studien 2 (1986): 73-104.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cantrell, Byron. "Three B's--Three Chaconnes." Current Musicology, no. 12 (1971): 63-74.

The chaconnes in Bach's unaccompanied Violin Partita in D minor, Beethoven's Thirty-Two Variations in C minor for piano, and the finale of Brahms's Symphony No. 4 in E minor are similar in many respects. Bach's Partita was not published until twenty years after Beethoven's death, thus it was impossible for Beethoven to have known Bach's work. Brahms, on the other hand, having transcribed the Bach chaconne for piano left hand and practiced Beethoven's Thirty-two Variations, borrowed the themes from both Bach and Beethoven and incorporated them in the finale of his Symphony No. 4. A comparison of the treatment of meter, accents, harmonic structure, rhythmic movements, paired variations, ostinato, tetrachord, rondo form, contrapuntal devices, and sequences well illustrates the differences and similarities among the three composers in applying the old Baroque chaconne form, and the various degree of departure they made from the tradition.

Works: Brahms: Symphony No. 4 in E Minor, Op. 98 (69-72).

Sources: J. S. Bach: Violin Partita No. 2 in D Minor, BWV 1004 (64-66); Beethoven: Thirty-Two Variations on an Original Theme in C Minor for Piano, WoO 80 (67-69).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Carner, Mosco. "The Exotic Element in Puccini." The Musical Quarterly 22 (January 1936): 45-67.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Carr, Cassandra I. "Charles Ives's Humor as Reflected in His Songs." American Music 7 (Summer 1989): 123-39.

Although Ives's writings discuss concepts of sardonic wit in composition, his songs reveal a wide range of expression of humor, which became more complex over the course of his career. His humorous compositions can be categorized into at least four categories: parody, whimsical reminiscence, philosophical humor, and exaggerated insignificance. Ives's techniques of humor often do not rely on musical borrowing, but rather from outlandish performance directions, general stylistic allusions, or incongruous juxtapositions of styles. Nonetheless, musical borrowing can contribute to the humor.

Works: Ives: The Side Show (125, 129-31).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Carroll, Charles Michael. "Musical Borrowing--Grand Larceny or Great Art?" College Music Symposium 18 (Spring 1978): 11-18.

The exclusive right of the artist to the benefits that accrue from his or her intellectual property is a characteristic of modern culture. Borrowing is a common phenomenon, and exists in three types: (1) self-borrowing, or use of themes from one piece in another; (2) borrowing which is done as an obvious tribute or burlesque of the original, and (3) unacknowledged borrowing. Modern sensitivities consider this latter type of borrowing to be outright theft. The eighteenth century acknowledged but did not condemn this type of borrowing.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Cavallini, Ivano. "Gustav Mahler fra epigonismo romantico e musica nuova." M.A. thesis, University of Padova, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Choi, Yun Jung. “The Use of the Polish Folk Music Elements and the Fantasy Elements in the Polish Fantasy on Original Themes in G-Sharp Minor for Piano and Orchestra, Opus 19 by Ignacy Jan Paderewski.” DMA diss., University of North Texas, 2007.

Ignacy Jan Paderewski’s Polish Fantasy, Op. 19 follows the conventions of the piano fantasy genre and one-movement concerto forms. The work contains original folk-inspired themes that borrow characteristics from the Mazur, Krakowiak, and Oberek Polish folk dances, which can be identified throughout the work. Particularly, the theme from the rondo section shares similar rhythmic patterns and melodic direction as the Krakowiak melody Albośmy to jacy tacy. The rhythmic pattern of the Mazur can also be found in other works by Paderewski, such as the third piece of his from Dances Polonaises, Op. 9. A comparison with Chopin’s Mazurkas and the Piano Concerto in E Minor, Op. 11, demonstrates how stylistic allusions from Polish folk dances can be incorporated into original themes.

Works: Ignacy Jan Paderewski: Polish Fantasy, Op. 19.

Sources: Anonymous: Albośmy to jacy tacy (23).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Chou, Chien. "Variation Procedure in Rachmaninoff's Piano Works." D.M. document, Boston University, 1994.

The musical continuity in Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini represents the culmination of his approach to writing a set of variations explored in his earlier pieces as well as in those of his predecessors. Through such continuity he resolves the stop-and-start method that composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, and Brahms employed in variation writing: the breaks that occur when one variation ends on a cadence and the next one begins at once. Musical continuity in the variation process was not new but was revitalized by Rachmaninoff, who focuses more on the variations as a whole rather than on their individuality. Within such continuity, his variation sets are connected to his models. For example, in the Corelli Variations, the majority of the variations retain the regular phrase structure, similar length, and simplicity of the Folia melody. In the Paganini Rhapsody, Rachmaninoff's use of chromaticism, particularly in the introduction, is a direct reference to the chromatic contrary motion that resolves the augmented-sixth harmony in the penultimate measure of the original Paganini theme.

Works: Rachmaninoff: Variations on a Theme of Chopin, Op. 22 (19-26), Variations on a Theme of Corelli, Op. 42 (26-33), Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43 (34-205).

Sources: Chopin: Prelude, Op. 28, No. 20 (23-24); Corelli: Violin Sonata, Op 5, No. 12 (30); La Folia melody (30); Paganini: Caprice in A Minor, Op.1, No. 24 (42-44).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Christensen, Cheryl. "Melodic Motive and the Narrative Path in Edvard Grieg's Haugtussa, Op. 67." Indiana Theory Review 23 (Spring-Fall 2002): 1-21.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Christensen, Thomas. "Four-Hand Piano Transcription and Geographies of Nineteenth-Century Musical Reception." Journal of the American Musicological Society 52 (Summer 1999): 255-98.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Churgin, Bathia. "Beethoven and Mozart's Requiem: A New Connection." Journal of Musicology 5 (Fall 1987): 457-77.

The discovery of Beethoven's précis and analysis of the Kyrie fugue from Mozart's Requiem on a sketchleaf containing a draft for the Credo fugue Et vitam venturi of the Missa Solemnis on the reverse side raises the question, whether Beethoven used this piece as a model for his fugue. The following findings reinforce the assumption of a close connection: (1) Beethoven most probably made the Mozart copy during his work on the Credo and Gloria portions of the Mass. (2) The Gloria subject features similarities of gesture (with Mozart's countersubject) and presentation (with Mozart's subject, first in the bass). (3) Like the Mozart example, the Credo fugue is a double fugue. (4) The pairing of subject and countersubject in the Credo exposition involves the same voices. (5) Like Mozart, Beethoven makes extensive use of the compound 4/4 meter in his Gloria.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Clark, Maribeth. "The Quadrille as Embodied Musical Experience in 19th-Century Paris." The Journal of Musicology 19 (Summer 2002): 503-26.

Although the French quadrille of the 1830s and 1840s has often received censure for its limited expressive qualities and aesthetically detrimental arrangements, the dance was a critical nexus in Parisian musical life, connecting the worlds of "high" and "low" culture and often serving as the public's first point of contact with operas. With the standardization of the form of the quadrille around 1820, it began to receive criticism for the mechanical quality of the dancing it supported. Although some attacked the genre's poor arrangements, the quadrille both directly and indirectly could benefit the operas from which it drew tunes. Quadrilles did not always destroy the music they borrowed; French composers typically did not use irregular phrases or rhythms, and melodies such as Auber's often are readily suited to dance arrangement. Furthermore, although quadrilles could break up the narrative of the opera from which melodies were drawn, often the sheet music covers or performances might allude to or seek to recreate the narrative of the original.

Works: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Tolbecque: Pantalon from Guillaume Tell (520), La Muette de Portici (520-22); Louis Antoinie Jullien: La Muette de portici (522-23), Les Huguenots (523).

Sources: Auber: La Muette de Portici (520, 523).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Clark, Maribeth. "Understanding French Grand Opera through Dance." Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1998.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Combe, Charles-Henry. "Les Citations d'hymnes nationaux chez Debussy." Revue Musicale de Suisse romande 39 (March 1986): 19-27.

Humor and programmatic effect are the two primary reasons for Debussy's musical borrowings. Debussy draws his borrowed material from classical music, popular songs, and national anthems. These points are illustrated through detailed analyses of pieces in which Debussy incorporates national anthems.

Works: Chabrier: Souvenirs de Munich (20); Debussy: "Golliwog's Cake-walk" from Children's Corner (20), "La Boite à joujoux," from Images oubliées (20), "Jardins sous la pluie" from Estampes (20), "Rondes de printemps" from Images (20), 9th Prelude (Book II) (20), Berceuse heroique (20, 22-23), En blanc et noir (second piece) (20, 23-26), "Feux d'artifice" from Préludes, Book II (21); Fauré: Fantasie en forme de quadrille sur des motifs du Ring (20); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (20); Clementi: Symphony No. 3 in G Major, "Great National Symphony" (21).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (20); Mendelssohn: "Wedding March" from Midsummer Night's Dream (20); Arne: God Save the King (20-22); Campenhout, François van: "Brabançonne" (20, 22-23); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (21-22, 24, 26); Luther: Ein feste Burg (24-25); Haydn: Symphony in G Major, Hob. I:100, "Military" (24)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Conati, Marcello. "Verdi et la culture parisienne des années 1830." In La vie musicale en France au XIXe siècle, vol. 4, La musique à Paris dan les années mil huit cent trente, ed. Peter Bloom, 209-25. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 1987.

[from AG's dissertation: "According to Conati, Verdi saw both Milan productions of Robert le diable, modeling portions of Macbeth (1847) and possibly Giovanna d' Arco (1845) on Meyerbeer's work, whether in certain touches of instrumentation, the role of the grotesque, or abandoning of formal conventions in some places."]

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Cone, Edward T. "Schubert's Beethoven." The Musical Quarterly 56 (October 1970): 779-93. Reprinted in The Creative World of Beethoven, ed. Paul Henry Lang, 277-91. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

Schubert's last three piano sonatas, composed during the summer of 1828, borrow from or are modeled on works by Beethoven. Schubert may have been insecure about this particular musical form and subsequently turned to Beethoven's works for help. Detailed examples of Schubert rondos that may have been modeled on Beethoven rondos support this hypothesis.

Works: Schubert: Sonata in C Minor (780), Sonata in B Flat Major (780), Sonata in A Major (782-86), Rondo in A Major for Piano Duet, Op. 107 (788-93).

Sources: Beethoven: Thirty-two Variations on an Original Theme in C minor, WoO 80 (780), String Quartet in B-flat major, Op. 130 (780-82), Piano Sonata No. 16 in G major, Op. 31, No. 1 (782-86), Piano Sonata No. 27 in E minor, Op. 90 (788-93).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Cone, Edward T. The Composer's Voice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

In examining the composition and performance of musical works, the question of persona is raised: whose persona does the music represent--that of the composer, the performer, or (in the case of vocal music) the character portrayed by the performer? With respect to musical borrowing, the relevant question is: whose voice or persona is speaking in the borrowed material, the original composer's or the borrower's? In the case of self-borrowing by a vocal composer, it is the composer's own voice, rather than that of the poet whose text he or she originally set, that speaks through the borrowed material (p. 41). In an instrumental transcription of a vocal work, the vocal melody retains its original textual associations, thereby preserving the original composer's voice despite the removal of the text (pp. 76-78). When the situation is reversed, as in a popular vocal arrangement of an instrumental classic, the original composer's persona is still felt, as is the case with arrangements of Chopin and Tchaikovsky melodies (p. 45). Concerning the transcription of an existing instrumental work for a new instrumental combination, the integrity of the transcription (its preservation of the original composer's voice) rests on its use of a restricted choice of instrumentation (p. 108). Lastly, folk-tune or anthem borrowings can seem ridiculous if they are too obvious, where the original composer's voice completely overpowers the borrower's persona, disrupting the new piece. Puccini's use of The Star-Spangled Banner in Madama Butterfly is a prime example of this (p. 162).

Works: Brahms: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano left hand); Busoni: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano); Liszt: Liebestraum No. 3, Sonnets of Petrarch; Puccini: Madama Butterfly ; Webern: Ricercar a 6 voci by J. S. Bach (arr. for orchestra).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Edward D. Latham

[+] Cooke, Nym. "American Psalmodists in Contact and Collaboration, 1770-1820. Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Cooper, Barry. Beethoven and the Creative Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Within a wider survey of Beethoven's compositional methods, the author discusses the composer's reworkings of his own previous material (chapter 5, 59-74). Beethoven's distinctive style can be said to derive to a large extent from a stock of musical ideas that recur throughout his work; these may be rhythmic motives and harmonic progressions, or larger-scale tonal patterns and formal devices. Consideration of sketch material is particularly helpful in understanding this, as it shows how many ideas that were initially rejected in one piece would be "salvaged" for the purposes of another. Beethoven tended to borrow in a more detailed fashion from unpublished material, whereas reference to previously published works was usually considerably more general.

Works: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 109 (62), String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132 (62), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (64), Piano Sonata in C Major, Op. 53 ("Waldstein") (65), Bagatelle in A-flat Major, Op. 33, No. 7 (66), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (66).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Cooper, Barry. Beethoven's Folksong Settings. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Cooper, Martin. "The Fickle Philistine." Opera News (April 1960): 8-12.

Arthur Sullivan, had he been free of the repressive Victorian mood, would have been one of Europe's greatest composers. However, the philistine repugnance of the English towards expressed emotion forced him to treat his serious opera aspirations in a farcical manner. Instead of developing his own operatic talents, he relied upon burlesquing or copying other masters including Schubert, Donizetti, and Bellini. This imitation was extended to his serious works, including melodic derivations from Mendelssohn.

Works: Sullivan: The Light of the World (11), Princess Ida (11), The Yeoman of the Guard (11), Ivanhoe (12).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Cooper, Martin. "The Symphonies." In The Music of Tchaikovsky, ed. Gerald Abraham, 24-46. 2d ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1974.

This very general article on Tchaikovsky's symphonies makes note of several instances of borrowing or modeling, especially in terms of quoted folk songs (first and last movement of the Second Symphony) and operatic influences. The latter concern mainly the last three symphonies, including distinctively operatic phrases, repeated climaxes mounting almost to hysteria, sudden brutal interruptions, and others. The finale of the Sixth Symphony may possibly be modeled on the last act of Verdi's Otello, emulating the atmosphere and orchestration of Otello's appearance.

Works: Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 4 (27, 42), Symphony No. 3 (32-33, 255), Symphony No. 2 (33, 35f.), Symphony No. 6 (40), Symphony No. 1 (40, 255).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 (27); Folk song: Down by Mother Volga (32); Tchaikovsky: Undine (33, 39), Piano Sonata in C sharp Minor, Op. 80 (40).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Coppola, Catherine. “The Elusive Fantasy: Genre, Form, and Program in Tchaikovsky’s ‘Francesca da Rimini.’” 19th-Century Music 22 (Autumn 1998): 169-89.

Varying definitions and expectations about the fantasy as a genre have resulted in a devaluation of both Tchaikovsky and his music, but a survey of nineteenth-century fantasies and an examination of definitions of the term show that the techniques for which Tchaikovsky is often criticized in his symphonic works were consistent with a contemporary understanding of the fantasy. The term “fantasy” was applied to works based upon their design rather than their use of borrowed or original material. There are four main processes that are important to the fantasy: the overall structure’s relationship to established forms, developmental processes within the fantasy, types of interruption, and methods of linkage. Methods of linkage are especially important because of the fantasy’s discontinuous nature, and in works based on existing themes, transitional passages tend to link incongruous sections. Historically, fantasies have been divided into various categories, including a four-fold typology by Czerny that considered the “Fantasia Forming a Pot-pourri” as his fourth category; this category consisted of “beautiful melodies of favorite operas, tastefully and connectedly strung together.” These fantasies were valued for their use of variation in linking passages. Marx also considered the musical potpourri as a type of fantasy. The melodies in Francesca da Rimini resemble many of the motives found in Wagner’s Die Walküre, and while the works share topical similarities such as forbidden love, the strong resemblances may be read as acknowledgement of Tchaikovsky’s desire to free himself from the expectations of conventional symphonic form.

Works: Tchaikovsky: Francesca da Rimini (170, 181-88).

Sources: Wagner: Die Walküre (183-85).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Cowell, Henry, and Sidney Cowell. Charles Ives and His Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1955; 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Crisp, Deborah. "Liszt's Monument to Bach: The Variations on Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen for Solo Piano." Musicology Australia 21 (1998): 37-49.

Franz Liszt's 1859 variations on the theme from J. S. Bach's cantata Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12 effectively transforms Bach's structurally and tonally restrictive passacaglia theme into a large-scale, goal-oriented work. The theme is short and harmonically closed and thus has the potential to be repetitive and static. To create forward momentum, Liszt incorporates the suspensions of the theme into many of the variations and dovetails many phrases, a technique used by Bach, to drive the piece forward and conceal the regularity of the repeating passacaglia theme. Additionally, he creates large-scale form and goal direction by ending the set of variations with a statement of the chorale from Bach's cantata, providing a focal point for the developmental process. Liszt turns the genre of the Baroque passacaglia into a more Romantic theme and variations genre by incorporating a more pianistic texture, chromatic harmony, and freer use of the theme as the variations progress. While this work is four times longer than Bach's set of variations in the cantata, the overall structure of the new work reflects the narrative of the original, which can be construed as Lizst's method of paying homage to Bach.

Works: Franz Liszt: Variations on a Theme from "Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen," S. 180 (37-49).

Sources: J. S. Bach: Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12 (37-49).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Cudworth, Charles. "Ye Olde Spuriosity Shoppe." Notes 12 ([Month] 1954): (I) 25-40, (II) 533-53.

Index Classifications: General, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cummings, Craig C. "Large-Scale Coherence in Selected Nineteenth-Century Piano Variations." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Dale, Catherine. "The Mirror of Romanticism: Images of Music, Religion, and Art Criticism in George Sand's Eleventh Lettre d'un voyageur to Giacomo Meyerbeer." Romanic Review 87, no. 1 (1996): 83-112.

In letters written between 1834 and 1836, Georges Sand traced the developments of Romanticism and provided a narrative for its artistic, religious, and social aspects. Giacomo Meyerbeer's borrowing of Martin Luther's Ein feste Burg in Les Huguenots is one such example of an emerging Romantic aesthetic. Even though Meyerbeer turned to an older German chorale form in his opera, he updated it to become Romantic by using the tune as "local color" for crowd scenes on the stage and in particular for Huguenots. Meyerbeer effectively truncated the tune in a culminating scene in Act V, in which Catholic assassins enter, and the Huguenots stop singing it. Throughout the opera, Ein feste Burg signifies perseverance in the face of religious persecution.

Works: Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (92-93).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (92).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Dale, S. S. "Musical Quotations." The Musical Opinion 96 (September 1973): 623-27.

Dale lists works (from Beethoven till present) that include quotations. They can be grouped into pieces (1) quoting Dies Irae, (2) quoting Beethoven, (3) by Wagner quoting other works, (4) by Borodin, Elgar, and Ives quoting other works, (5) in which Schumann was quoting, and (6) by other composers. The principle of quoting is clearly separate from parody, the stylistic imitation of an other composer, which is not included in this essay.

Works: Borodin: The Valiant Knights (626); Elgar: The Music Makers (626); Ives: An Elegy for Stephen Foster (626).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Danuser, Hermann. "Aspekte einer Hommage-Komposition: Zu Brahms' Schumann-Variationen op. 9." In Brahms-Analysen. Referate der Kieler Tagung 1983, ed. Friedhelm Krummacher and Wolfram Steinbeck, 91-106. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1984.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Danzinger, Gustav. "Die 2. Symphonie von Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Daverio, John. "Brahms, Mozart and the Anxiety of Influence." Paper read at the AMS New England chapter meeting, New England Conservatory, 6 February 1988.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Daverio, John. "Schumann's 'Im Legendenton' and Friedrich Schlegel's Arabeske." 19th-Century Music 11 (Fall 1987): 150-63.

Schumann's Piano Fantasy in C Major, Op. 17, contains both a direct quotation of and several allusions to "Nimm sie hin denn diese Lieder" from Beethoven's song cycle An die ferne Geliebte. The quotation fulfills several functions. First, it provides one of the thematic connections between the slow inserted section called "Im Legendenton" and the surrounding movement in sonata form. Second, the literal quotation in the coda can be seen as the climax toward which the whole movement develops. This view is supported not only by the increasing clarity of the quotation (from allusion in the exposition to clearer allusion in the section called "Im Legendenton" to literal quotation in the coda) but also by the fact that the Fantasy opens quasi in medias res on a dominant ninth chord. Rather than analyzing the Fantasy as developing from a theme, there is the option to analyze it as developing toward a theme. Other quotations in the Fantasy are mentioned only briefly.

Works: Schumann: Piano Fantasy in C Major, Op. 17 (151-53, 156-58).

Sources: Schubert: Die Gebüsche, D. 646 (151), Der Fluss, D. 693 (151); Beethoven: Wo die Berge so blau, Op. 98, no. 2 (151, 156-58).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Davis, Merilyn Mather. "A Comparative Analysis of Musical Texture as Found in Selected Symphonies of Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1970.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] De Leeuw, Reinbert. "Charles Ives, Zijn Muziek: Inleidung, Ives' Gebruik van Muzikall Materiaal." In Charles Ives, by J. Bernlef and Reinbert de Leeuw, 133-209. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1969. Translated by Bertus Polman, in Student Musicologists at Minnesota 6 (1975-76): 128-91.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] De Pillecyn, Jürgen. "Schumanniaanse technieken en modellen bij Brahms." Revue belge de musicologie 44 (1990): 133-52.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Dean, Winton. "Bizet's Self-Borrowings." Music and Letters 41 (July 1960): 238-44.

Self-borrowing occurs for many reasons, such as creative impotence, haste, or desire to reuse an especially felicitous phrase. For Bizet, it was an effort to make use of cast-aside or unfinished materials that otherwise might not have been completed. His self-borrowings were always from unpublished works and those which had never been performed; thus, his borrowing could go undetected during his lifetime. Reworkings include reuse of an entire movement or aria, or adaptation of an older theme to a new context.

Works: Bizet: Symphony in C Major (240, 241), Vasco de gama (240), Le golfe de Bahia (240), Ivan IV (240), Te Deum (240), Don Procopio (240), Clovis et Clotilde (241), Marche funèbre (241), "Le doute" (241), "La coupe de Roi de Thulé" (242, 243), Grisélidis (243), "La jolie fille de Perth" (243), Don Rodrigue (244), L'Arlesienne (244).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Decsey, Ernst. Anton Bruckner: Versuch eines Lebens. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1920.

This book is divided into three sections: a biography, a psychological profile, and a discussion of his music. The discussion of stylistic borrowings is located in the second section along with discussions of how he relates to church music, how he relates to other people and their opinions and music, and how he relates to his own music. Specific borrowings are considered in the last section, where Decsey discusses each of Bruckner's major works with an eye to the sociological implications associated with each. Biographical reasons for compositional style are proposed and substantiated with sketches, writings, or conjecture. Decsey attempts to lay to rest critics of Bruckner, especially those who decry "formlessness," and "massiveness" in his music.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Del Mar, Norman. Richard Strauss: A Critical Commentary on His Life and Works. 3 vols. London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1962, 1969, and 1972.

Throughout this thorough examination of Strauss's life and works, musical borrowings are cited in music of every genre in which Strauss composed. There is a separate list of self quotations for Ein Heldenleben in vol. 1, p. 177.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Delage, Roger, and F. Durif. "Emmanuel Chabrier en Espagne." Revue de musicologie 56, no.2 (1970): 175-207.

Chabrier's excursion to Spain proved to be highly influential on his style. In letters sent to his friends and family, he recounts experiences and notates music later utilized inEspaña , including melodic ideas and distinctive regional dance rhythms.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Delage, Roger. "Ravel and Chabrier." The Musical Quarterly 61 (October 1975): 546-52.

Ravel himself acknowledged his great debt to the music of Chabrier. There are few works by Ravel which do not to some extent echo one or another work by Chabrier. Some specific allusions are noted. Ravel's harmonic procedures are also influenced by Chabrier.

Works: Ravel: Pavane pour une infante défunte (547), Jeux d'eau (550), "Ondine" and "Scarbo" from Gaspard de la Nuit (550), Alborada del graciozo (550), Rapsodie espagnole (550), Vocalise en forme de habanera (550), La Valse (550), Histories naturelles (551).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Derr, Ellwood. "Beethoven's Long-Term Memory of C.P.E. Bach's Rondo in E flat, W. 61/1 (1787), Manifest in the Variations in E flat for Piano, Opus 35 (1802)." The Musical Quarterly 70 (Winter 1984): 45-76.

Beethoven considered his Op. 35 to be entirely original, but in fact the theme and many significant details of the work are based upon C. P. E. Bach's Rondo in E flat. Beethoven came in contact with Bach's keyboard works in his years at Bonn. The theme of Op. 35, derived from the Bach, is also used in the Contredanse in E-flat WoO 14/7, the finale of the music for The Creatures of Prometheus, Op. 43, and the finale of the Third Symphony (Eroica). In the dynamics of long-term memory, several specific items are remembered in the context of a more general memory and reproduction of the memory involves elaboration and revision. Both of these aspects in the workings of long-term memory are evident in Beethoven's unconscious recollection of the work by Bach.

Works: Beethoven: Variations in E-flat, Op. 35 (passim), Contredanse in E-flat, WoO 14/7 (48, 53), Prometheus, Op. 43 (48).

Sources: C. P. E. Bach: Rondo in E-flat, W. 61/1 (passim).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Dienst, Karl. "Die 'Marseiller Hymne der Reformazion.'" Zeitschrift der Luther-Gesellschaft 59, no. 1 (1988): 29-44.

Luther's chorale Ein feste Burg represents not only a religious message but also a symbol of the identity of all Protestants. Its many settings reflect both its religious and its cultural impact. Many composers identified with the revolutionary spirit the Reformation and saw the potential of the tune as a symbol of the time and its historical significance. Depending on the political context in which composers used the tune, the meaning of it changed. For example, Meyerbeer used it in Les Huguenots as a gesture to Protestantism, even though the tune was not necessarily a historical emblem for Huguenots. Mendelssohn's symphonic setting added a programmatic element to the tune. Debussy, on the other hand, used the tune in wartime by evoking it as a symbol of German aggression. He juxtaposed the tune with French anthem, La Marseillaise, which musically triumphs over Ein feste Burg in the end. The various settings of the tune also allow it to assume a multifarious spectrum in that it can be meaningful in an ecumenical sense. Essentially, it became a "banner Lied" for faithful believers and critics across centuries of use.

Works: Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (36); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (37-39); Debussy: En blanc et noir (39-40).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (29-34, 40-41).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Dill, Heinz J. "Romantic Irony in the Works of Robert Schumann." The Musical Quarterly 73 ([Spring] 1989): 172-95.

Irony in Schumann is explained by comparing his compositional techniques with those found in Heinrich Heine and Jean Paul Richter. In Romantic literature, irony resulted from the principle that the author should hold a position above the work and himself; he should not unconsciously get lost in the creative process but control it by introducing a stage of consciousness, which is achieved by irony. Irony breaks up coherent units, as does quotation in a musical piece; it creates dialectical tension. For Schumann, quotation (irony) solved another problem: it imbued Classic rhetoric with new life, and at the same time freed him of the demand for "desperate independence" from his predecessors.

Works: Schumann: Carnaval (176, 186-87), Intermezzo, Op. 4, No. 2 (176), Symphony No. 2 (176, 179), Fantasy in C Major (176), Papillons (176), Faschingsschwank aus Wien (176), Die beiden Grenadiere (176), Davidsbündlertänze (176, 186-87), Piano Sonata in F-sharp Minor (178-79).

Sources: Schubert: Gretchen am Spinnrade (176); Schumann: Carnaval (176, 187), Papillons (176, 187); Beethoven: An die ferne Geliebte (176,179); Grossvatertanz (176-77); Rouget de Lisle: Marseillaise (176-77).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Döhring, Sieghart. "Reminiscences: Liszts Konzeption der Klavierparaphrase." In Festschrift Heinz Becker zum 60. Geburtstag am 26. Juni 1982, ed. Jürgen Schläder and Reinhold Quandt, 131-51. Bochum: Laaber-Verlag, 1982.

In evaluations of Liszt's works his keyboard transcriptions and paraphrases are often ignored or considered only for their advances in pianistic techique. The analyses of three paraphrases, all composed in 1841 and called Reminiscences, reveal Liszt's unique formal approach to each. His results superseded mere objective recounting of popular themes; instead, Liszt produced condensed, subjective interpretations of the original operatic works, expressed in pure keyboard style.

Works: Liszt: Reminiscences de Norma (132-36), Reminiscences de Don Juan (136-39), Reminiscences de Robert le Diable (140-47).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Dömling, Wolfgang. "'En songeant au temps . . . à l'espace': Über einige Aspekte der Musik Hector Berlioz." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 33 (1976): 241-60.

Several features of Berlioz's music create an effect of discontinuity, among which is quotation. Specific instances include the offstage use of the Dies Irae and the quotation of the "aeolian harp" section (originally in La Mort d'Orphée) in Lélio.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Drabkin, William. "Beethoven, Liszt, and the 'Missa solemnis.'" In Liszt and the Birth of Modern Europe, ed. Michael Saffle and Rossana Dalmonte, 237-52. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2003.

Although Liszt's Missa solemnis (1853) is indebted to Beethoven's Missa solemnis (1823), Liszt did not "appropriate" Beethoven's techniques but differentiated his work. Liszt's admiration for Beethoven's music is well illustrated in the fact that he frequently performed, conducted, and taught Beethoven's works. Liszt would have used Beethoven's Missa solemnis as a model for his first large-scale choral piece, written for the consecration of a new basilica. There are several musical parallels, movement by movement, between Beethoven's and Liszt's masses. As an example of the structural parallels, the two composers distinguished the Credo from other movements tonally. In scoring, the similar opening in the two Kyries goes beyond mere coincidence, yet after that Liszt deploys a distant key while Beethoven uses a home key. In thematic relationships, Liszt distinguished himself from Beethoven?s thematic recall and transformation in contrast with Beethoven's use of different themes for each movement as well as his limited recall of thematic motives. Liszt's references to Beethoven?s monumental piece are a natural outcome of his seeking the model for a cyclic mass; in that genre, Beethoven?s serves as an essential model.

Works: Liszt: Missa solemnis (240-46, 248-52).

Sources: Beethoven: Missa solemnis (240, 247-52).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Dratwicki, Alexandre, and Cécile Duflo. "Divertissements et quadrilles sous l'Empire et la Restauration." Revue de musicologie 90, no. 1 (2004): 5-54.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Dreyfuss, Anny Kessous. "D'un Psaume de Benedetto Marcello à une Mélodie juive de Charles Valentin Alkan: Le parcours d'un Air." Acta Musicologica 78 (2006): 55-74.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Dubitsky, Franz. "'Ein feste Burg' und 'B-A-C-H' in Werken der Tonkunst." Musikalisches Magazin 61 (1914): 3-22.

Luther's Ein feste Burg resembles the B-A-C-H motive in that it signifies something outside of its musical character. In addition, Ein feste Burg begins with four memorable notes, comparable not only to the four notes of B-A-C-H but also to the striking four-note opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. Insofar as Ein feste Burg has a broader function outside of its musical characteristics, it epitomizes the powerful and energetic voice of evangelical Christianity, in a tradition began by Luther. Bach felt deeply moved by the religious sentiments of the tune and set it in a cantata with eight movements. Meyerbeer altered the tune more than Bach did and subjected it to various musical treatments, including theme and variations as well as parody, in Les Huguenots. The Romantic generation in particular responded to the tune in various compositional manners, especially by means of reinstrumentation and paraphrase technique, including settings by Mendelssohn, Nicolai, and many others. Wagner set the tune in his Kaisermarsch in order to evoke the sense of driving away the enemy. All of these settings discussed seek to maintain the spirit of the tune. The prolific uses of the tune reinforce the religious connotations that Luther intended. Although the B-A-C-H motive is not specifically associated with a source, many composers, including Schumann, Rimsky-Korsakov, Liszt, and others incorporate it in various ways into their works.

Works: J. S. Bach: Ein feste Burg, BWV 720 (7); Beethoven: Gott ist eine feste Burg, WoO 188 (7); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (8); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (9-10); Nicolai: Kirchliche Fest-Ouvertüre über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Heinrich Karl Breidenstein: Grosse Variationen über "Ein feste Burg" für Orgel (10); Friedrich Lux: "Ein feste Burg" Konzertfantasie für Orgel (10); H. Schellenberg: Fantasie über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Karl Stern: Präludium und Fuge über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Karl August Fischer: Präludium und Fuge über "Ein feste Burg" für Orgel mit Blasinstrumenten (10); Wagner: Kaisermarsch (11); Raff: Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, Op. 127 (11-12); Reinecke: Zur Reformationsfeier (12); Heinrich Schulz-Beuthen: Reformationssinfonie (12); Richard Bartmuss: Liturgischen Feiern No. 5, Reformation (13); Heinrich Pfannschmidt: Reformationsfestspeil (13); Hans Fährmann: Fantasie und Doppelfuge für Orgel über "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott," Op. 28 (13); Reger: Chorale fantasia "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (14), Schumann: Sechs Fugen über den Namen Bach, Op. 60 (16-17); Rimsky-Korsakov: Sechs Stücker über BACH, Op. 10 (17-18); Liszt: Präludium und Fuge über Bach (18-19); Wilhelm Middelschultes: Kanonische Fantasie über BACH und Fugue über vier Themen von J. S. Bach (19); Hans Fährmann: Orgelsonata in B moll, Op. 17 (19-20), Vorspiel und Doppelfuge für Orgel (20); Georg Schumann: Passacaglia und Finale für Orgel, Op. 39 (20).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (7-8).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Edson, Jean Slater. Organ-Preludes: An Index to Compositions on Hymn Tunes, Chorales, Plainsong Melodies, Gregorian Tunes, and Carols. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1970.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Eggebrecht, Hans Heinrich. Die Musik Gustav Mahlers. Munich: Piper, 1982.

Many of Mahler's motives and themes remind us of preexisting musical phrases. They sound familiar already at their first appearance. The musicologist makes it his task to locate these allusions. It is, however, impossible or at least misleading to attempt this. These seemingly borrowed excerpts are rather Mahler's attempt to evoke a "colloquial" sound (umgangssprachlicher Ton) or the impression of déjà vu. The use of military fanfares and posthorns should not be interpreted as quotation, even if Mahler consciously quoted one. What is important is the meaning of the fanfare or the posthorn according to the context in which it is found, not as a quotation but as an event. Eggebrecht, however, also discusses the obvious reuses of material such as "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt" (from the Wunderhorn-Lieder) in the Second Symphony and "Oft denk' ich, sie sind nur ausgegangen" (from the Kindertotenlieder) in the Ninth. All three aspects are of importance for the interpretation and understanding of Mahler's works and enable the author to explain their meaning.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Einstein, Alfred. Schubert--A Musical Portrait. New York: Oxford University Press, 1951.

In a full-length discussion of Schubert's life and music, the author mentions numerous examples of the composer's borrowing, both from works of other composers and from his own previous works. As might be expected, Schubert's early years of compositional development contain the most instances of formal and thematic modeling of the music of others; perhaps surprisingly, Mozart seems to have been a more pervasive source than Schubert's immediate predecessor Beethoven. In his mature works, Schubert borrows less from others, while placing greater emphasis on the reuse of his own material, particularly the songs. Yet borrowing formal procedures from other composers (particularly Beethoven) continues to be an important practice of Schubert until the end of his life and can be seen even in such late works as the last three piano sonatas.

Works: Schubert: Fantasia for Four Hands, 1811 (29), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (36), Der Teufels Lustchloss (50), Mass in F Major (56, Rondo in D Major for Violin and Piano, Op. 70 (76, 275), Symphony No. 2 in B-flat Major (86), Symphony No. 4 in C Minor ("Tragic") (108), Fantasia in C Major ("Wanderer") (143), Fugue for Four Hands, 1828 (152), Rondo in D Major for Four Hands, 1818 (153), String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 29 (167, 214), Impromptu, Op.90 (173), Impromptu, Op.142 (214), Suleika I D. 720 (193), Divertissement à la Hongroise, D 818 (242), Piano Sonata in A Minor, D. 845 (247), Piano Sonata in D Major, D. 850 (250), String Quartet in D Minor, D. 810 (254), Octet in F Major, D. 803 (256), Piano Sonata in A Major, D. 959 (286), Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, D. 960 (287), Mass in E-flat Major (298).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Eiseman, David. "Charles Ives and the European Symphonic Tradition: A Historical Reappraisal." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Eldridge, T. G. "Variations for Piano." Musical Opinion 85, no. 1015 (April 1962): 403-7.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Ellison, Mary. "Ives' Use of American 'Popular' Tunes as Thematic Material." In South Florida's Historic Ives Festival 1974-1976, ed. F. Warren O'Reilly, 30-34. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami at Coral Gables, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Engländer, Richard. "Das musikalische Plagiat als ästhetisches Problem." Sonderdruck aus Archiv für Urheber- Film- und Theaterrecht 3 (1930): 33-44

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Epstein, Dena J. "A White Origin for the Black Spiritual?: An Invalid Theory and How It Grew." American Music 1 (Summer 1983): 53-59.

The myth that the black spiritual was completely derived from white folk hymns is one of the most pervasive in the literature about black folk music. Early studies of black folk music such as Richard Wallaschek's Primitive Music (1893) and George Pullen Jackson's White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (1933) relied solely on transcriptions, a process which does not account for performative and aural contexts of folk music. In effect, these studies mistakenly equated transcriptions with the music as it was performed and thus tacitly assumed that any deviation from the diatonic scale was due to a performer's misinterpretation of music of white origins. These analyses do not account for the process of syncretism which had to have taken place between African- and European-derived musical elements in the development of the black spiritual.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Epstein, Dena J. Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Escal, Françoise. Le compositeur et ses modèles. Paris: Presse Universitaires de France, 1984.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Evans, Edwin. "The Ballets." In The Music of Tchaikovsky, ed. Gerald Abraham, 184-96. 2d ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1974.

After Tchaikovsky's death the famous choreographer Marius Petipa rearranged the numbers of the composer's ballet Swan Lake for a revival performance. He felt that some additional numbers were necessary and borrowed them from Tchaikovsky's Piano Pieces, Op. 72, namely "L'Espiègle" (no. 12), "Valse Bluette" (no. 11), and "Un poco di Chopin" (no. 15). These pieces were probably orchestrated by Riccardo Drigo, the conductor of the performances at the Marynsky Theater in 1894 (Act II only) and 1895.

Works: Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake (192f.).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Fellerer, Karl Gustav. "Zur Grundlage hermeneutischer Musikbetrachtung." In Beiträge zur musikalischen Hermeneutik, ed. Carl Dahlhaus, 27-31. Regensburg: Bosse, 1975.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Fellerer, Karl Gustav. Beiträge zur Choralbegleitung und Choralverarbeitung in der Orgelmusik des 18/19. Jahrhunderts. Strasbourg, 1932.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Filler, Susan M. "Mahler and the Anthology of Des Knaben Wunderhorn." Journal of the Canadian Assocation of Schools of Music 8 (1978): 82-111.

Das himmlische Leben, a Wunderhorn text-setting from Mahler's Fourth Symphony, provides much of the material for that work, and portions of it were incorporated into the first and third movements of the Third Symphony. It was originally to be included in the Third Symphony as its final movement, and, later, as its second movement, though Mahler ultimately changed his mind about both ideas. The fifth, choral movement of the Third Symphony was originally to be part of the Fourth. These changes of mind and heart show the composer's inspiration coming from a single source that resulted in two very different symphonies.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3 in D Minor (90-102), Symphony No. 4 (95-96, 99-100), Symphony No. 5 in C sharp Minor (102, 107), Symphony No. 10 (102), Symphony No. 9 (103).

Sources: Mahler: Des Knaben Wunderhorn (90-107).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Finscher, Ludwig. "Kampf um die Tradition: Johannes Brahms." In Die Welt der Symphonie, ed. Ursula von Rauchhaupt, 165-74. Braunschweig: G. Westermann Verlag, 1972. English translation by Eugene Hartzell as "The Struggle with Tradition: Johannes Brahms." In The Symphony, ed. Ursula von Rauchhaupt, 165-174. London: Thames and Hudson, 1973.

This article was written to accompany a Deutsche Grammophon set of records on the symphony. It discusses Brahms's symphonies in the style of liner notes for a general audience. Brahms's Symphony No. 3, cited as being influenced by Schumann, includes a "near quotation allusion of the principal theme of the first movement [of Schumann's Rhenish Symphony]."

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Finson, Jon W. "The Reception of Gustav Mahler's Wunderhorn Lieder." Journal of Musicology 5 (Winter 1987): 91-116.

The reception during Mahler's lifetime of his songs based on the Wunderhorn texts was unusually varied. As explanation for this, Mahler's use of the texts may be linked with a debate, which began with the publication of the texts of Des Knaben Wunderhorn in 1805-8 and spanned the nineteenth century, between those who wished to preserve the German folk heritage in its purest form and those who saw it as a malleable commodity for a politico-cultural end. Art, too, exhibited this tension between "folk" and "folk-like" material, and Mahler's Wunderhorn songs, which manipulate pre-existing folk material in a "high-art" setting, fall on the latter side of the debate. It was sensitivity to his place within that tension that informed the reception of the songs by contemporary critics.

Works: Mahler: Lieder aus des Knaben Wunderhorn.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Fisk, Charles. "Schubert Recollects Himself: The Piano Sonata in C Minor, D. 958." The Musical Quarterly 84 (Winter 2000): 635-54.

While Franz Schubert's Piano Sonata in C Minor, D. 958 (1828) clearly quotes the theme from Beethoven's Variations in C Minor, WoO 80, Schubert inserts music that disrupts the momentum in a very un-Beethovenian manner. These disruptive passages seem to suggest a musical memory, recalling numerous earlier works by Schubert including several allusions to songs from his song cycle Winterreise. The theme of death in the songs might be one reason for the allusion to Beethoven, who had died the previous year. Ghostly echoes of Winterreise themes from "Erstarrung" and "Der Lindenbaum" might suggest the ghost of Beethoven haunting Schubert. Yet the theme of exile in Winterreise resonates more with Schubert's personal life at the time he wrote this sonata. The chromatically distant B section, which echoes many previous works of Schubert including his Moment Musical in A-flat, supports this reading by equating harmonic distance and emotional or physical exile.

Works: Schubert: Piano Sonata in C Minor, D. 958 (635-53).

Sources: Beethoven: Variations in C Minor, WoO 80 (635-36), Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique) (641-42); Schubert: Winterreise (639-43, 647, 652), Moment Musical No. 2 in A-flat Major, D. 780 (645-46).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Floros, Constantin. "Die Zitate in Bruckners Symphonik." In Bruckner Jahrbuch 1982/83, ed. Othmar Wessely, 7-18. Linz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1984.

Quotation in Bruckner's music allows a deep view into his compositional method, psyche, and spiritual state. Bruckner cited his own masses in his symphonies along with quotations from Haydn, Liszt, and Wagner. Long thought to be "absolute" music, Bruckner's compositions carry significant semantic meaning when the composer desired.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Floros, Constantin. "Parallelen zwischen Schubert und Bruckner." In Festschrift Othmar Wessely zum 60. Geburtstag. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1982.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Floros, Constantin. "Zur Deutung der Symphonik Bruckners: Das Adagio der Neunten Symphonie." In Bruckner-Jahrbuch 1981, ed. Franz Grasberger, 89-96. Linz: Druck- und Verlagsanstalt Gutenberg, 1982.

The final movement of Bruckner's Ninth Symphony is not "absolute music," since it contains religious symbols and allusions to the composer's approaching death. This conclusion is supported by taking into account not only sketches, structural analysis, and Bruckner's own hermeneutic statements, but also interpretations of borrowed material. In his opening theme, for example, Bruckner strongly alludes to his Fifth Symphony, the Sehnsuchtsmotiv from Wagner's Tristan, and the "Dresden Amen" from Parsifal. The following climax (or Klangfläche) quotes Liszt's "symbol of the cross" from the Graner Messe, and the second theme (letter C) presents and develops a motive ("miserere") taken from the D Minor Mass. Several other self-quotations (from the Benedictus of the Mass in F Minor and the Seventh and Eighth Symphonies) reinforce the impression of the look back suggested by Bruckner himself for the passage at letter B ("Abschied vom Leben," mm. 29-44).

Works: Bruckner: Symphony No. 3 (90), Symphony No. 9, Mass in D Minor (90).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Floros, Constantin. Brahms und Bruckner: Studien zur musikalischen Exegetik. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1980.

This book is the result of Floros's intensive study of Mahler, during which he found hitherto undiscovered clues to the interpretation of Brahms's and Bruckner's works. Most of the borrowings discussed confirm differences between the two composers in both ideologies and musical heritage. A comparison of the German Requiem by Brahms and the F Minor Mass by Bruckner shows that the corresponding excerpts from the Credo use different models. Brahms used Bach's cantata Wer weiss wie nahe mir mein Ende BWV 27, whereas Bruckner borrowed from Liszt's Graner Messe (41-51). The indebtedness of Brahms to Mendelssohn (64f.) and Schumann (124-143) and of Bruckner to Wagner (159f., 171-78 and 211-13) and Liszt (159f., 167-70) is underlined with many musical examples. That Bruckner modeled the second movement of his Fourth Symphony on Berlioz's March of the Pilgrims from Harold en Italie is the clue to his program (Lied, Gebeth, Ständchen), since the same sequence of sections is found in Berlioz's work. Movements or whole symphonies by Bruckner can beinterpreted by a comparison with Wagner's operas. Thematic concordances with the monologue of The Flying Dutchman (Act I, Scene II) lead to a psycho-programmatic interpretation of the Eighth Symphony, an interpretation that extends Bruckner's own vague explanations. Even if the two composers borrow from the same piece, they emphasize different aspects. Both of them emulated aspects of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Brahms's interest (First Symphony, last movement) lies in the Freudenmelodie and the recitative character of the introduction to the last movement, whereas Bruckner imitates the flash-backs, the rondo-like adagio and the original opening of the first movement (55-60).

Works: Brahms: Symphony No. 1 (56f.), Symphony No. 4 (64f.), Schumann Variations, Op. 9 (124-51), Ein Deutsches Requiem (41-47); Bruckner: Symphony No. 3 (51, 159, 168-70), Symphony No. 4 (159, 178-81), Symphony No. 8 (159f., 186-88, 21113), Symphony No. 9 (51, 168-70), Mass in F Minor (41-44, 50), Mass in D Minor (44, 51), Mass in E Minor (168-70), Helgoland (168-70), Tota pulchra es (168-70).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Floros, Constantin. Gustav Mahler II: Mahler und die Symphonik des 19. Jahrhunderts in neuer Deutung. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1977.

Floros discusses three main elements of Mahler's music with the aim of a philosophical or programmatic interpretation: form and formal procedures; the use of specific genres such as chorale, pastorale, march, scherzo, and dancelike movements; and interpretation of symbols. All the elements are interpreted in the context of other composers, especially Berlioz, Liszt, and Bruckner. In interpreting the first two categories, Floros focuses on Mahler's position in the history of music. But in the third category, by locating the same musical symbols (e.g. the tonisches Symbol des Kreuzes in Liszt and Bruckner; see also Floros, Gustav Mahler III: Die Symphonien, 1985) in works of other composers where the meaning is clear, Floros can offer interpretations that would otherwise be impossible. Without the interpretation of symbols, no real progress in musicology is possible.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Floros, Constantin. Gustav Mahler III: Die Symphonien. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1985.

Floros's study of Mahler's music is an attempt to interpret it comprehensively, taking into account especially Mahler's intellectual background. In these semantic analyses, the author discusses borrowings and quotations of all sorts: (1) quotations of tunes and their integration into compositions (e.g. Bruder Martin in the First Symphony), (2) borrowings of complete sections (e.g. in the Second Symphony), (3) reuse of whole songs (e.g. Urlicht in the Second Symphony), and (4) quotation of short motives (such as the beginning of Dies irae or Liszt's tonisches Symbol des Kreuzes ["sounding" symbol of the cross]) to symbolize titles or programs. Decoding these borrowings is one of the most important steps in finding the program that is the basis even of the purely instrumental symphonies. Above all, some passages can be interpreted by comparison to similar passages from works by Richard Strauss where their meaning is clear. These comparisons may throw light on composition dates, for instance that of the Scherzo of the Sixth Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Flothuis, Marius. "Einige Betrachtungen über den Humor in der Musik." Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 38 (December 1983): 688-95.

Among several devices mentioned in this article which have been used for humorous effect in music is quotation. Various means of achieving humor through quotation are by paradox, pun, parody, and exploiting the historical significance of the music quoted, all of which assume previous knowledge on the part of the listeners of the music being referred to.

Works: Beethoven: Es war einmal ein König, der hatt' einen grossen Floh (693); Chabrier: Souvenirs de Munich (692); Debussy: "Golliwog's Cake Walk," from Children's Corner (691); Falla: The Three-Cornered Hat (692); Saint-Saëns: Le Carnaval des Animaux (690); Satie: Sonatine bureaucratique (695).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Flothuis, Marius. "Kapellmeistermusik." In Mahler-Interpretation: Aspekte zum Werk und Wirken Gustav Mahlers, ed. Rudolf Stephan, 9-16. Mainz: Schott, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Forte, Allen. "The Structural Origin of Exact Tempi in the Brahms-Haydn Variations." The Music Review 18 (May 1957): 138-49.

Tempi in the Variationen über ein Thema von Joseph Haydn are determined by rhythmic figures which are in turn dictated by melodic patterns present in the theme. Although the analysis of this composition and its rhythmic elements is not Schenkerian, the terminology derives from Schenker's system. The discussion of the background, middleground, and foreground demonstrates at three levels how the melody provides inherent patterns through individual note groupings, tonal values, and recurring pitch accents. The interrelation of these areas can be described as either subdivisions or shifting of rhythmic units, and all of the rhythmic constructions stem from these techniques. The exact tempi derive from correlations between the variations; in order to maintain the perception of proper stress and accent (as dictated by the analysis), it becomes necessary to stay within the confines of a narrow range of tempo.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Freeman, John W. "Berlioz and Verdi." In Il teatro e la musica di Giuseppe Verdi: Atti del IIIo congresso internazionale di studi verdiani (Milano, Piccola Scala, 12-17 giugno 1972), ed. Mario Medici, 148-65. Parma: Istituto di studi verdiani, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Frimmel, Theodor. "Schubert und Beethoven." Die Musik 17 (1925): 415-[???].

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Frisch, Walter. "The 'Brahms Fog': On Tracing Brahmsian Influences." The American Brahms Society Newsletter 7, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 1-3.

Brahms's influence on the composers of the succeeding generation has often been slighted or eclipsed by the "white heat" of Wagner's effect on the same artists. Traces of Brahms are apparent in many late-nineteenth-century composers ranging from Herzogenberg, who plagiarized his oeuvre, to Reger and Schoenberg, who were both indebted to him for pianistic models.

Works: Herzogenberg: Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (2); Reger: Resignation (3).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Fuhrmann, Christina E. "'Adapted and Arranged for the English Stage': Continental Operas Transformed for the London Theater, 1814-33." Ph.D. diss., Washington University, 2001.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Fuhrmann, Christina. "Scott Repatriated? La Dame Blanche Crosses the Channel." In Romanticism and Opera, ed. Gillen D'Arcy Wood. Romantic Circles Praxis Series, series ed. Orrin N. C. Wang, May 2005. Accessed 30 January 2009. http://www.rc.umd.edu/praxis/opera/fuhrmann/fuhrmann.html.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Fuhrmann, Christina. "The Well Made Play Remade: Scribe in London." In Eugène Scribe und das europäische Musiktheater, ed. Sebastian Werr, 89-106. Münster: Lit Verlag, 2008.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Fuhrmann, Christina. “Continental Opera Englished, English Opera Continentalized: Der Freischütz in London, 1824.” Nineteenth-Century Music Review 1 (June 2004): 115-42.

In July of 1824, the English Opera House staged its first production of Carl Maria von Weber’s Der Freischütz, and within a few months, seven other London theaters had produced their own versions. All of these productions, however, changed Weber’s original score and text to some degree, and these changes reflected the many practical and aesthetic issues of London’s opera business in the 1820s. Some productions added numerous speaking parts and ballads to conform to audience tastes and English theater conventions, while others amplified the opera’s melodramatic, comic, and supernatural elements so that it conformed more to their usual repertoire. Although many adaptations were heavily modified, some retained most of Weber’s original score, and these less modified versions were soon favored by audiences and critics alike. The numerous London versions of Der Freischütz ultimately reflect an increasing vogue for foreign opera in the city, as well as the aesthetic and cultural issues of transplanting a foreign opera onto an English stage in the nineteenth century.

Works: Weber: Der Freischütz (115-42).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Gajewski, Ferdinand. "Lizst's Polish Rhapsody." Journal of the American Liszt Society 31 (January-June 1992): 34-37.

Liszt's Salve Polonia, published in 1884, has long languished in obscurity, overshadowed by the composer's Hungarian rhapsodies. This Polish rhapsody, however, deserves more attention, especially for its incorporation of two Polish national themes. First, Liszt placed the Polish national hymn, Boze, cos Polske in the opening Andante pietoso section. In the second and final section, the Polish national anthem Jeszce Polska nie zgiela appears. Liszt had already composed much of the music from Salve Polonia in his unsuccessful efforts to complete an oratorio, Die Legende vom heiligen Stanislaus.

Works: Liszt: Salve Polonia (34, 36).

Sources: Kurpinsky: Boze, cos Polske (34-36); Oginsky: Jeszce Polska nie zgiela (34-35).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Garlington, Aubrey S. "LeSueur, Ossian, and Berlioz." Journal of the American Musicological Society 17 (Summer 1964): 206-8.

Berlioz probably derived the title to his Symphonie fantastique from a scene in Act IV of Ossian ou Les Bardes, by LeSueur, in which the words simphonie fantastique were printed in the full score. Similarities, both orchestral and programmatic, between the two works strengthen the connection.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Gauldin, Robert. "Wagner's Parody Technique: 'Träume' and theTristan Love Duet." Music Theory Spectrum 1 (1979): 35-42.

Surface thematic resemblances between Richard Wagner'sWesendonck-Lieder and his operaTristan und Isolde indicate that the songs were borrowed from in the composition of the later opera. Deeper and more subtle relationships between the two, however, indicate that the songs were studies for the opera, and were parodied in more profound ways, as well. In addition to resetting three sections of "Träume" in the Love Duet with very few alterations, Wagner uses a similar voice-leading pattern in the first sections of the two pieces, an ascent through an octave (Eb to Eb). He also explores bVI and bIII as tonal areas in both sections. In the second sections, Wagner uses bVI as a pivot, retains the same basic harmonic scheme, and employs the octave ascent (Eb to Eb) once again. In terms of the opera as a whole, bVI and bIII figure prominently after the occurrence of the Love Duet. All of these relationships combine to indicate that Wagner employed a kind of parody technique in Tristan.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Edward D. Latham

[+] Geiringer, Karl. "Bemerkungen zum Bau von Beethovens 'Diabelli-Variationen.'" In Festschrift Hans Engel zum siebzigsten Geburtstag, ed. Horst Heussner, 117-24. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1964.

See abstract for English version, "The Structure of Beethoven's Diabelli-Variations," The Musical Quarterly 50 (October 1964): 496-503.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Geiringer, Karl. "The Structure of Beethoven's Diabelli-Variations." The Musical Quarterly 50 (October 1964): 496-503.

The structure of Beethoven's Diabelli Variations, Op. 120, as a whole might be considered a macrocosm of the structure of the waltz theme by Anton Diabelli. Many previous composers have ended their variation sets with a return to the opening theme; the thirty-third and final variation, a minuet, can be thought of as Beethoven's transformation of this theme to a higher sphere, acting as a crowning epilogue or coda. This leaves thirty-two variations, corresponding to the thirty-two measures of the theme. The waltz theme is symmetrically organized into eight four-measure groups. Likewise, the thirty-two variations can be described as a set of eight groups of four successive variations, related by sequences of tempi, meter, texture, and character.

Works: Beethoven: Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (496-503).

Sources: Anton Diabelli: Waltz (498-503).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Gibbons, William. "'Yankee Doodle' and Nationalism, 1780-1920." American Music 26 (Summer 2008): 246-74.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Glauert, Amanda. "'Nicht diese Töne': Lessons in Song and Singing from Beethoven's Ninth Symphony." Eighteenth-Century Music 4 (March 2007): 55-69.

The solo baritone's recitative intervention in the fourth movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony has often been interpreted as a commentary on the instrumental discourse of the symphony, but a newer interpretation of the recitative hears the baritone's words as a call to song in both a literal and idealized sense. Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" tune, which is borrowed from his setting of Bürger's poem Gegenliebe and was also used as the basis of his Choral Fantasy, Op. 80, provides added layers of meaning, especially in relation to the poetic sources. The connection between Bürger's Gegenliebe and Schiller's An die Freude is provocative when considering that both Schiller and Goethe rejected Bürger as a poet who failed to keep any sense of the "general" within his poetry. By using the Gegenliebe tune for An die Freude in the Ninth Symphony, Beethoven brings Bürger's folksy nature aesthetic and advocacy of simple, diagetic song (as heard in the laundry or sitting rooms) to bear on Schiller's abstract idealism of song. In addition to investigating the song-like aspects of the Finale, the effects of silences are also explored as folk elements and compared with Beethoven's settings of Johann Gottfried Herder's poetry.

Works: Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125.

Sources: Beethoven: Gegenliebe (60-63), Choral Fantasy, Op. 80 (60-62).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mary Ellen Ryan

[+] Globenski, Anna-Marie. "An Analytical Study of Selected Piano Works by E. Chabrier." D.M.A. diss., Indiana University,1982.

In a survey of Chabrier's works for piano, features of his style that foreshadow the styles of later French composers are noted. The use of unresolved seventh and ninth chords is a technique later incorporated by Debussy and Ravel. In a more general sense, a number of pieces by Chabrier seem to be linked to pieces by Ravel. These pieces are listed in a table in the concluding section of the dissertation.

Works: Poulenc: Le Bestiaire (85); Maurice Ravel: Jeux d'eau (83), La Valse (15), Menuet antique (46), Valses nobles et sentimentales (15).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Godwin, Joscelyn. "Early Mendelssohn and Late Beethoven." Music and Letters 55 (July 1974): 272-85.

Mendelssohn was the first to incorporate ideas from Beethoven's late works into his own compositions. For example, his Piano Sonata in E major, Piano Fantasia in F sharp Minor, and String Quartet in A Minor (1826-1833) make use of Beethoven's last piano sonatas and string quartets. Yet these pieces of Mendelssohn involve a high degree of novelty. For instance, a recitative in the Piano Sonata in E Major, which resembles the third movement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata Op. 101, is used as a fugue subject. Mendelssohn's borrowing from Beethoven may also be construed as a unique reinterpretation of their less accessible models for the Biedermeier age.

Works: Mendelssohn: Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 6 (272-77), Fantasie for Piano in F sharp Minor, Op. 28 (272, 277-78), Fantasia for Piano in E Major, Op. 15 (272, 279-80), String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 13 (280-84).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in A Major, Op. 101 (272, 275), Piano Sonata in B flat Major, Op. 106 (276-77), Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 109 (276, 278-79), Piano Sonata in E flat Major, Op. 81a (278), Piano Sonata in D Minor, Op. 31, No. 2 (278), String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132 (280-84), String Quartet in B flat Major, Op. 130 (282-83).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Goldschmidt, Harry. "Zitat oder Parodie?" Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft 12 (1970): 171-98.

Quotation in music is often considered without exploring the context of the quoted material. Many of Beethoven's overtures follow the model of the French overture, which requires one or more quotations from the stage music. Material which is recognizably from another piece but is altered in some way is placed in the category of "adaptation," which is defined as the removal of a piece of music from its original context and conforming it to a new environment and function. This may require a new context (transcription); transposition and new instrumentation (such as placing material from a piano sonata into a chamber music piece); or new words, this last condition being termed "parody." Parody is discussed extensively with the relationships between the Joseph cantata, Leonore, and Fidelio, and between the Choral Fantasy and the Ninth Symphony. A more exhaustive investigation is necessary to determine the true extent of Beethoven's creative methods in terms of quotation, adaptation, and parody.

Works: Beethoven: Overture to Zur Weihe des Hauses, Op. 124 (172-74), Overture to Die Ruinen von Athen, Op. 113 (172-73, 175, 183-84), Overture to König Stephan, Op. 117 (172-73), Overture and drafts to Leonore (171, 187-89), Fidelio (171-72, 187-89), Overture to Egmont, Op. 84 (174), Overture to Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus, Op. 43 (171, 174-75), Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2, No. 1 (175), Piano Sonata in C Major, Op. 2, No. 3 (175), Septet in E-flat Major, Op. 20 (175), Piano Variations, Op. 35 (176), String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 (177-78), String Quartet in F Major, Op. 18, No. 1 (178), Missa solemnis (179-80), Grosse Fuge, Op. 133 (181), String Quartet in F Major, Op. 59, No. 1 (182), Sring Quartet in E Minor, Op. 59, No. 2 (182), Diabelli Variations (182-83), Blümchen der Einsamkeit, Op. 52, No. 4 "Maigesang") (184, 186), Chorfantasie, Op. 80 (189-95), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (172, 194-95), Lied aus der Ferne, WoO 137 (186), Symphony No. 8 in F Major, Op. 93 (176).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Gombosi, Otto. "Stephen Foster and 'Gregory Walker.'" The Musical Quarterly 30 (April 1944): 133-46.

That Stephen Foster's style was indebted to folksong is unquestioned. However, the source of folksong is not the Negro spiritual as has been assumed, but the folk tunes of England. This is proved by an analysis of structural harmonies. The pattern I-IV-I-V I-IV-I-V-I found in about thirty percent of Foster's songs resembles the seventeenth-century ground Passamezzo Moderno. Thus, Foster's folksongs demonstrate a strong connection to this popular bass pattern rather than to American folk sources.

Works: Foster: The Voice of Bygone Days (136), The Little Ballad Girl (138), Cora Dean (139).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Gooding, David. "A Study of the Quotation Process in the Songs for Voice and Piano of Charles Edward Ives." M.A. thesis, Western Reserve University, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Gooley, Dana. "La Commedia del Violino: Paganini's Comic Strains." Music and Culture 88 (2005): 370-427.

During his 1828 tour, Nicolò Paganini gained a reputation as a romantic virtuoso that to the present day has obscured the influences of Italian comedy on his compositions, in which his groundbreaking techniques often suggest not rarified virtuosity, but rather farcical gestures and drama. For example, Paganini's imitations of animal sounds surpass mere mimicry and imply comic character types, and his evocations of human voices can suggest operatic dialogue (and in the case of Scène amoureuse, modeling on "Là ci darem la mano" from Mozart's Don Giovanni). Paganini's many variation sets, often upon themes from operas familiar to his audiences, further demonstrate his ability to transform a snippet of borrowed material into a compelling and self-contained drama through rapid changes in register and special effects, which are characteristic of a category of his works that can be called mélange. Recognizing Paganini's apparent debt to the aesthetics as well as the music of opera buffa, farsa, and grottesco ballet in his mélanges helps explain the often unoriginal and seemingly ridiculous nature of his mélanges.

Works: Paganini: Scène amoureuse (382-83, 397), Le streghe (383-85, 390-92, 401-2, 415), Nel cor più mi sento (386-87), I palpiti (387); Robert Schumann: Carnaval (409-412).

Sources: Mozart: Don Giovanni (382); Rossini: Di tanti palpiti (387); Franz Xaver Süssmayr and Salvatore Viganò: La noce di Benevento (390-92); Paganini: Carnival of Venice (397-99, 410-12).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Gossett, Philip. "Rossini in Naples: Some Major Works Recovered." The Musical Quarterly 54 (July 1968): 316-40.

Gioachino Rossini gained fame and developed his compositional style during his Neapolitan years (1815-1822), yet many of these works were once thought to be lost. The discovery of the manuscripts of several non-operatic Neapolitan works (the cantata Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo, four other cantatas, and the Messa di Gloria) reveals much about Rossini's compositional style. All of these works, especially Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo, contain a significant amount of self-borrowed material, most likely because they were made hastily for specific occasions. The self-borrowing comes in several types: setting a melody to a new voice part, borrowing from two separate sources, keeping the same medium (such as deriving a chorus from another chorus), changing the medium (such as deriving a trio from a chorus), modeling on an earlier composition, and paraphrasing an earlier melody into a new melody.

Works: Rossini: Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo (317-25), Cantata for One Voice and Chorus, Omaggio umiliato a Sua Maestà (317-318, 325-327, 331), Cantata for Three Voices and Chorus (317, 328-330), Messa di Gloria (318, 331-39).

Sources: Rossini: Sigismondo (321), Ciro in Babilonia (321), L'Equivoco stravagante (321), Tenor concerto aria (321), Il Barbiere di Siviglia (321-25, 331), Torvaldo e Dorliska (321-22), Aureliano in Palmira (321), Il Turco in Italia (321), La Scale di Seta (321-22), Demetrio e Polibio (323), Cantata for One Voice and Chorus (330), Matilde di Shabran (331), Mosè in Egitto (336); Haydn: Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (329).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Gossett, Philip. "The Operas of Rossini: Problems of Textual Criticism in Nineteenth-Century Opera." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1970.

There is rarely a single best version for Rossini's operas, since in the first half of the nineteenth century, Italian opera was treated as a collection of individual units which could be rearranged, substituted, or omitted depending on varying local conditions. This dissertation examines all the authentic versions of fourteen operas by Rossini in printed or manuscript sources in order to establish the correct texts for the works. An authentic version is defined as one with which Rossini can be shown to have been directly connected in the capacity of composer, director, or arranger, or one that he personally approved for inclusion in his operas but was composed by somebody else. Although not dealing primarily with borrowing, this dissertation examines Rossini's reuses of his own music in great detail, since he frequently made use of this practice in his operas or in later versions or revivals of the same work. Rossini's self-borrowings are viewed as an important characteristic of his compositional style and as a result of his time and milieu.

Works: Rossini: L'inganno felice (166-172, 190), Tancredi (198-200), L'italiana in Algeri (247), Il barbiere di Siviglia (276-79, 293), Otello (313-14), La Cenerentola (338-39), La gazza ladra (358), Armida (381), Mosè in Egitto, Moïse (307, 434), Maometto (456), Semiramide (490), Le Comte Ory (508), Guillaume Tell (524).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Luiz Fernando Lopes

[+] Gossett, Philip. "The Overtures of Rossini." 19th-Century Music 3 (July 1979): 3-31.

The archetype of Rossini's overture is defined in order to test attributions of dubious pedigree from his first period of compositional practice (1808-1813). Rossini's self-borrowings in his overtures are examined indirectly but in great detail since they are a very prominent characteristic of his compositional style and can help to solve matters of authorship. An alternate overture to La scala di seta is shown not to be by Rossini on the basis of its borrowing technique. This overture quotes in full two melodies that will appear in later operas by Rossini and Gossett shows that Rossini never uses melodies from an earlier overture in the body of a future opera unless he intends to preface the latter with the same overture. A table with comments about Rossini's self-borrowings is shown on page 15.

Works: Rossini: Zelmira (3), Otello (7, 8), Il Turco in Italia (8), Sigismondo (8), Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra (8), Matilde di Sahbran (8), Il barbiere di Siviglia (12, 18), La cambiale di matrimonio (14, 15, 24), L'inganno felice (14), Ciro in Babilonia (14), Il signor Bruschino (15, 24, 25), Adelaide di Borgogna (15), Tancredi (15), Aureliano in Palmira (18), alternative overture to La scala di Seta (22), Bianca e Falliero (22), Le siège de Corinthe (30), L'equivoco stravagante (30, 31).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Luiz Fernando Lopes

[+] Grant, Parks. "Bruckner and Mahler--The Fundamental Dissimilarity of Their Styles." The Music Review 32 (February 1971): 36-55.

Grant argues that Bruckner and Mahler are dissimilar in many respects, which he enumerates, and suggests that the linking of Mahler with Richard Strauss might be more meaningful. Their influence was reciprocal. Part of the last song in Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen may be seen as the ancestor of the final duet in Der Rosenkavalier, and the off-stage fanfares in the outer movements of Mahler's First Symphony may have suggested the off-stage fanfares in Ein Heldenleben. Strauss also influenced Mahler, with apparent connections between Ein Heldenleben and the last movement of Mahler's Eighth Symphony; the neuroticism of Salome and parts of Das Lied von der Erde and the Ninth Symphony; and "wandering" solo violin passages in Strauss's Don Juan and Ein Heldenleben and similar solo violin passages in Mahler's Eighth Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Gregory, Robin. "Dies Irae." Music and Letters 34 (April 1953): 113-19.

Background information on the Dies Irae sequence notes no records of the melody's origins and attributes the text to Thomas of Celano. Composers have used the chant in two ways: (1) as an integral part of their settings of the Requiem Mass in its proper context; (2) in secular works, often in a debased form to help create the appropriate diabolical or supernatural atmosphere. Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique was the first in a Romantic trend of using this theme associated with death and the last judgment in its most terrible aspects. The character of the melody's significance has changed significantly from its original connotation. Composers of the Romantic era used the melody for its associations with terror and dread, while ignoring the message of hope that is also explicit in the words. Some manifestations of the Dies Irae melody served as models for other composers to follow. One example is Liszt's Dante Symphony, which influenced Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death and Tchaikovsky's Francesca da Rimini. In the twentieth century, the tradition was kept alive by Sergei Rachmaninaov, who used the Dies Irae to represent evil spirits in the Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini.

Works: Berlioz: Requiem (135), Symphonie Fantastique (135-36); Alfred Bruneau: Requiem (135); Liszt: Totentanz (136, 137); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death (136); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (137); Tchaikovsky: Francesca da Rimini (137), In Dark Hell (137), Suite in G Major (137); Rachmaninoff: Tone Poem, Op. 29 (138), Symphonic Dances, Op. 45 (138), Symphony No. 3 (138), Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini (138); Vaughan Williams: Tudor Portraits (138).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang, Randy Goldberg

[+] Gülke, Peter. "Klassik als Erbe und Anspruch: Fragen zum 'plagiierenden' Schubert." In Über das Klassische, ed. Rudolf Bockholdt, 299-309. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1987.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Haas, Robert. Anton Bruckner. Grosse Meister der Musik, ed. Ernst Bücken. Leipzig: C. G. Röder, 1934.

Although a general biography, Haas covers specific borrowing on pages 113-57 of his study, where he deals with Bruckner's symphonic music. Haas, as the first editor of Bruckner's collected works, has drawn together a sketch study with biographical material to give an insightful look into developments of particular borrowings that Bruckner used.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Hall, Michael F. "Correspondence: The National Anthem." Gramophone 61 (November 1983): 567.

A letter written in response to a previous correspondence by Frank Hill on Shostakovich's borrowings (Oct. 1983 Gramophone). Hall wants to clarify that over 115 composers have used the tune of the British National Anthem in their compositions, in over 125 works of all types. No specific works are mentioned, but the list of composers includes J. C. Bach, Haydn, Beethoven, Liszt, Verdi, Brahms, Ives, and Stockhausen.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Hallmark, Rufus. "Schubert's 'Auf dem Strom.'" In Schubert Studies, ed. Eva Badura-Skoda and Peter Branscombe, 25-46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Schubert's song Auf dem Strom shares a special kinship with Beethoven's cycle An die Ferne Geliebte. Both concern the union of loved ones despite separation, and this general similarity of spirit and sentiment is reinforced in specific musical terms. The coda of Schubert's song appears to have been modeled on that of Beethoven's cycle, and the central strophes are an almost literal quotation of the funeral march from the Erioca Symphony. This latter allusion is particularly appropriate, as the song was written for, and first performed at, a concert held on the first anniversary of Beethoven's death; this song can therefore be seen as Schubert's musical 'memorial' to his great predecessor.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Hamm, Charles. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Hannig, R. "Unbewusste Plagiate." Die Musik 22 (December 1929): 178-181.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

[+] Haraszti, Emile. "Berlioz, Liszt, and the Rakoczy March." The Musical Quarterly 26 (April 1940): 200-31.

Examines the controversy between Berlioz and Liszt as to who first orchestrated the Rakoczy march. Through an historical examination of how Berlioz came to orchestrate the tune and a comparison of the two pieces, Haraszti determines that Berlioz's accounts in his Memoirs concerning the piece's history are largely correct, and that Berlioz's version is not based on that of Liszt. Haraszti also describes the origins of the tune and its significance to Hungarian society.

Works: Berlioz: Rakoczy March; Liszt: Rakoczy March.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Harley, Maria Anna, Susan Marie Praeder, and Louis Pomey. “Chopin and Women Composers: Collaborations, Imitations, and Inspirations.” The Polish Review 45 (2000): 29-50.

Maria Szymanowksa’s piano music influenced Chopin as a young composer, and Chopin’s works subsequently influenced the piano works by Pauline Viardot-Garcia and Clara Schumann. Chopin, who attended a number of Szymanowska’s concerts, adopted all of Szymanowska’s musical genres, and there are several musical and stylistic similarities between Chopin’s Études and Szymanowska’s Vingt exercises et preludes. Both composers’ piano works share textural similarities, but Szymanowska’s mazurkas, which were written to accompany salon dances, are not as virtuosic as Chopin’s. Towards the end of Chopin’s life, Pauline Viardot-Garcia arranged fifteen of Chopin’s mazurkas for voice, and it is likely that Chopin’s Mazurka in E minor, Op. 41, No. 2, was the source for some of her settings. Clara Schumann also composed works in several of the genres that Chopin frequently composed in, such as the mazurka and polonaise. Her Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 7, may have been inspired by the Adagio from Chopin’s “La ci darem la mano” Variations, Op. 2. Schumann also borrowed gestures, textures, accompaniment styles, and fragments of several themes from Chopin’s piano works. For example, the “sighing” motive of a descending fourth in Schumann’s Soirees musicales, Op. 6 also appears in Chopin’s Mazurka in G minor, Op. 24, No. 1.

Works: Chopin: Nocturne in E-flat major, Op. 9, No. 2 (31), Etude, Op. 10, No. 2 (31), Etude in C major, Op. 10, No. 7 (31), Etude in A-flat major, Op. 25, No. 1 (31), Prelude in E-flat major, Op. 28, No. 19 (31); Pauline Viardot-Garcia: L’Oiselet (34); Clara Schumann: Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 7 (40), Soirees Musicales, Op. 6 (41), Caprices en forme de valse, Op. 2 (41), Valses Romantiques, Op. 4 (41), Rondo in B minor (41), Souvenir de Vienne, Op. 9 (41), Variations de concert sur la cavatine du Pirate de Bellini, Op. 8 (41), Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 7 (42).

Sources: Maria Szymanowska: Etude in D minor (31), Etude No. 15 in C major (31), Etude No. 17 in B-flat major (31), Etude No. 8 in E-flat major (31), Nocturne in B-flat major (31); Chopin: Mazurka in E minor, Op. 41, No. 2 (34), Mazurka, Op. 68, No. 2 (34), Variations, Op. 2 (41-42), Mazurka in G minor, Op. 6, No. 6 (41), Mazurka in G minor, Op. 24, No. 1 (41), Mazurka in B major, Op. 7, No. 1 (41), Mazurka in E major, Op. 6, No. 3 (41), Mazurka in F-sharp minor, Op. 6, No. 1 (42), Mazurka in E minor, Op. 17, No. 2 (42).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Harvey, Mark Sumner. "Charles Ives: Prophet of American Civil Religion." Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Hatch, Christopher. "Some Things Borrowed: Hugo Wolf's Anakreons Grab." The Journal of Musicology 17 (Summer 1999): 420-37.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Hay, Fred J. “Black Musicians in Appalachia: An Introduction to Affrilachian Music.” Black Music Research Journal 23 (2003): 1-19.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Hays, Jeremy. "Irony and the Dance of Death: Saint-Saëns, Liszt and the Danse macabre." Journal of the American Liszt Society 52-53 (Fall-Spring 2002-2003): 89-119.

Saint-Saëns's song Danse macabre (1872), his symphonic poem based on the melody of the song (1874), and Liszt's transcription of the symphonic poem (1876) all demonstrate Saint-Saëns's ironic compositional style as well as its influence on Liszt. Saint-Saëns and Liszt showed esteem for one another. Liszt?s high estimation of Saint-Saëns is evident in his writings, including one in 1874 when Saint-Saëns composed the symphonic poem. In comparison with Saint-Saëns's symphonic poem, Liszt's transcription heightens the dramatic effect, expands the length, inserts his own unifying elements, and adds complexity. For example, in the introduction, Liszt inserts a new harmonically unstable passage before the theme of Saint-Saëns's introduction appears. He also retains the regularity of four-bar phrasing from the model and at the same time interrupts it by a three-beat pause, adding rhythmic uncertainty. In Scene two, he develops Saint-Saëns's penchant for modulation in mediant relationships, which in Liszt's version goes further to Eb major/D# major, a major third from both G and B. Liszt's transformations of the model enrich the complexity of his work, at the same time eliminating the humor with which Saint-Saëns imbued his work.

Works: Liszt: Danse macabre (106-15).

Sources: Saint-Saëns: Danse macabre (95-106).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. "Ives's Use of Quotation." Music Educators Journal 61 (October 1974): 24-28.

Ives's method of quotation is seen as a reworking of borrowed material by altering melodic segments. These modifications range from omission or substitution of several notes to the paraphrasing of a hymn, with preexistent forms used in order to describe and/or serve as a structural foundation. Many musical examples illustrating Ives's techniques are cited. Examples are rhythmic transformation seen in the Fourth Symphony's use of Nettleton, treatment of the head motive of Foster's Old Black Joe in the Three Places in New England, and the improvised qualities of Erie in the First Piano Sonata. The article concludes with a diagram of the architectonic structure of."The 'St. Gaudens' in Boston Common" from Three Places in New England.

Works: Ives: Sonata No. 1 for Violin and Piano (24), Piano Sonata No. 2 ("Concord, Mass., 1840-1860") (24), Three Places in New England (24, 25, 28), Washington's Birthday (25), Symphony No. 4 (24-26), String Quartet No. 2 (24), Three Quarter-tone Piano Pieces (26), Piano Sonata No. 1 (26), Central Park in the Dark (26), Symphony No. 3 (26), General William Booth Enters into Heaven (26), Sonata No. 3 for Violin and Piano (26).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. "Quotation as a Style Element in the Music of Charles Ives." Ph.D. diss., Washington University, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. The Charles Ives Tunebook. Bibliographies in American Music, no. 14. Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Hepokoski, James A. "Formulaic Openings in Debussy." 19th-Century Music 8 (Summer 1984): 44-59.

Debussy's early works involve explicit reliance on existing models while in his later works the models become more tacit and personalized. This process can be observed in his formulaic openings to works. There are three main categories of such openings: (1) monophonic openings, (2) modal/chordal openings, and (3) introductory sequences and expansions. Numerous examples are cited for each. Such formulas are primarily a mid-to-late nineteenth-century phenomenon. Hepokoski invokes Dahlhaus's concept of originality and the influence of the Symbolists.

Works: Debussy: Printemps (46), La Damoiselle élue (48).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Herzberger, F. W. "Luther's Hymn 'Ein' feste Burg.'" In Four Hundred Years: Commemorative Essays on the Reformation of Dr. Martin Luther and Its Blessed Results, ed. W. H. T. Dau, 159-72. St. Louis: Concordia, 1917.

Perhaps the quintessential Lutheran hymn, Ein feste Burg embodies Martin Luther's faith and had lasting musical effects, not only on his own generation but also on generations of composers to come. The verse structure of Psalm 46 appealed to Luther most strongly in the last line, which stands on its own in the rhyme scheme and makes the text more powerful, as though one could reduce the psalm to a simple statement of faith. Further, Luther's musical setting, with three repeated notes to begin the tune, made a lasting impression on future composers. Some composers, such as J. S. Bach and Mendelssohn, use the tune in order to let it emerge from a complex texture, reinforcing its victorious and ultimately religious connotations. Others, including Meyerbeer, use the tune for programmatic rather than religious purposes, as the tune accompanies "undressing girls." The diversity of uses, whether religious or not, reflects the lasting power of Luther's original.

Works: J. S. Bach: "Ein feste Burg" from In Festo Reformationis, BWV 80 (166); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (167); Reinecke: Zur Reformationsfeier, Op. 191 (167); Wagner: Huldigungsmarsch (167); Nicolai: Kirchliche Fest-Ouvertüre über "Ein feste Burg" (167); Raff: Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, Op.127 (167); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (167-68).

Sources: Martin Luther: Ein feste Burg (159-66).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Hill, Frank. "Correspondence: Shostakovich's Borrowings." Gramophone 61 (October 1983): 416.

While this correspondence has nothing to do with Shostakovich's borrowings, it contains several interesting comments on musical borrowings in general. Hill states that "Notte e giorno faticar" from Mozart's Don Giovanni is quoted in Offenbach's Tales of Hoffman because Hoffman is waiting for his latest love, Stella, who is appearing in a performance of Don Giovanni in the theater next door. Hill parenthetically adds that "it is very difficult to think of a work of any length without a quote," and states that at least 24 works borrow from God Save the King.

Works: Offenbach: Tales of Hoffmann.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Hinrichsen, Max. "Compositions Based on the Motive B-A-C-H." In Hinrichsen's Musical Yearbook: Vol. 7, ed. Max Hinrichsen, 379-81. London: Hinrichsen Edition, 1952.

A list of twenty-nine works using B-A-C-H, the majority of which are by German composers.

Works: Joseph Ahrens: Triptichon; Johann Albrechtsberger: Organ Fugue in G Minor; J. C. Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor; J. S. Bach: Prelude and Fugue on the name BACH, Art of Fugue; Otto Barblan: Chaconne, Op. 10, Passacaglia, Variations, and Triple Fugue, Op. 24; Ludwig van Beethoven: 2 sketches for an Overture and Canon, 10th Symphony; Heinrich Bellerman: Organ Prelude and Fugue, Op. 8; Johannes Brahms: Cadenza to Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Major; Alfred Herbert Brewer: Meditation; Ferruccio Busoni: Fantasia Contrappuntistica; Alfredo Casella: Due Ricercari sul nome di Bach; Cyril S. Christopher: Soliloquy on B-A-C-H and the Chorale "Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein; Hanns Eisler: Piano Trio on the 12-tone Scale; Wolfgang Fortner: Fantasia; Vincent d'Indy: "Beuron," No. 11 from Tableaux de Voyage, Op. 33; Sigfrid Karg-Elert: Passacaglia and Fugue, Op. 150, Basso Ostinato, Op. 58, repeated in one of his two Op. 142, Sempre Semplice; Johann Ludwig Krebs: Organ Fugue in B-flat Major; Franz Liszt: Prelude and Fugue for Organ, Fantasia and Fugue for Piano; Felix Mendelssohn: 6 Fugues; Wilhelm Middelschulte: Canonical Fantasia; Riccardo Nielsen: Ricercare, Chorale and Toccata; Ernst Pepping: Three Fugues; Walter Piston: Chromatic Fantasy; Max Reger: Organ Fantasia and Fugue, Op. 46; Josef Rheinberger: Organ Fughetta, Op. 123a No. 3; Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov: Six Variations, Op. 1; Robert Schumann: 6 Fugues, Op. 60; Georg Andreas Sorge: 3 Fugues.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Hitchcock, H. Wiley. "Ivesiana: The Gottschalk Connection." Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter 15 (November 1985): 5.

In Psalm 90, Ives quotes Louis Moreau Gottschalk's famous piano work, The Last Hope. The quotation appears in the second half of Verse 6, with the text "in the evening it is cut down, and withereth." Ives's borrowing may refer to The Last Hope, subtitled "religious meditation," or to the hymn Mercy, also known as Gottschalk, itself derived from The Last Hope and attributed to Edwin Pound Parker.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Hitchcock, H. Wiley. Ives. Oxford Studies of Composers 14. London, New York, and Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1977. Reprint with corrections as Ives: A Survey of the Music. Brooklyn: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Hollander, Hans. "Die Beethoven-Reflexe in Schuberts grosser C-Dur-Sinfonie." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 126 (May 1965): 183-85.

Beethoven's influence on Schubert was a psychological as much as musical one, against which the composer struggled. The Great C Major Symphony is an illustration of how much of this influence had been absorbed by the end of his life. Important rhythmic and formal features of the central movements are related to those of Beethoven's Seventh Symphony, and a theme in the finale is strongly reminiscent of the "Ode to Joy" theme from his Ninth. However, the most important influence of Beethoven can be seen in the tight-knit thematic organicism (based primarily on the third-motive of the Introduction) that characterizes the entire work.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Hollander, Hans. "Zum Selbstzitat in Schuberts Musik." Das Orchester 27 (January 1979): 11-13.

The subjective nature of Schubert's music is manifested in his use of self-quotation. Symbols found in the early songs recur in later works with their significance deepened through personal experience, including musical usage. One such symbol, dactylic rhythm, which represents the wanderer (Schubert himself) and death, appears in various guises throughout Schubert's compositions, including recall of melodic themes in similar psychological situations. This form of self-quotation differs from that found in other Schubert compositions such as variations on his own themes.

Works: Liszt: Transcription of Schubert's Wanderer Fantasie; Schubert: Fantasia for Violin and Piano in C Major, Impromptu No. 4 in B-flat Major, Der Jüngling und der Tod, Octet in F Major, Rosamunde, String Quartet in A Minor, String Quartet in D Minor, Der Tod und das Mädchen, Variations on Die Forelle, Variations on Trockne Blumen for Flute and Piano, Wiegenlied, Der Wanderer, Wanderer Fantasie, Wanderers Nachtlied.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Holloway, Robin. Debussy and Wagner. 1979. [See Austin review.]

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Holt, Roxanne M. "Six chants polonais (Sechs polnische Lieder): Liszt's Transcriptions from Chopin?s Songs, Opus 74." D.M.A. document, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2000.

Liszt's piano transcriptions of Chopin's songs, Op. 74, illustrate how Liszt expanded the range of pianistic techniques and sonorities, and how he intended to create technically demanding music for his own concert repertoire as well as to promote Chopin?s songs. The nineteenth century saw growing interest in and popularity of piano transcriptions--of which Liszt was the most prolific composer--which provided a vehicle for new sonorities in a different medium. Liszt's transcriptions focus on the composer's musical portrayal of the original text, as well as his use of expression markings, virtuosic and improvisational elements, and ossia. For example, in Liszt's transcription, Frühling, of Chopin?s song Wiosna, Liszt transforms Chopin's tempo and markings of andantino with semplice and sempre legato to andantino malinconico with una corda and un poco pesante, creating more descriptive instructions. Liszt's transcription, Meine Freunden, of Chopin's Moja Pieszczotka shows Liszt's free, improvisatory writing style, his own tempo and expression marks, his virtuosic writing, and his use of ossia. The comparisons among several editions of the Liszt transcriptions with respect to editorial indications, including pedaling, fingering, and text, are a useful source for modern pianists.

Works: Liszt: Transcription of Chopin's Six Chant Polonais, Op. 74 (64-131).

Sources: Chopin: Six Chant Polonais, Op. 74 (64-131).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Hong, Barbara Blanchard. "Gade Models for Grieg's Symphony and Piano Sonata." In Dansk Aarbog for Musikforskning 15 (1984): 27-38.

Niels Gade was a great influence on Grieg's style and compositions as seen in the formal structures, choice of keys, number of movements, tempos, and related themes of the latter's works. Gade's works show the influence of Scotch and Danish folksongs, Schumann, Mendelssohn, and Wagner. Grieg experienced difficulties with sonata form movements and hence relied on models; Gerald Abraham's comparison of the Schumann and Grieg piano concertos illustrates this point. Gade and Grieg's first symphonies, both in C Minor, and each composer's only piano sonata, both in E Minor, are compared. Musical examples and a brief history of the Grieg Symphony are provided.

Works: Gade: Balders drom (28), Ossian Overture (28), Piano Sonata (1840) (28, 33), Symphony No. 1 in C Minor, Op. 5 (28), Siegfried og Brunhilde (operatic fragment, 1847) (28); Edward Grieg: Piano Concerto in A Minor (32), Piano Sonata in E Minor, Op. 28 (32), Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (29).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Hoorickx, Reinhard van (O.F.M.). "Schubert's Reminiscences of His Own Works." The Musical Quarterly 60 (July 1974): 373-88.

An inventory of the uses of self-quotation in Schubert's works is provided. In addition to the well-known cases of self-borrowing, Hoorickx cites 33 lesser known compositions in which Schubert reuses his own material. Each individual case of self-borrowing is discussed in enough detail to establish a clear relationship between the borrowed material and its former setting. Hoorickx proves that self-borrowing was a compositional device frequently employed by Schubert.

Works: Schubert: Ich sass an einer Tempelhalle, D. 39 (373), Fantasia for Piano Duet in G Major, D. 1 (373), Leichenfantasie, D. 7 (374), Overture for String Orchestra, D. 8 (374), Piano Duet Fantasia in G Minor, D. 9 (375), String Quartet No. 7 in D Major, D. 94 (375), Octet for Wind Instruments (376), Piano Piece in C Major, D. 29 (376), String Quartet in C Major, D. 32 (376), String Quartet in B-flat Major, D. 36 (376), Salve Regina, D. 223 (377), Der Jüngling am Bache, D. 30 (377), String Quartet in C Major, D. 46 (378), Fantasy in C Major for Piano Duet, D. 48 (378), Sehnsucht, D. 52 (378), Gesang der Geister über den Wassern, D. 484 (379), Fierarbras, D. 796, No. 18 (379), Drei Klavierstücke, D. 946, No. 2 (379), An die Nachtigall, D. 497 (380), Hermann und Thusnelda, D. 328 (380), Ellen's Gesang I, D. 837 (380), Atys, D. 585 (380), Octet in F Major, D. 803 (380), Geist der Liebe, D. 414 (381), Lied der Mignon, D. 877, No. 4 (383), Elysium, D. 584 (383), Piano Sonata in A Major, D. 959 (384), Piano Sonata in A Minor, D. 784 (384), "Der Tag entflieht" from Das Zauberglöckchen (385), Deutsche Messe, D. 872 (385), Der häusliche Krieg (386), Nachtgesang im Walde, D. 913 (386), Täuschung, D. 911, No. 19 (386), Rosamunde Overture, Op. 26 (387), Der Jäger, D. 795, No. 14 (388), Violin Sonata in A Major, Op. 160, D. 574 (388).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Horncastle, F. W. "Plagiarism." Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review 4 (1822): 141-47.

Originality is considered among the most essential qualities in the age of Enlightenment. It is especially difficult to attain in music, an entirely imitative art, and music plagiarism is seen in both young composers struggling to pass mediocrity as well as great composers. The measure of their offenses often increases in proportion with their experience and reputation. There are composers guilty of "musical felony" such as Corelli and Handel. Handel's adaptations of pre-existing music have been noted by historians, but none have accused Handel of plagiarism. Boyce, Mozart, Clementi, and Rossini have all committed different degrees of "petty larcenies." The act of musical plagiarism must be brought to light in order to warn young composers and encourage them to create styles of their own.

Index Classifications: 1600s, 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Horne, William. "Brahms's Düsseldorf Suite Study and His Intermezzo, Op. 116, No. 2." The Musical Quarterly 73 ([April] 1989): 249-83.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Howie, Alan Crawford. "The Sacred Music of Anton Bruckner." Ph.D. diss., University of Manchester, 1969.

Information on stylistic borrowing, such as the Viennese Classic style and church music, is located in the preliminary section of this dissertation. Specific information about Bruckner and the Caecilian movement (pp. 29-37) focuses on Bruckner's attitude toward the movement. Details of specific stylistic borrowing and quotation appear from page 270 to the end of the dissertation, including an exhaustive list of borrowings from Bruckner's own sacred music in his symphonies (pp. 289ff). Howie maintains that Bruckner's sacred music is shrouded in spiritualism and symbolism without sacrificing the composer's unique and eclectic compositional style.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Hufstader, Alice Anderson. "Beethoven's Irische Lieder: Sourcesand Problems." The Musical Quarterly 45 (July 1959): 343-60.

Beethoven's Irische Lieder can be traced to three sources (which, in turn, are the origins of Irish national music): the work of the bards (the Irish equivalent to the German Meistersinger), non-vocal harp tunes (music for dancing, tunes for convivial uses and funeral dirges), and ballads. Beethoven took the preexistent melody and provided a harmony, unaware of the history or nature of the tunes (which often lacked words). The question is posed whether Beethoven's setting of these tunes reflects their true nature.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Hull, Kenneth. "Brahms the Allusive: Extra-Compositional Reference in the Instrumental Music of Johannes Brahms." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Ismer, Ursula, and Hanna John. “Variationsthema von Georg Friedrich Händel in neuer Gestalt: Eine Studie zu den Händel-Variationen B-Dur op. 24 für Klavier von Johannes Brahms.” In Georg Friedrich Händel, Ein Lebensinhalt: Gedenkschrift für Bernd Baselt (1934-1993), ed. Klaus Hortschansky and Konstanze Musketa, 297-314. Halle an der Saale: Händel-Haus; Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Ives, Charles E. Memos. Edited and with appendices by John Kirkpatrick. New York: W. W. Norton, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Ivry, Benjamin. "Too Strong for Fantasias: Does the Popularization of Opera Themes breed Familarity--or Contempt?" Opera News 53 (21 January 1989): 20-21, 46.

Virtuosic transcriptions of opera themes became very popular in the nineteenth century. In many cases this led to an overfamiliarity that resulted in contempt. Among composers who made arrangements of opera arias were Liszt, Chopin, Huten, Czerny, Thalberg, Herz, Krebs, Rummel, and Heller. Some arrangements were for several pianos. Others were variations by several composers on the same theme.

Works: Czerny: Fantasy on themes from Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable (21); Thalberg: Fantasy on Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots, Op. 20 (21); Herz: Variations on Ein feste Burg (21).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Jefferson, Alan. The Lieder of Richard Strauss. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971.

Strauss's songs contain a variety of quotations and allusions to preexistent material. The musical borrowings are cited but are not included in separate lists.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Jeffery, Charles. "BWV 80: Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott." In Johann Sebastian Bach: Four Chorale Cantatas: A Commentary, 9-46. Stratford-upon-Avon: Sapphire Book Club, 1980.

Luther's hymn Ein feste Burg falls into a category of many tunes with a revolutionary cause, from La Marseillaise to John Brown's Body, because it signifies the German Reformation and the religious triumph of Lutheranism. Indeed, Luther's hymn emerges from a vernacular tradition, not only in the translation of the Bible into German, but also in the poetic and musical union meant to appeal to the people in the entire congregation rather than to specific members of the choir and clergy. J. S. Bach, inspired by many Lutheran chorales, chose to exhibit this piece for a Festival of 1730, marking the Bicentenary of the Confession of Augsburg in which the Protestants declared the aims of the Lutheran church. Bach entitled his setting In Festo Reformationis, and he meant for it to represent his piety. Some movements, including the soprano and bass duet as well as the bass recitative, feature the relatively unembellished tune to evoke its military and unifying purposes. In a more complex setting, the chorale fantasia on verse one, Bach uses the tune as a cantus firmus embedded within a set of variations. In addition, later composers such as Mendelssohn and Roderick-Jones, like Bach, use the tune to invoke powerful religious sentiment, whereas Meyerbeer strips it of its religious content and uses it to accompany a ceremonial march.

Works: J. S. Bach: In Festo Reformationis, BWV 80 (16-47); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (46); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (46); Richard Roderick-Jones: Chanticleer (46).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (9-15).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] John, Hanna, and Ursula Ismer. "Variationsthema von Georg Friedrich Händel in neuer Gestalt: Eine Studie zu den Händel-Variationen B-Dur op. 24 für Klavier von Johannes Brahms." In Georg Friedrich Händel, Ein Lebensinhalt: Gedenkschrift für Bernd Baselt (1934-1993), ed. Klaus Hortschansky and Konstanze Musketa, 297-314. Halle an der Saale: Händel-Haus; Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Kagan, Susan. Archduke Rudolph, Beethoven's Patron, Pupil, and Friend: His Life and Music. Stuyvesant: Pendragon Press, 1988.

A detailed study of Archduke Rudolph's Forty Variations on a Theme by Beethoven (1818-19) is provided on pp. 69-118. The variations represent the culmination of Rudolph's years of composition study with Beethoven, and they stand at the core of his oeuvre. In the spring of 1818 Beethoven wrote out a four-measure Liedthema, "O Hoffnung" (WoO 200), and sent it to Rudolph as an assignment in variations composition. Rudolph took to the assignment with great enthusiasm, producing a set of forty variations on the "O Hoffnung" theme. Beethoven kept a close eye on Rudolph throughout the writing process; his corrections and suggested revisions can be found on Rudolph's original manuscript. The first thirty-five variations are "strict" in that they bear a direct bar-by-bar structural correspondence with the original theme. But the last five of the set are "fantasia" variations, deviating greatly from the original in length and harmonic design. The final variation (no. 40) adopts the theme as the subject of a four-voice fugue that extends for ninety-six measures. The fugue especially reveals Rudolph's allegiance to the pianistic style of his teacher in many ways, including the lengthy passages in consecutive thirds and sixths, the long sustained trill under which new melodies emerge, and the unconventional pedaling in the final measures.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Kallberg, Jeffrey. "Marketing Rossini: Sei lettere di Troupenas ad Artaria." Bolletino del Centro Rossiniano di Studi 1-3 (1980): 41-63. ltalian translation by Marco Spada, and letters in the original French.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Kam, Lap-Kwan. "Schuberts Diabelli-Variationen (D 718)." In Bekenntnis zur österreichischen Musik in Lehre und Forschung: Eine Festschrift für Eberhard Würzl zum achtzigsten Geburtstag am 1. November 1995, ed. Walter Pass, 113-19. Vienna: Pasqualatihaus, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Kamien, Roger. "The Slow Introduction of Mozart's Symphony No. 38 in D, K. 504 'Prague': A Possible Model for the Slow Introduction of Beethoven's Symphony No. 2 in D, Op. 36." Israel Studies in Musicology 5 (1990): 113-30.

The slow introduction of Beethoven's Second Symphony bears a striking resemblance to Mozart's introduction to his symphony K. 504. A number of features are similar, including the chord progressions, the length (of the entire introduction, the second section, and the concluding pedal point), the enharmonic reinterpretations of preceding chromatic tones, the use of mode mixture in the second section, melodic details, and the rhythmic acceleration that prepares the opening Allegro. Yet Beethoven also departs from his Mozart model, for instance in composing a more symmetrical, shorter opening section. Beethoven's sketches for the symphony further indicate the existence of a link to Mozart's introduction.

Works: Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D Major, Op. 36.

Sources: Mozart: Symphony No. 38 in D Major, K. 504, Prague.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Kantner, Leopold Maximilian. "Der Symbolwert von Archaismen untersucht an Opern der Klassik und Romantik." In De ratione in musica: Festschrift Erich Schenk zum 5. Mai 1972, ed. Theophil Antonicek, Rudolf Flotzinger, and Othmar Wessely, 156-86. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1975.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Karbusicky, Vladimir. Gustav Mahler und seine Umwelt. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kasunic, David M. "Chopin and the Singing Voice, from the Romantic to the Real." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Kawabata, Maiko. "Virtuosity Transfigured: In the Shadow of Paganini." The Journal of the American Liszt Society 57 (2006): 31-34.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Kearns, William K. "Horatio Parker 1863-1919: A Study of His Life and Music." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1965.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kearns, William K. Horatio Parker, 1863-1919: His Life, Music, and Ideas. Composers of North America, No. 6. Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kelly, Kevin O. "The Songs of Charles Ives and the Cultural Contexts of Death." Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1988.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kemp, Ian. "Romeo and Juliet and Roméo et Juliette." In Berlioz Studies, ed. Peter Bloom, 37-79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Like the Symphonie fantastique,Roméo et Juliette includes borrowings from earlier works. A passage of recitative in the Roméo "Introduction" resembles a motif in the "Méditation" from the 1829 Prix de Rome cantata Cléopâtre. Berlioz himself explained the inspiration behind the Cléopâtre music, indicating that he intended the "Méditation" for a Roméo et Juliette of some sort. A melody from the withdrawn Ballet des ombres, in particular from the section referring to an invitation to a dance, appears with the same meaning in "La Reine Mab," at the place where Mab is about to take the young girl to the ball. The Larghetto oboe melody and the dance theme from "Roméo seul" derive from the cantata Sardanapale (1830), with which Berlioz actually won the Prix de Rome. From this cantata survive only a fragment of the finale "Incendie" and Peter Bloom's reconstruction of the text. The fragment contains the two themes mentioned above, but the Larghetto melody likely also formed the basis of the "Cavatine" and the allegro theme the basis of the "Bacchanale" that preceded the "résumé-cum-coda" fragment. In both the cantata and "Roméo seul" the themes are associated with arousing and intensifying desire.

Works: Berlioz: Roméo et Juliette (53-59).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Kennedy, Michael. Richard Strauss. London: Dent, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kennedy, Michael. Strauss Tone Poems. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1984.

Strauss's tone poems contain a variety of quotations from preexistent sources. There is a separate list of self-quotations in Ein Heldenleben on pp. 46-47.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Keppler, Philip Jr. "Some Comments on Musical Quotation." The Musical Quarterly 42 (October 1956): 473-85.

Allusions to well-known tunes or passages may (1) deliver a concealed comment (as in a theatrical "aside") and (2) depend on the listener's knowledge of the source if the comment is to be effective or even noted. Several categories can be differentiated: incidental thematic quotation, topical thematic reference (to tunes such as the Marseillaise and to less familiar tunes), and quotation of vocal works in which the text is of significance. Commentarial quotation is distinguished from self-quotation (here with reference to Mahler, Rossini, and Beethoven) since in the latter knowledge of the source is of no significance. Commentarial quotation is a predominantly Romantic phenomenon and fits in with the desire to be exclusive and the tendency to refer to things outside the work of art.

Works: Elgar: Enigma Variations (473); Saint-Saëns: Carnival of Animals (473), Danse Macabre (474); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (474); Schumann: Die beiden Grenadieren (474); Weber: Jubilee Overture (474), Battle Symphony (474); Brahms: Song of Triumph (474), Academic Festival Overture (474); Mendelssohn: Reformation Symphony (474); Wagner: Kaisermarsch (474); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (474); Liszt: Totentanz (474), Dante Symphony (474); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death (474); Rachmaninoff: Isle of the Dead (474), Variations on a Theme by Paganini (474); Schelling: A Victory Ball (475); Wagner: Parsifal (476), Die Meistersinger (477), "Wesendonck" Songs (477), Siegfried Idyll (478); Puccini: Il Tabarro (479); Mozart: Don Giovanni (480), The Marriage of Figaro (480); Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (481), Capriccio (482); Sterndale Bennett: Études Symphoniques, Op. 13 (483).

Sources: Mendelssohn: Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (473); Berlioz: Dance of the Sylphs (473); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (474); Arne: God Save the King (474); Luther: Ein feste Burg; Anonymous: Gaudeamus Igitur (474), Dies Irae (474); Rossini: "Una voce poco fa" from Barber of Seville (475), "Di tanti palpiti" from Tancredi (475-76); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (477-78); Strauss: Death and Transfiguration (480); Martín: Una Cosa Rara (480); Sarti: I Due Litiganti (480); Marschner: The Templar and the Jewess (483).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Kerman, Joseph. "Verdi's Use of Recurring Themes." In Studies in Music History: Essays for Oliver Strunk, ed. Harold Powers, 495-510. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968.

Verdi often utilized recurring themes, most notable in Rigoletto,Aïda, and Otello. The use of a recurring motive (a term semantically preferable to Erinnerungsmotiv (reminiscence theme) provides a dramatic focal point, as opposed to an identification motive used for characterization. Verdi recalls earlier music for dramatic purposes, often reusing the same harmonic constructions. The recalling of a kiss in La Traviata,La Forza del destino, and Aïda is represented both by similar melodies and by a harmonic shift from minor to major mode.

Works: Verdi: Rigoletto (300), Aïda (503), Otello (505).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Kim, Haesuk. "Schumann and Paganini." Peabody Essays in Music History 2 (1989): 1-36.

In his Etudes de concert . . . d'après des caprices de Paganini, Op. 10, Robert Schumann abandons the paradigm of relatively strict transcription he adhered to in his 6 Etudes pour le pianoforte d'après les caprices de Paganini, Op. 3, and instead seeks to capture the expressive qualities of Paganini's 24 Caprices, Op. 1. Schumann's poetic aesthetic results in freer treatments of Paganini's material than found in Liszt's transcriptions, which sought to transmit Paganini's virtuosity and more frequently preserved the idiosyncrasies of Paganini's violinistic idiom. Schumann's writings attest to his vision of Paganini as an ideal virtuoso, inspirational not only as a performer, but as a romantic hero.

Works: Liszt: Grandes Études de Paganini (9, 26-27); Robert Schumann: 6 Études pour le pianoforte d'après les caprices de Paganini, Op. 3 (12-15, 27), Études de concert . . . d'après des caprices de Paganini, Op. 10 (12, 15-25).

Sources: Paganini: 24 Caprices, Op. 1 (9, 12-30), Violin Concerto No. 2 in B Minor (9).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Kimber, Marian Wilson. "Mendelssohn's Second Piano Concerto, Op. 40, and the Origins of His Serenade and Allegro Giojoso, Op. 43." The Journal of Musicology 20 (Summer 2003): 358-87.

Due to its rushed composition for the premiere performance, the musical material of Felix Mendelssohn's Serenade and Allegro Giojoso, Op. 43 (1838) is based largely on his Piano Concerto No. 2 in D Minor, Op. 40, composed the previous year. Many of the similarities between the works are evident: they share the same ensemble, key area, and some thematic material. Further evidence for the self-borrowing can be found in Mendelssohn's sketches. In the Nachlaß 19 manuscript, a passage originally intended for the Piano Concerto was reused as a transition between the movements of the Serenade and Allegro Giojoso in an early performance. The Nachlaß 30 manuscript shows evidence of Mendelssohn revising Op. 43 to more closely resemble the earlier Op. 40. Also, documentary evidence shows that he was editing the proof of Op. 40 while finishing Op. 43, and thus it is likely that the musical material of each shared many features.

Works: Mendelssohn: Serenade and Allegro Giojoso, Op. 43 (358-87).

Sources: Mendelssohn: Piano Concerto in D Minor, Op. 40 (359-87).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Kinderman, William. "Bachian Affinities in Beethoven." Bach Perspectives 3 (1998): 81-108.

Beethoven was first influenced by Bach during his Bonn years, and that influence grew and became more profound in his late works. In several instances a specific piece by Bach is intimated as Beethoven's model, yet that influence rarely amounts to straightforward borrowing. For instance, the C minor episode in the finale of Beethoven's "Grande Sonate" in E flat Major, Op. 7 recalls Bach's Prelude in C minor from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I. This stylistic allusion, which involves a relentless ostinato that stresses turn figures, is incorporated by Beethoven as a dramatic element. The finale of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in F Major, Op. 54, refers to Bach's Fugue in E Minor from WTC I. Both sonatas evoke the toccata-like idiom of the Bach works, yet the model is transformed by Beethoven and assimilated into his dramatic framework. Beethoven's Diabelli Variations (notably Nos. 29 and 31) include textural and melodic resemblances to Bach's Goldberg Variations, and are best construed as an homage to Bach.

Works: Beethoven: "Grande Sonate" in E flat Major, Op. 7 (85-87), Cello Sonata in A Major, Op. 69 (88), Piano Sonata in A flat Major, Op. 110 (88, 97), Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (101-3).

Sources: Bach: Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Prelude in C Minor (85-87), "Es ist vollbracht" from St. John Passion (88), Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Prelude in E flat Minor (97, 101), Goldberg Variations (101-3).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Kinderman, William. "Beethoven's Symbol for the Deity in the Missa Solemnis and the Ninth Symphony." 19th-Century Music 9 (Fall 1985): 102-18.

Beethoven's use of specific sonorities in the Missa Solemnis (Credo and Benedictus) and in the Ninth Symphony (Finale). Most significant is an Eb Major sonority first heard at the start of the Credo. This sonority takes on a symbolic meaning in both the Credo and Benedictus since it is associated with texts which evoke celestial regions. This symbolic association holds in the Ninth as well. The musical ideas involved are also evident in the String Quartet in Eb Major, Op. 127, which is the final work in which these ideas are treated. These referential sonorities, then, bind together three of Beethoven's late works.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Kinderman, William. "Hans Sachs's 'Cobbler's Song,' Tristan, and the 'Bitter Cry of the Resigned Man.'" Journal of Musicological Research 13, nos. 3-4 (1993): 161-84.

Wagner's Die Meistersinger makes several allusions to Tristan und Isolde. These begin furtively in the second act, gradually come near the surface, and culminate in Act III, scene 4. The allusions include explicit quotations of the Tristan chord and a passage originally sung by King Marke, a relationship in key, orchestration and voice leading that is reminiscent of the love music in Tristan, and an adaptation of larger formal structure from the prelude to Tristan. Analysis of the above, as well as the "Cobbler's Song" from Act II, helps reveal the complexity and meaning of Hans Sachs's inner conflict and resignation.

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (161-83).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (161, 170, 172-83).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Kinderman, William. "The Evolution and Structure of Beethoven's Diabelli Variations." Journal of the American Musicological Society 35 (Summer 1982): 306-28.

Study of the sketches for Beethoven's Diabelli Variations reveals that the variations were composed in two stages, before and after the composition of the Piano Sonata Op. 111. In view of this, the melodic shape of Diabelli's theme can be seen as a clear model for that of the Arietta of Op. 111, while at the same time the Arietta influences the structure and character of the variations composed after the sonata. This is especially true in the case of the final, thirty-third variation; by almost literally quoting the Arietta, this causes the entire set to constitute both a musical and numerical "postscript" to the 32 sonatas.

Works: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 111, Thirty-Three Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli, Op. 120.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Kinderman, William. Beethoven's Diabelli Variations. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Kirby, F. E. "Beethoven's Pastorale Symphony as a Sinfonia Caracteristica." The Musical Quarterly 56 (October 1970): 605-23. Reprinted in The Creative World of Beethoven, ed. Paul Henry Lang, 103-21. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

Among the various pastoral elements in Beethoven's 6th symphony are the use of a genuine ranz des vaches melody, characteristic Austrian rhythms, bagpipe sounds, and bird calls.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Kirchmeyer, Helmut. "Vom Sinn und Unsinn musikliterarischer Schlagwortzitate: Eine Studie zum Thema 'Demagogie der Informationen.'" Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 122 (1961): 490-96.

This article discusses the deep symbolic ramifications of musical quotations and leitmotivs. According to Kirchmeyer, quotations and leitmotivs possess demagogical powers or properties. He feels that composers of the German school such as Mahler, Schoenberg, and particularly Wagner were highly aware of these demagogical powers and properties, and consequently exploited them through the use of quotations and/or leitmotivs in their compositions. Kirchmeyer discusses the way in which these three German composers strengthen the symbolic meanings of their works through the use of quotations and leitmotivs.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Kirkendale, Warren. "New Roads to Old Ideas in Beethoven's Missa Solemnis." The Musical Quarterly 56 (October 1970): 665-701. Reprinted in The Creative World of Beethoven, ed. Paul Henry Lang, 163-99. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

In the Missa Solemnis, Beethoven uses numerous rhetorical gestures to express the meaning of the text. Some of the gestures were conventional in his day, such as a static motive with which to begin the Kyrie, used at least as far back as Benevoli in 1628. Known to have been studying Handel's Messiah while he composed the Missa Solemnis, Beethoven is indebted for the Katabasis (lowering of the elevated host) in his Agnus Dei to "He shall feed his flock," and for a fugato subject to the "Hallelujah Chorus," both from Messiah.

Works: Beethoven: Missa Solemnis.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Ives, Charles E(dward)." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1980. Revised as "Ives, Charles (Edward)," with additions to the work-list by Paul C. Echols, in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. A Temporary Mimeographed Catalogue of the Music Manuscripts and Related Materials of Charles Edward Ives 1874-1954. New Haven: Library of the Yale School of Music, 1960; reprint, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. Notes to the songs, in the recording Charles Ives: The 100th Anniversary. New York: Columbia M4 32504, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kleinertz, Rainer. "Liszt, Wagner, and Unfolding Form: Orpheus and the Genesis of Tristan und Isolde." In Franz Liszt and His World, ed. Christopher H. Gibbs and Dana Gooley, 231-54. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Wagner's Tristan und Isolde illustrates how he attempted to avoid the conventional periodic structure of music. His solution was indebted to Liszt?s "unfolding form," suggesting that his encounter with Liszt's symphonic poems, particularly Orpheus, during Liszt's Weimar period (1847-61) played a decisive role in the formal idea of Tristan. It has been acknowledged that Liszt influenced Wagner with regard to harmony. Further influence by Liszt on Wagner involves structural aspects of musical form. Wagner's admiration for Liszt's symphonic poems, particularly Orpheus, is evident in his letter after Liszt conducted his Les Préludes and Orpheus in 1856. Liszt, in his symphonic compositions, provided an alternative form to the conventional sonata form, achieving an "unfolding form" in which small elements are repeated, developed, and varied into greater units. His avoidance of a closed form allowed Wagner to achieve the concepts of "poetic-musical period" and "verse melody" in his Tristan. His earliest sketches for Tristan in 1856 demonstrate how he solved the problem of traditional sonata form by linking his formal idea to Liszt's, suggesting the significance of his encounter with Orpheus.

Works: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (245-50).

Sources: Liszt: Orpheus (234-41).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Klenz, William. "Brahms, Op. 38; Piracy, Pillage, Plagiarism or Parody?" The Music Review 34 (February 1973): 39-50.

Brahms's Cello Sonata in E Minor is so closely patterned on the E minor cello sonata of Bernhard Romberg that it could be considered a parody, using the sixteenth-century definition of the term. Besides the obvious connection of the key, the choice of opus number and other musical details suggest that Brahms modeled his sonata on that of Romberg. Both utilize similar tempo markings and harmonic progressions. Combinations of Romberg's first and third movement themes appear throughout Brahms' composition, and much of the original accompaniment also appears in reworked form. Some of the more contrapuntal passages seem to derive from Bach. It is possible that Brahms's familiarity with Romberg's work is due to the influence of his friend Gänsbacher, who might have pressed the composer into accompanimental duties. Perhaps Brahms's cello sonata, patterned so closely on Romberg's, was the result of improvisations over Romberg's accompaniment and a subsequent reworking of its ideas.

Works: Brahms: Cello Sonata in E Minor.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Klusen, Ernst. "Gustav Mahler und das böhmisch-mährische Volkslied." In: Bericht über den Internationalen Musikwissenschaftlichen Kongress Kassel 1962, ed. Georg Reichert and Martin Just, 246-51. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Knapp, Raymond. "Allusive Webs, Generic Resonance, and the Synthesis of Traditions." In Brahms and the Challenge of the Symphony, 81-141. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon, 1997.

Of the various compositional challenges Brahms faced in writing his symphonies, integrating oneself into past traditions was one challenge most easily overcome with the use of stylistic allusion as a subtle and complicated form of borrowing. These allusions exist as component parts in larger "webs," which are created when a given passage or melody from one of Brahms's symphonies may simultaneously allude to a multitude of different, and possibly interrelated, sources. Likewise, Brahms may simultaneously allude not only to specific pieces as sources, but also to generic types, thereby creating a more general stylistic resonance while obscuring a listener's ability to accurately recognize and identify potential source compositions. For Brahms, these allusions provide a "double-edged sword" with which he can either pay homage to, or make an ironic departure from, a possible model. This multifaceted practice of simultaneous allusions was Brahms's way of engaging not only with past traditions but also with his present audience (who could, conceivably with some effort, recognize and appreciate the allusions). Consequently, Brahms's symphonies are more retrospective or nostalgic because of these allusions than they would have been if he had simply borrowed from himself.

Works: Brahms: Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (81-85, 88-92, 103-4, 110-11, 113, 124-25, 128-29, 134), Symphony No. 2 in D Major (105-6, 110, 115, 117, 119-21, 123), Symphony No. 3 in F Major (91, 93-95, 107, 122, 134), Symphony No. 4 in E Minor (91, 96-97, 100-101, 105, 108-10, 129-30, 132).

Sources: Bach: St. John Passion (82-84, 88, 91, 124, 126), Weihnachts-Oratorium (92), The Well-Tempered Clavier (96, 98), Cantata No. 150, Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich (131), Partita No. 2 for Solo Violin, Chaconne in D Minor (131-32); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (81, 83, 90-91, 103, 117-18, 127-28), Symphony No. 6 in F Major (Pastorale) (88, 91-92, 102, 105, 110-11, 136-37), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major (Eroica) (95, 117-120, 132), Violin Concerto in D Major (96), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (97-98, 109, 120, 122-23), Piano Sonata No. 29 in B-flat Major, Op. 106 (97, 99), Symphony No. 7 in A Major (104-5), Piano Sonata No. 31 in A-flat Major, Op. 110 (108-9), Piano Concerto No. 3 in C Minor (112-13), Piano Sonata No. 15 in D Major, Op. 28 (116-17), Symphony No. 4 in B-flat Major (119, 121), Symphony No. 1 in C Major (126, 128-29), Piano Sonata No. 23 in F Minor, Op. 57 (127-28), Piano Variations in C Minor, Op. 35 (131-33); Schubert: Symphony No. 9 in C Major (Great) (88-90, 92, 100-101, 105, 118-19, 136-37), String Quintet in C Major (94), Symphony No. 8 in B Minor (Unfinished) (101-2, 113-14, 131, 133); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Major (88-89, 103-4), Symphony No. 2 in B-flat Major (97, 99, 101), Ein Sommernachtstraum (106-7, 114, 116), Die Erste Walpurgisnacht (110-11, 114-15), Hebrides Overture (114, 116), Symphony No. 3 in A Minor (114-15); Brahms: Volks-Kinderlieder (89, 106), String Sextet, Op. 18 (90), Variations on a Theme by Haydn (90), Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (94, 99), Waltz, Op. 39 (99), Piano Concerto No. 1 in D Minor (126); Robert Schumann: Symphony No. 1 in B-flat Major (93, 95), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major (Rhenish) (93, 95), Symphony No. 4 in D Minor (101, 107-8), Symphony No. 2 in C Major (110, 112), Manfred Overture (127-28); Haydn: Symphony No. 97 in C Major (94-95, 103-4, 124, 126), Symphony No. 103 in E-flat Major (97-98), Symphony No. 104 in D Major (106-7, 116, 119-120), Symphony No. 83 in G Minor (107-8), The Creation (110-11), Symphony No. 94 in G Major (110, 112, 116), Symphony No. 87 in A Major (112-13); Wagner: Tannhäuser (96); Handel: Messiah (96, 98); Buxtehude: Ciaccona in E Minor (96, 130); Mozart: Symphony No. 40 in G Minor (96-98, 113-14), Symphony No. 39 in E-flat Major (106-7); Couperin: Passacaille in B Minor (131).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Alexis Witt

[+] Knapp, Raymond. "Brahms and the Anxiety of Allusion." Journal of Musicological Research 18 (1998): 1-30.

While Brahms's relationship to his predecessors, in particular Beethoven, seems to warrant the application of Harold Bloom's theory of the anxiety of influence, it is perhaps more accurate to think of Brahms's anxiety as the result of tensions created by the expectations of his audience. Brahms realized that his audience would receive and judge his works in comparison to those of his revered predecessors. Therefore, he was faced with the task of creating music that was similar enough to his predecessors to be well-received by his audience while still maintaining the status of originality. Thus, Brahms foregrounded original, non-referential music while cultivating subtle and buried musical allusions that evoked his predecessors. These allusions served to invoke the music of Brahms's predecessors on a subconscious level while still allowing Brahms's music to be seen as highly original. It is this careful balancing act, not his feelings towards Beethoven and other composers, that created the anxiety for Brahms.

Works: Brahms: Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (10-16), Symphony No. 3 in F Major (16-25).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (11-15), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (11-16), Symphony No. 3 in E flat Major, Eroica (19, 21, 23-24); Haydn: Symphony No. 97 in C Major (16-17, 19, 23-24); Schubert: String Quintet in C Major (16-17, 20); Schumann: Symphony No. 1 in B flat Major, Spring (18, 20, 24-25), Symphony No. 3 in E flat Major, Rhenish (18, 21, 24-25); Richard Wagner: Tannhäuser (19-20, 23-24).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Knapp, Raymond. "The Finale of Brahms's Fourth Symphony: The Tale of the Subject." 19th-Century Music 13 (Summer 1989): 3-17.

The ostinato subject that concludes Brahm's Fourth Symphony has connections to the Baroque tradition of the ostinato bass. However, the subject also refers to the structural coherence of the symphony as a whole, especially in the use of chains of thirds. Brahms thus had other models including Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, and Rubenstein. As a theme in and of itself, the ostinato more closely resembles Buxtehude; as evidence of compositional process, it shows strong links to Beethoven, not only his variation works but also his Fifth Symphony.

Works: Brahms: Fourth Symphony (3-17); Beethoven: Third Symphony (9).

Sources: J. S. Bach: Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich, BWV 150 (3-6), Chaconne for solo violin (6-8); Buxtehude: E-Minor Ciacona (6, 12), D-Minor Passacaglia (6-8); François Couperin: B-Minor Passacaille (8); Beethoven: Variations for Piano, Op. 35 (9), C-Minor Variations (9), Third Symphony (9-10), Fifth Symphony (10), Hammerklavier Sonata (10); Mozart: G-Minor Symphony (10-11, 15).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Knapp, Raymond. "Utopian Agendas: Variation, Allusion, and Referential Meaning in Brahms's Symphonies." Brahms Studies 3 (2001): 129-89.

Brahms uses musical allusions in his symphonies to serve two utopian agendas: first, to achieve a pure and organic unity of "absolute music"; second, to revitalize a languishing tradition through multiple allusive sources, thus creating referential meanings that are not devoid of the narrative dimensions or programmatic intentions of the "New German School." These two agendas, or two "senses of belongings," are interrelated. Brahms uses a single technique, thematic variation, as the agent of synthesis for two separate frames of references in order to create referential meaning within a work and at the same time to establish relationships with other works within the extended tradition. Brahms achieves organic unity by accommodating allusions to internal process, mainly by manipulating a network of thematic relationships from his allusive sources. Examples from Brahms's symphonies show the different ways he engages his allusive sources to acquire important meanings in a new unified musical context. In all his allusions, Brahms triggers in us the unconscious process of association with well-known music and guides us to feel our response to a shared heritage.

Works: Brahms: Symphony No. 3 in F Major (139-59), Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (159-69), Symphony No. 4 in E Minor (169-78), Symphony No. 2 in D Major (178-89).

Sources: Haydn: Symphony No. 97 in C Major (141-43); Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major (Eroica) (141-44, 152-53, 181-85), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (159-69), Symphony No. 1 in C Major (159-69), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (167-73); Schubert: String Quintet in C Major (141), Symphony No. 9 in C Major (Great) (182-85); Robert Schumann: Symphony No. 2 in C Major (141), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major (Rhenish) (141); Wagner: Tannhäuser (140-151, 154-59); Brahms: Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (141); Mendelssohn: Ein Sommernachtstraum (182-88).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Kneif, Tibor. "Zur Semantik des musikalischen Zitats." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 134 (1973): 3-9.

A consideration of hermeneutics compounds Lissa's list of methods of citation by proposing the necessity of composer intent in order to defend a possible quotation. The character of the citation is defined by the connection between the composer and the listener, not between the composer and the quoted material. Reasons for parody are found in Bach and Schubert examples, "contrast citation" in Debussy, Beethoven, and Bartók examples, and self quotation in Wagner, Strauss, and Mozart examples. Contemporary composers, such as Cage and Stockhausen, show their affinity for the character of earlier works through citation, even while they vocally reject such styles.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Kolodin, Irving. "Berio, Rochberg, and the Musical Quote." Saturday Review 2 (February 8, 1975): 36, 38.

Luciano Berio's well-justified and innovative use of the third movement of Mahler's Second Symphony in the middle movement of his Sinfonia has given rise to other uses of borrowed music which are neither innovative or justified. Many more recent pieces using the technique of collage, like George Rochberg's Music for a Magic Theater, are not destined to survive because they do not represent a significant contribution by the composer.

Works: Mozart: Don Giovanni (36); Beethoven: Diabelli Variations (36); Berio: Sinfonia (36); Ian Hamilton: Alastor (38); Offenbach: Tales of Hoffmann (36); Rochberg: Music for a Magic Theater (38); Richard Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (36); Stravinsky: Le Baiser de la Fée (38), Jeux de Cartes (38), Pulcinella (38); Tippett: Symphony No. 3 (38); Wagner: Die Meistersinger (36).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Kolodin, Irving. The Interior Beethoven: A Biography of the Music. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Konold, Wulf. "Mendelssohn und Brahms: Beispiele schöpferischer Rezeption im Licht der Klaviermusik." In Brahms-Analysen: Referate der Keiler Tagung 1983, ed. Friedhelm Krummacher and Wolfram Steinbeck, 81-90. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1984.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Köppel, Robert. "Die Paraphrase. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der virtuosen Klaviertechnik." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1936.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Korsyn, Kevin. "Directional Tonality and Intertextuality: Brahms's Quintet Op. 88 and Chopin's Ballade Op. 38." In The Second Practice of Nineteenth-Century Tonality, ed. William Kinderman and Harald Krebs, 45-83. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

Brahms used Chopin's Ballade, Op. 38 as a model for the second movement of his Quintet, Op. 88. Both pieces experiment with directional tonality (beginning and ending in different keys) and show structural correspondences, such as polarity between contrasted thematic segments that extend tonality, tempo, texture, and mood. In both works the second tonality is anticipated by local tonicizations of it in the initial sections; both pieces end with the opening theme, but in the second key. In addition, Brahms's Op. 88 reshapes his earlier Saraband and Gavotte in A Major (ca. 1855). Analyzing that multifaceted process of borrowing, using Harold Bloom's theory of poetic influence and Mikhail Bakhtin's concept of dialogism, shows that it resulted in a dialogic piece, which is tonally more radical than Chopin's Ballade.

Works: Brahms: String Quintet in F major, Op. 88 (48-55, 60-79).

Sources: Chopin: Ballade Op. 38 (47-55,59-68, 71-79); Brahms: Saraband in A, Gavotte in A Major (45-46, 68-70).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Korsyn, Kevin. "Towards a New Poetics of Musical Influence." Music Analysis 10 (March-July 1991): 3-72.

The ideas of literary critic Harold Bloom may serve as the model for a new theory of mapping musical influence. Bloom's theory (as first proposed in The Anxiety of Influence in 1973) rests on the notion that the true subject matter of poetry is poetry itself; every poem is seen as a "misreading" or "misprision" of a precursor poem or poems. Bloom divides poets into two categories, "strong" and "weak." What differentiates a "strong" poet is his ability to confront his anxiety of influence; a strong poet is one who wrestles with his great precursors to achieve his own originality. In appropriating Bloom's idea for music, compositions become "relational events" rather than "closed and static entities." The model is tested through an interreading of two compositions--Brahms's Romanze, Op. 118, No. 5, and Reger's Träume am Kamin, Op. 143, No. 2--with respect to their essential precursor, Chopin's Berceuse, Op. 57. Reger is shown to have weakly "misread" the Berceuse; although Reger places himself in direct competition with Chopin by overtly adopting the compositional strategy of the precursor (a series of increasingly florid variations over a one-measure ostinato figure, a figure that is virtually identical in both pieces), he fails to go beyond Chopin and forge an original meaning of his own. In contrast, Brahms's Romanze is shown to be a "strong" misreading of the Berceuse. Bloom's six "revisionary ratios" (clinamen, tessera, kenosis, daemonization, askesis, and apophrades) are evoked to demonstrate how Brahms is able to echo Chopin and yet go beyond his precursor, forging his own originality. For example, Bloom defines clinamen as the "initial swerve from the precursor," akin to the rhetorical trope of irony. The harmonic strategy of Chopin's Berceuse is one of extreme tonal stability, being composed almost entirely over a tonic-dominant ostinato; in making his "initial swerve" from Chopin, Brahms departs markedly from this strategy by setting his series of variations (the music most directly reminiscent of the Berceuse) as the D major middle section within a larger ternary design, framed by contrasting music in F major. Brahms's alternate strategy in the Romanze exemplifies Bloom's clinamen: "the framing action of the F major music 'ironizes' the Berceuse reminiscence of the middle section so that it says one thing ('tonal stability') and means another ('tonal instability')."

Works: Brahms: Romanze, Op. 118, No. 5; Reger: Träume am Kamin, Op. 143, No. 2.

Sources: Chopin: Berceuse, Op. 57.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Kramer, Lawrence. "Romantic Meaning in Chopin's Prelude in A Minor." 19th-Century Music 9 (Fall 1985): 145-55.

Chopin's Prelude in A Minor is related to recurrent patterns evident in the music and literature of the early nineteenth century. Among these patterns is that of self-quotation and Romantic representations of memory. Thus Shelley in Adonais refers to his own Ode to the West Wind, and Schubert in the String Quartet in A Minor refers to his own music to Rosamunde and to his own setting of Schiller's Die Götter Griechenlands: "Schöne Welt, wo bist du?" (This particular pattern is not, however, evident in the Chopin Prelude.)

Works: Schubert: String Quartet in A Minor (146).

Sources: Schubert: Rosamunde (146), Schöne Welt, wo bist du?, D. 677 (146).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Kramer, Lawrence. "The Ganymede Complex: Schubert's Songs and the Homoerotic Imagination." In Franz Schubert: Sexuality, Subjectivity, Song, 93-128. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Examining Schubert's lied Ganymed (1817), set to Goethe's poem of 1774, and comparing it to an earlier setting of the same poem by Johann Reichardt (1794) reveals that the latter was Schubert's model. Both settings use directional tonality, ending in a key a third lower than their initial key; both have their crucial division on the same words ("wohin? / hinauf!"); and both have comparable cadential melismas on the last two words. Yet Schubert, surmounting the limitations of his model, realizes the erotic atmosphere of the text by accelerating the tempo and by using lyrical, increasingly flourishing, melismas.

Works: Schubert: Ganymed (118-28).

Sources: Johann Reichardt: Ganymed (127-28).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Kregor, Jonathan. Kregor, Jonathan. “Collaboration and Content in the Symphonie fantastique Transcription.” The Journal of Musicology 24 (Spring 2007): 195-236.

Franz Liszt’s piano transcription of Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique has been long recognized as a high point of Liszt’s exceptional pianism and technique. Liszt and Berlioz were close friends in the early 1830s, and written correspondence between the two reveals an active collaboration which shaped Liszt’s transcription and possibly even Berlioz’s own revisions to his symphony. Liszt treated this transcription as a means to push his pianistic technique to new extremes, and the Parisian critics praised his ability to magnify the best elements of Berlioz in his arrangement. Liszt’s transcriptions of Symphonie fantastique and other Berlioz works draw attention to the performer and to the original music, and thus promote both Berlioz the composer and Liszt the artistic, musically sensitive virtuoso in a concert setting. Their respective successes ultimately affected each other, and Liszt’s constant stage presence undoubtedly increased Berlioz’s popularity. After distancing himself from Berlioz in the late 1830s, Liszt still applied some of what he had learned in his Symphonie fantastique project to his later arrangements of Schubert and others, using his transcriptions to promote both the original music and his own virtuosity and musical prowess.

Works: Liszt: Grande Symphonie fantastique de Hector Berlioz (195-213, 216-35), Ouverture des francs-juges de Hector Berlioz (212-14), Ouverture du roi Lear de Hector Berlioz (212-16).

Sources: Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique, Op. 14 (195-213, 224-28), Les francs juges (212), Le roi Lear (212).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone, Christine Wisch

[+] Kuhnen, Wolfgang. "Die Botschaft als Chiffre: Zur Syntax musikalischer Zitate in der ersten Fassung von Bruckners Dritter Symphonie." Bruckner-Jahrbuch (1991-93): 31-43.

[The many citations from himself and from Wagner in the first version of Bruckner's Third Symphony reveal a clear message in the work.]

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Kunze, Stefan. "Ironie des Klassizismus: Aspekte des Umbruchs in der musikalischen Komödie um 1800." In Die stilistische Entwicklung der italienischen Musik..., ed. Friedrich Lippmann, 72-98. Laaber: Arno Volk-Laaber Verlag, 1982.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Lambert, Sterling. “Beethoven in B flat: Op. 130 and the Hammerklavier.The Journal of Musicology 25 (Fall 2008): 434-72.

Beethoven’s Hammerklavier Piano Sonata, Op. 106, and String Quartet in B-flat Major, Op. 130, demonstrate close connections to one another. The first movements of both works feature marked juxtapositions of contrasting ideas: two contrasting musical motives in the sonata, and two contrasting tempos in the quartet. Additionally, Beethoven’s original fugal finale for Op. 130, which ultimately appeared as the Grosse Fuge, Op. 133, demonstrates numerous similarities to the final movement of the Hammerklavier Sonata. Nevertheless, the very musical elements which articulate classical unity and organized structure in the sonata serve to create discord and disjunction in the quartet. Beethoven’s Op. 130 may represent a commentary on Op. 106, as the composer revisited older material and transformed it to accentuate his own stylistic and aesthetic development. A similar relationship may also exist between the Piano Sonata in A-flat Major, Op. 110, and the String Quartet in F Major, Op. 135.

Works: Beethoven: String Quartet in B-flat Major, Op. 130 (436-71), String Quartet in F Major, Op. 135 (468-69).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Op. 106 (Hammerklavier) (436-71), Piano Sonata in A-flat Major, Op. 110 (468-69).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Leikin, Anatole. "Chopin's A-Minor Prelude and Its Symbolic Language." International Journal of Musicology 6 (1997): 149-62.

Even though Chopin denounced and laughed at any attempts to relate his works to programmatic narratives, his notion of absolute music is betrayed by borrowed melodies and topical gestures that may be found in his works. The Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No 2, is an ideal subject for hermeneutic or semiotic interpretation due to its juxtaposition of funereal and religious elements. The musical texture is permeated with references to the Dies Irae chant. Chorale and funeral march topics also appear in the score. The structural troping of these elements leads one to believe that death was on the mind of the composer. The sharp decline in Chopin's health while composing these preludes gives further credence to a programmatic interpretation. Interestingly, Alexander Scriabin borrowed elements from this work for his second Prelude of Op. 74, which also alludes to his own failing health.

Works: Chopin: Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No. 2 (149-59); Scriabin: Prelude, Op. 74, No. 2 (159-62).

Sources: Dies Irae (149-62); Chopin: Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No. 2 (159-62).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Randy Goldberg

[+] Liebergen, Patrick M. "The Cecilian Movement in the Nineteenth Century: Summary of the Movement." Choral Journal 21 (May 1981): 13-16.

Tenets of the Cecilian movement, including stylistic borrowing of Renaissance polyphony, chant-like melodies, and the use of wind music for accompaniment, are found in the music of Bruckner and Liszt. Bruckner's Mass in E Minor, Os justi, and Pange lingua are compared with Liszt's Missa choralis, Gran Mass, and Via crucis. Bruckner and Liszt idealize the movement.

Works: Bruckner: Mass in E Minor (14), Pange lingua (14), Os justi (14); Liszt: Missa choralis (15), Gran Mass (15), Messe für Männerchor (Missa quattuor vocum ad aequales) (15), St. Elizabeth (15), Via crucis (15), Christus (15-16).

Sources: Hymn: Pange lingua (15); Eighth Psalm tone (15); Chant: Rorate coeli, Angelus, Beati Pauperes (15); Hymn: O filii et filiae (16).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Lin, Chia-Yin. "The Liszt Transcriptions for Piano of Songs by Beethoven, Chopin, and Mendelssohn: Inspiration, Process and Intention." D.M.A. document, University of Washington, 2003.

In his transcriptions of songs by Chopin, Mendelssohn, and Beethoven, Liszt captures the essential textual and musical character of the original while transforming it into a purely keyboard idiom with distinctive elements, particularly bravura writing and pianistic sonority. The transcriptions portray the words and mood of the songs and also reflect Liszt's personal relationships with those composers whose works he transcribed. Liszt heightens the dramatic and emotional high points of each model by certain devices, including a prelude that sets up the mood, a fermata in the middle of the song, a short coda, and a cadenza, as illustrated in Hulanka and Adelaide. He often places the song's melody in different registers, doubling it in octaves or adding voices and ornaments, thus creating increasingly dazzling techniques, as found in Moja Pieszczota, Frühlingslied, and Adelaide. His interest in symphonic sound effects led him to explore a wide range of keyboard textures, well demonstrated in Frühlingslied. He differentiates the repetitions of the main melody from the model, each repetition being embellished with a variety of accompanimental patterns, as in Narzeczony, Suleika, Reiselied, Wiosna, and Adelaide. Liszt's piano transcriptions provided a means for the composer to enrich his public concert repertoire; to disseminate music in a new, altered form; and to promote composers he admired, exposing the audience to the masterworks of great composers.

Works: Liszt: Transcription of Chopin's Six chants polonais, Op. 74 (30-64), Transcriptions of Mendelssohn's Suleika, Op. 34, No. 4, Frühlingslied, Op. 47, No. 3, and Reiselied, Op. 34, No. 6 (98-124), Transcription of Beethoven's Adelaide (144-69).

Sources: Chopin: Six chants polonais, Op. 74 (27-64); Mendelssohn: Suleika, Op. 34, No. 4, Frühlingslied, Op. 47, No. 3, Reiselied, Op. 34, No. 6 (95-124); Beethoven: Adelaide (144-69).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Linde, Thomas. "The Origins of Brahms' Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Lindner, Thomas. "Rossini's Aureliano in Palmira: A Descriptive Analysis." The Opera Quarterly 15 (Winter 1999): 18-32.

Recent critical response to Gioachino Rossini's opera Aureliano in Palmira (1813) has generally been negative, without any author offering a serious reevaluation of the entire work including a discussion of the opera's background, libretto, and musical content. Many passages in Aureliano in Palmira were either borrowed from his earlier works or incorporated into later works. For instance, the overture to this opera later became the overture to Il barbiere di Siviglia and, with some modifications, to Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra. Additionally, many of the macrostructures of individual scenes foreshadow Rossini's later Neopolitan style. A table indicating all the instances of self-borrowing related to this work is provided.

Works: Rossini: Aureliano in Palmira (18-30), Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra (21-22), Il barbiere di Siviglia (21-22), Giunone (cantata) (21-22), Otello (22), Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo (22).

Sources: Rossini: Aureliano in Palmira (18-30), Tancredi (22).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Lissa, Zofia. "Ästhetische Funktionen des musikalischen Zitats." Die Musikforschung 19 (October/December 1966): 364-78.

One finds quotation in almost every epoch. Quotation must be distinguished from parody technique, contrafactum, variation, transcription, phantasy on known themes, paraphrase, pasticcio, metamorphosis, and stylization. Some thirteen criteria for quotation are listed (pp. 365-67). Four aesthetic functions of quotation are discussed with numerous examples of each: (1) a quotation may serve as the symbol for a well-defined expressive character; (2) a quotation may be used not so much as a symbol but rather as a means of expressing the content of a programmatic work (quotation as commentary); (3) a quotation may serve as an allusion or reference which will be more or less understood by the listener; and (4) a quotation may express parody, irony, or grotesquerie. The significance of quotation must be considered in relation to the genre in which it appears, such as pure instrumental music, vocal music, opera and ballet, music for film, and Jazz.

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger (368); Britten: Albert Herring (368); Bax: Tintagel (368); Berg: Lyrischen Suite (368); Mendelssohn: Reformation Symphony (369); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (369); Prokofiev: Aleksander Newski (369); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 12 (369); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (369); Liszt: Dante Symphony (369), Totentanz (369); Rachmaninoff: Die Todesinsel (369); Dallapiccola: Canti di prigionia (369); Miaskowski: Symphony No. 6 (369); Schubert: Der Tod und Das Mädchen (369); Strauss: Ein Heldenleben (370), Don Juan (370), Tod und Verklärung (370), Don Quixote (370), Also Sprach Zarathustra (370), Til Eulenspiegel (370); Offenbach: Orpheus (371); Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (372).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Lissa, Zofia. "Historical Awareness of Music and Its Role in Present-Day Musical Culture." International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 4 (June 1973): 17-32.

The presence of history and of the past is very powerful in the music of today and is made evident in quotations. Quotations can function as associative symbols, as a means of representing past times, as symbols of fear, as reminiscences of specific ideas, or as parodies. Examples of each of these functions are given (see p. 26). Collage technique is also discussed with reference to works by Zygmunt Krause, Luciano Berio, Arvo Pärt, Enrique Raxach, Vittorio Galmetti, and Charles Ives. In the end, Lissa comes down hard on collage technique, wondering if it perhaps indicates an inability on the part of the composer to speak with an individual voice and stating that collage technique also devalues art by placing the quotation of artworks on the same level as street noises.

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger (26); Britten: Albert Herring (26); Berg: Lyric Suite (26); Tchaikovsky: The Queen of Spades (26); Liszt: Dante Symphony (26); Dallapiccola: Canti di Prigionia (26); Strauss: Heldenleben (26), Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (26); Mussorgsky: Klassiker (26); Hindemith: Nusch-Nuschi (26); de Falla: The Three Cornered Hat (26); Stravinsky: Pulcinella (26); Krause: Recital (28); Berio: Sinfonia (29); Pärt: Collage sur Bach (29); Raxach: Inside Outside (29); Galmetti: L'opera abandonnata (29); Ives: Symphony No. 4 (29), Concord Sonata (29).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Lissa, Zofia. "Reger's Metamorphosen der Berceuse Op. 57 von Chopin." Die Musikforschung 23 (July/September 1970): 277-96.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Lockwood, Lewis. "Beethoven as Colourist: Another Look at his String Quartet Arrangement of the Piano Sonata, Op. 14, No. 1." In Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: Studies in the Music of the Classical Period, ed. Sieghard Brandenburg, 175-80. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Beethoven did not simply transcribe his Piano Sonata Op. 14, No. 1 for strings, but rather recast the musical material to highlight the idiomatic differences between string and keyboard instruments. This is primarily indicated by changes in dynamics, which are more abundant than altered pitches or registers. For example, at the end of the development of the first movement, the piano sonata decrescendos and has a sudden forte at the recapitulation. At the same point in the quartet arrangement, the strings crescendo and then have a sudden piano at the recapitulation. Opposite dynamics such as these capitalize on the shading and sustaining capabilities of each instrument. Other alterations also point to a recasting, as opposed to simple transcribing, of material from one genre to another. Beethoven shifts the key from E major in the keyboard sonata to F major for the string quartet, exploiting the open C string sounds of the viola and cello. When changes in pitch content occur in the string quartet, the writing is idiomatic for strings. Finally, the key of F major evokes important late string quartets of Mozart and Haydn.

Works: Beethoven: Arrangement of Piano Sonata, Op. 14, No. 1 for String Quartet in F Major, Hess 34.

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 14, No. 1.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Laura B. Dallman

[+] Lockwood, Lewis. "Beethoven's Earliest Sketches for the Eroica Symphony." The Musical Quarterly 67 (October 1981): 457-78.

Beethoven's Wielhorsky sketchbook contains sketches for a variety of works, including the Op. 35 Eroica variations for piano. Immediately following the sketches for the piano variations is a plan for the Third Symphony, with meters, key schemes, tempo markings, and rough themes for each of the first three movements. The lack of reference to a fourth movement suggests that Beethoven planned to use the piano variations as a basis for the finale to the symphony from the start. Lockwood demonstrates that the principal theme of the first movement is derived from the "Basso del Tema" of Op. 35. The finale of the symphony is thus seen as the generating force of the entire work.

Works: Beethoven: "Eroica" Variations for Piano, Op. 35, Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Eroica, Op. 55.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Logan, Adeline Marie. "American National Music in the Compositions of Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, University of Washington, 1943.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Lutes, Lilani Kathryn. "Beethoven's Re-uses of His Own Compositions, 1782-1826." Ph.D. diss., University of Southern California, 1975.

More than one third of Beethoven's compositions make use of his pre-existing music. These reworkings are frequently extensive and serve as an alternative way to access his compositional method in addition to his sketchbooks. His self-borrowings have both musical and practical explanations: (1) to correct, improve, and perfect the quality of a previously finished composition; (2) to enable him to indulge his penchant for variation, development, and invention; (3) to respond to compositional challenges; (4) to express feelings of friendship and debts of gratitude; (5) to make a composition available to a wider spectrum of the music buying public in order to earn extra money. The re-uses can be classified in four categories: (1) amelioration; (2) arrangement; (3) single composition or movement reuses; and (4) thematic or motivic reuses.

Works: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C minor, Op. 13 (1), Piano Sonata in C# minor, Op. 27, No. 2 (5), Piano Sonata in C major, Op. 2, No. 3 (10), Piano Sonata in F minor, Op. 2, No. 1 (13), Feuerfarb', Op. 52, No. 2 (14), O welch ein Leben!, WoO 91, No. 1 (17), Fidelio, Op. 72 (21), Sonatina in G Major, Op. 79 (28), String Quintet in Eb Major, Op. 4 (32), String Trio in Eb Major, Op. 3 (49), String Quintet in C minor, Op. 104 (69), Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 (78), Der freie Mann, WoO 117 (102), Piano Concerto No. 2 in Bb Major, Op. 19 (106), Rondo in Bb Major for Piano and Orchestra, WoO 6 (110), Quartet in Eb Major for Piano and Strings (116), Septet in E Major for Violin, Viola, Clarinet, Horn, Basson, Violoncello, and Contrabass, Op. 20 (124), Trio in Eb Major for Piano, Clarinet or Violin, and Violoncello, Op. 38 (124), Opferlied (130), Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 14, No. 1 (151), Piano Sonata in F Major, Op. 10, No. 2 (156), String Quartet in A Major, Op. 18, No. 5 (156), Sonata in G Major for Piano and Violin, Op. 30, No. 3 (156), Piano Trio in E Major Op. 70, No. 2 (156), Piano Sonata in Ab Major, Op. 110 (156), Adagio in Eb Major for Mandolin and Harpsichord, Hess-44b (164), Allegretto in C minor for Piano, Hess-66 (176), Neue Liebe, neues Leben, Op. 75, No. 2 (179), String Quartet in F, Hess-34 (184), String Quartet in F Major, Op. 18, No. 1 (200), Septet in Eb Major, Op. 20, arranged as Trio, Op. 38 (210), Fragment of an Arrangement for Military Band of Septet in Eb major, Op. 20 (225), Piano Sonata in Bb Major, Op. 22 (228), German Dance or Allemande in A Major for Orchestra, WoO 13 (231), Trio in G Major for Piano, Violin, and Violoncello, Op. 1, No. 2 (231), String Quartet in A minor, Op. 132 (231), Fifteen Variations in Eb major with a Fugue for Piano, Op. 35 (248), Symphony No. 3 in Eb major, Op. 55 (248), Music for Friedrich Duncker's Drama Leonore Prohaska, WoO 96 (260), Arrangement for Piano, Violin, and Violoncello of Symphony No. 2 in D Major, Op. 36 (263), Busslied, Op. 48, No. 6 (269), Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Op. 68 (270), Overture III to Leonore (1806) (273), Concerto in D for Violin, Op. 61 (287), March in Bb Major for Six Wind Instruments, WoO 29 (313), Music for August von Kotzebue's Festspiel (Nachspiel) Die Ruinen von Athen, Op. 113 (318), Introduction to Choral Fantasy, Op. 80 (327), Wonne der Wehmut, Op. 83, No. 1 (337), Hoffnung, Op. 82, No. 1 (339), March and Chorus from Die Ruinen von Athen, Op. 114 (346), An die Geliebte, WoO 140 (351), Canon An Mälzel, WoO 162 (353), Symphony No. 8 in F Major, Op. 93 (361), Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria for Orchestra, Op. 91 (367), Hochzeitslied, WoO 105 (370), Puzzle Canon Gott ist eine feste Burg, WoO 188 (378), String Quartet No. 16 in F Major, Op. 135 (381).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Luiz Fernando Lopes

[+] Macdonald, Hugh. "Berlioz's Self Borrowings." Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 92 (1965-66): 27-44.

A fairly extensive catalogue of Berlioz's re-use of his own compositions in later works. Macdonald reaches several important conclusions: (1) Berlioz's borrowings show "a gradual perfecting and distillation of a musical idea which is notably enhanced in detail and in aptness at each appearance" (p. 41). This idea explains to a great extent why Berlioz destroyed many of the earlier versions of pieces that were borrowed. (2) Berlioz generated most of his borrowed materials in the earliest period of his career (1825-30) in which he produced only one major work, but which yielded material that he drew upon when "time, money, or the immediate stimulus of a new literary movement . . . were lacking" (p. 39). Conversely, in his later pieces he borrowed insignificantly, if at all. (3) Berlioz did not always borrow music with the same specific programmatic elements, but instead re-used music with similar extramusical connections wherever he felt the occurrence of a similar idea. For this reason the same music is used for "the sentiments of the Abruzzi brigands boasting of their spoils [Harold in Italy], and those of the heroes of Napoleon's army returning home from their victories [Rob Roy]." (p. 41).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Magrill, Samuel Morse. "The Principle of Variation: A Study in the Selection of Differences with Examples from Dallapiccola, J. S. Bach, and Brahms." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Maier, Elisabeth. "Der Choral in den Kirchenmusik Bruckners." In Bruckner Symposion: Anton Bruckner und die Kirchenmusik, ed. Othmar Wessely, 111-22. Linz: Anton Bruckner-Institut, 1988.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Marget, Arthur W. "Liszt and Parsifal." The Music Review 14 (May 1953): 107-24.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Marvin, Robert Montemorra. "Verdian Opera Burlesqued: A Glimpse into Mid-Victorian Theatrical Culture." Cambridge Opera Journal 15 (March 2003): 33-66.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Marvin, Roberta M. "Verdi's Othello: A Musical Hommage to Rossini." Paper read at the AMS New England Chapter Meeting, Mount Holyoke College, 26 September 1987.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Mason, Daniel Gregory. The Chamber Music of Brahms. 2d ed. Ann Arbor: J. W. Edwards, 1950. 1st ed. New York: The Macmillan company, 1933.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Matthews, David. "Music for Chamber Ensemble (and 'Scenes from Schumann')." Tempo, no. 129 (June 1979): 20-26.

This issue of Tempo is dedicated to the works of Robin Holloway, and this article focuses on his chamber works. Scenes from Schumann involves paraphrases of six Schumann songs: two from Myrthen, one from Dichterliebe, and three from the Opus 39 Liederkreis. Holloway has "re-composed" them, delving into the songs and presenting them in enriched and intensified versions. Holloway's treatment of "Mondnacht" serves as an example. Along with harmonic changes, he adds borrowings from Wagner's Ring cycle and Tristan und Isolde, Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire, and Debussy's Rondes de printemps. Holloway's Fantasy-Pieces for wind quintet offer a more subtle borrowing technique, in this case drawing on the Opus 24 Liederkreis. Several other brief examples demonstrate Holloway's basically romantic style of borrowing, which creates a feeling of separation or removal from the older material.

Works: Holloway: Scenes from Schumann (21-2), Fantasy-Pieces (22-3), Evening with Angels (23), Concertino No. 3 (23).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Maust, Wilbur Richard. “The Symphonies of Anthony Philip Heinrich (1781-1861) Based on American Themes.” PhD diss., Indiana University, 1973.

Nine of Anthony Philip Heinrich’s sixteen symphonies use American patriotic tunes, in conjunction with descriptive titles and programs, to articulate a national American character. These symphonies draw their influences from both the “cultivated” and “vernacular” traditions of American musical life between 1820 and 1860. On the one hand, Heinrich capitalized on the vogue for European orchestral program music; on the other hand, he also drew upon the increased prominence of vernacular genres such as patriotic songs, hymns, and ballads.

The Bohemian-born Heinrich used these nine “American” symphonies to promote his own image as a distinctly American composer. These works celebrated the composer’s idealized beliefs in the United States as a perfect democracy, a growing industrial power, and a vast frontier, which he experienced while living in Kentucky. American critics picked up on the national traits of these works, with many viewing him as a champion of American art music, while European critics often viewed these same traits as peculiar musical exoticisms unique to Heinrich’s style.

In spite of their pronounced national character, these nine symphonies are still highly individualized in their formal schemes, number of movements, harmony, programmatic content, and use of borrowed tunes such as Yankee Doodle and Hail Columbia. For some written programs, Heinrich also directly quotes passages from American literature and history books, such as John Wilson’s American Ornithology and John McIntosh’s Origin of the North American Indians. Moreover, the symphonies exhibit considerable borrowings from Heinrich’s own compositions, ranging from the simple incorporation of a borrowed song melody to a substantial reworking of previous music. Three appendices contain photocopies of large portions of selected symphony movements, while a fourth appendix gives a complete list of Heinrich’s orchestral works.

Works: Anthony Philip Heinrich: The Columbiad: Grand American National Chivalrous Symphony (6, 20, 38-39, 73-74, 87, 92-97, 112-13, 136, 165-67, 186, 194-203, 213-80), The Ornithological Combat of Kings; or The Condor of the Andes and the Eagle of the Cordilleras (6, 35-38, 87-89, 96, 107-8, 110-12, 122-24, 127-35, 145-49, 157-59, 178-79, 189-203, 281-321), Gran Sinfonia Eroica (6, 35-36, 87-89, 95, 108-10, 131,167, 189), The Hunters of Kentucky (6, 38, 87, 98, 113-14, 123, 148, 187-89), The Jubilee (6, 45, 87-89, 99-100, 114-16, 165-67, 187-89), The Mastodon (6, 47, 87-89, 102-3, 118-19, 122-23, 137, 180-83), The Columbiad; or, Migration of American Wild Passenger Pigeons (6, 51-52, 87-88, 105-6, 120-21, 130-31, 135, 176-78, 190-93), The Indian Carnival; or, The Indian’s Festival of Dreams (6, 76, 87-88, 104, 116-17, 120-21, 183-84), Manitou Mysteries; or, The Voice of the Great Spirit (6, 84-85, 87-91, 101, 117-18, 137-41, 149-56, 159-61, 184-86, 202-3, 322-54).

Sources: Philip Phile: Hail, Columbia (4, 60-61, 112, 116, 135, 165); Anonymous: Yankee Doodle (4, 60-61, 112-13, 116, 135-36, 165); Anthony Philip Heinrich: All Hail to Kentucky (4, 98, 113-14), Sensibility (22, 95, 109-10), Tyler’s Grand Veto Quick Step (102, 119, 137), Gran Sinfonia Eroica (108-9), The Columbiad: Grand American National Chivalrous Symphony (115), The Tower of Babel (166); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique, Op. 14 (190-91).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Mays, Kenneth Robert. "The Use of Hymn Tunes in the Works of Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1961.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] McGrath, William J. "Mahler and Freud: The Dream of the Stately House." In Beiträge '79-81, Gustav Mahler Kolloguium 1979: Ein Bericht, ed. Rudolf Klein, 40-51. London: Bärenreiter-Verlag, 1981.

Mahler and Freud were both interested in the dynamics of dreams. Mahler's Third Symphony and Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams both involve dream images. Freud had a "dream of the stately house" (not included in his book) which makes reference to a nationalist song written by August von Binzer in 1819. The beginning of this song largely corresponds to the beginning of Mahler's Third Symphony, such that the latter is viewed as an allusion to the former. The song was sung in 1878 upon the government's dissolution of an influential youth organization to which Freud belonged and of which Mahler was aware. The shared interest of Freud and Mahler in the youth culture of the 1870s is revealed in their references to this song.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] McGrath, William J. "The Metamusical Cosmos of Gustav Mahler." Chap. in Dionysion Art and Populist Politics in Austria. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.

Mahler's Third Symphony may be interpreted in terms of the philosophy of Schopenhauer. Mahler quotes the adagio of Beethoven's String Quartet Op. 135 at the beginning of the last movement and quotes Wagner's Parsifal at the end of the same movement.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3.

Sources: Beethoven: String Quartet in F Major, Op. 135; Wagner: Parsifal.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] McGuinness, Rosamund. "Mahler und Brahms: Gedanken zu 'Reminiszenzen' in Mahlers Sinfonien." Melos/Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 3 (May/June 1977): 215-24.

In the wake of the Brahms/Wagner debate of the mid-nineteenth century, Mahler alludes in his music to Brahms both thematically and structurally. Due to his quotation of other composers, Mahler has often been criticized for lack of originality. Mahler took inspiration from Brahms and transformed it in his own music. Examples of this are seen in Mahler's First and Second Symphonies and their allusions to Brahms's First and Second Symphonies.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (216, 219-21), Symphony No. 1 (218-19), Symphony No. 4 (222), Symphony No. 6 (222-23), Symphony No. 7 (222-23).

Sources: Brahms: Ein deutsches Requiem, Op. 45 (216, 220-21), Symphony No. 2 (217-19), Nänie, Op. 82 (220), Symphony No. 1 (221-22), Symphony No. 3 (222-23).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Mercer-Taylor, Peter Jameson. "Symphony and Cantata: Illusions of Identity in the Reformation Symphony." In "Mendelssohn and the Musical Discourse of the German Restoration," 103-37. Ph. D. diss., University of California at Berkeley, 1995.

During the time of the Bach revival he led, Mendelssohn modeled many of his compositions upon the style of J. S. Bach. Mendelssohn used J. S. Bach's setting of Ein feste Burg in the fourth movement of his "Reformation" Symphony and incorporated the chorale into a programmatic setting. Meyerbeer subjected Ein feste Burg to variation treatment interspersed with the typical structural elements of a sonata-form movement. With the bridge to the recapitulation, Meyerbeer blurred the formal distinctions between the chorale and the symphonic sonata movement in order to suggest a choral movement. This alludes to the choral movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, even though Meyerbeer does not actually use a chorus. The other movements also include quotations, including a Catholic "Dresden Amen" in the first movement and allusion to Mozart's Cosi fan Tutte in the second movement.

Works: Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D minor, Reformation (111-37).

Sources: J. S. Bach: "Ein feste Burg" from In festo Reformationis, BWV 80 (112, 114-20, 122-24); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (113); Mozart: Cosi fan Tutte (131-32).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Mercer-Taylor, Peter. "Mendelssohn in Nineteenth-Century American Hymnody." 19th-Century Music 32 (Spring 2009): 235-83.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Micznik, Vera. “Of Ways of Telling, Intertextuality, and Historical Evidence in Berlioz’s Roméo et Juliette.19th-Century Music 24 (Summer 2000): 21-61.

Hector Berlioz’s Roméo et Juliette reveals his beliefs on how instrumental and vocal/texted music can convey meaning. Roméo et Juliette fuses elements of instrumental and texted music together: the orchestral movements convey emotional content and mood through recognizable musical topics, while programmatic titles focus that emotional content towards specific characters and scenes from the original drama. Notably, the “Love Scene” and “Tomb Scene” from Roméo et Juliette are intertextually related to the Adagio movement of Beethoven’s String Quartet, Op. 18, No. 1, which at an early stage also had programmatic associations with the tomb scene from Shakespeare’s play. Circumstantial evidence suggests that Berlioz may have been aware of this initial programmatic connection. Even if Berlioz was unaware of Beethoven’s original program, Roméo et Juliette and Beethoven’s quartet movement are intertextually related because they both utilize similar musical topics and formal strategies to depict episodes of love and parting.

Works: Berlioz: Roméo et Juliette (41-61).

Sources: Beethoven: String Quartet in F Major, Op. 18, No. 1 (46-58).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Mielke, Andreas. Untersuchungen zur Alternatim-Orgelmesse. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1400s, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s

[+] Milewski, Barbara. “Chopin’s Mazurkas and the Myth of the Folk.” 19th-Century Music 23 (Autumn 1999): 113-35.

The supposedly authentic folk music traits of Chopin’s mazurkas, as well as the myth that Chopin avidly listened to folksongs played by Polish peasants, have convinced many scholars that Chopin’s mazurkas contained authentic Polish folk melodies. While the Mazurka, Op. 24, No. 2, and Mazurka Op. 68, No. 3 do contain Polish musical elements, Chopin was actually borrowing musical conventions from an urban tradition, not a rural or peasant one. The mazurka models that Chopin drew upon had originated as a genre of piano works that were popular in the salons in Warsaw. Polish parlors and theaters in the early nineteenth-century became places where composers could experiment with creating a national art music that often featured the supposedly folk characteristics found in Chopin’s mazurkas. This style of music, with distinctive Polish markers, was created by cultural elites as a part of an effort to forge a national tradition. Furthermore, many of the songs Chopin heard in the country had actually derived from urban songs, vaudeville, and operas that were written in a simple and folk-like fashion.

Works: Chopin: Mazurka, Op. 24, No. 2 (114-20), Mazurka, Op. 68, No. 3 (115-21); Karol Kurpiński: Wesele w Ojcowie (133-34).

Sources: Anonymous: Oj Magdalino (118-21).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Mitchell, Donald. Gustav Mahler: The Wunderhorn Years: Chronicles and Commentaries. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Moses, Oral L. "The Nineteenth-Century Spiritual Text: A Source for Modern Gospel." In Feel the Spirit: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Afro-American Music, ed. George R. Keck and Sherrill V. Martin, 49-60. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988.

African-American spirituals are one important textual source for contemporary gospel music. Gospel music addresses similar themes of hardship, struggle, and perseverance, all of which are prevalent in spiritual texts. At least three different twentieth-century gospel versions of the spiritual The Old Ship of Zion have been recorded by performers such as Wings Over Jordan and Modern Gospel. Although gospel performers sometimes change or omit words of a spiritual in gospel arrangements, the importance of the text and its ability to express the oral tradition of African American music remain in the foreground. An appendix lists examples of the various ways in which spiritual texts are borrowed for gospel songs, including chorus only, borrowed incipit, substitution of words, and chorus and stanza borrowed.

Works: Anonymous: Oh, Get Away, Jordan (51-52); Wings Over Jordan (performer): Old Ship of Zion (54-55); Thomas A. Dorsey: Old Ship of Zion (54-55); Modern Gospel (performers): Old Ship of Zion (54-55).

Sources: Anonymous: Oh, Give Way, Jordan (50-51); Anybody Here (52); Jacob?s Ladder (52-53); Keep Your Lamps Trimmed and Burning (52-53); Rise and Shine (52-53); Old Ship of Zion (54-55).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Müller-Blattau, Joseph. "Beethovens Mozart-Variationen." In Bericht über den Internationalen Musikwissenschaftlichen Kongress, Wien Mozartjahr 1956, ed. Erich Schenk, 434-39. Graz: H. Böhlau, 1958.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Münster, Arnold. Studien zu Beethovens Diabelli-Variationen. Schriften zur Beethovenforschung 8. Munich: G. Henle, 1982.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Münzer, Georg, and Oscar Grohe. "Musikalische Zitate und Selbstzitate." Die Musik 3, no. 6 (1903-4): 430-33.

The article's first section discusses a quotation found in Die Meistersinger (when the master is so named), which is taken from Die Walküre. The second part lists a number of pieces that use quotations, including Wolf's Grenzen der Menschheit and Corregidor, Bruckner's 2nd Symphony, and Brahms's Intermezzo No. 2, Op. 119.

Works: Wolf: Grenzen der Menschheit (431), Corregidor (431); Bruckner: Symphony No. 2 (431); Brahms: Intermezzo No. 2, Op. 119 (432), Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 5 (432).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Musgrave, Michael. "Frei aber Froh: A Reconsideration." 19th-Century Music 3 (March 1980): 251-58.

The story of the Frei aber froh motive and its significance in Brahms's music is not valid but is instead the invention of Max Kalbeck. The examples of the F-A-F motive which Kalbeck points to are not persuasive. The Frei aber einsam motive (associated with Joachim) is of course valid and appears in the scherzo movement of the F-A-E sonata as well as in correspondence between Brahms and Joachim and in Des Jungen Kreislers Schatzkästlein (the notebook in which the young Brahms noted down his favorite literary quotations).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Nectoux, Jean-Michel. "Works Renounced, Themes Rediscovered: Eléments pour une thématique fauréenne." 19th-Century Music 2 (March 1979): 231-44.

In his late works, Fauré returns to themes of his earlier works. These ideas can be placed in distinct groups such that each forms a sort of musical chain of references. There are three main groups or chains: (1) the Lydia Group which originates in an early song of the same title; (2) the Soir Group which originates in the song of 1894; and (3) the Ulysse Group which is named after the character in the opera Penelope. Nectoux traces these referential chains as the various ideas return in later works and in different guises. Numerous works are mentioned and discussed. The self-borrowings are not evidence of a lack of melodic inspiration since the ideas are always transformed and re-worked. Rather, these references to his earlier works in the late works are "similar in function to the memories of his youth with which his last letters are full"; they relate to the Romantic representation of memory. The chains of references also reveal a unique continuity in his work. "Fauré's output is highly unified."

Works: Fauré: La Bonne Chanson (232), Prométhée (232), Sonata for Violin, Op. 13 (232), Piano Quartet, Op. 15 (232), Elégie (232), Chanson d'Ève (236), Violin Concerto, Op. 14 (237), Symphony in F (or Orchestral Suite), Op. 20 (237), Symphony in D Minor, Op. 40 (237).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Neighbour, Oliver. "Brahms and Schumann: Two Opus Nines and Beyond." 19th-Century Music 7 (April 1984): 266-70.

Brahms's Schumann Variations, Op. 9 refer to the theme of Schumann's Variations Op. 9. The influence of Schumann is evident in Brahms's approach to variation form, in his association of certain variations with certain characters, and in the allusion to other pieces by Schumann besides the variation set. Variations 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 all refer in some way or another to works by Schumann. Variation No. 10 refers to Clara Schumann's Romance upon which Schumann based his Impromptus, Op. 5. Furthermore, Clara Schumann's Variations Op. 20 are based on the first Albumblatt of Schumann's Bunte Blätter, Op. 99. In his Intermezzo, Op. 76, No. 4, Brahms refers to Carnival and includes the A-S-C-H motto. This also constitutes reference to his own Op. 9, No. 11.

Works: Brahms: Schumann Variations, Op. 9 (266), Intermezzo, Op. 76, No. 4 (268); Clara Schumann: Variations, Op. 20.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Nelson, Robert U. The Technique of Variation: A Study of the Instrumental Variation from Antonio de Cabézon to Max Reger. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1948; 2nd ed., 1962.

Variations, which often use borrowed material, fall into the following seven historical categories: (1) Renaissance and Baroque variations on secular songs, dances, and arias; (2) Renaissance and Baroque variations on plainchant and chorales; (3) the Baroque basso ostinato variation; (4) the ornamental variation of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; (5) the nineteenth-century character variation; (6) the nineteenth-century basso ostinato variation; and (7) the free variation of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Variations also fall into two basic plans, structural and free. Variations in categories (1) through (6) above followed the older structural plan, in which basic relationships of parts, sections, and phrases in the theme were preserved in the variations. By the early twentieth century, variations were constructed in two ways: following the structural plan and following the newer free plan, in which basic relationships of sections and phrases in the theme were disregarded. Generally, the most conspicuous elements of themes most emphatically demand change. Rhythm is the most conspicuous element, and thus must be varied the most. The melodic subject is second most conspicuous. The harmonico-structural frame is least conspicuous, was historically generally retained, and therefore may be considered as the substance of the theme. All variations are committed to the task of securing unity within a manifold. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there was a growing trend toward the use of original themes. Renaissance and Baroque themes were frequently borrowed from dances and secular songs. In the ornamental variation, borrowed themes continued to include the dance piece and the popular song and also included the operatic excerpt. In the nineteenth-century character variation, neither the secular song nor the operatic aria were important sources of borrowed themes. Instead, composers used instrumental works (such as suites and sonatas) and instrumentally conceived themes from members of their own circles. Despite the trend toward the use of original themes, borrowed themes, including folk songs, still persisted in the free variation.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Nettheim, Nigel. "How the Young Schubert Borrowed from Beethoven." The Musical Times 132 (July 1991): 330-31.

Identification of two borrowings from Beethoven in Schubert's Fantasy for Piano four hands, D. 28 (1813) helps explain Schubert's learning process, as well as the later naming of his work. In the middle Allegro Schubert borrowed elements from Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique). Schubert's friend, Albert Stadler, later affixed to the Fantasie the peculiar title Grande Sonate, which is similar to the one attached to the Pathétique, to draw attention to that borrowing. In the last twenty bars of the Allegro Schubert borrowed elements from Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata, Op. 57, and even ended his movement, which begins in B flat major, in F minor, the key of Op. 57.

Works: Schubert: Fantasie for Piano four hands, D. 28, Grande Sonate (330-31).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13, Pathétique (330), Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 57, Appassionata (330-31), Piano Sonata in C Major, Op. 3, No. 2 (331).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Nettheim, Nigel. "The Derivation of Chopin's Fourth Ballade from Bach and Beethoven." The Music Review 54 (May 1993): 95-111.

Chopin's fourth ballade, Op. 52 (1842) borrows elements from several preludes and fugues in J. S. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, as well as from Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata. The ballade's harmonic plan is closely linked to these borrowings: the borrowed Bach pieces, which are all in B flat major or minor, make B flat minor prominent in the ballade, most notably in its main theme. The F minor ending of the ballade is best explained as a borrowing from the Appassionata sonata, which is in the same key. Also borrowed from Bach are a five-voice stretto and some thematic material (for instance, a quotation from one fugue is used as a counterpoint to material taken from another fugue). By emulating Bach, Chopin pays homage to him. From Beethoven's Appassionata Chopin borrowed thematic materials, its passionate mood, and form. Chopin also borrowed from the Appassionata in his Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28, No. 24, yet there the borrowing is limited to mood and thematic material and is better construed as competitive with Beethoven. Understanding these borrowings is essential for tracing Chopin's compositional process and explaining the anomalies in the fourth ballade.

Works: Chopin: Ballade No. 4, Op. 52, Prelude Op. 28, No. 24 (104-5).

Sources: Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Prelude in B flat Minor, (96-98, 101-3), and Book II, Fugue in B flat Major (97, 109); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 57, Appassionata (104-7); Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Prelude in B flat Major (108-10).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Nettl, Paul. "Mozart and the Czechs." The Musical Quarterly 27 (July 1941): 329-42.

The Czechs have always admired Mozart and Mozart maintained good relations with many musicians of that country. Thus whole operas or popular numbers from them were arranged for different forces or used as a basis for new songs. An example is Figaro's aria "Se vuol ballare signor contino," used in the Frühlingsliedchen (spring song) from the Sammlung einiger Lieder für die Jugend bei Industrialarbeiten mit den hiezu gehörigen Melodien, published by Franz Stiasny. Josef Mysliwetschek was one of those important friends, whose compositions Mozart liked. The theme from his D Major Symphony shows striking similarities with the opening of the Andante from Mozart's Symphony K. 95, which is also used in the Violin Sonata K. 9, and with the folksong Horela líp. Several Czech folksongs correspond with tunes from Mozart's operas, and Nettl assumes that it is more likely that the latter became folksongs than the other way round.

Works: Stiasny (publisher): Frühlingsliedchen (333); Mozart: Symphony K. 95 (337-38), Violin Sonata K. 9 (338); Mela jsem holoubka (folksong) (338); Já jsem chudej poustevník (folksong) (339); Skroup: Kde domov muj (339).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Newcomb, Anthony. "Once More 'Between Absolute and Program Music': Schumann's Second Symphony." 19th-Century Music 7 (April 1984): 233-50.

A change in analytical methods for absolute music in the twentieth century may be the cause of a change in the critical evaluation of Schumann's Second Symphony. This analysis considers the biographical nature of the composition and its plot archetype, which is similar to that of Beethoven's Fifth. In the symphony, Schumann quotes thematic material from Haydn's last symphony and Beethoven's An die ferne Geliebte (also found in his Fantasie, Op. 17), and uses the B-A-C-H motive. By so doing he emulates his predecessors and expresses his own personal development. Thus Schumann conveys "complex musical ideas through musical context."

Works: Schumann: Phantasie, Op. 17 (246), Symphony No. 2.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Newman, Philip Edward. "The Songs of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1967.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Nicholls, David. American Experimental Music, 1890-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Noé, Günther von. "Das musikalische Zitat." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 124 (1963): 134-37.

Quotation must be understood as a subdivision of the larger field of borrowing, which is a principal component of composition and can be categorized in terms such as conscious vs. unconscious and legitimate vs. illegitimate. Whereas legal and ethical views of quotation have been historically variable, purely musical criteria employed by musicians have emerged to evaluate quotation practices. Quotation is distinguished from thematic reworking and plagiarism by virtue of its specifically extramusical function, intended to be heard by the listener. Quotation may be employed (1) to evoke time, place, or circumstance, (2) as musical wit, (3) as the basis for parody or caricature, or (4) as the basis for exposition of serious content.

Works: Debussy: La bôite à joujouz (136); Busoni: Arlecchino (136); Mozart: Piano Rondo in A minor, K. 511 (136); Berg: Lyric Suite (136).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Alexander J. Fisher, David Lieberman

[+] Norris, David Owen. "Liszt?s Winterreise." The Musical Times 126 (September 1985): 521-25.

Liszt's transcription of Schubert's Winterreise represents Liszt's adaptation of Schubert to Romantic performance by introducing some new elements of performance practice, in the process transferring attention from the music to the performer. Liszt's additions of ritardandos and pauses that highlight the emotional quality of the song cycle reflect his embodiment of the contemporary performance style that focused on emotionalism. For instance, Liszt enriches Gute Nacht with several emotional markings, including capricciosamente, delicato, molto appassionato, and un poco più animato. Having a similar function to his emotional markings, his virtuosic figurations were also used to increase excitement, as in the flourishes deployed in Muh.

Works: Liszt: Transcriptions of 12 Songs from Winterreise (522-25).

Sources: Schubert: Winterreise (523-25).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Norris, Renee Lapp. “Opera and the Mainstreaming of Blackface Minstrelsy.” Journal of the Society for American Music 1 (August 2007): 341-65.

Around 1840, comic blackface minstrelsy became popular with both high and low society audiences as a result of its combining visual and ideological elements from the established “blackface context” with musical elements borrowed either directly or stylistically from the European operatic repertoire. Comparing parodies and other reworkings of contemporary operatic favorites to their sources, it is evident that there were a variety of borrowing practices at work in blackface shows. Through advertising the productions as both novel and yet akin to other legitimate forms of entertainment, and promoting themes of a sentimental and nationalist nature, these shows were capitalizing on the vogues of the time.

Works: Nelson Kneass: I Dreamed Dat I Libed in Hotel Halls (349-52), See! Sir, See! (352-57).

Sources: Michael William Balfe: “I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls” from The Bohemian Girl (349-52); Vincenzo Bellini: “Vi ravviso o luoghi ameni” from La Sonnambula (352-57).

Index Classifications: 1800s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Nulman, Macy. Concepts of Jewish Music and Prayer. New York: Cantorial Council of American, Yeshiva University, 1985.

The works listed below are examples of classical pieces that make use of Hebrew themes.

Works: Ravel: Deux Mélodies Hebraiques (31); Beethoven: String Quartet, Op. 131 (31); Bruch: Kol Nidrei, Op. 47 (32); Schoenberg: Kol Nidre, Op. 39 (32).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Offergeld, Robert. "More on the Gottschalk-Ives Connection." Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter 15 (May 1986): 1-2 and 13.

In response to H. Wiley Hitchcock's "Ivesiana: The Gottschalk Connection" (I.S.A.M. Newsletter 15, November 1985), a more thorough treatment of the quotation in Ives's Psalm 90 from Gottschalk's The Last Hope is offered. A hymn setting of Gottschalk's The Last Hope was made in 1866 by the Gottschalk-enthusiast Hubert Platt Main. Alternately titled Gottschalk or Mercy, the hymn is often credited to Edwin Pond Parker and mistakenly dated to 1880. Main's use of The Last Hope, a Gottschalk signature-piece, as a hymn may have been motivated by an infamous incident in 1866 involving Gottschalk and the honor of two young women in San Francisco. In this context, the hymn Gottschalk serves as a confession for the unrepentant pianist. Both George and Charles Ives knew the hymn, and the quotation in Psalm 90 most likely refers directly to it and not to Gottschalk's piece.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Orel, Alfred. "Über 'Choräle' in den Symphonien Anton Bruckners." Musica divina 9 (July/August 1921): 49-52.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Orledge, Robert. Gabriel Fauré. London: Eulenburg Books, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Oster, Ernst. "The Fantaisie-Impromptu: A Tribute to Beethoven." In Aspects of Schenkerian Theory, ed. David Beach, 189-207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.

A Schenkerian analysis of Chopin's Fantaisie-Impromptu, Op. 66 (1834) and Beethoven's Piano Sonata Op. 27, No. 2, both in C sharp minor, reveals remarkable similarities between the two. These parallels imply that Chopin's Op. 66 was deeply influenced by Beethoven's Op. 27, No. 2, notably by the coda that ends its finale. These works share: key (the outer movements or sections in C sharp minor, the middle ones in D flat major), main motive, inversion of the motive at the end of a movement or section, literal quotation, and more. These similarities, and data documenting Chopin's fondness of Beethoven's sonata, explain Chopin's refusal to publish his piece. Chopin's study of Beethoven, epitomized in his Op. 66, is a unique case where a genius demonstrates his thorough understanding of another genius.

Works: Chopin: Fantaisie-Impromptu in C sharp Minor, Op. 66.

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 2.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Pahissa, Jaime. Manuel de Falla: His Life and Works. Translated by Jean Wagstaff. London: Museum Press, 1954.

Falla's friend Pahissa provides an account of the development of the composer's musical life through a series of anecdotal descriptions of their encounters. Each of Falla's most significant works receives an independent, if brief, descriptive analysis, in which Falla's change from an evocative Spanish idiom to a more severe, abstract universal idiom is noted. The use of folksong quotations (which are mentioned without documentation) changes in accord with style changes. In earlier works, folksongs and folk sounds are used for their picturesque qualities. In the later works, they are subjected to classical developmental techniques.

Works: Falla: Four Spanish Pieces (50-53), Seven Popular Songs (76-79), El amor brujo (87-91), Nights in the Gardens of Spain (93-96), The Three-Cornered Hat (98-104), Hommage pour le tombeau de Debussy (112-13), El retablo de maese Pedro (126-29), Harpsichord Concerto (137-38), Homenajes (145-47).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Palisca, Claude. "French Revolutionary Models for Beethoven's Eroica Funeral March." In Music and Context: Essays for John M. Ward, ed. Anne Dhu Shapiro, 198-209. Cambridge, Mass.: Department of Music, Harvard University, 1985.

Beethoven's homage to Napoleon in his Symphony No. 3 has been the subject of much debate and extensive research. Of all the movements in the symphony, it is the Marcia funebre second movement that provides the most telling evidence of Beethoven's allegiance to French Republican music of the 1790s. The passage beginning at m. 19 of the Marcia funebre seems to be a direct parody of a passage from Gossec's Marche Lugubre (beginning at m. 30). Yet most of the musical devices that Beethoven employs--such as the imitations of drumrolls, cadential unison passages, and lyrical hymnlike themes--are not overt borrowings, but rather represent a unique assimilation of conventions culled from the earlier tradition.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Pamer, Fritz Egon. "Gustav Mahlers Lieder." Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 16 (1929): 116-38; 17 (1930): 105-27.

This study is an excerpt from Pamer's Ph.D. dissertation (Vienna, 1922). In the first part, the author lists original folksongs Mahler reworked in his own songs (122-23) and discusses their melodic features (136-38). In the second part, Pamer discusses the influence of Mahler's early musical impressions (especially folksongs, military fanfares and marches) on his songs in terms of rhythm, meter and tempo changes, thematic construction, harmony, and tonality. On pp. 125-27 he mentions the re-use of some songs in Mahler's symphonies, giving a very rudimentary interpretation. The musical examples of this second part are mostly taken primarily from Mahler's works and seldom from the material that influenced him.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Pamer, Fritz Egon. "Gustav Mahlers Lieder: eine stilkritische Studie." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1922.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Park, Sue-Jean. “The Concept of Fantasie in Two Versions of the Carmen Fantasie: Sarasate and Waxman.” DMA diss., The University of Texas at Austin, 2006.

Pablo de Sarasate and Franz Waxman both composed fantasies for violin based on Bizet’s Carmen. Despite the similarities in thematic content and sectional structure, when compared directly against each other, Sarasate’s fantasy can be seen as highlighting the themes from the opera, while Waxman’s version focuses on the technical skill of the violinist. As both a genre and a style, the fantasy underwent a number of changes from its Baroque origins to the nineteenth century. As the genre developed, composers made fantasies increasingly virtuosic and added idiomatic passages that displayed technical prowess. Carmen proved to be an attractive subject for a violin fantasy because its many lyrical vocal melodies transferred easily to the violin. Sarasate and Waxman use many of the same themes from Carmen for their fantasies, but they ornament these melodies differently. Sarasate’s borrowing of melodies is more direct, as he maintains phrase structure and rhythmic values, while Waxman manipulates the melodies by changing rhythmic durations and adding interpolations. Unlike the Sarasate fantasy, each section of Waxman’s fantasy ends with a violin cadenza. Although Waxman borrowed many of the same techniques that Sarasate used, as a whole, the Waxman fantasy is more demanding of the player.

Works: Pablo de Sarasate: Carmen Fantasy (2, 5, 21, 25, 30-63); Franz Waxman: Carmen Fantasie (2, 5, 21, 25, 54-63).

Sources: Bizet: Carmen (1-3, 22-63).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Parmer, Dillon. "Brahms, Song Quotation, and Secret Programs." 19th-Century Music 19 (Fall 1995): 161-90.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Peake, Luise Eitel. "The Antecedents of Beethoven's Liederkreis." Music and Letters 63 (July/October 1982): 242-60.

In his song cycle An die entfernte Geliebte, Beethoven shows awareness of the whole tradition of compositions written for "song circles" and writes to meet the conventional expectations of hidden symbolism. Specifically, the cycle contains reworked material from Ries's "An die Erwählte" from his Sechs Lieder von Goethe.

Works: Beethoven: An die entfernte Geliebte.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Pearson, Ian David. "Paisiello's 'Nel cor più non mi sento' in Theme and Variations of the 19th Century." Music Research Forum 21 (2006): 43-69.

The numerous variations on Paisiello's "Nel cor più non mi sento" from the opera La Molinara demonstrate Paisiello's extensive and lasting influence throughout the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century and serves as a touchstone for examining the trajectory of variations procedures during this time. Variations on "Nel cor più non mi sento" emerged in at least three contexts. First, singers elaborated upon the work, essentially creating their own variations. Second, opera fantasias and chamber music provided a ready forum for variations on the tune, especially in cities where La Molinara was well-received. Finally, the growth of the market for published arrangements prompted popular variations on the tune. Between 1790 and 1820, variations remained close to Paisiello's classical style, and arrangements from this period generally were for private use. After 1820, emerging virtuosos also took up "Nel cor più non mi sento," using expanded proportions and new techniques. Although variations on "Nel cor più non mi sento" were readily available in sheet music form in the United States throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, by 1850 its popularity had faded.

Works: Mr. Meyer, arr.: "Ah, Will No Change of Clime," from Inkle and Yarico (43-45); Madame Catalani: Variations on "Nel cor più non mi sento" (44-47); Beethoven: Six Variations on "Nel cor più non mi sento," WoO 70 (47, 51-53); Josepha Barbara von Auernhammer: Six Variations for the Harpsichord on "Nel cor più non mi sento" (49-51); Joseph Gelinek: Six Variations on the Duet "Nel cor più non mi sento" from the Opera "La Molinara" for Harpsichord or Pianoforte (49-52); Felix Janiewicz: Variations on "Nel cor più non mi sento" (53); Joseph Mazzinghi: Madam Catalani's Celebrated Air (53); Louis Drouet: Variations on Paisiello's "Nel cor più non mi sento" (54); Fernando Sor: Fantasie pour la Guitare avec des Variations sur l'Aire de Paisiello "Nel cor più non mi sento" (54); Paganini: Nel cor più non mi sento (54-56), Giovanni Bottesini: Nel cor più non mi sento: Variazioni de Bottesini per Contrebasse (54-55); Mauro Giuliani: Variationen über "Nel cor più non mi sento" von Paisiello en Polonaise, Op. 113, for guitar and piano (55-56); Luigi Legnani: Variations on the Duet "Nel cor più non mi sento" from "La Molinara" by Paisiello, Op. 16 (55-56); Bartolomeo Bortolazzi: Variationen über "Nel cor più non mi sento" für Mandoline und Gitarre, Op. 8 (55-56); Luigi Castellacci: Nel cor più non mi sento Nouvellement Varié, Op. 35 (56-57); Johann Wenth: Variations sur un theme de G. Paisiello de l'opera "La Molinara" (57); Johann Baptist Vanhal: Sechs Variationen über das Theme "Nel cor più non mi sento" für Flöte (Violin) und Gitarre, Op. 42 (57-58); Friedrich Silcher: Variationen über "Nel cor più non mi sento" für Flöte und Klavier (57-58); Theobald Boehm: Nel cor più, Op. 4 (57-58); Heinrich Neumann: Theme und Variationen über "Nel cor più non mi sento" (57-59); Johann Wilhelm Wilms: The Favorite Air of Hope Told a Flattering Tale (57-58); Charles Bochsa: Thema und Variationen über "Nel cor più non mi sento," Op. 10 (59); Walter P. Dignam: Hope Told a Flattering Tale, E-Flat Cornet Air Varié (60).

Sources: Paisiello: "Nel cor più non mi sento," from La Molinara (43-62); Mozart: Piano Concerto in C Minor, K. 491 (49-50); Madame Catalani: Variations on "Nel cor più non mi sento" (53).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Pesce, Dolores. "Expressive Resonance in Liszt?s Piano Music." In Nineteenth-Century Piano Music, ed. R. Larry Todd, 355-411. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Liszt sought to achieve union of form and content in his piano music, as discussed in detail according to genre, including his piano cycles, sonatas, ballades, etudes, and fantasias. The section "Ballades, Polonaises, Mazurkas, and Other Dances" examines works by Liszt that take Chopin as a model to pay homage to him. These genres that represent Chopin par excellence were neglected in Liszt's earlier works but became more prominent after Chopin's death in 1849, suggesting homage to the Polish composer. The middle section of Liszt's Polonaise No. 2 in E Major, for instance, is modeled on Chopin's Polonaise in A Major, Op. 40, No. 1, referring to the thematic material accompanied by the characteristic polonaise rhythm from the corresponding section of the model, both capturing a martial quality. Liszt's first Ballade incorporates many elements from Chopin's works and styles, including his first Ballade, Op. 23, the Funeral March, and periodic phrasing unusual for Liszt.

Works: Liszt: Ballade No. 1 in Db Major (393), Polonaise No. 2 in E Major (393, 397).

Sources: Chopin: Ballade No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 23 (393), Grande valse brillante, Op. 18 (393), Sonata No. 2 in Bb Minor, Op. 35 (393), Polonaise in A Major, Op. 40, No. 1 (393, 397).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Pesce, Dolores. “MacDowell’s Eroica Sonata and its Lisztian Legacy.” The Music Review 49 (August 1988): 169-89.

MacDowell knew Liszt’s Piano Sonata in B Minor well and was quite fond of the work. The use and treatment of recurring motives in his Eroica Sonata suggest the Liszt sonata as a model. MacDowell’s treatment and development of the musical motives in the Eroica Sonata follow procedures similar to those in the Liszt Sonata. Even though MacDowell’s sonata has a four-movement design, the basic structure is comparable to the one-movement Liszt sonata. The Piano Sonata in B Minor does not have any explicit programmatic meaning, but several authors have commented on potential programs due to the recurrence of thematic materials. MacDowell hinted at programmatic elements in his sonata, but did not definitively explicate a program; however, the use of recurring motives and their subsequent development suggests a program. In addition, the pianistic writing of the Eroica Sonata parallels some portions of the Liszt Sonata.

Works: Edward MacDowell: Eroica Sonata.

Sources: Liszt: Piano Sonata in B Minor (176-181, 186), Etudes d’exécution transcendante (179-80).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux

[+] Peterson, Franklin. "Quotation in Music." Monthly Musical Record 30 (October 1900): 217-19, (November 1900): 241-43, and (December 1900): 265-67.

Quotation in music is different from literary quotation. Most examples of musical quotation are accidental, but exceptions to this include self-borrowing, universally recognized excerpts, programmatic or evocative borrowing, or humorous allusions. All other conscious quotation is plagiarism. "Making a few possible exceptions where words are used, THERE IS NO QUOTATION IN MUSIC" (capitals original).

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (218); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 (218), Quintet, Op. 16 (218); S. S. Wesley: Ascribe Ye Unto the Lord (218); Beethoven, Diabelli Variations (241); Reinecke: Variations for Two Pianofortes (241); Bach: Wachet auf, BWV 140 (242), Christmas Oratorio (242); Mackenzie: Dream of Jubal (242); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (265); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (265); Volkmann: Richard the Third Overture (265); Saint-Saëns: Henry VIII (265); Wagner: Der Ring des Nibelungen (266); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (266); Haydn: The Seasons (266); Mozart: Don Giovanni (267).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s

[+] Petrobelli, Pierluigi. "Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra: analisi delle fonti letterarie del libretto e degli autoimprestiti musicali." Tesi di Laurea, Universitá di Roma la Sapienza, 1983/84.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Petty, Wayne C. "Chopin and the Ghost of Beethoven," 19th-Century Music 22 (Spring 1999): 281-99.

Beethoven's influence on Chopin has been scarcely noted, partly due to the paucity of available data on Chopin's acquaintance with Beethoven. Yet Beethoven's presence is patent in Chopin's Piano Sonata in B flat Minor, Op. 35 (1839), where he bids Beethoven farewell; it is a rite of separation in which Chopin finds his own voice. The opening of the first movement refers to the opening of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 111, but an interrupted cadence signals a sharp departure from it. That cadence has its closure in the funeral march that alludes to the funeral march of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in A flat Major, Op. 26, and signals the end of Beethoven's presence in the sonata. From that moment on, in the contrasting, nocturnal, trio section, Chopin affirms his own voice. Whereas the first three movements project a human struggle to achieve individuality, the inventive finale takes an ironic stance to that idea.

Works: Chopin: Piano Sonata in B flat Minor, Op. 35 (283-99).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in A flat Major, Op. 26 (285, 288-89, 294, 298), Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 111 (289-90, 298).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

[+] Pisani, Michael V. "'I'm an Indian Too': Creating Native American Identities in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Music." In The Exotic in Western Music, ed. Jonathan Bellmann, 218-57. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Plank, Steven E. "Mendelssohn and Bach: Some New Light on an Old Partnership." American Choral Review 32 (Winter/Spring 1990): 23-28.

The "Es ist genug" aria from Mendelssohn's Elijah uses the aria "Es ist vollbracht" from J. S. Bach's St. John Passion as a model. The model was likely chosen because of their similar dramatic purposes: Mendelssohn's aria contains Elijah's desperate plea to God for an end to his life, and "Es ist vollbracht" depicts Jesus' emotions while dying on the cross. Mendelssohn also borrowed Bach's structural scheme, applying stark contrasts between the lamentational A section and the vigorous B section. Also in the shadow of "Es ist vollbracht," "Es ist genug" contains obbligato writing for low strings. In a more specific sense, both arias use a prominent descending sixth in the opening statement, and both statements are followed by a diminished seventh chord on the downbeat. The similarities not only illustrate Mendelssohn's indebtedness to Bach, but Mendelssohn's implication of the theological commonalities between Elijah and the St. John Passion.

Works: Mendelssohn: Elijah (24-26).

Sources: Bach: St. John Passion (24-26).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Porter, David H. "The Structure of Beethoven's Diabelli Variations Op. 120." The Music Review 31 (November 1970): 295-97.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Poulenc, Francis. Emmanuel Chabrier. Paris: R. Julliard, 1954.

The neglected master Chabrier represents what is best in French music since 1880. His music foreshadowed innovations of the twentieth century and influenced musicians such as Ravel, Debussy, Stravinsky, and Poulenc himself. Specific examples of musical borrowing from Chabrier show use of themes, prosody, and harmonies. His orchestration influenced Debussy and Ravel. Chabrier also borrowed from others (Offenbach and Wagner) and from himself.

Works: Chabrier: Briseis (28), Donnez-vous la peine de vous asseoir (30), Gwendoline (28), Souvenir de Munich (56); Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande (50); Satie: Sarabandes (55); Ravel: A la manière de Chabrier (27).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Powell, Linton. "Organ Works Based on the Spanish Pange Lingua." The American Organist 31, no. 7 (July 1997): 66-70.

The Spanish Pange lingua in Mode V known only on the Iberian peninsula has been set repeatedly by Spanish keyboard composers, revealing the change of styles and techniques over three centuries. Early settings of the hymn, including ten by Antonio de Cabezón, range from ornamented intabulations to works written in an idiomatic instrumental style. Seventeenth-century settings by Manuel Rodrigues Coelho and Sebastián Aguilera de Heredia often use a three-part texture with a slow-moving melody surrounded by faster figuration. The sixty settings by Juan Cabanilles vary from pieces using simple rhythmic motives to more complex pieces with dense imitation. In a tiento by Cabanilles, the hymn tune begins buried in the tenor before it migrates to the other voices, gradually exposing the basis of the composition. In a setting by Vincente Rodríguez, the lower voices are registered separately on the organ to oppose the treble parts. A more fugal treatment of the hymn can be seen in José Lidón's setting from the eighteenth century, where motives derived from the hymn are developed as subjects of a large fugue. Although the use of the hymn declined by the nineteenth century, pianistic settings by Hilarión Eslava and Nicolás Ledsma are found in an anthology of organ music from 1854. The short survey of keyboard settings of the hymn shows a wide spectrum of styles: intabulations in ricercar style, divided-register pieces, sophisticated fugues, and nineteenth-century pianistic styles.

Works: Cabezón: Pange lingua (67); Heredia: La reina de los Pange linguas (68); Cabanilles: Tiento de Pange lingua (68); Rodríguez: Pange lingua de mano izquierda (68); Lidón: Fuga sobre el Pange lingua (69).

Sources: Pange lingua from the Liber Processionarius Regularis Observantiae Ordinis Cisterciensis, 1569 (66).

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Jir Shin Boey

[+] Pritchard, Brian W. “Mendelssohn’s Chorale Cantatas: An Appraisal.” The Musical Quarterly 62 (1976): 1-24.

Felix Mendelssohn’s six chorale cantatas, composed between 1827 and 1832, have often been dismissed as imitations of Bach and other models, and modern scholarship has relegated them to a less significant position in Mendelssohn’s oeuvre. However, a closer reading of Mendelssohn’s correspondence reveals that these cantatas were personally significant to him, and their composition was motivated by the composer’s strong historical interests and religious devotion. Moreover, Mendelssohn’s six cantatas demonstrate considerable creativity and originality, especially in how the composer combines or omits chorale verses, how he employs the orchestra as an expressive device, and how he presents and manipulates the chorale tune. Mendelssohn’s compositional choices ultimately reflect a highly personal interpretation of the chorale melody and the dramatic and thematic content of the chorale texts.

Works: Mendelssohn: Christe, du Lamm Gottes (2-4, 12-14), Jesu meine Freude (2-4, 9-15), Wir glauben all an einen Gott (2-6, 9-16), O Haupt voll blut und wunden (2-5, 11-13, 16-18), Vom Himmel hoch (2-6, 9-13, 18-20), Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh’ darein (2, 6-13, 18-21).

Sources: Johann Crüger and Johann Franck: Jesu meine Freude (11); Hans Leo Hassler and Paul Gerhardt: O Haupt voll blut und wunden (11); Martin Luther: Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her (11), Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh’ darein (12), Wir glauben all an einen Gott (12), Christe, du Lamm Gottes (12).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Raab, Claus. Beethovens Kunst der Sonate: Die drei letzten Klaviersonaten Op. 109, 110, 111 und ihr Thema. Saarbrücken: Pfau, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Radcliffe, Philip. Schubert Piano Sonatas. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1967.

Within a general survey of Schubert's piano sonatas, the author gives an example of the composer borrowing both from one of his own previous works and from one by Beethoven (p. 48). The theme of the rondo finale of the Piano Sonata in A Major, D. 959, is taken from the central movement of Schubert's earlier Piano Sonata in A Minor, D. 537. However, the structure of the movement as a whole is closely modeled on that of the rondo in Beethoven's Piano Sonata in G Major, Op. 31, No. 1.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Ramalingam, Vivian S. “Berlioz, Beethoven, and ‘One fatal remembrance.’” In Beyond the Moon: Festchrift Luther Dittmer, ed. Bryan Gillingham and Paul Merkley, 394-409. Musicological Studies, Vol. 53. Ottawa: Institute of Medieval Music, 1990.

The Lacrymosa movement of Hector Berlioz’s Grand Messe des morts contains numerous connections to the Allegretto movement of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7. On the surface level, both movements feature contrasts of high and low registers, and Berlioz also quotes a descending line from mm. 144-48 of Beethoven’s Allegretto, which, in both pieces, abruptly pivots the music from C Major into A Minor. On a deeper level, however, the Lacrymosa “poeticizes” and exaggerates the elements of Beethoven’s Allegretto that Berlioz heard most clearly in his predecessor’s work: intense alternation between rhythmically driving and lyrical passages, the pervasive somber affect, parallels with the biblical Jeremiah and Gluck’s Alceste, and an incessant rhythmic motive pulsing throughout. Berlioz’s Lacrymosa thus constitutes the composer’s own vivid reading and re-interpretation of Beethoven’s Allegretto.

Works: Berlioz: Grand Messe des morts (394-407).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92 (395-402, 404-7); Gluck: Alceste (403-5).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Redlich, Hans Ferdinand. "The Creative Achievement of Gustav Mahler." The Musical Times 101 (July 1960): 418-21.

This article locates Mahler's music historically and analyzes its expression. While the incorporation of his own songs into the symphonies could function as "signposts for the intellectual appreciation of the hidden programme," the handling of deliberately trivial melodies symbolizes "experiences of despair or of heartlacerating self-irony." The parody of Frère Jacques in the First and a melody of a Viennese military cortège in the Fifth Symphony belong to the latter category.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 5, Symphony No. 8.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Redlich, Hans Ferdinand. Bruckner and Mahler. Rev. 2nd ed. London: Dent; New York: Farrar, Strauss and Cudahy, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Reich, Nancy B. "Liszt's Variations on the March from Rossini's Siège de Corinthe." Fontes artis musicae 23 (July-September 1976): 102-6.

Liszt's Introduction et variations sur une marche du Siège de Corinthe (1830) raises many questions, because only the Introduction of the piece has been found. During his sojourn in Paris, Liszt would have certainly known Rossini?s opera Le Siège de Corinthe, which was premiered there in 1826 and was published in 1827. Liszt takes his theme in his Introduction from the March in the third act of the opera. The Introduction concludes on a dominant seventh chord, suggesting that Liszt planned to write the following variations while calling into question whether he did ever complete them. Liszt's inscription that mentions "Fuchs," probably Alois Fuchs, the Viennese autograph collector, raises several questions, including when and how Fuchs obtained the manuscript and whether Liszt wrote the title and inscribed it to Fuchs while he was writing the music on the first staff. The Fuchs entry in the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek Catalogue 317 leads to speculation that Liszt wrote the Introduction and probably variations in 1830 but kept the piece untitled until he sent it to Fuchs in 1851 with a title and inscription.

Works: Liszt: Introduction et variations sur une marche du Siège de Corinthe (103).

Sources: Rossini: Le Siège de Corinthe (103).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Renner, Hans, and Klaus Schweizer. Reclams Konzertführer Orchestermusik. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Reuter, Paul. "Music and the Reformation." In Four Hundred Years: Commemorative Essays on the Reformation of Dr. Martin Luther and Its Blessed Results, ed. W. H. T. Dau, 240-53. St. Louis: Concordia, 1917.

Characteristics of Martin Luther's quintessential chorale, Ein feste Burg, the text of which is taken from Psalm 46, suggest so strong a spirit of revolutionary heroism that several composers responded to it. In addition, many qualities of the tune suggest a folk characteristic, contributing in part to the great response the tune received. In particular, the "defiant" tones of the opening stanza evoke a "battle-song" of liberty in the face of the enemy. Many composers adapted the melody of the tune and devised new harmonies for it. A common eighteenth-century adjustment, for example, was to remove the syncopation from the tune, a tradition begun by J. S. Bach in his cantatas. Subsequent composers, including Mendelssohn and Meyerbeer, retained Bach's adaptation of the melody in their own settings.

Works: J. S. Bach: In festo Reformationis, BWV 80, Ein feste Burg, BWV 720 (248); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (248); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (248).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (247-49).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Reynolds, Christopher A. "A Choral Symphony by Brahms?" 19th-Century Music 9 (Summer 1985): 3-26.

Despite Brahms's reputation as a composer of "absolute" music, his music incorporates motivic borrowings and extramusical ideas. The first Piano Concerto and Requiem illustrate Brahms's use of existing material and musical symbols, which were primarily derived through his interaction with Robert and Clara Schumann. A chart suggests use of these ideas in other works by Brahms, providing a point of departure for further exploration into this subject.

Works: Brahms: Piano Quartet, Op. 60 (3), Piano Concerto in D Minor, Op. 15, German Requiem, Op. 45, String Quartet No. 1 (7), Symphony No. 1 (8), Variations on a Theme by Schumann (21), Ballade, Op. 10, No. 2 (21), Piano Quartet in A Major, Op. 26 (21), Die schöne Magelone, Op. 33, No. 1 (21), Ballades (duets), Op. 75, Nos. 2 and 3 (21), Violin Cncerto, Op. 77, first movement (21), Symphony No. 3, Op. 90, first movement (21).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Reynolds, Christopher A. “Florestan Reading Fidelio.” Beethoven Forum 4 (1995): 135-64.

German Romantic composers often struggled to balance the tension between originality and musical tradition in their works. Although many composers verbally or publically downplayed their indebtedness to their predecessors, they still alluded to the great composers of the past, using those allusions as points of departure for new, original musical works. Beethoven’s Fidelio represents this tension in two distinct ways. On the one hand, Fidelio features numerous allusions to Haydn and Mozart, and these borrowings take on new identities and meanings as they enhance the drama of Beethoven’s opera. On the other hand, later composers also used motives from Fidelio as musical-textual symbols in their own works, often reshaping them to serve a new musical function. While the borrowed material could occasionally retain some of its original meaning in its new context, composers often subverted or supplanted the borrowed material in order to assert their originality and genius within a longer historical tradition.

Works: Brahms: Piano Sonata No. 1 in C Major, Op. 1 (138-40), Piano Concerto No. 1 in D Minor, Op. 15 (137-38, 161); Schubert: Octet in F Major, D.803 (140); Beethoven: Fidelio (141-44, 147-54); Peter Cornelius: Beethoven-Lied (144-45); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (145-47); Schubert: Mass No. 2 in G Major, D.167 (154-56); Robert Schumann: Frauenliebe und Leben (156-58), Frühlingsankunft (158-60), Album für die Jugend, Op. 68 (161).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 3 in C Minor, Op. 37 (137), Piano Sonata in C Major, Op. 53 (“Waldstein”) (138-41), Piano Sonata in C-sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 2 (140), Septet, Op. 20 (140), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 55 (“Eroica”) (144-47); Mozart: Die Zauberflöte (147-48); Beethoven: Vestas Feuer (148), Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II, WoO 87 (148), Mailied, Op. 52, No. 4 (148-49); Mozart: Abendempfindung, K.523 (150); Haydn: Abendlied zu Gott (150-51); Mozart: Idomeneo (153-54); Beethoven: Fidelio (154-61).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Reynolds, Christopher Alan. Motives for Allusion: Context and Content in Nineteenth-Century Music. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Richter, Lukas. "Parodieverfahren im Berliner Gassenlied." Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft 4 (1959): 48-81.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Riethmüller, Albrecht. "Franz Liszts Reminiscences de Don Juan." In Analysen: Beiträge zu einer Problemgeschichte des Komponierens. Festschrift für Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Werner Breig, Reinhold Brinkmann, and Elmar Budde, 276-91. Stuttgart: F. Steiner Verlag, 1984.

In his Fantasy on themes from Mozart's Don Giovanni, Liszt goes far beyond the potpourri. By careful selection of the melodic material, including scenes with the Commendatore ("Di rider finirai," "Ribaldo, audace," and "Tu m'invitasti a cena"), the duet "Là ci darem la mano," and Don Giovanni's aria "Fin ch'han dal vino," Liszt concentrates on only a few figures. In the transition from the duet to the final aria, he combines thematic material from music associated with the three characters, thus creating a "free symphonic development" that reinterprets the story: after the confrontation with the Commendatore, Don Giovanni triumphs over his opponent. Ten measures before the end, however, Liszt evokes once more the sphere of the Commendatore (Andante), which can be understood as an attempt to lead back cyclically to the beginning, skepticism about the positive interpretation of the ending, or both.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Riethmüller, Albrecht. "Wagner, Brahms, und die Akademische Fest-Ouvertüre." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 61, no. 2 (2004): 79-105.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Riezler, Walter. Schuberts Instrumentalmusik. Zurich: Atlantis, 1967.

[See p. 151.]

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Rifkin, Joshua. "A Note on Schubert's Great C-Major Symphony." 19th-Century Music 6 (Summer 1982): 13-16.

Manuscripts of the first movement of Schubert's Symphony No. 9 indicate the presence of an earlier version of the principal theme. In this earlier form, the principal theme is clearly derived from Mozart's "Notte e giorno faticar" from Don Giovanni. Schubert held Don Giovanni in highest esteem and was probably reminded of the work by a performance of this opera at the time he was composing Symphony No. 9.

Works: Schubert: Symphony No. 9.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Ringer, Alexander L. "Clementi and the Eroica." The Musical Quarterly 47 (October 1961): 454-68.

The theme of Beethoven's Contredanse in Eb Major, upon which the finale of the symphony is based and which is also present in Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus and the Piano Variations, Op. 35, has its ultimate source in the opening phrase of Clementi's Piano Sonata in G Minor, Op. 7, No. 3 (a work Beethoven probably knew in his Bonn days). Ringer also discerns the presence of the idea in the Septet, Op. 20 and in Christus am Ölberg. Clementi himself used the theme again in the finale of his Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 14, No. 3. The influence of other sonatas by Clementi upon Beethoven is also noted. Elements of Clementi's G Minor Sonata (not just the opening phrase) are evident throughout the Eroica as a result of Beethoven's use of his own contredanse as a "reference theme." (The use of a reference theme, here a Russian theme, is also evident throughout the String Quartet Op. 59, No. 1.) The Prometheus music, the Variations, Op. 35, and the Eroica are viewed as "three successive responses to the same 'underlying idea,' each conceived in terms of a different 'poetic idea.'"

Works: Beethoven: Eroica (454), The Creatures of Prometheus (454), Piano Variations, Op. 35 (454), Septet, Op. 20 (460), Christus am Olberg (460), String Quartet Op. 59, No. 1 (464).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Ringer, Alexander L. "The Art of the Third Guess: Beethoven to Becker to Bartók." The Musical Quarterly 52 (July 1966): 304-12.

Beethoven composed two separate sketches (Paris and Vienna) on Goethe's Erlkönig. Some aspects of these settings, such as repeated notes in the treble part, the drone in the bass, and the harmonic movement to mediant-related major keys for the middle section are remarkably similar to Schubert's Wanderer and Erlkönig. Near the end of the nineteenth century, Reinhold Becker took the transcription done by Gustav Nottebohm of the Vienna sketch as the basis for a "complete version," in an attempt at what Paul H. Lang calls "the art of the second guess." Bartók then orchestrated this arrangement in a work which was unknown to Bartók scholars until the discovery of the score at the University of Illinois Music Library. Bartók made no attempt to correct any of Becker's mistakes or changes from Beethoven's setting, except for a few harmonic changes, but his orchestration provided new sophisticated treatments of rhythm, color, and dynamics not found in the arrangement or the original.

Works: Bartók: Erlkönig (308-11); Becker: Erlkönig (307-08); Beethoven: Erlkönig.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Roman, Zoltan. "Connotative Irony in Mahler's Todtenmarsch in 'Callots Manier.'" The Musical Quarterly 59 (January 1973): 207-22.

In Mahler's First Symphony, third movement, section A is based on the tune Frère Jacques, and section B is based on "Die zwei blauen Augen von meinem Schatz," from Mahler's Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen. Aristotles's eironeia is a means of interpreting the ironic treatment of the borrowed material; it is characterized by distortion, understatement, and self-depreciation.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, third movement (211); Symphony No. 2, third movement (218).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Roman, Zoltan. "Mahler's Songs and Their Influence on His Symphonic Thought." Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1970.

Chapter V of Roman's dissertation presents an examination of Mahler's songs in symphonies from the point of view of their constituent poetical as well as musical-echnical elements. As in the genre of the song itself, Mahler also sought for new means of expression in the symphony. Still in the tradition of Beethoven, he expands "the grand design of symphonic music" by the incorporation of a hitherto unexplored resource: the song. The result of his search for an ultimate "symbiosis of symphonic and vocal music" can be described as follows: (1) Mahler's music--even in his apparently purely instrumental symphonies--has to be viewed in connection with his interest in literature. (2) The new possibilities created by Mahler's expansion of the genre are reflected in the works of the following generation.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 4, Das Lied von der Erde.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Roman, Zoltan. "The Folk Element in Mahler's Songs." Canadian Association of University Schools of Music 8 (Autumn 1978): 67-84.

Mahler's songs to texts from Des Knaben Wunderhorn are influenced by folk music. Those most clearly related to folk or popular songs may be divided into two groups: (1) songs that show a direct resemblance to existing songs, and (2) songs with general characteristics of a popular genre such as dance songs and soldier songs. The melodies are classified by style (diatonic, chromatic, mixed); intervallic motion (triadic, conjunct, disjunct, mixed); and rhythm (predominantly dotted, primarily smooth, mixed). Mahler follows the stylistic traditions of the nineteenth-century Lied: the simplicity and "volkstümliche character" of many of the Wunderhorn songs is similar to Schubert; the harmonic language is much like Schumann; and the nature of the accompaniment is related to Brahms. While these songs clearly reflect the influences of his predecessors and of Romantic historicism, they also show Mahler's "absorption" and "adaptation" of material which foreshadows the "total stylistic assimilation of folk music" by twentieth-century composers.

Works: Mahler: "Revelge," "Wo die schönen Trompeten blasen," "Es sungen drei Engel einen süssen Gesang," "Wir geniessen die himmlischen Freuden," "Ich ging mit Lust durch einen grünen Wald," "Rheinlegendchen," "Lied des Verfolgten im Turm" ("Die Gedanken sind frei"), "Der Tamboursg'sell," "Zu Strassburg auf der Schanz," "Verlorene Müh'," "Hans und Grethe," "Nicht wiedersehen!," "Scheiden und Meiden," "Der Schildwache Nachtlied," and "Trost im Unglück" from Des Knaben Wunderhorn.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Rosen, Charles. "Influence: Plagiarism and Inspiration." 19th-Century Music 4 (Fall 1980): 87-100. Reprinted in On Criticizing Music: Five Philosophical Perspectives, ed. Kingsley Price, 16-37. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.

Influences on one composer by another's work are demonstrated between Haydn and Mozart. In the first of two examples, the rhythmic shape of Mozart's fugal Gigue for Piano, K. 574 parallels the gigue finale of Haydn's C Major Quartet, Op. 20, No. 2. Mozart was familiar with Haydn's quartets Op. 20 and imitated them closely for years. Similarities are also drawn between Haydn's Symphony No. 81 and Mozart's Prague Symphony, including the use of ostinati, a flatted seventh degree within the introductions, similar rhythmic patterns, and the use of new motifs. Influence through structural modeling is then illustrated by a comparison of the finales from Brahms's D Minor Piano Concerto and Beethoven's Piano Concerto in C Minor.

Works: Schubert: Piano Sonata in A Minor, D. 959 (93); Brahms: Piano Sonata in C Major, Op. 1 (93); Scherzo, Op. 4 (93); Piano Concerto No. 2 (94).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Rubsamen, Walter. "The Ballad Burlesques and Extravaganzas." The Musical Quarterly 36 (October 1950): 551-61.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Rusch, René. “Beyond Homage and Critique?: Schubert’s Sonata in C Minor, D. 958, and Beethoven’s Thirty-Two Variations in C Minor, WoO 80.” Music Theory Online 19 (March 2013). http://www.mtosmt.org/issues/mto.13.19.1/mto.13.19.1.rusch.php (accessed April 1, 2013).

Schubert’s Sonata in C Minor, D. 958 is often cited as an homage to Beethoven’s Thirty-Two Variations in C Minor, WoO 80. There are, however, several ordinary musical events in common between these two pieces. The use of a passacaglia bass, found in an inner voice of the Schubert, can be traced back to the Baroque era. Both works also set up but subvert a sentential phrase structure (2+2+4 measures) at the beginning of the work, hardly a compositional device unique to either composer. With Derrida’s concept of grafting, meant metaphorically as the “insertion of one text into another by means of a scission,” the concept of a piece as homage or critique can be challenged. Though the Sonata in C Minor appears to be influenced by Beethoven’s Thirty-Two Variations, Schubert’s work is in dialogue with compositional techniques used before the Beethoven. As a result, historical narratives, such as Beethoven’s overwhelming influence on Schubert, need to be reinvestigated. Such reconsideration may write new historical narratives or confirm old ones.

Works: Schubert: Sonata in C Minor, D. 958.

Sources: Beethoven: Thirty-Two Variations in C Minor, WoO 80.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux

[+] Russell, Tilden A. "Brahms and 'Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten': A New Contribution." The American Brahms Society Newsletter 6, no. 2 (1988), n.p.

["The article concludes with a skeptical view of the whole question of quotation and allusion in Brahms." Author, letter of 23 November 1992]

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Sala, Emilio. "Verdi and the Parisian Boulevard Theatre, 1847-49." Cambridge Opera Journal 7 (1995): 190-91.

[from AG's dissertation: According to Sala, "a chorus from Alphonse Varney's music for Dumas and Auguste Marquet's Le chevalier de maison-rouge (1847) bears a strong resemblance to the opening chorus of La battaglia di Legnano (1849). Also another mélodrame/drame, Emile Souvestre and Eugène Bourgeois's Le Pasteur ou l'évangile et le foyer (1849) with music of uncertain authorship, may have provided musico-dramatic ideas for Stiffelio."]

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Sams, Eric. "Brahms and His Clara Themes." The Musical Times 112 (May 1971): 432-34.

During the years he was writing to Clara Schumann (1854-56), Johannes Brahms seems to have used musical ciphers and allusions in two of his pieces in much the same way that Robert Schumann used them, as meaningful references to Clara. Brahms compared the character of his Piano Quintet in C Minor, Op. 60, to Goethe's Werther, a man with unrequited love for a married woman, a possible allusion to the scenario between Brahms and Clara. A passage in this quintet also has musical allusions to Beethoven's An Die Ferne Geliebte, a work which Schumann quoted in his own Piano Fantasie, Op. 17, and to Schubert's Am Meer from Schwanengesang. Both songs contain themes of unattainable beauty and hopeless love. Likewise, Brahms's Piano Trio in B Major, Op. 8, contains an allusion to Beethoven's Fourth Piano Concerto, a work Clara was rehearsing during the time of their correspondence. In this same trio, Brahms also borrowed the C-L-A-R-A cipher from Robert Schumann's Symphony No. 4 in D Minor, Op. 120, a theme with obvious references to Clara. The work also contains allusions to Schumann's Manfred Overture and Schumann's opera Genoveva, an opera about a man who falls in love with his master's wife.

Works: Brahms: Piano Trio in B Major, Op. 8 (432-34), Piano Quintet in C Minor, Op. 60 (432-33); Robert Schumann, Fantasie, Op. 17 (433).

Sources: Beethoven: An Die Ferne Geliebte (432-33), Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Major, Op. 58 (433); Schubert: Am Meer (432-33); Robert Schumann: Symphony No. 4 in D Minor, Op. 120 (433), Genoveva (433-34), Manfred Overture (434).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Samson, Jim. "Of Maps and Materials." In Virtuosity and the Musical Work: The Transcendental Studies of Liszt, ed. Jim Samson, 29-65. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Liszt's youthful work Etude en 12 exercices demonstrates his achievement in the history of the etude, the use of particular idiomatic figurations as markers of genre, and the assembly of these figurations into a unified structure. Within this focus, parallels between Liszt's Etudes and those of his predecessors and contemporaries are discussed. For example, the figurations used in Liszt's Etude No. 2 have a parallel with those in Czerny's No. 28 from his Die Schule der Gelaüfigkeit, Book 3. The parallels between Liszt's etudes and Czerny's are reinforced by their relationship as teacher and pupil. The head motives of Liszt's several etudes in the same collection are modeled on those of Cramer's 84 Etudes. The head motives of Liszt's etudes Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 correspond to those of Cramer's Nos. 7, 60, 5, 57, and 50, respectively. The several pianistic figurations of particular types associated with "topics" or genres shared between Liszt's etudes and those of other piano composers suggest intertextual connections, as exemplified in the use of operatic sighing thirds, common to Liszt's No. 5, Steibelt?s No. 3 in his Etude en 50 exercices, Cramer?s No. 1 in his Dulce et utile, and others.

Works: Liszt: Etude en 12 exercices (32-34, 42-44).

Sources: Carl Czerny: Die Schule der Gelaüfigkeit (32-33); Johann Baptist Cramer: 84 Etudes (32-34), Dulce et utile (42-44); Daniel Steibelt: Etude en 50 exercices (42-44); Cipriani Potter: Etudes (42-44); Henri Bertini: 25 Etudes Characteristiques (42-44).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Schenk, Erich. "Barock bei Beethoven." In Beethoven und die Gegenwart: Festschrift für Ludwig Schiedermair. Berlin and Bonn: Dümmler, 1937.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Schmidt, Heinrich. "Formprobleme und Entwicklungslinien in Gustav Mahlers Symphonien." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1929.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Schmierer, Elisabeth. "Fauré und die Symphonie." In Gabriel Fauré: Werk und Rezeption--Mit Werkverzeichnis und Bibliographie, ed. Peter Jost, 38-52. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Schmitt, Theodor. "Der langsame Symphoniesatz Gustav Mahlers: historisch-vergleichende Studien zu Mahlers Kompositionstechnik." Ph.D. diss., University of Munich, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Schneider, Herbert. "Les Mélodies des chansons de Béranger." In La chanson française et son histoire, ed. Dietmar Rieger, 111-48. Tübingen: G. Norr, 1988.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Schoenberg, Arnold. "Folkloristic Symphonies." Musical America 67 (February 1947): 7, 370. Also trans. Schoenberg as "Symphonien aus Volksliedern." Stimmen 1 (November 1947): 1-6. English version in Style and Idea, ed. Dika Newlin, 196-203. New York: Philosophical Library, 1950; reprinted in Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg, ed. Leonard Stein, 161-66. London: Faber and Faber, 1975.

Many composers have tried to create art music from folk music. These two types of music should not be combined. In his String Quartet Op. 59, No. 2, Beethoven only treated the borrowed Russian folk melody in a fugato-like manner. A melody that is used in a large-scale formal structure must lend itself to developmental processes. A folk melody is complete in itself. This is beautiful music, unlike artificial "folk" melodies which try to represent the spirit of the people, yet result in trivial condescension. A motive, unlike a folk melody, is incomplete; for example, the opening motive of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 must be elaborated and developed to achieve its true character and to exhaust its expression. When folk song is used in a symphony, because the song is already complete, all composers can do is apply techniques of development, such as repetition, transposition, changes of instrumentation, and sequence.

Works: Beethoven: String Quartet in E Minor, Op. 59, No. 2 (162).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Schoffman, Nachum. "The Songs of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Schumann, Robert. On Music and Musicians. Edited by Konrad Wolff. Translated by Paul Rosenfeld. New York: Pantheon Books, 1946.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Schuster, Claus Christian. "Anklange: Zum Wesen des Zitates bei Johannes Brahms." Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 52/4 (1997): 27-39.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Schwager, Myron. "Some Observations on Beethoven as an Arranger." The Musical Quarterly 60 (January 1974): 80-93.

The rise of musical publishing and the lack of copyright laws in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century strongly encouraged the practice of arranging. Beethoven was an active arranger of his own works, especially those of his early period. He would make unsolicited offers of his adaptations to publishers but would also assume the right to refuse a request for one if so desired. His personal reluctance to arrange works of others did not deter him from seeking the help of others in arranging his own works when time or interest was wanting, but he demanded control over the arranger and the manner of arranging. The criteria for acceptance or rejection of the arrangement were based on the abilities of the arranger. His most satisfactory relationship with a freelance arranger was that with Czerny.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Schwarting, Heino. "Komposition nach Vorbild: Vergleiche bei Schubert und Beethoven." Musica 38 (March/April 1984): 130-38.

The fourth movement of Schubert's Piano Sonata in A major, D. 959 (1828), is closely related to the third movement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in G major, Op. 31, No. 1 (1802), which Schubert knew. Similarities between the two Allegretto finales are visible in the formal structure of the opening theme, the partial chromaticism of the thematic material, some rhythmic patterns, harmonic progressions, and overall form. Another conscious borrowing occurs in Schubert's Grand Rondeau in A major for piano four hands, D. 951, which is based on the second movement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in E minor, Op. 90; in this case, unlike the previous one, Schubert composed a work that differed considerably in emotional expression from Beethoven's, despite similarities in form. There is also a less obvious parallel between the second movements of Schubert's Piano Trio in E flat major, D. 929, and Beethoven's Piano Trio in D major, Op. 70, No. 1.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mirna Polzovic

[+] Scott, Hugh Arthur. "Indebtedness in Music." The Musical Quarterly 13 (October 1927): 497-509.

Amid the general discussion of the various forms that indebtedness can take (Handel is most specifically discussed), the article questions composers' frequent use of "familiar phrases": Was Wagner aware that the opening notes or intervals from the prelude to Tristan had already been used by Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, and Liszt? The main interest focuses on various and sundry quotations, merely citing examples by well-known composers, while no real connection between the quotations is apparent.

Works: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2 (504-06), Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique) (503); Wagner: "Anvil" motive from the Ring (504-05); Brahms: Symphony in C Minor (505), Piano Quartet in G Minor (505); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 (Pathétique) (506); Liszt: Dante Symphony (507); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (502, 507); Mozart: Don Giovanni (508); Beethoven: Diabelli Variations (508); Brahms: Unüberwindlich (509); Elgar: "The Music Makers," from Enigma Variations (509); Mackenzie: London Day by Day Suite (509), Dream of Jubal (509); Puccini: Madame Butterfly (509); Richard Strauss: Elektra (498); Bach: Wachet, betet (504), Ich hatte viel Bekümmerniss (504), Uns ist ein Kind geboren (504), St. John Passion (504), St. Matthew Passion (504).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Shamgar, Beth. "Three Missing Months in Schubert's Biography: A Further Consideration of Beethoven's Influence on Schubert." The Musical Quarterly 73 (1989): 417-34.

The standard biographies of Schubert are silent about the events that occurred between March and July of 1824. Two works for piano four hands from this period, the Gran Duo in C Major, D. 812 and the Eight Variations on an Original Theme in A-flat major, D. 813, respectively quote from Beethoven's Second and Seventh Symphonies. Schubert is shown to have been present at the Kärntnertor Theatre on the evening of May 7, 1824 when Beethoven's Ninth Symphony was premiered, and Schubert was moved enough to pay tribute to Beethoven in his next two pieces for piano duet mention above. Although transformed into Schubertian sentiments, the borrowed ideas show unmistakably his allegiance to Beethoven's symphonic model. Schubert's quotation of the "Freude" theme from the Beethoven's Ninth Symphony in his "Great" C major Symphony, D. 944 (1825), provides further evidence that Schubert was present at the Ninth's first performance since the score was only published in 1826.

Works: Schubert: Gran Duo in C Major, D. 812 (421-25, 31), Eight Variations on an Original Theme in A-flat Major, D.813 (421-22, 26-29, 31-32), "Great" C major Symphony, D. 944 (432-434).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Luiz Fernando Lopes

[+] Shanet, Howard. "Bizet's Suppressed Symphony." The Musical Quarterly 44 (October 1958): 461-76.

Bizet's Symphony in C was composed in 1855 but was not performed until 1935. The symphony has often been cited as being reminiscent of earlier composers' music. Beethoven, Haydn, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Rossini, Schubert, Mozart, and even Brahms (!) have been mentioned. Bizet in fact wrote his symphony with a specific model in mind, the Symphony in D by his teacher and friend Gounod. Almost all of the conspicuous features of the Bizet can be traced back to Gounod. Gounod's symphony had been a great hit in Paris, and this may indicate that Bizet chose not to have his symphony performed upon completing it for fear of being charged with imitation. Bizet did quote a fragment of his symphony in his opera Don Procopio. (He also quoted this opera in two later operas, Les Pêcheurs de perles and La jolie fille de Perth.)

Works: Bizet: Symphony in C Major (462), Don Procopio (474), Les Pêcheurs de perles (474), La jolie fille de Perth (474).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Siegmund-Schultze, Walther. "Chopin und Brahms." In The Book of the International Musicological Congress Devoted to the Works of Frederick Chopin / Warsaw 16-22 February 1960, ed. Zofia Lissa, 388-95. Washaw: Pánstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Simms, Bryan R. “The German Apprenticeship of Charles Ives.” American Music 29 (Spring 2011): 139-67.

Ives’s eighteen German songs form an important link between his earlier and later works. The songs demonstrate his wish to conform to prevailing art music trends in Europe while also exhibiting his determination to be original and push inherited musical idioms to the limit. Ives’s German language songs were likely a personal project, influenced by his previous composition of sentimental ballads. His rich harmonic language in these sentimental ballads deviated from the norms of the genre, an approach Ives continued in his German songs by using unorthodox harmonies, forms, and melodies. His German songs may be classified in three categories based on approximate composition date: 1894-1897, 1897-1898, and 1898-1902. Songs from the first group are the most conservative and are most similar to sentimental ballads. Those from the second group use poems that were associated with earlier settings by European composers and thus invite direct comparison with the European masters. Songs from the third group continue the ideas Ives initiated in the second group and use increased dissonance and chromaticism in the service of text expression. A table of all of Ives’s German songs lists reworked and alternate titles, text incipits, authors, and sources.

Works: Ives: Leise zieht (144-47), An Old Flame (149, 155), At Parting (150-55, 158), My Lou Jennine (153-56), Feldeinsamkeit (157-62), Zum Drama “Rosamunde” (159, 163), Du bist wie eine Blume (159-60), Wiegenlied (160), Wie Melodien zieht es mir (160-62), Ich grolle nicht (157-63), Die Lotosblume (160), Mir klingt ein Ton (160-61), Weil’ auf mir (163-64).

Sources: Grieg: Gruß (144-47); Mendelssohn: Gruß (144-47); Robert Franz: Leise zieht durch mein Gemüth (144-46); James Rogers: At Parting (150-53); Schumann: Ich grolle nicht (161); Brahms: Feldeinsamkeit, Op. 86, No. 2 (162-63).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein, Amanda Jensen, Christine Wisch

[+] Sisman, Elaine R. "Brahms and the Variation Canon." 19th-Century Music 14 (Fall 1990): 132-53.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Sitsky, Larry. Busoni and the Piano. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Busoni's character was full of dualities, including those of musical tastes, careers (composing vs. pianistic), centuries, and hybrid vs. original works. He edited and transcribed copious works by Bach, Liszt, Mozart, and other composers, including Beethoven, Chopin, and Mendelssohn (pp. 177-294). He was attracted to Bach's art of counterpoint and structure, Liszt's piano writing, and Mozart's clarity and conciseness of form. Busoni's transcriptions manifest a synthesis of his past and future as he believed it to be (pp. 295-313). His attitudes toward transcription are tied to his ideas on notation and the "Unity of Music." He regarded transcribing as an independent art; he created totally new sounds on the piano and gave the art of transcribing a new freedom and dignity.

Works: Busoni: arrangement of Bach's Four Duets for Piano (185-86), "interpretation" of Bach's Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue (188-89), collection and completion of Bach's Fantasia, Adagio, and Fugue (189-90), Fantasia after J.S. Bach for Piano (201-204), Prelude, Fugue, and Figured Fugue after J.S. Bach's WTC (204); Liszt-Busoni: Andantino Capriccioso, Etude No. 2 after Paganini's Caprice (216), free arrangement of the Theme and Variations on Paganini's Etude No. 6 (220-224), arrangement of the Spanish Rhapsody for piano and orchestra (228-230); Mozart-Liszt-Busoni: completion of the Figaro Fantasy (235), Don Juan Fantasie (227-28); Busoni: two-piano arrangement of Mozart's Fantasy for mechanical organ (253-55), two-piano transcription of the overture to Mozart's Magic Flute (255-56), piano solo arrangement of the Andantino from Mozart's Piano Concerto, K. 271 (256-57), piano arrangement of the fugue from String Quartet K. 546 (265).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Skouenborg, Ulrik. "Elgar's Enigma: The Solution." The Music Review 43 (August/November 1982): 161-68.

The principal theme which never appears in the Enigma Variations is identified as being drawn from Brahms's Vier ernste Gesänge. The opening motive of the variations can be combined with a passage in the second song while the Nimrod tune can be combined (once a change of key is made) with a passage in tbe fourth. Other allusions which appear on the surface of the music in the variations are to Bach's Pedalexercitium (eleventh variation) and to B-A-C-H (in the Enigma theme itself) as well as to the slow movement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata, Op. 13 (ninth variation). The Enigma theme may also refer to the first of the Vier ernste Gesänge such that the Brahms was Elgar's point of departure.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Smart, Mary Ann. "In Praise of Convention: Formula and Experiment in Bellini's Self-Borrowings." Journal of the American Musicological Society 53 (Spring 2000): 25-68.

Vincenzo Bellini was once thought by the scholarly community to be immune from practices of self-borrowing, but evidence shows that he reworked material as much as Handel and Rossini. In Bellini's time, self-borrowing was deemed dishonest and unprofessional, and the critics and audiences were very aware of his self-borrowings. He reworked many passages from his earlier operas (before 1828) into his later operas, totaling twenty-five recycled melodies. Most of these melodic reworkings reduce the motivic material to make it more economical and declamatory. The reworkings also share with the original a formal function, poetic meter and content, and dramatic situation, although in one instance (the 1829 Zaira and the 1830 I Capuleti e i Montecchi) Bellini set a once happy cavatina into a much darker expressive context. Even unconscious borrowings, like between Il pirata and I puritani, have dramatic similarities, although they do not share formal function. All of this evidence shows that even though nineteenth-century opera is by its very nature conventional and thus often dismissed as musically uninteresting, these conventions are often instances of self-borrowing, which can be of more analytical interest.

Works: Bellini: Il pirata (25-27, 37-43), La sonnambula (28-29, 31), Norma (31, 37), I Capuleti e i Montecchi (32, 47-52), Zaira (37), La straniera (43-47), I puritani (53-66).

Sources: Bellini: Ernani (28, 31), Adelson e Salvini (32, 37-47), Bianca e Fernando (32, 37), Zaira (32, 47-52), Beatrice di Tenda (32-36), Norma (32-36), Il pirata (53-66).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Smith, Marian. "Borrowings and Original Music: A Dilemma for the Ballet-Pantomime Composer." Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research 6, no. 2 (Autumn 1988): 3-29.

Composers of ballet scores for the Paris Opéra from the early nineteenth century evince dramatically and aesthetically sensitive approaches to borrowing, even during the 1830s and 1840s as critical opinion turned against the use of borrowed material. Composers sometimes borrowed because they held particular works in high esteem. Moreover, composers often used borrowed material because it served the dramatic needs of ballet scenes, which were often confusing and benefited from the use of well-known music to aid the audience in interpreting the action. For example, borrowing from an air parlant (a familiar song) could bring to mind the song's text, which would in turn clarify the action at hand even without the words being sung. When critical opinion turned against borrowed material, some ballet composers satisfied audiences' need for familiarity through the use of recurring themes, as seen in Adolphe Adam's Giselle, Ferdinand Hérold's La Somnambule, and Jean-Madeleine Schneitzhoeffer's La Sylphide. Includes an extensive table of ballet-pantomime scores using borrowed material.

Works: Ferdinand Hérold: La Fille mal gardée (4), La Somnambule (9); Alexandre Montfort: La Chatte metamorphosée en femme (5); Jean-Madeleine Schneitzhoeffer: La Sylphide (5-6, 10), La Tempête (11); Frédéric Venua: Flore et Zéphire (9); Rodolphe Kreutzer: Clari (9); Adolphe Adam: Le Diable à quatre (12).

Sources: Rossini: La Cenerentola (4, 18), Il Barbiere di Siviglia (4-5), Moïse (5); J. S. Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II (6); Paganini: Variations on "Le Streghe" (6); Anonymous, Réveillez-vous, belle endormie (9), Dormez chères amours (9-10), Mon mari n'est pas là (12); Salieri: Les Danaïdes (9); Gluck: Iphigénie en Aulide (9), Orphée et Euridice (10-11); Grétry: Richard Coeur de Lion (11-12); Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro (12).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Smith, Warren Storey. "Gustav Mahler (1860-1960) as 'Song-Symphonist': Song is the Basic Element of the Vast Symphonic Structures Mahler created." Musical America 80 (February 1960): 10, 174.

Not only the symphonies with actual voice parts but also many others borrow from Mahler's song cycles. Smith identifies the borrowings and emphasizes not only their importance for the interpretation, but also the key position of their musical material. The song elements appear as the pillars of the whole work.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 4, Symphony No. 5, Symphony No. 6, Symphony No. 7.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Smith, Warren Storey. "Mahler Quotes Mahler." Chord and Discord 2, no. 7 (1954): 7-13.

Most of the songs which Mahler incorporated into his symphonies were originally written with orchestral accompaniment (rather than piano). Unlike Schubert, who used vocal themes as bases for variations in some movements of his instrumental works, Mahler never quoted a song for the specific purpose of writing variations. Instead, the material directly influences the melodic structure and content of the symphonies, particularly the first five, through the literal quotation of entire themes and motives.

Works: Schubert: Wanderer Fantasy; Trout Quintet; Death and the Maiden; String Quartet in D Minor; Octet in F Major (based on the air "Gelagert unter'm hellen Dach der Bäume," from the operette Die Freunde von Salamanka); Fantasy in C Major for violin and piano (based on Sei mir Gegrüsst); Introduction and Variations for piano and flute, Op. 160 (based on Trock'ne Blumen); Mahler: "Ging heut' morgen über's Feld" and "Die zwei blauen Augen von meinem Schatz" from Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen; "Das Himmlische Leben," "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt," "Ablösung in Sommer," "Es sungen drei Engel," "Lob des hohen Verstandes," "Um schlimme Kinder artig zu machen," and "Nicht Wiedersehen" from Lieder aus des Knaben Wunderhorn; "Nun will die Sonn' so hell aufgeh'n" and "Nun seh' ich wohl, warum so dunkle Flammen" from Kindertotenlieder; Symphonies 1-7. [??]

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Sonneck, Oscar G. Early Opera in America. New York: Schirmer, 1915.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Sonntag, Brunhilde. "Die Marseillaise als Zitat in der Musik: Ein Beitrag zum Thema 'Musik und Politik.'" In "Nach Frankreich zogen zwei Grenadier": Zeitgeschehen im Spiegel von Musik, ed. Brunnhilde Sonntag, 22-37. Munster: Lit, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans: A History. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.

[Need annotation for discussions of borrowings within African-American tradition.] Within the context of her comprehensive volume on the musical tradition of black Americans, Southern briefly discusses the use by white Europeans and Americans of specific music and of musical styles of black Americans. She focuses on ragtime (pp. 331-32), jazz (pp. 395-97), and rhythm-and-blues (pp. 498-500).

Works: Debussy: Children's Corner (331-32); Stravinsky: Piano-Rag Music (331-32), Ragtime (331-32), L'Histoire du Soldat (331-32); Satie: Parade (331-32); Hindemith: Piano Suite (1922) (331-32); Carpenter: Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1916) (331-32), Krazy Kat (395-97), Skyscrapers (395-97); Krenek: Johnny spielt auf (395-97); Milhaud: La Création du Monde (395-97); Ravel: Piano Concerto in D (1931) (395-97); Walton: Façade (395-97); Stravinsky: Ebony Concerto for Dance Orchestra (395-97); Copland: Music for the Theater (395-97), Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1927) (395-97); Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (395-97), Concerto in F (1925) (395-97), An American in Paris (395-97).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Spada, Marco. "Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra di Gioachino Rossini: fonti letterarie e autoimprestito musicale." Nuova rivista musicale italiana 24 (1990): 147-82.

All numbers of Rossini's Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra (Naples, 1815) are borrowed from his previous operas with the exception of only one totally original piece. Most of the reused music was selected from the best material from Aureliano in Palmira and Sigismondo, which were previous fiascoes in other cities, but Rossini also borrowed from Ciro in Babilonia and the Cantata Edipo Coloneo. In spite of the numerous self-borrowings, Elisabetta cannot be considered a simple pastiche, since Rossini reworked all the reused materials and achieved a balance between dramatic and musical time in the opera, which became the first great success of his Naples's period. It seems that Rossini chose the borrowed material according to the following criteria: (1) themes with similar dramatic function; (2) texts with similar metrical structure; and (3) identical tonal settings. Likewise the libretto of Elisabetta by Giovanni Schmidt is shown to have been modeled upon the play Il paggio di Leicester by Carlo Frederici (Naples, 1813), which was derived from an English play by Sophia Lee and not from a romance by Sir Walter Scott as asserted by previous biographers.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Luiz Fernando Lopes

[+] Stanley, Glenn. "Bach's Erbe: The Chorale in the German Oratorio of the Early Nineteenth Century." 19th-Century Music 11 (Fall 1987): 121-49.

The inclusion of chorales in nineteenth-century oratorios provided a religious aura to these works even when performed in a concert setting. Furthermore, the chorale was seen as the epitome of Protestant music, and by extension German culture, thus taking on a nationalistic character as well. Composers drew from various chorale collections published in the eighteenth century for their source material. Because these collections included new chorales as well as old ones, the source materials represented a variety of musical styles. Mendelssohn's St. Paul consciously drew on Bach's St. Matthew Passion as a pattern for the use of chorales, but Mendelssohn uses fewer of them, and they differ in style and function from Bach. Mendelssohn also realized that his oratorios were concert music, not liturgical music. By contrast, Friedrich Schneider intended his Gethsemane und Golgotha to be a true liturgical work, including congregational participation in the chorales. Even works without chorales, such as Spohr's Des Heilands letzte Stunden, often included movements designed textually and musically to evoke the chorale.

Works: Carl Loewe: Das Sühnopfer des neuen Bundes (124, 134-35, 139-40); Heinrich Elkamp: Paulus (124-25); Carl Heinrich Graun: Der Tod Jesu (126-27); Felix Mendelssohn: St. Paul (127-31); Friedrich Schneider: Gethsemane und Golgotha (132-33); Carl Loewe: Die sieben Schläfer (137), Die Zerstörung von Jerusalem (137-38), Johann Huss (140-41).

Sources: Chorales: Schmucke dich O liebe Seele (124), Herzliebster Jesu (127, 132), Dir Herr will ich mich ergeben (128-29), Allein Gott in der Höh sei Her (128), Wachet auf (128-31, 132-22), O Jesu Christe, wahres Licht (128-29), Wir glauben all an einem Gott (128), O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden (132, 136), O Lamm Gottes (132), Aus tiefer Noth (132), Herr Jesu Christ mein Lebens Licht (132), Wie lieblich ist O Herr die Stätte (132), Erscheinen ist der herrlich Tag (137), Jesus meine Zuversicht (138), Grosser ist, o grosser Gott (139) Was mein Gott will, das gesheh allzeit (140-41); Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach: Geistliche Oden und Leider mit Melodien (124-25).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Starr, Lawrence. "The Early Styles of Charles Ives." 19th-Century Music 7 (Summer 1983): 71-80.

Ives's early works display a remarkable coexistence of pieces in conservative and radical styles. However, his interest in emulating and quoting European composers can be seen not only in the conservative works written for courses at Yale, such as the First Symphony, of which the scherzo is modeled on the corresponding movement from Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, but also in those from before and after his formal study, such as the Slow March from 114 Songs where Ives quotes from Handel's Saul.

Works: Ives: Symphony No. 1 (76), Slow March (79).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. "Zum Thema 'Bruckner und Mahler.'" In Beiträge '79-80. Gustav Mahler Kolloquium 1979: Ein Bericht, ed. Österreichische Gesellschaft für Musik, 76-83. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1981.

Bruckner's influence led twice to a qualitative change in Mahler's career as a composer of symphonies, first in the Second and later in the Ninth Symphony. Stephan discusses correspondences of melody (remarkably similar thematic material), formal concepts (structure of the exposition, false reprise), use of chorale, and dispositions of sound. Stephan even raises the question whether the listener has to keep Bruckner's works in mind in order to understand Mahler adequately.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (Resurrection), Symphony No. 5, Symphony No. 9.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. "Zum Thema 'Musik über Musik.'" In Studia Musicologica: aesthetica, theoretica, historica, ed. Elzbieta Dziebowska, Zofia Helman, Danuto Idaszak, and Adam Neuer, 395-404. Crakow: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzycyne, 1979.

Discusses the methodological change in making "music about music" which was introduced by Stravinsky around 1920. The concept of creating an updated and/or "improved" setting for familiar thematic material is exemplified here by Baroque practice and related to the late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century vogue involving both salon pieces and serious variation sets and fantasies. The musical goal of all such works, that is, the exhibition of artistry through inventive development of recognizable material, finds its inversion in the trend, eventually termed Neo-Classicism, of the twentieth-century. Therein new thematic materials, and even new musical languages, could be introduced by placing them within recognizable, traditional structural frameworks.

Works: Bach: Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis, BWV 579, Organ Pieces on Themes by Corelli, BWV 579, Organ Pieces on Themes by Legrenzi, BWV 574; Brahms: Variations on a Theme by Handel, Variations on a Theme by Haydn; Fortner: Elegies for Piano; Hindemith: Ludus Tonalis, Neues vom Tage; Reger: Prelude and Fugue in G Major for Violin Solo, Op. 117, No. 5, String Trio in A Minor, Op. 77b; Stravinsky: Piano Sonata (1924), Pulcinella.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. Gustav Mahler: II. Symphonie c-moll. Munich: W. Fink, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Stephan, Rudolf. Gustav Mahler: Werk und Interpretation. Cologne: Arno Volk, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Sternberg, Constantin von. "On Plagiarism." The Musical Quarterly 5 (July 1919): 390-97.

This article provides an interesting perspective with regard to the early twentieth-century attitude toward musical borrowings. Sternberg argues that musical borrowings are a legitimate compositional device employed by a number of great composers. The issue of emulation and competition is also addressed. Although Sternberg asserts that "stealing is stealing," musical borrowing is established as a long-standing compositional tradition, and Sternberg remains inconclusive as to whether or not this tradition should be defined as plagiaristic.

Works: Bizet: Carmen (391); Schumann: "The Happy Farmer," from Album for the Young (392); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 3 (392); Wagner: Lohengrin (392); Schubert: Atlas (393); Liszt: Les Préludes (393).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Sternfeld-Friedenau, Richard. "Musikalische Citate und Selbstcitate." Die Musik 2, no.24 (1903): 429-42.

Establishing whether a musical quotation is deliberate or whether it is an unconscious reminiscence is not simple. Quotation may take various forms, including variations, where it is well-disguised. It may be used for many different purposes--to convey emulation, to enhance the plot of a drama, to add textual significance, for symbolic significance, and for popular appeal. Self-quotation may take the form of organic motivic quotation.

Works: Beethoven: Missa Solemnis, Op. 123 (430), Diabelli Variations (431); Peter Cornelius: Beethoven-Lied for mixed choir, Op. 10 (431); Gluck: Orfeo ed Euridice (431); Mozart: Bastien et Bastienne (431); Don Giovanni (431), Die Zauberflöte (431).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Stevenson, Ronald. "Delius's Sources." Tempo, no. 151 (December 1984): 24-27.

The influence of Chopin on Delius is illustrated by the appearance of a particular dominant 13th chord from Chopin's Waltz in E minor in Delius's Sea Drift. Delius's affinity for added-note harmonies may stem from the richly-spaced dominant 9th and added 6th chords of the E major trio of the same waltz. Wagner's leaping, flexible bass line from the Ride of the Valkyries nfluenced Delius's Messe des Lebens.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Stone, William F. "'Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen': The Operatic Connection." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Storjohann, Helmut. "Die formalen Eigenarten in den Symphonien Gustav Mahlers." Ph.D. diss., University of Hamburg, 1952.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Stricker, Remy. "Liszt et l'emprunt." Revue musicale 405-7 (1987): 65-72.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Taruskin, Richard. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through "Mavra." 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

A thorough examination of Stravinsky's early works can show not only his early indebtedness to Russian folklore, folk music, and concert music, but also the degree to which these Russian characteristics influenced his mature works.

When Stravinsky entered the Russian musical scene in 1902 the values and surviving members of the New Russian School were being absorbed into the growing Conservatory establishment (Chapter 1). Stravinsky had strong ties to the old order, especially to the members of the New Russian School within the Belyayev circle. Stravinsky began his relationship with some of these composers when he joined Rimsky-Korsakov's circle in 1902 (his studies with Rimsky-Korsakov would begin in 1905). Works composed in these early years show a strong reliance on models, most notably works by members of the New Russian School who were active in Belyayev's circle. Stravinsky's Piano Sonata in F-sharp minor is both modeled on and quotes from numerous other piano sonatas, some of which were widely known at the time, others of which were written by some of Stravinsky's former teachers and acquaintances. Likewise, his song How the Mushrooms Mobilize for War, written in the style of an opera aria, is modeled on operatic pieces that had been in his father's repertoire as an opera singer (Chapter 2).

Stravinsky's reliance on existing works (both as generic models and for specific quotations) continued as he studied with Rimsky-Korsakov. His Symphony in E-flat Major, Op. 1, is dependent upon symphonic models by Glazunov, Tchaikovsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov (among others). The first work composed entirely under his teacher's guidance, The Faun and the Shepherdess, Op. 2, demonstrates a more pervasive reliance on stylistic or generic models (including non-Russians like Wagner) rather than frequent quotations from specific models (Chapter 3). More general stylistic tendencies in Stravinsky's music can also be traced through longer chains of influence. For example, the use of third relations originated in Schubert and passed through Glinka (or Liszt) to Rimsky-Korsakov to Stravinsky; likewise, more inventive approaches to harmony (such as the prominent use of tritones or octatonicism) as demonstrated by Wagner and Liszt was transferred to Stravinsky via Russians of the previous generations, most notably Rimsky-Korsakov, Musorgsky, Borodin, and Glazunov (Chapter 4).

Stravinsky's next two works, Scherzo fantastique and Fireworks, are both scherzos for orchestra modeled on similar fantastic scherzos written early in the careers of Rimsky-Korsakov, Musorgsky, and Cui; however, they also resemble orchestral works by Debussy and Ravel that Stravinsky knew, at least in terms of orchestration (which, ironically, would have been influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov's style). His early songs use other types of models; Spring (A Song of a Cloister) [Vesná (Monastïrskaya)] is an imitation Russian folk song, while Rosyanka (Khlïstovskaya), on the other hand, explores the possibilities present in the less overtly national model of Russian art songs (Chapter 5). Additionally, these songs also demonstrate the degree to which Stravinsky's friends and fellow Rimsky-Korsakov pupils, especially Maximilian Steinberg and Mikhaíl Gnesin, influenced his developing style (Chapter 6).

After Rimsky-Korsakov's death in 1908, Stravinsky joined Diaghilev and his group, Mir iskusstva, who were associated with a decadent, anti-realist, neonational style (Chapter 7). More specifically, Diaghilev and Mir iskusstva aimed to combine their version of Wagner's Gesamtkunstwerk idea with a return to folk and peasant roots in balletic works for a Parisian audiences (Chapter 8). Stravinsky's music for The Firebird features frequent references to Rimsky-Korsakov's works, both for harmonic and melodic models. Likewise, Stravinsky also drew from older works by other members of the New Russian School as well as folk melodies (Chapter 9).

Stravinsky came into his own with Petrushka. Borrowing again from Russian folklore, Stravinsky delved more deeply into his repertoire of Russian folk songs, including those quoted in works by Rimsky-Korsakov; however, Stravinsky did more to preserve the folk character of these borrowed songs than his teacher, corresponding with an ethnographic trend of collecting and preserving folk songs occurring at that time (Chapter 10). After Petrushka, Stravinsky turned to vocal genres as he experimented with different combinations of cosmopolitan and traditional Russian musical idioms. His Two Poems of Balmont and the cantata Zvezdolikiy are most influenced by Scriabin's modernist musical style, while Schoenberg is the prevailing musical influence on Three Japanese Lyrics (Chapter 11).

The Rite of Spring grew out of Russian artistic and literary trends that sought a return to mankind's collective, pagan roots. As such, The Rite of Spring includes folk songs that are ethnographically correct for the subject matter (ceremonial songs tied to a specific season or time of year). Stravinsky also revisits his now customary technique of borrowing from earlier Russian works, most notably stage works by his teacher, Rimsky-Korsakov. However, both the folk songs and the previously-composed models are more thoroughly transformed and modified than they had been in previous works (Chapter 12). By the time The Rite of Spring premiered in Paris, Stravinsky had severed most of his ties to former friends and colleagues in Russia (Chapter 13). The falling out between Stravinsky and his former supporters in Russia became complete when he joined in Diaghilev's project of "restoring" Musorgsky's original Khovanshchina (Chapter 14).

Stravinsky's style underwent a major change during his "Swiss exile," a change that was primarily effected through the medium of song. Stravinsky wrote many songs during his years in exile, most of which were arranged into collections (such as Pribaoutki, Berceuses du Chat, and Quatre chants russes). These songs relied almost exclusively on Russian peasant sources of occasional songs (such as game songs, lullabies, or sooth-saying songs) rather than sources of folklore or legend. Musically these songs also attempted to depict Russian peasant roots (in a Eurasian or "Turanian" style) through the use of simple melodies, harmonies built on tetrachords, irregular barring, and, most importantly, free text accentuation (Chapter 15). These musical characteristics are further developed in Baika (Renard), in which Stravinsky presents his imagined version of a Turanian style of theater (called skazka). Similarly, L'Histoire du Soldat contains these Turanian musical elements, although they are complicated somewhat by the intrusion of what initially appears to be American jazz idioms (Chapter 16). The Turanian style reached its pinnacle in Stravinsky's next ballet, Svadebka (Les noces). In this highly formalized performance of a Russian peasant wedding, Stravinsky's only models are songs collected by ethnographers and his own previous compositions rather than works by other Russian composers (Chapter 17).

Stravinsky's instrumental works written during his years in exile are not as unified in style as the vocal works, nor do they follow his Turanian trend as overtly or consistently, although demonstrable aspects do remain. Instead, they demonstrate a more cosmopolitan and proto-neoclassical character (Chapter 18). For all that Pulcinella appears to be a thoroughly neoclassical work, it too includes aspects of Stravinsky's Turanian style whenever he departs from his source materials. Thus Stravinsky's next major stylistic shift occurred in Mavra, in which he returned in part to his old practice of borrowing from Russian masters like Tchaikovsky and Glinka. This work represents an attempt to reconnect with Europe and the "old" Russia, but does not entirely abandon Stravinsky's Turanian developments. Instead, Stravinsky quotes and uses as models the aforementioned composers along with Parisian popular tunes (including melodies heard in stylized Russian cabarets and Americanized jazz) while still borrowing from folk sources as well. Thus, Mavra represents an antimodernistic return to diatonic tonality and music for the sake of enjoyment, one that was not well received by his Parisian audiences and which ended his "Russian" stylistic period (Chapter 19). Beginning with the Octuor, Stravinsky would increasingly abandon his previous folkloristic and nationalistic musical qualities in favor of a more "universal" style. However, covert expressions of nationalism would always persist, and his basic stylistic trademarks were formed primarily by his personal development of Russian influences.

Works: Stravinsky: Scherzo for Piano (100-104), The Storm Cloud [Tucha] (104-8), Piano Sonata in F-sharp Minor (113-16, 118-19, 120-37), How the Mushrooms Mobilize for War [Kak gribï na voynu sbiralis'] (138-39, 142-48, 149-62), Symphony in E-flat Major, Op. 1 (172-89, 192-222, 224-33), The Firebird (202-3, 310-12, 459-60, 481-86, 579-617, 620-25, 627-30, 632-33, 635-50), Petrushka (202, 204, 661-64, 670-73, 680-701, 705-13, 715-23, 732-41, 744-70), The Faun and the Shepherdess, Op. 2 (233-54), Scherzo fantastique, Op. 3 (315-16, 318-33, 408-11), Fireworks [Feyerverk], Op. 4 (333-45), Spring (A Song of a Cloister) [Vesná (Monastïrskaya)] (346, 348-56, 382-84), Rosyanka (Khlïstovskaya) (356-64), Pastorale (364-68, 382), Chant funèbre [Pogrebal' naya pesn'] (396, 406), The Nightingale (459, 462-86, 1087-1108, 1202-5), Deux poèmes de Verlaine, Op. 9 (651-52, 654-59), Zvezdolikiy (787, 789, 814-22), Two Poems of Balmont (799-811), Three Japanese Lyrics [Tri stikhotvorenii iz yaponskoy liriki] (822-27, 829-42, 844-45), The Rite of Spring (866-71, 873-88, 890-91, 893-95, 897-900, 904-66), Final Chorus for Khovanshchina on Themes of M. Musorgsky and Authentic Old Believers' (1054-60, 1062-68), Svadebka (Les noces) (1068-69, 1129-30, 1132, 1319-1411, 1417-40), Pribaoutki (1137-38, 1145-49, 1167-72, 1224-29), Kolïbel'nïye (Berceuses du Chat) (1137-39, 1149-50, 1172-72, 1230), Quatre chants russes (1137, 1140, 1150-52, 1160, 1162, 1189-93, 1195-98, 1221-24), Podblyudnïye (Four Russian Peasant Songs) (1136, 1139, 1152-62, 1176, 1178-82, 1211-12, 1215-20), Baika (Renard) (1136, 1139, 1162, 1237-39, 1242-1292, 1594-95), Detskiye pesenki (1137, 1140, 1174-75), Chant des bateliers du Volga (Hymne à la nouvelle Russie) (1184, 1187-88), The Rake's Progress (1233-34), L'Histoire du Soldat (1292-1307, 1310-18, 1483), Ragtime pour onze instruments (1307-1310, 1445, 1456), Three Pieces for String Quartet (1444, 1449, 1452, 1465-73), Valse des Fleurs [Tsvetochnïy val's] (1444, 1447-49), Trois pièces faciles (1444, 1447, 1449, 1451, 1473, 1475), Valse pour les enfants (1444, 1449-51), Cinq pièces faciles (1445, 1449), Étude (1445, 1452, 1455), Three Pieces for Clarinet Solo (1445, 1456, 1483-84), Piano-Rag-Music (1445, 1453, 1475, 1477, 1479-83), Concertino for String Quartet (1446, 1484-85), Symphonies d'instruments à vent (1446, 1451-52, 1459, 1461, 1483, 1486), Pulcinella (1462-65, 1501-5, 1507), Souvenir d'une marche boche (1475-76), Les cinq doigts (1517, 1519), Mavra (1537-39, 1546-73, 1575-85, 1588-1603), Octet (1600-1602, 1606-7), Le baiser de la fée (1610-18), Mass (1618-23), Scherzo à la russe (1632-34), Sonata for Two Pianos (1635-47), Requiem Canticles (1649-52, 1657-74); Maximilian Oseyevich Steinberg: Prélude symphonique, Op. 7 (401-7); Nikolai Nikolayevich Tcherepnin: Narcisse (450, 453-57), Le royaume enchanté [Zacharovannoye tsarstvo], Op. 39 (456-58); Debussy: La boîte à joujoux (771-72), Préludes (771, 773-74), Jeux (773-74), Études for Piano (775), En blanc et noir (775-76).

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Valse-Scherzo, Op. 7 (103), Scherzo humoristique, Op. 19, No. 2 (103), Six Pieces on One Theme, Op. 21 (103), Scherzo à la russe, Op. 1, No. 1 (103), Piano Sonata in C-sharp Minor (103), Piano Sonata in G Major, Op. 37 (115, 117, 125-26), Symphony No. 5 in E Minor (124-25, 211, 216, 219-21), The Enchantress (157, 159-60), Symphony No. 6 in B Minor (Pathétique) (180, 184, 211), Le baiser de la fée (213), Eugene Onegin [Yevgeniy Onegin] (241, 1553-55), The Tempest [Burya] (243, 246), Romeo and Juliet (243, 245), The Nutcracker (629, 632, 720, 722), The Oprichnik (914), The Sleeping Beauty (1615), Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op. 41 (1619, 1620); Glinka: Ruslan und Lyudmila (103, 622, 1331, 1355, 1357. 1458, 1569, 1571), Kamarinskaya (923), A Life for the Tsar (1330, 1355-56, 1535, 1564-67, 1572-73, 1592); Rimsky-Korsakov: The Maid of Pskov [Pskovityanka] (103, 133, 135-36, 606-9), Antar (105, 602), 100 Russian Folk Songs, No. 72 (145, 148), May Night (152, 156), Pan Voyevoda (166-69, 197), Symphony No. 1 (216, 219), Kashchey the Deathless (216, 219, 243-44, 327, 590-91, 739), The Tsar's Bride (241, 243), The Beauty [Krasavitsa], Op.51, No. 4 (242), The Nymph [Ninfa], Op. 56, No. 1 (242), Snow Maiden [Snegurochka] (242, 244, 327, 601, 632, 636-37, 698-99, 707-8, 710, 712, 934-36, 1331), Christmas Eve (242, 311, 314), From Homer, Op. 60 (336-37), Sadko (349, 351, 401, 403, 469-70, 596-98, 602, 622-23, 739, 747, 927, 1217-18, 1331), The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia (359-61, 364, 401, 698-99, 926, 1184, 1331, 1430), Le coq d'or (403, 464-65, 470, 596, 598-99, 601, 622-23, 701, 748, 1104-5), The Nightingale, Captured by the Rose [Plenivshis' rozoy, solovey], Op. 2, No. 2 (468-69), Mlada (614-15, 629-31, 634, 934), Sinfonietta on Russian Themes (627), 100 Russian Folk Songs, No. 79 (628), By the Gate a Pine Tree Was Swaying To and Fro [U vorot sosna raskachalasya] (632), 100 Russian Folk Songs, No. 46 (712), Tsar Saltan (720-21, 914), Overture on Liturgical Themes [Russian Easter Overture], Op. 36 (720-21), Sheherazade (739-45, 747, 751), Ai vo polye lipin'ka (869-70), Nu-ka kumushka, mï pokumimsya (906-9), Na morye utushka kupalasya (912-14), Zvon kolokol v Yevlasheve selye (913); Iosif Wihtol: Piano Sonata, Op. 1 (115); Vasiliy Pavlovich Kalafati: Piano Sonatas, Op. 4 (115); Fyodor Stepanovich Akimenko: Sonates-fantaisies (115); Glazunov: Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor, Op. 74 (115, 119, 125, 127), Piano Sonata in E Minor, Op. 75 (115, 118-19), Symphony No. 6 in C Minor, Op. 58 (175, 178, 187, 194), Symphony No. 8 in E-flat Major, Op. 83 (180, 182, 184, 186, 190-91, 197, 199, 205-6, 209-10, 219), Symphony No. 5 in B-flat Major, Op.55 (202, 204-5, 213, 216-18), Symphony No. 7 in F Major, Op. 77 (202), The Seasons (241-42, 624, 626), Preludiya (Pamyati N. A. Rimskogo-Korsakova) (403), Scènes de Ballet, Op. 52 (624); Scriabin: Piano Sonata No. 3 in F-sharp Minor, Op. 23 (115-16, 129-132), Piano Sonata No. 4 (132, 134), Poème de l'extase (616-19), Piano Sonata No. 5 (617, 622), Prometheus (794-95, 801, 807-9, 811), Piano Sonata No. 7 (808-14, 816-17); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (125), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (1475-76), Twelve Variations on a Russian Dance from Wranitzky's "Das Waldmädchen," WoO71 (1517-18, 1520); Musorgsky: Pride [Spes'] (143-44), Picking Mushrooms [Po gribï] (145-46), Boris Godunov (150-52, 348-49, 476, 740-41, 1218, 1267, 1290, 1438), King Saul (150, 152-53), The Billy Goat [Kozyol] (243, 245), Where Art Thou, Little Star! [Gde tï, zvyozdochka] (349), Khovanshchina (359, 1054-59), The Fair at Sorochintsï (935-36), Marriage (1202-3); Borodin: Prince Igor (145, 150, 157-59, 629, 1290-92), Symphony No. 2 in B Minor (202, 213-16), Arabian Melody (753-54); Balakirev: Collection of Russian Folk Songs, No. 36 (145, 148-49), Symphony No. 1 in C Major (410), Georgian Song [Zhar-ptitsa] (624-25), Volga Boatmen's Song [Ey, ukhnem] (1184-86); Alexander Nikolayevich Serov: Judith (152, 154), The Power of the Fiend (152, 155, 692-95, 697, 701, 706, 1341); Sergey Taneyev: Symphony in C Minor, Op. 12 (186-87, 192, 194-95); Stravinsky: Symphony in E-flat Major, Op. 1 (202, 324-26), Scherzo fantastique, Op. 3 (596, 938), Fireworks, Op. 4 (596, 748-50), Petrushka (771-77, 800-801, 803, 805, 807, 827, 937, 939, 1062, 1065, 1167, 1184, 1406, 1662), Zvezdolikiy (827, 932, 937, 1065, 1100, 1205, 1662), The Firebird (937, 1065, 1338, 1668), The Faun and the Shepherdess (938), The Rite of Spring (1062, 1065, 1093, 1096, 1100, 1270, 1272, 1281-83, 1332, 1386, 1414, 1417, 1451, 1456, 1471), Three Japanese Lyrics (1104), The Nightingale (1171, 1174), Pribaoutki (1280, 1332), Berceuses du Chat (1280), Hymne à la nouvelle Russie (1280), Baika (Renard) (1332, 1347, 1388, 1431), Podblyudnïye (1332), L'Histoire du Soldat (1458), Chant funèbre [Pogrebal' naya pesn'] (1493), Svadebka (Les noces) (1650), The Rake's Progress (1650), Symphonies d'instruments à vent (1650, 1663), Octet (1662); Sibelius: Symphony No. 2 in D Major (216); Ravel: Rapsodie espagnole (310-11, 313, 614-15); Wagner: Die Meistersinger (332); Dukas: L'apprenti sorcier (338-41); Mikhaíl Fabianovich Gnesin: Snowflakes [Snezhinki] (382-84); Maximilian Oseyevich Steinberg: The Gold Star [Zolotaya zvezda] (382-84); Nikolai Nikolayevich Cherepnin: Le royaume enchanté [Zacharovannoye tsarstvo], Op. 39 (459); Debussy: Nuages (472, 474-75), Pelléas et Mélisande (655), La Mer (820); Robert Schumann: Vogel als Prophet (476, 478); Anatoliy Konstantinovich Lyadov: Eight Russian Folk Songs (632, 635); Émile-Alexis-Xavier Spencer: La jambe en Bois (696, 704, 706); E. L. Zverkov: A Wondrous Moon Plays upon the River [Chudnïy mesyats plïvyot nad rekoyu] (696, 704-5); Fyodor Istomin and Sergey Lyapunov: Song for St. John's Eve [Ivanovskaya] (696, 707-9, 867, 1167-68), Pesni russkogo naroda (904-5, 921-22, 926); Schoenberg: Pierrot lunaire (824, 826-28, 830, 834-35); Anton Juszkiewicz: Melodje ludowe litewskie (895-904, 910, 917-18, 935); Izaly Zemtsovsky: Melodika kalendarnïkh pesen (919-23); Levgeniya Linyova: Trudï MEK (921-22, 1059-62, 1068); Vasiliy Pashkevich: St. Petersburg Bazaar [Sankt-peterburgskiy gostinnïy dvor] (924-25, 1330); Pashkevich and Martin y Soler: Fedul and His Children (924-25); Alexander Listopadov: Trudï MEK (1176-78); Dargomïzhsky: The Stone Guest (1202-3, 1570), Rusalka (1568-70, 1573-74); Scott Joplin: The School of Ragtime: Six Exercises for Piano (1307-8); Alexey Titov: Devichnik (or Filatka's Wedding) (1330); Nikolai Uspensky: Obraztsï drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva (1378-82, 1418); D. I. Arakchieyev: Trudï MEK (1414-16); Alexey Verstovsky: Askold's Grave (1434); Satie: Gymnopédies (1451); Domenico Gallo: Trio Sonata No. 1 in G Major (1464), Trio Sonata No. 2 in B-flat Major (1464), Trio Sonata No. 8 in E-flat Major (1464, 1504), Trio Sonata No. 3 in C Minor (1464), Trio Sonata No. 7 in G Minor (1464), Trio Sonata No. 12 in E Major (1465, 1502-3); Pergolesi: Il flaminio (1464), Lo frate 'nnamorato (1464), Adrianna in Siria (1464), Sinfonia for Cello and Basso Continuo (1465); Unico Wilhelm Graf von Wassenaer: Concerti armonici (1464); Alessandro Parisotti: Arie antiche (1464); Carlo Ignazio Monza: Pièces modernes pour le clavecin (1464), Suite No. 3 (1464); Alexis Archangelsky, arr.: Katinka (Bailieff's Chauve-Souris) (1546-47); Daniyil Kashin, arr.: Russkiye narodnïye pesni (1559-60); Alexander Varlamov: White Sail [Beleyet parus odinokiy] (1561-62).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Alexis Witt

[+] Temperley, Nicholas. "Schubert and Beethoven's Eight-Six Chord." 19th-Century Music 5 (Fall 1981): 142-54.

Dozens of works by Schubert from 1816 on echo Beethoven's Seventh Symphony. Many examples are mentioned in the article. Special reference is made to the allusions to the Allegretto of the symphony. Schubert seems to associate the music with death. The main focus of the article is upon the harmonies in the trio and especially upon Schubert's appropriation of the eight-six chord on the dominant which is given such emphasis in the trio. This chord is created as a series of thirds descending over a dominant pedal. Schubert's allusions to this passage are noted and are called "unconscious reminiscences." Schubert's characteristic tendency toward interchangeability of mode is evident in these reminiscences. Schubert adopts what had been a commonplace harmony and invests it with a literary meaning. Traditional analysis is ill-equipped to identify what is significant in Romantic harmony.

Works: Schubert: Wanderers Nachtlied, D. 489 (143), Der Geistentanz, D. 494 (143), Der Tod und das Mädchen, D. 531 (143), Gesang der Geister über den Wasser, D. 538 (143), Thirteen Variations for Piano Solo, D. 576 (144), Schwanengesang, D. 744 (144), Die Liebe hat gelogen, D. 751 (144), Du liebst mich nicht, D. 756 (144), Entr'acte from Rosamunde, D. 797 (144), Wanderer Fantasy, D. 760 (144), Death and the Maiden Quartet, D. 810 (144), Quartet in A Minor, D. 804 (144), Symphony in C Major (144), Piano Sonata in C Minor, D. 958 (145), Die Götter Griechenlands, D, 677 (145), Fantaise-Sonata in G, op. 78 for piano solo, D. 894 (145), Ländler in Ab, D. 790 (149).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Thissen, Paul. Zitattechniken in der Symphonik des 19. Jahrhunderts. Musik und Musikanschauung im 19. Jahrhundert: Studien und Quellen, 5. Köln: Studio, 1998.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Tibbe, Monika. "Musik in Musik: Collagetechnik und Zitierverfahren." Musica 25 (November/December 1971): 562-63.

Unstylized dances, marches, and songs are conspicious in the music of Charles Ives, giving his symphonies an unruly appearance when compared with their European counterparts. Ives uses collage technique to combine such material (normally considered "foreign" to the symphonic domain) with more "acceptable" symphonic material. Mozart's Don Giovanni, Carl Maria von Weber's Concerto in F Minor for Piano and Orchestra, Beethoven's Missa Solemnis, and Mahler's symphonies reveal different methods of incorporating such functional "music in music." In these cases, however, the quoted music is absorbed into the character of the composition in which it finds itself to a greater extent than it is in the music of Ives, where it maintains its identity and is thus an equal partner. In addition, in Ives's music, the quoted material becomes, through collage technique, a "principle of form."

Works: Beethoven: Missa Solemnis; Berg: Wozzeck; Ives: Holidays Symphony; Mahler: Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 4; Mozart: Don Giovanni; Weber: Concerto in F Minor for piano and orchestra.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Tibbe, Monika. Über die Verwendung von Liedern und Liedelementen in instrumentalen Symphoniesätzen Gustav Mahlers. 2d. ed. Munich: Musikverlag Emil Katzbichler, 1977.

Mahler uses material from his own songs, especially those from his song-cycle Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, in his symphonies in three general ways: (1) as the basis of an entire movement, as in the first movement of his Symphony No. 1 (based on "Ging heut' morgen übers Feld") and the Scherzo movement of his Symphonies No. 2 and No. 3; (2) as episodes with a symphonic movement, especially as "Lindenbaum" relates to the third movement of his Symphony No. 1, second movement of his Symphony No. 2, and the third movement of his Symphony No. 5; (3) as the source of melodic elements, taken over in the symphony through emulation, direct quotation, or motivic transformation. The last section of this monograph provides a contiguous chronology of Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen and the Symphony No. 1.

Works: Mahler: Symphonies Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 5.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] Todd, R. Larry. "Me violà perruqué: Mendelssohn's Six Preludes and Fugues Op. 35 Reconsidered." In Mendelssohn Studies, ed. R. Larry Todd, 162-99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

In the process of reconstructing an outline of the evolution of Mendelssohn's Six Preludes and Fugues, Op. 35, from independent fugues to a cyclic collection of preludes and fugues, the issues of "influence" and "genre" surfaced. The influences of J. S. Bach (especially his Well-Tempered Clavier), Beethoven, and the nineteenth-century virtuosic pianism of Thalberg are apparent. The changing title for Op. 35 from "Etudes and Fugues" to "Preludes and Fugues" further illustrates both the influence of Bach and the nineteenth-century virtuoso in Mendelssohn's compositional process. Moreover, a close study of the E Minor fugue from Op. 35 No. 1 reveals the programmatic implication of "struggle": an extramusical meaning often applied to "fugues" in the nineteenth century.

Works: Mendelssohn: Fugue in D Major, Op. 35, No. 2 (172), Fugue in A-flat Major, Op. 35, No. 4 (173).

Sources: J. S. Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (172); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in A-flat Major, Op. 110 (173).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Todd, R. Larry. “On Quotation in Schumann’s Music.” In Schumann and His World, ed. R. Larry Todd, 80-112. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Scholars and critics have long recognized that Robert Schumann’s music contains a multitude of quotations, allusions, and extramusical ideas. Although some of these borrowings are clearly heard, others are only apparent, and still others are conjectural and may not exist at all. Additionally, even when instances of borrowing or allusion can be proven, there is often much uncertainty over what these borrowings mean and how they function within each piece.

However, a loose typology, consisting of three categories, can help to illuminate the types of materials Schumann borrowed, and what these borrowings signify in their new contexts. First, Schumann’s historical interests led him to allude to composers of the past, especially Bach and Beethoven. Second, Schumann referenced contemporary composers as a means of praising or critiquing them, and thus promoting high musical standards while criticizing “shallow” composers. Finally, Schumann alluded to his own music, critically reinterpreting previous material in new and unexpected ways.

Works: Robert Schumann: Faschingsschwank aus Wien, Op. 26 (81); Brahms: Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann, Op. 9 (82-84); Robert Schumann: Carnaval: Scènes Mignonnes sur Quatre Notes, Op. 9 (84-86), Papillons, Op. 2 (84-86), Album für die Jugend, Op. 68 (86-87), Impromptus, Op. 5 (86-87), Intermezzos, Op. 4 (87-89), Kreisleriana, Op. 16 (88-91, 104-5), Fantasie in C, Op. 17 (92-95), Konzert-Allegro mit Introduktion, Op. 134 (96-97), Kerner Gedichte, Op. 35 (97-98), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 97 (98-99), Noveletten, Op. 21 (101-2), Symphony No. 4 in D Minor, Op. 120 (102-3), Klavierstücke, Op. 32 (104-5), Andante and Variations, Op. 46 (105-8).

Sources: Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (81); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in E-flat Major, Op. 31, No. 3 (81); Robert Schumann: Carnaval: Scènes Mignonnes sur Quatre Notes, Op. 9 (82-83); Anonymous: Groβvater-Tanz (84-91); Beethoven: An die ferne Geliebte, Op. 98 (92-94); Schubert: Fantasie in C Major, D.760 (94), An die Musik, D.547 (94); Carl Maria von Weber: Konzert-Allegro mit Introduktion, Op. 134 (96-97); Clara Schumann: Notturno, Op. 6, No. 2 (101-2); Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda: Symphony No. 1, Op. 7 (102-3); Robert Schumann: Kreisleriana, Op. 16 (104-5), Frauenliebe und -leben, Op. 42 (106-8).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Tomaszewski, Mieczyslaw, and Joanna Zurowska. "Presence de Chopin chez les musiciens contemporains et posterieurs." In La Fortune de Frédéric Chopin, vol. 2, 23-40. Warsaw: Uniwersytet Warszawski, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Town, Stephen. "Mendelssohn's 'Lobgesang': A Fusion of Forms and Textures." The Choral Journal 33, no. 4 (November 1992): 19-26.

Mendelssohn's Symphony No. 2 "Lobgesang" is a ceremonial work composed for the 400th anniversary celebration of Gutenberg's invention of moveable type. It is a mixture of vocal and instrumental music, a fusion of different forms and textures of cantata, oratorio, opera and symphony. In the past, it suffered unjust criticism as a result of incorrect comparison to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. A general resemblance to Beethoven's Ninth, as well as the nineteenth-century anxiety toward the work, points to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony as Mendelssohn's paradigm. But the real models for Mendelssohn are the cantatas and passions of Bach, and the anthems and oratorios of Handel. The "Lobgesang" consists of two parts: the instrumental part, labeled as "Sinfonia," succeeded by a cantata. The cantata contains a diversity of styles. A closer examination of the aria "Stricke des Todes hatten uns umfangen" from No. 6, the so-called "Watchman scene," shows how Mendelssohn uses sonata principle to serve as an essential part of the drama and in total compliance to the text. In the chorus "Die Nacht ist vergangen" from the same number, Mendelssohn uses a mixture of homophonic and fugal writing; the climax is reached through repetition, elaboration, and variation of thematic materials, producing a coherent form.

Works: Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 2, Op. 52, Lobgesang.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng

[+] Trippett, David. "Après une lecture de Liszt: Virtuosity and Werktreue in the 'Dante' Sonata." Nineteenth-Century Music 32 (Summer 2008): 52-93.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Tse, Benita Wan-kuen. "Piano Variations Inspired by Paganini's Twenty-Fourth Caprice." DMA diss., University of Cincinnati, 1992.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Turchin, Barbara. "Robert Schumann's Song Cycles: The Cycle within the Song." 19th-Century Music 8 (Spring 1985): 231-44.

Schumann achieves coherence in song cycles by relating the songs musically as well as poetically. Musical means of providing unity in three cycles, Liederkreis, Op. 39, Frauenliebe und -Leben, Op. 42, and Dichterliebe, Op. 48, includes relating the songs tonally and motivically. Quotation of part of an earlier song in the closing piano postlude is heard in Frauenliebe und -Leben (song 1) and Dichterliebe (song 12). There is melodic quotation between songs in Liederkreis.

Works: Schumann: Liederkreis, Op. 39, Frauenliebe und -Leben, Op. 42, Dichterliebe, Op. 48.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Cathleen Cameron

[+] Uhde, Jürgen. Beethovens Klaviermusik. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1974.

[See Vol. III, pp. 34-43.]

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Van Houten, Theo. "Ave Maria, vaarwel Isolde, vaarwel Louise--Anton Bruckner en de Lifdesdood." Mens en Melodie 31 (October 1976): 300-1.

Bruckner may have had in mind a motive in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde for part of his melody in his song Ave Maria. This article includes musical examples and some historical background.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Van Houten, Theodore. "'You of All People': Elgar's Enigma." The Music Review 37 (1976): 130-42.

A complex of musical and textual riddles, as well as biographical evidence, points to Thomas Arne's Rule, Britannia! as the hidden theme of Elgar's Enigma Variations, and thus to Britannia as the "enigma" figure. Alexander Pope's To a Lady may have served as a model for Elgar in its general conception, and specific passages from Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot correspond with individual variations.

Works: Elgar: Enigma Variations (130-42).

Sources: Thomas Arne: Rule, Britannia! from Alfred (130, 132-33, 135, 139-40); Mendelssohn: Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt (132).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Varela, Xoán Elías Castiñeira. "Interpreting Text and Texture in Schubert-Liszt's Der Wanderer." The Liszt Society Journal 33 (2008): 47-70.

Liszt's transcription of Schubert's Der Wanderer shows how the features Liszt introduces that change Schubert's song help to convey a preexisting narrative in an instrumental language, reflecting his awareness of Schubert's interpretation of the text. Each feature Liszt deployed to elaborate the model has a correspondence with a narrative device. For instance, before the narrator's recitative from the model he adds a measure that prolongs the dominant with an extended arpeggio, then he inserts a "rhetorical pause"; both of these devices increase the rhetorical tension until the declamatory passage begins and thus create more contrast than the model. As another example, Liszt explores keyboard registers to create an echo-like imitation for the line "wo bist du?," lending a sense of "interrogation." Liszt's distinctive features transformed Schubert's song; at the same time, they contribute to transcription in the way the composer transfers the literary spirit of the original song to the piano.

Works: Liszt: Der Wanderer (56-65).

Sources: Schubert: Der Wanderer (56-63).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "The Folk Song Movement." In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 234-36. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

The use of folk song by Russian and other nationalist composers is nothing new. The music of the Austro-German tradition is just as similar to Teutonic folk song as that of other traditions is to their folk origins, but because of its dominance of the classical music scene, does not sound folklike to the general audience.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vaughan Williams, Ralph. "What is Music?" In National Music and Other Essays, ed. Michael Kennedy, 206-14. 2nd ed. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Music has undergone a complex evolution beginning with the inflection patterns of speech. Teschner's chorale Valet will ich is apparently based on the English dance tune Sellinger's Round, and Edmund Gurney rhythmically distorts Ein feste Burg into a jig tune in his The Power of Sound.

Works: Edmund Gurney: The Power of Sound (209); Teschner: Valet will ich (209).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Vill, Suzanne. Vermittlungsformen verbalisierter und musikalischer Inhalte in der Musik Gustav Mahlers. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1979.

Vill's book, originally a Ph.D. dissertation (Frankfurt am Main, 1974), emphasizes the texts of songs and their changes as compared to the original. In a second part the author gives programmatic interpretations of the first four symphonies, in which quotations from folk songs and from Mahler's own songs are of major importance, even if the texts are not quoted with the tunes. The meaning given to these tunes by the original words and various statements by Mahler together with formal procedures--including transformation of the quoted material--allow two kinds of conclusions: either they lead to a concrete interpretation or reflect some of the musical ambiguity.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 4.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Vinay, Gianfranco. "Charles Ives e i musicisti europei: anticipazioni e dipendenze." Nuova Revista Musicale Italiana 7 (July-December 1973): 417-29.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Voss, Egon. "Bruckners Sinfonien in ihrer Beziehung zur Messe." Schallplatte und Kirche 5 (1969): 103-9.

Understanding Bruckner's directional markings, such as feierlich and misterioso, is the key to interpreting Bruckner's music. It is these markings that form the main connection between his Masses and his symphonies, not quotation.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Voss, Egon. "Wagner-Zitate in Bruckners Dritte Sinfonie?: Ein Beitrag zum Begriff des Zitats in der Musik." Die Musikforschung 49 (October-December 1996): 483-506.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Walker, Alan. "Liszt and the Schubert Song Transcriptions." The Musical Quarterly 67 (January 1981): 50-63.

Liszt's transcriptions of Schubert?s songs served three purposes: promotion of Schubert, solution of technical problems of transcription, and expansion of the repertory. First, Liszt's admiration for Schubert and promotion of the master's works began in his youth, as illustrated in his transcribing of Schubert's Wanderer Fantasy for piano and orchestra, his conducting of Schubert's operas in Weimar, and his editing of Schubert?s piano works. Second, they expanded pianistic technique and sonority that solved the technical problems related to transcription in an unprecedented way. Liszt telescoped the vocal line of the songs and accompaniment into a self-contained piano piece, as demonstrated in his reduction of the first line of Schubert's Erlkönig. Third, they broadened Liszt's own repertory. His virtuosic keyboard writing, intended to dazzle the audience, helped widen his repertory, as shown in his transcription of Schubert's Ave Maria. The significance of Liszt's transcriptions lies in his attempts to preserve the master's works on the piano.

Works: Liszt: Transcription of Auf dem Wasser (54-55), Transcription of Erlkönig (55-57), Transcription of Ave Maria (58-59), Transcription of Gretchen am Spinnrade (60-61), Transcription of Ständchen (61).

Sources: Schubert: Erlkönig (55-56), Gretchen am Spinnrade (60-61).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Walker, Alan. "Schumann, Liszt and the C Major Fantasie, Op. 17: A Declining Relationship." Music and Letters 60 (April 1979): 156-65.

The manuscript discovery of Schumann's revised C Major Fantasy sheds some light on the composer's reasons for revisions. The score, which was originally conceived as a tribute to Beethoven and which thus includes quotations from An die ferne Geliebte in both the first and last movements, in its new version received a dedication to Franz Liszt. Furthermore, Schumann crossed out the titles "Ruinen," "Siegesbogen," and "Sternbild" and deleted the above-mentioned Beethoven quotation that rounded off the final movement, replacing it with an arpeggio ending. Walker suggests that the Liszt dedication was Schumann's reaction to a favorable article Liszt wrote on Schumann's keyboard music in La revue et gazette musicale but also to Liszt's dedication of his newly composed Paganini Studies to Clara. Since Liszt was the driving force behind the plan to erect a statue in the honor of Beethoven, Schumann must have felt that his Fantasy would be the appropriate piece to show his gratitude.

Works: Schumann: Fantasy in C Major, Op. 17.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Wallach, Laurence. "The New England Education of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Walton, Mathew. “Issues of Narrativity in the Romantic Piano Opera Paraphrase.” M.A. thesis, University of Ottawa, 2012.

Romantic piano works based on operatic paraphrase have largely been ignored by scholars and performers because of a current emphasis on composer originality. Because composers chose to paraphrase only a few themes of an opera rather attempt a summary of all themes in an opera, comparison of different settings and analysis of the themes chosen reveal narratives unique to each composer’s setting. Comparison of seven different paraphrased settings of Mozart’s Don Giovanni demonstrates that different narratives and meanings result from selecting different themes and from arranging them in particular orders. William Vincent Wallace’s Souvenir de Mozart: Fantasie de Salon sur l’opera Il Don Giovanni, is little more than a piano reduction of selected themes, which are presented in the same order as they appear in the opera, with the exception of “Il mio Tesoro intanto” and “Finch’ han dal vino,” which are reversed. This reversal is likely due to Wallace’s desire to end his work with a more exhilarating number. Sydney Smith’s Grand Fantasy uses five distinct themes from Don Giovanni, but only one of these themes involves a female character, a decision that may reflect the Victorian atmosphere in which Smith performed and composed. Although Smith’s setting retains the original narrative by using the themes mostly in their original order, the setting of themes, manners of modulation between sections, elimination of female (Zerlina’s) vocal lines, and arrangement of arias all reinforce Victorian ideals. Joachim Raff divides his Reminiscenzen aus “Don Juan” into three sections in an act of deliberate re-organization of thematic material that highlights literary themes and interactions between pairs of characters. Raff’s choice of themes highlights social struggles in society and wanton desires, while offering commentary on the social themes of Don Giovanni. Ignace Leybach’s Fantasie Brillante is less clear in its organization, as a lengthy introduction features its own potpourri of themes and motives drawn from throughout the opera in addition to original material by Leybach that is similar in style to nocturnes by Field and Chopin. Most notable of Leybach’s piece is his decision to transpose many of the selections, his inclusion of “Batti Batti, o bel Masetto,” and the omission of both “Finch’ han dal vino” and the Commendatore’s “Di rider finirai”; these details suggest that Leybach eschewed virtuosity in favor of a more restrained aesthetic and romantic narrative. The versions by Thalberg and Ignacy Feliks Dobrzynski, both of which are constructed as sets of variations, are notable for their virtuosity but offer little insight into Mozart’s narrative. Unlike the two variation-based paraphrases, the most famous of the Don Giovanni paraphrases, Liszt’s Réminiscences de Don Juan, offers great insight into Mozart’s opera. Through both his selection and setting of arias, Liszt depicts the progression of lust over love and Don Giovanni’s defiance, ultimately presenting him as a misguided hero rather than a chauvinistic fool.

Works: William Vincent Wallace: Souvenir de Mozart: Fantasie de Salon sur l’opera Il Don Giovanni (22-25); Sydney Smith: Grand Fantasy (25-37); Joachim Raff: Reminiscenzen aus “Don Juan” (37-49); Ignace Leybach: Fantasie Brillante (49-65); Thalberg: Fantaisie sur la Sérénade et le Menuet de l’Opera: Don Juan de Mozart (65-76); Ignacy Feliks Dobrzynski: Hommage à Mozart (76-78); Liszt: Réminiscences de Don Juan, S. 418 (78-131).

Sources: Mozart: Don Giovanni.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Wanninger, Forrest Irving. "Dies Irae: Its Use in Non-Liturgical Music from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century." Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1962.

The Dies Irae, a rhymed sequence, was probably written by Thomas of Celano in the thirteenth century. Accepted as part of the Requiem Mass early in the fourteenth century, it was significant in early polyphonic settings of the Requiem. The words continued to be important in later Requiem settings, but the melody found its way into secular music from the beginning of the nineteenth century and with universal appeal, attained a character far removed from its original place in the church service. Background information on each composer and discussions of his usage of the Dies Irae are provided for the following works:

Works: Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique; Liszt: Totentanz; Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre; Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death; Rachmaninoff: [??]; Honegger: La Danse des Morts, Chausson: Printemps triste; Strauss: Till Eulenspiegel; Respighi: Impressioni brasiliane; Vaughan Williams: Tudor Portraits, Schelling: A Victory Ball; Miaskovsky: Symphony No. 6; Tchaikovsky: Orchestral Suite No. 3; Mahler: Symphony No. 2.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Ward, Charles. "Charles Ives: The Relationship Between Aesthetic Theories and Compositional Processes." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Ward, Charles. "The Use of Hymn Tunes as an Expression of 'Substance' and 'Manner' in the Music of Charles E. Ives. 1874-1954." M.M. thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Wason, Robert W. "Two Bach Preludes/Two Chopin Etudes, or Toujours travailler Bach--ce sera votre meilleur moyer de progresser." Music Theory Spectrum 24 (Spring 2002): 103-20.

The imprint of J. S. Bach has long been widely recognized in Chopin's music, especially in his Etudes and Preludes. A close structural study and comparison of Chopin's Etudes Op. 10, No. 1 in C major and Op. 25, No. 12 in C minor with Bach's preludes in the same keys from Book I of The Well-Tempered Clavier demonstrate a profound level of resemblances in their long-range harmonic structure. Such structure has its foundation in "règle de l'octave": a Baroque pedagogical device in the form of a descending octave bass progression for composing improvisational preludes. The two etudes discussed not only reveal Chopin's deep knowledge of and interest in Bach's music, but also illuminate an underlying continuous compositional practice from Baroque to early nineteenth century.

Works: Chopin: Etude, Op. 10, No. 1 (103-4, 108-14, 117-19), Etude, Op. 25, No. 12 (113-19).

Sources: J. S. Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Prelude in C Major (103-6, 113, 117-19), Prelude in C Minor (106-8, 113-19).

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Watanabe, Hiroshi. "Dentì-juyì-kìi to shite no sakkyoku--Gustav Mahler ni okeru 'Inyì' no kìsatsu [Composition as the repository of tradition--some reflections on quotation in Gustav Mahler's symphonies]." Bigaku 32 (March 1982): 52-66.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Watson, Derek. Bruckner. The Master Musicians, ed. Sir Jack Westrup. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1955.

In a biography of Bruckner, Watson considers borrowing in the section on his music, particulary in his symphonies, from page 84. This section deals with the quotations and their sources along with a discussion of each symphony, but does not deal with the "why" to any extent. Watson has found quotations that other biographers have not, but does not draw any significance from the findings.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Watson, J. Arthur. "Beethoven's Debt to Mozart." Music and Letters 18 (July 1937): 248-58.

Beethoven paid tribute to Mozart through imitation and borrowing, yet demonstrated his own genius in accepting the influence while assessing his own personality. The article focuses primarily on chamber works, and treats probable influences, direct influences, and "deliberate imitations or unconscious reminiscences" of Mozart's muse.

Works: Beethoven: Leonore Overture No. 3 (249), String Trio, Op. 3 (250), String Quartet, Op. 18, No. 1 (251, 253), String Quintet, Op. 29 (251, 255), Duo for Clarinet and Bassoon (1792) (253), Duet for Augengläser (253-54), String Trio, Op. 9 (253), Serenade for Flute, Violin, and Viola, Op. 25 (253), Quintet for Piano, Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon, and French Horn, Op. 16 (253), Oboe Trio (254-55), String Quartet, Op. 18, No. 4 (254-55), String Trio in C Minor (256), String Quartet, Op. 18, No. 6 (256), String Quartet, Op. 56, No. 1 (256-57), String Quartet, Op. 131 (256-57); Mozart: Quartet in E-flat Major, String Quintet, K. 515 (254).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz, J. Peter Burkholder

[+] Weber, Édith. "Le Cantus Firmus 'Ein Feste Burg': Une aventure littéraire et musicale." In Itinéraires du Cantus Firmus, vol. 2, De l'Orient à l'Occident, 117-36. Sorbonne: Presses de l'Université de Paris, 1995.

Ein feste Burg has had many adaptations. The tune came to symbolize the fighting march of the Protestants in the manner of a national anthem, such as La Marseillaise, in its popularity and rousing characteristics. Indeed, Ein feste Burg is associated with the beginning of the Reformation. The repetitive structure of the tune, its simplicity, and its declamation attracted several composers. Though questions arise about the exact date of the piece, as well as Luther's organization of the text, the historical significance of the piece emerges over the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as several composers adapt it in cantus firmus settings. Johann Walter collaborated with Luther to create a two-voice setting of the tune. Johann Kugelmann set the tune with three voices and, like Walter, placed the cantus firmus in the tenor. Martin Agricola also kept the melody in the tenor but added a fourth voice, increasing the imitative possibilities. Other settings in the sixteenth century adapt the four-voice setting and the imitative characteristics, although Lukas Osiander, Rogier Michael, and Sethus Calvisius all place the cantus firmus in the superius. Seventeenth-century settings exhibit more ornamentation, particularly by means of chromaticism, in the treatment of the cantus firmus, evinced by composers such as Bartholomaeus Gesius, David Scheidemann, and Hans Leo Hassler, who sought to increase the expression of the tune. Subsequent adaptations, such as Meyerbeer's spiritual associations in Les Huguenots and Debussy's appropriation of the chorale to represent German aggression in En blanc et noir, resemble emblematic quotations, showing the distance the tune traveled from its original Lutheran functions.

Works: Johann Walter: Ein feste Burg (127-28); Johann Kugelmann: Ein feste Burg (128-29); Martin Agricola ou Sore: Ein feste Burg (129-30); Sigmund Hemmel: Der ganze Psalter Davids (130); Lukas Osiander: Ein feste Burg (131); Rogier Michael: Ein feste Burg (131); Sethus Calvisius: Ein feste Burg (131-32); Bartholomaeus Gesius ou Gese: Ein feste Burg (132); David Scheidemann: Ein feste Burg (132); Melchior Vulpius: Ein feste Burg (133); Hassler: Kirchengesänge, Psalmen und Geistliche Lider (133); Praetorius: Musae Sioniae (134); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (135); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (135); Debussy: Suite pour deux pianos: En blanc et noir (135); Langlais: Suite oecuménique (135).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (117-26).

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Webster, James. "Schubert's Sonata Form and Brahms's First Maturity." 19th-Century Music 2 (July 1978): 18-35; and 3 (July 1979): 52-71.

Brahms's "first maturity" consists of the period up to 1865. Influence of Schubert is evident in Brahms's sonata form, particularly in the juxtaposition of major and minor tonalities, closed forms with lyrical melodies, double second themes, structural use of remote keys, and the transformation of these elements in the recapitulation. Webster is able to relate at least one or two works by Schubert to each early work of Brahms mentioned in this article. Some of the comparisons are general and can be interpreted as stylistic tendencies of the time, rather than specific characteristics of Schubert, but some direct quotations are used and discussed as well.

Works: Beethoven: Sonata Appasionata (58, 68), Symphony No. 2; Brahms: Piano Sonata No. 3, Op. 5 (68), Piano Quintet in F Minor, Op. 34 (52, 53, 65-69), String Sextet in B-flat Major, Op. 18 (52), Piano Quartet in G Minor, Op. 25 (52, 62-65), Piano Concerto in D Minor, Op. 15 (53), Piano Sonata, Op. 1 (58), Trio in B Major, Op. 8 (58, 59), Serenade in D Major, Op. 11 (54, 59-60), Serenade in A Major, Op. 16 (54, 59-60), Sextet in B-flat Major, Op. 18 (61), Piano Quartet in A Major, Op. 26 (62), Sextet in G Major (68-70), Cello Sonata in E Minor (68-69), Horn Trio (68), Symphony No. 3 (70), Tragic Overture (70), Symphony No. 2 (70), Academic Festival Overture (70), Cello Sonata in F Major, Op. 99 (70), Clarinet Trio (70), Clarinet Sonata in F Major, Op. 120, No. 1 (70); Schubert: Wanderer Fantasy (58), Am Meer (58), Die Stadt.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Whaples, Miriam K. "Mahler and Schubert's A Minor Sonata D. 784." Music and Letters 65 (July 1984): 255-63.

Several allusions to pre-existent works which appear in Mahler's music are noted: a tune by Thomas Koschat in the Fifth Symphony, Beethoven's Violin Sonata Op. 96 in "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt" from the Second Symphony, Schubert's Piano Trio in E-flat Major, D. 929 in Mahler's Third Symphony, the Piano Sonata in G Major, D. 894 in "Lob des hohen Verstanden" from the Wunderhorn Lieder, the D Major Piano Sonata, D. 850 in the finale of the Fourth, and the E-flat Major Piano Sonata, D. 568 in the first movement of the same symphony. A whole group of quotations is drawn from Schubert's Piano Sonata in A Minor, D.784. The allusions to this work are most prevalent in the First and Seventh symphonies. Mahler was well acquainted with this sonata as a performer so that the allusions to it are of biographical (read autobiographical) significance. Mahler's involvement with the Schubert sonata, both as performer and composer, spans some thirty years; the references to it in his own music are identified as largely unconscious. Various other allusions by Mahler both to others and to himself are noted.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3 (256), "Lob des hohen Verstanden," from Wünderhorn Lieder (256), Symphony No. 4 (256), Symphony No. 7 (259), Symphony No. 1 (260), "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt," from Symphony No. 2 (262), Symphony No. 5 (263).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Whitesell, Lloyd. "Men with a Past: Music and the 'Anxiety of Influence.'" 19th-Century Music 18 (Fall 1994): 152-67.

Harold Bloom's theory of "anxiety of influence" sees an Oedipal struggle between the poet and his forebears, in which the poet is forced to misread his predecessors, assert priority over them, and clear creative space for himself. Some musicians, including Benjamin Britten and Robert Schumann, have cited the past as a supportive rather than threatening presence. Rather than a metaphor of male aggression, these composers and others like them see artistic creation as a form of "gift," using a metaphor suggested by Lewis Hyde. In this view the individual becomes "vulnerable" and thus feminized under Bloom's model. In Bloom's mythology, the artist is confronted with two obstacles, sexual anxiety (the Sphinx) and creative anxiety (the Cherub). Because Bloom's model has eliminated the female element of the classical Freudian interpretation of the Oedipal triangle, the model that emerges is one in which homosexual desire becomes a strong element. Social homophobia represents a reaction against traditional structures of gender and power; thus, the homoerotic impulse must be channeled into more acceptable avenues of rivalry and violence. At the end of the nineteenth century, changes in the Victorian definition of "femininity" forced men to "remythologize their claims to authority." It is not a coincidence that Bloom formulated his theory in the 1970s, when feminist, gay, and lesbian voices were challenging the cultural definition of masculinity. Bloom's model remains in "mythical space" by failing to take into account other arenas of cultural conflict, such as nationalism, artistic attitude, and personal psychology. In the final analysis, Bloom's theory perpetuates old ideologies and prevents a thorough consideration of the work of art.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Wierzbicki, James. "Sampling and Quotation." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 28 April, 1991. Available from http://pages.sbcglobal.net/jameswierzbicki/borrowing.htm. (Accessed 8 October 2002)

Sampling and quotation in popular music resembles borrowing in Western art music. DJ sampling not only "recycles" music, it also uses specific performances from recordings. This commonly brings in characteristics of timbre and the performer's interpretation from the sampled music that is not found in other forms of musical borrowing. Because of these added factors in sampling, one finds a kind of iconography that the DJs bring into their music that is noticed by the listeners. The idea of extra-musical meaning, albeit through iconography in DJ sampling, is not new. Composers of Western art music have commonly inserted previously composed music into their own compositions for extramusical meanings. These meanings within the borrowing do not hinder the composer's, nor the DJ's, originality in any way.

Works: Berg: Violin Concerto; Wuorinen: Machaut mon chou; Respighi: The Birds; Schubert: String Quartet No. 14 in D Minor; Mahler: Symphony No. 1; Ives: Three Places in New England; Ravel: Bolero; Copland: Symphony No. 3; Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition.

Sources: Brown: Funky Drummer; J.S. Bach: O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort BWV 60; Schubert: Death and the Maiden; Mahler: Songs of a Wayfarer; Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man; Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Wilheim, András. "Erik Satie's Gregorian Paraphrases." Studia Musicologica 25 (1983): 229-37.

Satie does not borrow actual Gregorian tunes although there may be some direct quotations in the form of certain melodic steps and turns. He imitated ("paraphrased"), however, the style of the Gregorian tunes as they were arranged by Louis Niedermeyer, i.e., providing each note with a new harmony and preserving the (modal) cadential turns. What he heard from the Benedictines of Solesmes did not influence him at all.

Works: Satie: Ogives (232-35), Four Preludes (233-35), Sonneries de la Rose + Croix (233-35), Messe des pauvres (234-36), Danses gothiques (235).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Wilkes, William Leroy Jr. "Borrowed Music in Mormon Hymnals." Ph.D. diss., University of Southern California, 1957.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Wiora, Walter. "Das produktive Umsingen deutscher Kirchenliedweisen in der Vielfalt europäischer Stile." Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie 2 (1956): 47-63.

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Wiora, Walter. "Über den religiösen Gehalt in Bruckners Symphonien." In Religiöse Musik in nicht-liturgischen Werken von Beethoven bis Reger, ed. Walter Wiora, 157-84. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1978.

Although Bruckner's piety has been put forth as reason for his use of liturgical music in non-liturgical works, most explanations are too facile. Bruckner's borrowings in his symphonies must be understood in light of his attitude toward other composers, the style of his music in comparison with church music, and his style compared with the beliefs, arts, and institutions of his day. His relationship with Wagner, his foundation in church music, and his fundamentally Romantic harmonic conception are factors, apart from his beliefs, which contributed to his borrowings.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Wolff, Christoph. "Schubert's 'Der Tod und das Mädchen': Analytical and Explanatory Notes on the Song D. 531 and the Quartet D. 810." In Schubert Studies, ed. Eva Badura-Skoda and Peter Branscombe, 143-172. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Schubert's song "Der Tod und das Mädchen" takes the form of a dialogue in which Death is represented by a slow chordal sequence and the maiden by recitative-style writing. This is probably modeled on very similar procedures in Gluck's Alceste and the cemetery scene from Mozart's Don Giovanni. In addition to a musical reworking in a setting of a similar poem ("Der Jüngling und der Tod," D. 545) composed shortly thereafter, the song also reappears in the String Quartet in D Minor, D. 810. Although the most obvious instance of this is the expanded version of the song's chordal sequence that serves as the theme for the slow movement's variation set, material from the entire song can be seen to be present in the remaining three movements as well, thus imparting a cyclical nature to the work as a whole.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Wolff, Hellmuth Christian. "Mendelssohn and Handel." Translated by Ernest Sanders and Luise Eitel. The Musical Quarterly 45 (April 1959): 175-90.

Though Bach's influence on Mendelssohn has been accepted and documented, the pervasive influence of Handel deserves greater attention. Mendelssohn quoted Handel directly; for example, he took the subject of Handel's overture Semele for his E Minor fugue for piano. He also used Handel's choruses, with their vocally grateful melodies and transparent polyphony, as models for his own works. The intimate connection between the two composers is demonstrated by Mendelssohn's efforts to perform, edit, and publish the music of Handel.

Works: Mendelssohn: Fugue in E Minor for Piano, Op. 35, No. 1 (175), St. Paul (175).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Woodard, Susan Jeanne. "The Dies Irae as used by Sergei Rachmaninoff: Some Sources, Antecedents, and Applications." D.M.A. diss., Ohio State University, 1984.

Rachmaninoff's frequent usage of the liturgical chant Dies Irae can be categorized as single appearances, textual devices, and transformations. Rachmaninoff was influenced by Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique, Liszt's Totentanz, and Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death, works containing the Dies Irae which he had performed as pianist and conductor. The origins and early development of the chant and settings of the text alone are also traced, noting the important transition of its context from sacred to secular and its literary history. The following works are discussed in detail:

Works: Rachmaninoff: The Isle of the Dead, The Bells, Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Piano Sonatas No. 1, Piano Sonatas No. 2, Suite No. 2 for Two Pianos, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, and several short piano pieces.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Yang, Ching-Lan. “An Analytical Study of the Piano Concerto in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 45, by Amy Beach.” PhD diss., University of Northern Colorado, 1999.

America’s first important woman composer, Amy Beach, composed one of the first American piano concertos, Piano Concerto in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 45 (1899). In this work, Beach borrows themes from three of her own vocal works. Jeune fille et jeune fleur, Op. 1, No. 3, is used as the secondary theme of the first movement. The main theme of the second movement originates from Empress of Night, Op. 2, No. 3. Twilight, Op. 2, No. 1, is used as the main inspiration of the third movement of the piano concerto, which is through-composed, as well as the third theme in the fourth movement. Beach incorporates these melodies into several standardized forms found in the piano concerto, including sonata-allegro and rondo forms, while including the harmonic rhetoric characteristic of the turn of the twentieth century. In addition, Beach develops the work by transforming four motives derived from the opening of the piano concerto, which are subsequently found in every movement. Characteristics of the motives also can be combined, creating new distinctive transformations.

Works: Amy Beach: Piano Concerto in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 45.

Sources: Amy Beach: Jeune fille et jeune fleur, Op. 1, No. 3 (46-48), Empress of Night, Op. 2, No. 3 (54-59), Twilight, Op. 2, No. 1 (62-65, 73-74, 107-8, 111).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux

[+] Yasser, Joseph. "Dies Irae: The Famous Medieval Chant." Musical Courier (6 October 1927): 6, 39.

One main reason for the Dies Irae sequence's acquired fame as a leitmotif of death is its "catchy" and easily recognizable melody. Brief discussions of works using the chant note the setting and models. The polyphonic treatment illustrated by Asola and Pitoni's Requiems is traced in Liszt's Totentanz. The dance-like rhythmic treatment in Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique is applied by Saint-Saëns in his Danse Macabre. Tchaikovsky, the first Russian composer to use the Dies Irae, uses a contrapuntal device, applied before in Totentanz and later in Rachmaninoff's Toteninsel. Other works mentioned are Glazunov's Moyen Age, Miaskovsky's Sixth Symphony, Schelling's Impressions from an Artist's Life, Loeffler's Ode for One Who Fell in Battle, and Simond's unpublished Elaboration for organ.

Works: Asola: Requiem (6); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (6); Glazunov: Moyen Age, Op. 79 (6); Liszt: Totentanz (6); Loeffler: Ode for One Who Fell in Battle (39); Miaskovsky: Symphony No. 6 (6); Pitoni: Requiem (6); Rachmaninoff: Toteninsel (6); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (6); Schelling: Impressions from an Artist's Life (39); Simonds: Elaboration of Dies Irae for Organ (unpublished) (39); Tchaikovsky Modern Greek Song, Op. 16, No. 6 (In Dark Hell).

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Yellin, Victor Fell. Review of first recording of Charles Ives, The Celestial Country.The Musical Quarterly 60 (July 1974): 500-8.

Harold Farberman's production of The Celestial Country permits objective comparisons between Ives and Horatio Parker. The adversarial relationship between them has probably been exaggerated. In this work, Ives emulated and borrowed from his teacher's oratorio, Hora novissima, in part because Parker was a paragon of musical success. Ascribing realistic motivations to Ives enlarges the stature of his later achievements, rather than diminishing them. At the same time it helps to restore the damaged reputation of Parker.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Youens, Susan. "Schubert, Mahler and the Weight of the Past: Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen and Winterreise." Music and Letters 67 (July 1986): 256-68.

Mahler's first song-cycle shows strong connections with Schubert's last, notably in the texts. Mahler composed three of the four texts himself, and apparently emulated Müller directly, more so than simply picking up on general tendencies in German romantic lyric poetry. In approaching the composition of his texts, and these early songs, Mahler exhibited a latent historicism, which he may have been reluctant to admit in order to avoid comparisons to the past.

Works: Mahler: Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] Young, Percy M. "Works Based in the Theme BACH." Appendix 2 in The Bachs: 1500-1850. London: J. M. Dent &Sons Ltd., 1970.

An appendix of 21 works based on B-A-C-H.

Works: Albrechtsberger: Fugue for Organ; J. C. Bach: Fugue für das Pianoforte oder die Orgel komponiert von Christian Bach uber die Buchstaben seines Namens; J. S. Bach: Contrapunctus XI and XIX from Die Kunst der Fuge; Fantasy and Fugue (formerly attributed to J. S. Bach [??]); Berblan: Chaconne on Bach, Op. 10; Beethoven: Sketches for an Overture on BACH; Bellermann: Prelude and Fugue on BACH for Organ, Op. 8; Bräutigam: Johann Sebastian Bach; Casella: Two Ricercari on the Name BACH, Op. 46; Eisler: Prelude and Fugue on BACH (study on a twelve-tone row), Op. 46; D'Indy: "Beuron," No. 11 from Tableaux de voyage, Op. 33; Karg-Elert: "Basso Ostinato" from Madrigale, 10 schlichte Weisen, Passacaglia and Fugue on BACH, Op. 150; Krebs: Fugue on BACH for Organ; Liszt: Phantasy and Fugue on BACH for Organ; Pepping: Three Fugues on BACH for Piano; Reger: Phantasy and Fugue for Organ on BACH, Op. 46; Rimsky-Korsakov: Fugue, Op. 17, No. 6; Schumann: Six Fugues on the Name BACH for Organ or Piano with Pedal; Sorge: Three Fugues; Wellesz: Partita in honorem J.S. Bach 1965.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Yudkin, Jeremy. "Beethoven's Mozart Quartet." Journal of the American Musicological Society 45 (Spring 1992): 30-74.

Beethoven's String Quartet in A major Op. 18, No. 5 is clearly indebted to Mozart's String Quartet K. 464 in the same tonality, and Mozart's quartet was an homage to Haydn. The parallels between the two later works are examined using Harold Bloom's theory of the anxiety of influence. Beethoven's imitation can be explained as a desire to learn from Mozart, as motivated by feelings of rivalry, and also as an act of homage to him. The differences between some sections can be seen as an attempt to "misinterpret" the original in order to surpass it. In the String Quartet in A minor Op. 132, which is a much later re-use of Mozart's music, Beethoven achieves the effect of complete sublimation of the precursor, capturing its essence so completely that it seems that the latecomer is being imitated by his ancestor.

Works: Beethoven: String Quartet in A Major, Op. 18, No. 5 (30-71); String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132 (71-72).

Sources: Mozart, String Quartet in A Major, K. 464.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Luiz Fernando Lopes

[+] Zanoncelli, Luisa. "Von Byron zu Schumann oder die Metamorphose des Manfred." In Robert Schumann 1. Musik-Konzepte, ed. Heinz-Klaus Metzger and Rainer Riehn, Sonderband 4, 116-47. Munich: Edition Text + Kritik, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Zenck, Claudia. "Technik und Gehalt im Scherzo von Mahlers Zweiter Symphonie." Melos/Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 2 (May/June 1976): 179-84.

Zenck grounds her interpretation of the Scherzo from Mahler's Second Symphony on the content of the borrowed Wunderhorn song "Des Antonio von Padua Fischpredigt" and on an analysis of expressive elements. She divides the movement into four characteristic musical levels: (1) the section based on the Wunderhorn song, in which the constant reiteration of a melodic idea stands for the senseless and mechanical repetition of the same in daily life (mm. 1-189); (2) the stylized development of the previous material, standing for high art (mm. 190-211); (3) the fanfares, a code for "low music" (212-56); and (4) the "trio" representing calm and fulfillment of what the fanfares announced. The way Mahler treats these levels in the course of the movement symbolizes art (music) strongly linked with the repetitive course of the world suppressing simple music and any personal and human sphere.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Zenck, Martin. "Bach, der Progressive: Goldberg-Variationen in der Perspektive von Beethovens Diabelli-Variationen." In J. S. Bach: Goldberg Variations, ed. Heinz Klaus Metzger and Rainer Riehn, 29-92. Munich: 1985.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Zenck, Martin. "Rezeption von Geschichte in Beethovens Diabelli Variationen: Zur Vermittlung analytischer, ästhetischer und historischer Kategorien." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 37 (1980): 61-75.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Zimmermann, Reiner. "Choralvariation und Engführung: Giacomo Meyerbeer verwendet Luthers Choral 'Ein feste Burg.'" In Über Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke: Aspekte musikalischer Biographie: Johann Sebastian Bach im Zentrum, ed. Christoph Wolff, 293-301. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1999.

Giacomo Meyerbeer sought to study the chorales of J. S. Bach in addition to older secular French chansons. Even with his great success in grand opera, Meyerbeer turned to earlier works in order to complement the historical settings of his pieces by appropriating various types of music that would have been associated with the period. The plot of Les Huguenots concerns St. Bartholomew's night, the 1572 wedding occasion upon which ruling Catholics murdered thousands of Protestant Huguenots. Even though Meyerbeer was aware that the Huguenots might not have sung Luther's tune in their time, he believed the tune evoked religious associations that fit well with the historical plot of his grand opera. To Meyerbeer, the chorale became a symbol of revolution. His innovative use of the tune begins with a theme and shortened variations in the overture, and it functions as an incipit to represent Marcel, a Huguenot hero. The tune transforms to become an emblem of religious heroism and perseverance for the Huguenots by the end of the opera, even as the Catholics defeat them. This reflects a wholly new adaptation not only of Bach, but also of Luther.

Works: Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (293-301).

Sources: J. S. Bach: Ein feste Burg, BWV 720 (293, 296-301); Luther: Ein feste Burg (294, 296).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Zoder, Raimund. "Haydn-Menuett und ein Steyrischer." Volkslied, Volkstanz, Volksmusik 48 (1947): 28-29.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Zon, Bennett. "Mahler's Liszt and the Hermeneutics of Chant." Studia musicological Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 46 (2005): 383-402.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Zoor, William. "Correspondence." Gramophone 61 (October 1983): 416.

The reason why Mozart's "Notte e giorno faticar" is quoted in Beethoven's Diabelli Variations can be found in Czerny's Memoires. Apparently Diabelli was constantly pressing Beethoven to complete this work. On one particular occasion, Diabelli visited Beethoven after he had just completed Variation 21. As a humorous comment on being harangued by Diabelli, Beethoven consequently composed Variation 22 with quotations from Mozart's "Notte e giorno faticar" and a waltz tune titled Keine Ruh bei Tag und Nacht.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Zuck, Barbara A. A History of Musical Americanism. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1980.

Two types of musical Americanism can be identified: conceptual Americanism, or the active commitment to American musical culture; and compositional Americanism, which is the borrowing of native musical materials for concert music. The history of compositional Americanism begins with Anthony Philip Heinrich (1781-1861), reaching its peak during the Depression era with Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, and William Schuman, among others. Aesthetic issues and historical contexts motivating the use of American folksong in art music include the influence of Gebrauchsmusik (Chap. 4), Marxism and leftist politics among American artists (Chap. 5), the growing scholarly interest in American folksong (Chap. 6), the support of the Works Progress Administration (Chap. 7), and the rise of patriotism associated with World War II (Chap. 8). References to pieces that borrow and their specific tunes can be found throughout the book. Musical borrowings are discussed in more detail for Marc Blitzstein's The Cradle Will Rock (1937), Roy Harris's Third Symphony (1939), and Aaron Copland's Appalachian Spring (1943-44).

Works: Anthony Philip Heinrich: Pushmatka: A Venerable Chief of a Western Tribe of Indians (28-29), The Hickory, or Last Ideas in America (29); George Frederick Bristow: The Pioneer ("Arcadian"), Op. 49 (32): Louis Moreau Gottschalk: The Union (39), Le Banjo (39), The Last Hope (39), La Bamboula (39); Edward MacDowell: Second (Indian) Suite (59-60); Daniel Gregory Mason: String Quartet on Negro Themes (70); Henry Gilbert: Comedy Overture on Negro Themes (75, 77), Negro Rhapsody 'Shout' (77), The Dance in Place Congo (77-78); William Grant Still: La Guiblesse (97); Virgil Thomson: The Plow That Broke the Plains (100, 149, 263), The River (100, 147-48, 263), Symphony on a Hymn Tune (148, 263); Red Marching Song (125); Soup Song (125); Join the C.I.O. (141); Elie Siegmeister: Western Suite (145, 150), Eight American Folk Songs (150); Henry Cowell: Tales of Our Countryside (146); Sing Out Sweet Land! (musical) (147); Roy Harris: Folksong Symphony (147, 150), When Johnny Comes Marching Home (150), Kentucky Spring (150), March in Time of War (195), American Portrait (224); Douglas Moore: Pageant of P. T. Barnum (148), Overture on an American Tune (148); John Powell: Natchez on the Hill (148), A Set of Three (148); Aaron Copland: John Henry (149), Billy the Kid (149), Rodeo (149), Old American Songs, Sets I and II (150, 271), Lincoln Portrait (150, 191-92), Second Hurricane (264-65), El Salón México (265), Dance Symphony (265), Hear Ye! Hear Ye! (265-66), Appalachian Spring (268-70), The Tender Land (271); Jerome Moross: A Ramble on a Hobo Tune (149); Ruth Crawford Seeger: Rissolty, Rossolty (149); Morton Gould: Cowboy Rhapsody (150), American Salute (150, 188), Yankee Doodle (150), Foster Gallery (150); Ross Lee Finney: Oh Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie (150), Trail to Mexico (150); Paul Bowles: 12 American Folk Songs (150); Bernard Hermann: The Devil and Daniel Webster (film score) (150); Robert Russell Bennett: Early American Ballade (150); William Schuman: William Billings Overture (151), New England Triptych (151), Chester (151); Marc Blitzstein: The Cradle Will Rock (211-12).

Sources: God Save the King (America) (29); Yankee Doodle (29, 150); Ludwig van Beethoven: Ninth Symphony (Finale) (125) Egmont Overture (211); My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean (125); Lay the Lily Low; Home on the Range (150); I Ride an Old Paint (150); Springfield Mountain (The Pesky Sarpent) (150, 192); Patrick Gilmore: When Johnny Comes Marching Home (150, 224); Stephen Foster: Camptown Races (150, 192), My Old Kentucky Home (150); True Love, Don't Weep (195); The Capture of General Burgoyne (264-65); Aaron Copland: Grohg (265); Felix Mendelssohn: Wedding March from Midsummer Night's Dream (266); John Stafford Smith: Star-Spangled Banner (266); Simple Gifts (258-70).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman, Felix Cox



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